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Surgery-Maternal and Fetal

Surgery-Maternal and Fetal

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Surgery-Maternal and Fetal activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 333 activities in Surgery-Maternal and Fetal for 306.75 total CME hours.


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Featured Article Activities

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Midgut Malrotation

Midgut malrotation is a defect in the normal embryonic rotation of the gut, which causes an abdominal obstruction that p ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Vascular Ring Double Aortic Arch

The term "vascular ring" refers to the vascular structures that encircle and compress the trachea and esophagus causing ...
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Hours: 1

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Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation

Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microv ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Surgical Access Incisions

A well-planned surgical incision is one of the most crucial steps in any surgical procedure. It is always essential to d ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Vitamin A Toxicity

Vitamin A toxicity can due to either topical or oral vitamin A administration. Oral vitamin A toxicity can be acute, due ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Amoxapine

Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Surgery-Maternal and Fetal Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abnormal Labor Physicians, advanced practice nurses, nursing personnel and midwives must be aware of what constitutes normal versus abnormal labor. Without proper sk ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abortion Elective termination of pregnancy (abortion) is a common procedure despite the ethical and moral controversy surrounding it. With the availability of ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abortion Complications Roughly one million abortions are performed each year in the United States alone. The total abortion-related complication rate is estimated to be abou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen/Aspirin/Caffeine The FDA recognized the combination of acetylsalicylic acid (250 mg), acetaminophen (250 mg), and caffeine (65 mg) as safe and effective in treating ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Active Tuberculosis Active tuberculosis is a condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection; typically in the lungs, although many systems can be involved ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acupuncture Acupuncture is a system of medical treatment and ideology that is based on the principle of applying small needles or pressure to specific points in t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Eclampsia Eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder that manifests as new onset generalized tonic colonic seizures. Typically eclampsia occurs after gestational ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenomyosis Adenomyosis is a gynecologic condition characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue within the uterine myometrium. Presenting signs and symptoms vary, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alagille Syndrome Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem autosomal dominant disorder with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. It is also known as arteriohepat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is the aspiration of amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity and is the most common invasive fetal testing procedure. It is usually perf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotic Band Syndrome Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises a variety of congenital anomalies which includes disruption, deformation, and malformations of organs which wer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotic Fluid Embolism Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare entity, but one which has very high mortality and morbidity rates. This article will explain the clinical pres ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotomy Amniotomy, also known as artificial rupture of membranes (AROM) or colloquially known as "breaking the water," is the intentional rupture of the amnio ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxapine Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. Generally, it is reserved for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anembryonic Pregnancy A blighted ovum, also known as an anembryonic pregnancy, occurs when a fertilized egg implants and a gestational (embryonic) sac forms and grows, but ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) refers to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade has is a common and successful strategy in the treatment of several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart fa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankyloglossia Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a short lingual frenum that interferes with normal tongue movement. It is an uncommon congenital oral anom ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anton Syndrome Anton-Babinski syndrome, also known as ABS or Anton syndrome, is visual anosognosia, or denial of vision loss, associated with confabulation, or makin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arginase Deficiency Argininemia is an autosomal recessive disorder causing hyperammonemia secondary to arginine accumulation. It is a disorder first noticed in children w ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arnold Chiari Malformation Arnold-Chiari or Chiari malformations describe a group of deformities of the posterior fossa and hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asherman Syndrome Asherman syndrome (intrauterine adhesions or intrauterine synechiae) occurs when scar tissue forms inside the uterus and/or the cervix. These adhesion ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the properly collected urine of a patient that has no signs or symptoms of a urinary tract inf ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a category of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities described by the Bethesda system ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Hepatitis and Pregnancy Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disorder that is usually characterized by circulating autoantibodies and elevated serum glo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a condition caused by an overgrowth of normal vaginal flora. Most commonly, this presents clinically with increased vaginal dis ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzoyl Peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is an over-the-counter topical medication and is also an FDA-approved prescription medication for the treatment of acne vulgaris. It ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicornuate Uterus A bicornuate uterus is a uterine malformation that is produced due to impairment in the fusion of Mullerian ducts. The bicornuate uterus is a rare ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Braxton Hicks Contractions Braxton-Hicks contractions, also known as prodromal or false labor pains, are contractions of the uterus that typically are not felt until the second ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breech Presentation Breech presentation refers to the fetus in the longitudinal lie with the buttocks or lower extremity entering the pelvis first. The three types of bre ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brexanolone Brexanolone is a medication used in the treatment of postpartum depression in adult women. It is in the GABA-A modulator class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candesartan Candesartan is an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker. It is available as a pro-drug, candesartan cilexetil, which undergoes hydrolysis in the gastro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Calcifications Cardiac calcifications carry different diagnostic and prognostic significance depending on their location. They can involve the coronary arteries, car ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Disease In Pregnancy Many cardiac diseases during pregnancy are under investigation, and many others which are still not understood require further inquiry. Some of these ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caroli Disease Caroli disease is a rare inherited disorder involving segmental dilatation of large, intrahepatic bile ducts which appear as cysts on imaging and hist ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Castor Oil Castor oil is a vegetable oil made from Ricinus communis, a plant common in the Eastern areas of the world. Castor oil is most well known for its laxa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavum Septum Pellucidum The septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius, is a thin, triangular double membrane separati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Nervous System Lymphoma Lymphoma of the central nervous system, both primary and secondary, represents a rare subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. According to the World Health Or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Cerclage Cervical cerclage is performed as an attempt to prolong pregnancy in certain women who are at higher risk of preterm delivery. Cerclage placement may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Epidural Injection Cervical epidural corticosteroids can provide significant benefits in patients experiencing chronic neck pain secondary to cervical radiculopathy. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Incompetence Cervical insufficiency is the inability of the cervix to retain fetus, in the absence of uterine contractions or labor (painless cervical dilatation), ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cesarean Section This activity reviews the cesarean section, and it highlights ways in which an interprofessional care team can impact the health of women and their ne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari II Malformation Chiari II malformation is a relatively common congenital malformation of the posterior fossa and the spine characterized by beaked midbrain, downward ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a medication used in the management and treatment of superficial eye infections such as bacterial conjunctivitis, and otitis extern ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledochal Cyst A choledochal cyst (CC) or biliary cyst is a congenital or acquired anomaly affecting the biliary tree. It involves the dilation of the biliary tree t ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorioamnionitis Chorioamnionitis is an infection that can occur before labor, during labor, or after delivery. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Chorioamnionitis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choriocarcinoma Choriocarcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic type of trophoblastic disease. The 2 major types of choriocarcinoma are gestational and non-gestation ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clindamycin Clindamycin is a medication used for the treatment of numerous infections, including but not limited to septicemia, intra-abdominal infections, lower ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colostomy Care Colostomy care, as the name suggests, is an all-encompassing term referring to colostomy management, from its creation to peristomal skin management, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition resulting from the herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity resulting in lung hypoplas ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Torticollis Torticollis, also known as a twisted neck, is the contraction or contracture of the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt to one side. It i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjoined Twins Conjoined twins refers to twins that are physically fused in utero and consequently at birth. This type of pregnancy is a complicated phenomenon that ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corpus Callosum Agenesis Corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure containing 200 million axons, connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. Agenesis of the corpu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Danon Disease Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant genetic disorder that manifests with the clinical triad of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and intellectu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatoses of Pregnancy Skin changes during pregnancy may be physiological. However, some dermatoses are specific to pregnancy, while others are altered by pregnancy. These c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of or response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasop ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Embryopathy Maternal diabetes has several adverse effects on embryogenesis and fetal development and causes multiple congenital anomalies, and secondary medical c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Toxic Goiter Goiter is an anatomical enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can be related with thyroid dysfunction or have normal thyroid function. This activity re ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Domestic Violence Family and domestic violence is a common problem in the United States, affecting an estimated 10 million people every year; as many as one in four wom ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxycycline Hyclate Doxycycline hyclate is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of infections. It is in the tetracyclines class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal life ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eclampsia This article discusses preeclampsia and eclampsia, one of the four categories of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Eclampsia is a severe complicati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Pregnancy, Ultrasound Ectopic pregnancy is a diagnosis that is quite challenging to make. It has been estimated that 40% of ectopic pregnancies go undiagnosed on initial pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Neonatal Visual Analysis An electroencephalogram (EEG) is a useful ancillary and diagnostic test that detects electrical activity in the brain. The neonatal EEG can be quite c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Prehospital Deliveries There are approximately 3.9 million deliveries in the United States every year. Fortunately, most of these deliveries are appropriately anticipated an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterobius Vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis, also called pinworm, is one of the most common helminth infections in the world, with most cases occurring in children. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Blood Patch An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a procedure in which a small volume of autologous blood is injected into a patient's epidural space to stop a leak of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Catheter Epidural catheters are widely used in the surgical, obstetric, and chronic pain settings as they serve as an excellent adjunct or alternative to gener ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erb Palsy Erb's palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is for ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Infectiosum Erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, is a common viral exanthem caused by parvovirus B19. It is commonly seen in children between five a ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is also known as alloimmune HDFN or erythroblastosis fetalis. It is caused by the destruction of neo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Estimated Date of Delivery Determining gestational age is one of the most critical aspects of providing quality prenatal care. Knowing the gestational age allows the obstetrical ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Cephalic Version About 25 percent of fetuses will be in breech presentation at 28 weeks, though this decreases to roughly 3 to 4 percent at term. Most infants who are ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Hemorrhoid Hemorrhoid disease is a common pathology that can yield symptoms ranging from minimal discomfort or inconvenience to excruciating pain and significant ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is known as a group of inherited genetic defects that lead to the severe elevation of serum cholesterol concentrations. ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fatal Familial Insomnia Fatal familial insomnia is a very rare and invariably fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative prion disease caused by a mutation of the prion prote ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fatty Liver In Pregnancy Acute fatty liver in pregnancy (AFLP) is an obstetric emergency and carries high morbidity and mortality, including death in the mother and her fetus. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Infertility Infertility is a medical condition that can cause psychological, physical, mental, spiritual, and medical detriments to the patient. The unique qualit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Urinary Retention Urinary retention, or the inability to voluntarily void urine, is one of the most prevalent presenting urologic complaints in the emergency department ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fetal Growth Restriction Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is most often defined as an estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age by prenatal ultras ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluticasone Fluticasone is a medication used in the management and treatment of asthma, allergic rhinitis, emphysema, and atopic dermatitis. It is in the corticos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folic Acid Folic acid has FDA-approval for the treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias due to folic deficiency. Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folic Acid Deficiency Folate is an essential water-soluble vitamin, naturally present in food, especially in fruits, green leafy vegetables, and liver. Folic acid is the s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forceps Delivery The use of forceps in infant delivery has fallen out of favor among obstetricians in the past three decades. Forceps deliveries now make up about only ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroschisis Gastroschisis is a paraumbilical abdominal wall defect associated with protrusion of the bowel through the defect. A membrane does not cover the bowe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare and extreme form of psoriasis characterized by the presence of sterile pustules. The incidence peaks between ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Age Assessment Gestational age is a key piece of data used by healthcare providers to determine when to perform various screening tests and assessments of the fetus ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Diabetes The definition of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM can c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Sac Evaluation The gestational sac is the first structure seen in pregnancy by ultrasound as early as 4.5 to 5 weeks of gestational age, but it is only 97.6% specifi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of tumors defined by abnormal trophoblastic proliferation. Trophoblast cells produce human chorioni ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glatiramer Glatiramer is an immunomodulator used in the treatment and management of multiple sclerosis. Its mechanism is not clearly understood, but it appears t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gracilis Tissue Transfer Free gracilis transfer is a procedure used for a number of different reconstructive issues. The gracilis free flap is considered one of the reconstruc ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a gram-positive bacteria that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. It is known to cause both early o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HELLP Syndrome The syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, otherwise referred to as HELLP syndrome, has historically been classified as a co ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Disease Of Newborn Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a life-threatening condition that is caused due to insufficient vitamin K levels in the newborns as a result of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis E Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is classified in the genus Orthohepevirus of the Hepeviridae family and is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the w ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herald Patch A herald patch is an erythematous, 2 to 10 centimeter, round to oval scaly patch or plaque with a depressed center and raised border that frequently p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Neonatorum Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in the neonatal period continue to be troublesome for practitioners. In the 1970s, the drug vidarabine was intro ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Type 2 This activity reviews the evaluation and management of herpes simplex type 2 and highlights the role of the primary care provider in managing patients ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) encompasses the entities previously termed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2, CIN3, moderate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV In Pregnancy Several thousand HIV positive pregnant women give birth in the US annually. With proper management, these women can achieve viral suppression to undet ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydatidiform Mole A hydatiform mole (also known as a molar pregnancy) is a gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which originates from the placenta and can metastasi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydralazine Hydralazine is used orally as a therapeutic agent to treat essential hypertension and intravenously to lower blood pressure urgently or emergently. FD ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydranencephaly Hydranencephaly is a rare congenital abnormality in which the cerebral hemispheres are absent with the basal ganglia, brainstem and meninges preserved ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrops Fetalis Hydrops fetalis, also known as fetal hydrops, is not a disease but rather a symptom of an underlying health problem that affects the fetus. If left un ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Hyperemesis gravidarum refers to intractable vomiting during pregnancy that leads to weight loss and volume depletion, resulting in ketonuria and/or k ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertension In Pregnancy Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including chronic hypertension with or without superimposed pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, gestational hypertension, pr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism In Pregnancy Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon condition that complicates approximately 0.1% to 0.4% of pregnancies. The condition is marked by increased levels of ci ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Lung Disease Pulmonary hypoplasia is a relatively uncommon medical condition characterized by incomplete development of the lungs that can affect the overall devel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypotension Hypotension is a decrease in systemic blood pressure below accepted low values. While there is not an accepted standard hypotensive value, pressures l ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ichthyosis Fetalis Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is an extremely rare, autosomal recessive congenital disorder of the epidermal skin layer. Neonates with HI have a high mort ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Induction of Labor There are indications for late preterm, early term, late term, and post-term inductions depending on a patient's obstetrical and medical history. Obst ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infant Apnea Apnea in infants is the term used to describe episodes of cessation of breathing and may be due to many physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Bri ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Filter Inferior vena cava filters (IVC filters) are indicated as a treatment to prevent pulmonary embolism in a select group of patients that have venous thr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Internal jugular vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus develops in the lumen of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Hereditary and acquired risk factors ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Morphine Morphine is an opioid administered for acute and chronic pain conditions. The advantage of intrathecal (IT) morphine over intravenous (IV), oral (PO), ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrauterine Fetal Demise Stillbirth has many causes: intrapartum complications, hypertension, diabetes, infection, congenital and genetic abnormalities, placental dysfunction ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inverted Nipple An inverted nipple is a condition with a prevalence of 10%-20% in the general population. Though not life-threatening, it is psychologically and physi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isotretinoin Isotretinoin is an oral prescription medication that affects sebaceous glands and is used in the treatment of severe acne. The drug was approved by th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jacobs Syndrome Jacob's syndrome is a rare genetic abnormality in which a male receives an extra Y chromosome from his father. While many patients go undiagnosed due ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kernicterus Kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is bilirubin-induced neurological damage, which is most commonly seen in infants. It occurs when the unconju ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leopold Maneuvers The Leopold maneuvers are used to palpate the gravid uterus systematically. This method of abdominal palpation is of low cost, easy to perform, and no ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liddle Syndrome Resistant hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure continues to be greater than 140/90 mm Hg despite compliance with a regimen of 3 antihyp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Disease In Pregnancy Managing liver disease during pregnancy is quite challenging and requires a multispecialty approach. Physiological and anatomical changes during pregn ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lovastatin Lovastatin is a lipid-lowering medication part of the statin drug class used in the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease, hypercholester ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Plexopathy Lumbosacral plexopathy is a relatively uncommon occurrence that can be difficult to diagnose and manage. When an injury occurs to the lumbosacral plex ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Lymphogranuloma venereum is an ulcerative sexually transmitted infection of the genital area caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmittable by ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macrosomia Macrosomia is commonly encountered during obstetric practice. It is associated with a higher likelihood of obstetric as well as neonatal complications ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium sulfate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple clinical conditions and holds several on and off label uses. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Major Depressive Disorder Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been ranked as the third cause of the burden of disease worldwide in 2008 by WHO, which has projected that this di ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malaria Prophylaxis Malaria is an infection caused by Plasmodium species endemic to most parts of Africa, South America, East Asia, and parts of Europe and the Middle Eas ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
May Hegglin Anomaly May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by neutrophils with abnormal cytoplasmic inclusions, large platelets, and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
McRobert's Maneuver A common complication that arises during regular spontaneous vaginal deliveries is shoulder dystocia. Shoulder dystocia occurs when the shoulders of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meconium Plug Syndrome Meconium plug syndrome is a condition that predominantly affects preterm-neonates of low birth weight. It presents with an inability to pass meconium ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mendelson Syndrome The standard use of regional anesthesia for most laboring women and increased awareness among anesthesia providers regarding high risk of aspiration ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meningomyelocele Myelomeningocele or open spina bifida is a devastating congenital malformation of the central nervous system associated with significant morbidity. Ti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methimazole Methimazole has effects in the production of thyroid hormone and is useful in treating conditions related to thyroid hormone, especially thyrotoxicosi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methotrexate Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite most commonly used in chemotherapy and also as an immunosuppressant in auto-immune diseases. This activity d ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methyldopa Methyldopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the centrally acting anti-hypertensive class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Midgut Malrotation Midgut malrotation is a defect in the normal embryonic rotation of the gut, which causes an abdominal obstruction that presents acutely or with chroni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mifepristone Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid. It is a medication most commonly used for medically induced abortions. Mifepristone can also be used in the manag ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Miscarriage Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is defined as the loss of pregnancy less than 20 weeks gestation. The American College of Obstetricia ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Commissurotomy Mitral valve commissurotomy is the technique used to repair mitral valve stenosis. Mitral stenosis is most commonly due to rheumatic heart disease. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
MMR Vaccine The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is a live-attenuated combined vaccine used in the prevention and, in specific patient populations, post-exposu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defects are a spectrum of congenital anomalies that includes cranial defects and open or closed spinal dysraphism. Open spinal dysraphism ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nabothian Cyst Nabothian cysts (also called mucinous retention cysts or epithelial cysts) are common and benign gynecological condition located at the uterine cervix ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nalbuphine Nalbuphine is FDA indicated for moderate to severe pain in which an opioid agent is required when other alternative treatments have been insufficient. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a spectrum of clinical manifestations seen in neonates due to withdrawal from intrauterine drug exposure. It is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal EEG Neurological evaluation of the neonate has many inherent limitations that make it challenging to delineate physiological variations from pathological ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Evaluation The initial examination within the first 24 hours of birth is critical in determining the general well-being of newborns, but also to identify any red ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus Neonatal lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that takes place due to the passive maternal transfer of autoantibodies of Sjogren syndrome auto ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neonatal Sepsis Neonatal sepsis refers to an infection involving bloodstream in newborn infants less than 28 days old. It continues to remain a leading cause of morbi ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neural Tube Disorders Neural tube defects are the most common severe central nervous system anomalies only second to cardiovascular abnormalities resulting in congenital mo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nisoldipine Nisoldipine is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It falls under the class of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrofurantoin Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic medication that is used for the treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection. It is effective against most ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nocturia Nocturia is defined as the need for patients to get up at night on a regular basis to urinate. A period of sleep must precede and follow the urinary e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nongonococcal Urethritis Non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU), inflammation of the urethra, is the most common sexually transmitted illness in men. Urethritis can be infectious or ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that can quickly confirm an intrauterine pregnancy at the bedside, significantly shortening the length ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ogilvie Syndrome Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a distinct form of colonic dilatation occurring in the absence of underlying me ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oligohydramnios Oligohydramnios is a disorder of amniotic fluid resulting in decreased amniotic fluid volume for gestational age. Low amniotic fluid volumes can be th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Omphalocele Omphalocele is a rare congenital abdominal wall defect with a reported prevalence of 3.38 per 10,000 pregnancies. It is a protrusion of the abdominal ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Contraceptive Pills Currently, there are three types of oral contraceptive pills: combined estrogen-progesterone, progesterone only and the continuous or extended use pil ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder of connective tissues caused by an abnormality in the synthesis or processing of type I collagen. I ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ovarian Cystadenoma Epithelial neoplasms of the ovary account for 60 percent of all ovarian tumors and 40 percent of benign tumors. They are classified as benign, borderl ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancrelipase Therapy Pancrelipase, which is a combination of lipase, protease, and amylase, has been shown to benefit patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patau Syndrome Patau syndrome, also called trisomy 13, is a clinical syndrome that occurs when all or some cells of the body contain an extra copy of chromosome 13. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Abscess A pelvic abscess is potentially a life-threatening condition. It can lead to sepsis and rupture and poor prognosis, especially in women of reproductiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as an inflammation of the upper genital tract due to an infection in women. The disease affects the uteru ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pemphigoid Gestationis Pemphigoid gestationis, formerly known as herpes gestationis, is a rare autoimmune sub-epidermal bullous dermatosis of pregnancy that shares some clin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perimortem Cesarean The perimortem cesarean section, as described in its name, is the surgical delivery of the fetus, performed during or near the time of death of the mo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perimortem Cesarean Delivery Delivery by Cesarean section dates to 800 BCE. Unfortunately, at the time, the procedure was only done on a deceased or dying pregnant patient. It was ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perinatal Drug Abuse And Neonatal Drug Withdrawal Drug abuse and addiction have significantly increased over the last few decades; specifically, opioid abuse and dependence have increased to epidemic ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy that occurs during late pregnancy or in the early postpartum period. It is characte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Edema Peripheral edema is a very common finding in daily medical practice both in outpatient and inpatient settings. It can vary from benign condition to se ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenylketonuria Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) most often caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (P ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pierre Robin Syndrome Pierre Robin sequence is a constellation of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction. It is a clinical diagnosis that can range in sev ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placenta Abnormalities The placenta attaches to the uterine wall and allows metabolic exchange between the fetus and the mother. The placenta has both embryonic and maternal ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placenta Accreta Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders are considered to be iatrogenic conditions. They are more common in women with previous cesarean deliveries. ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placenta Previa Placenta previa is the complete or partial covering of the internal os of the cervix with the placenta. It is a major risk factor for postpartum hemor ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placental Abruption Placental abruption is the early separation of the placenta from the lining of the uterus before the completion of the second stage of labor. It is on ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Placental Insufficiency Placental insufficiency is a condition whereby there is a failure of placental vascular remodeling, leading to a failure of placentation resulting in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumomediastinum Pneumomediastinum is defined as air present in the mediastinum and less frequently referred to as mediastinal emphysema. The mediastinum is the space ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polio Vaccine Poliomyelitis is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by the poliovirus. This virus is highly infectious, spreading from person to person mainly thro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyhydramnios Polyhydramnios is an increase in amniotic fluid in pregnancy associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The severity of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Urethral Valve This article contains a synopsis of the anatomy, embryology, and classification of posterior urethral valves with a brief discussion of the theories a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Nausea Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common occurrence following anesthesia and leads to patient dissatisfaction and discomfort. In certain s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Wound Infection Postoperative wound infection is a common problem. The process of wound infection is complex and involves an interplay between several biological path ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Blues Postpartum “blues” is defined as low mood and mild depressive symptoms that are transient and self-limited and are extremely common in the perinatal p ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Cardiomyopathy Postpartum cardiomyopathy, also known as peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), is defined as new onset heart failure between the last month of pregnancy a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Depression Around one in seven women can develop postpartum depression (PPD). While women experiencing baby blues tend to recover quickly, PPD tends to last long ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Headache Headaches are a frequent presenting complaint that disproportionally affects women of childbearing age. The incidence of headaches increases in the pu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Infection Postpartum infections account for a significant, and often preventable, portion of the global healthcare burden. Puerperal sepsis is one of the top fi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Psychosis Postpartum psychosis is an acute illness of multifactorial origin and is considered a psychiatric emergency. In this activity, the common presentation ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Pubic Symphysis Diastasis Pubic symphysis diastasis (PSD) following childbirth via vaginal delivery is a rare but debilitating condition. Widening of the cartilaginous joint du ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Thyroiditis Postpartum thyroiditis is rather a common problem during the postpartum period. Postpartum thyroiditis has found in approximately 5% of mothers in the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Potter Syndrome Potter syndrome is a fatal congenital disorder characterized by the changes in physical appearances of neonate due to oligohydramnios caused by renal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Preconception Counseling Preconception counseling is defined as health education and promotion. The goal of preconception care is health education and promotion, risk assessme ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Globally, there are more than 200 million pregnancies each year. Of these pregnancies, more than 40% are unintended. Unintended does not imply unwante ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy And Viral Hepatitis The common cause of jaundice in pregnancy is acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis could be caused by diseases distinctively associated with pregnancy and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Dating The most important step in the initial evaluation of any pregnant patient is establishing an accurate delivery date (due date). Accurate knowledge of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Intrahepatic Cholestasis Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disorder in pregnancy and is associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Medications The treatment of common medical conditions during pregnancy frequently becomes complicated due to the potential effects that medications can have on f ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Trauma Trauma in pregnancy can ranges from mild, for example trauma associated with a single fall from standing height or hitting the abdomen on an object su ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Ultrasound Evaluation The use of ultrasound in the setting of pregnancy is vast and has become the standard of care during pregnancy. This article describes different appl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Rupture Of Membranes Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is the rupture of gestational membranes prior to the onset of labor. When membrane rupture occurs before 37 wee ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Premenstrual symptoms include a constellation of mood, behavioral, and physical indications that occur in a cyclic pattern prior to menstruation and t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prenatal Non-stress Test Prenatal non-stress test, popularly known as NST, is a method used to test fetal wellbeing before the onset of labor. A prenatal non-stress test funct ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prenatal Screening Historically, pregnancy was a very tenuous part of a woman's life because of the high mortality rate associated with gestation. In the early 1900s, ma ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Preterm Labor Preterm labor is labor occurring between after 20 and before 37 weeks gestation. Preterm labors are subcategorized as early or late preterm. Early pre ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prolactinoma Prolactin-secreting tumors of the pituitary gland, also known as prolactinomas, are the most common secretory tumors of the pituitary gland, accountin ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prostaglandin E2 (Dinoprostone) Prostaglandin E2 is an FDA-approved medication used both for the evacuation of uterine contents and for the induction of labor. It is in the prostagla ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protein S Deficiency Protein S deficiency is a rare but serious condition that can be congenital or acquired. Patients with this condition have higher propensity to develo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prune Belly Syndrome Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenitally acquired disorder primarily characterized by the clinical triad of deficient abdominal musculature, crypto ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pruritic Urticarial Papules And Plaques Of Pregnancy Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP), also known as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP) is the most common gestational der ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pruritus Gravidarum Pruritus is a common symptom in pregnancy. The causes of pruritus can be unrelated or specific to pregnancy. Pruritus specific to pregnancy must be ad ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pudendal Nerve Block A pudendal nerve block is a method utilized to diagnose and treat pudendal neuralgia. The pudendal nerve block is also commonly used as a regional ane ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVMs) Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) is a rare clinical problem in which abnormal communications develop between a pulmonary artery and a pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickeni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyogenic Granuloma Pyogenic granuloma, sometimes known as granuloma pyogenicum, refers to a common, acquired, benign, vascular tumor that arises in tissues such as the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quinidine Quinidine is one of the oldest known antiarrhythmics; an interprofessional approach is necessary when using this drug, including specialties such as c ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Effects On The Fetus Cancer management during ongoing pregnancy poses a clinical challenge in itself, especially when administering radiotherapy; if indicated, it can seve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss The definition of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in the United States is two or more consecutive failed clinical pregnancies documented by ultrasound ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Extracorporeal Lithotripsy Renal extracorporeal lithotripsy is a procedure that utilizes shockwaves to fragment kidney stones that can then pass through the urinary tract and be ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndromes Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a medical condition in which there is multifocal arterial constriction and dilation in the cer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rh Incompatibility Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility refers to the discordant pairing of maternal and fetal Rh type. It is associated with the development of maternal Rh sensi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rh-Hemolytic Disease Rh-hemolytic disease develops due to the conception of an Rh-negative female with an Rh-positive fetus and can cause a broad range of symptoms in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhinitis Medicamentosa Rhinitis medicamentosa (RM), also known as; rebound congestion is inflammation of the nasal mucosa caused by the overuse of topical nasal decongestant ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rho(D) Immune Globulin Rh(D) Immune Globulin is a medication used in the management and treatment of Rh-negative pregnancies and ITP. It is in the immune globulin biologic c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rosacea Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, papules, or pustules on nose, chin, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rubella Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in children and non-immune young adults. In pregnant women, rubella infection can produce a cons ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rubella Vaccine The rubella vaccine is a vaccine that aims to prevent rubella. Rubella, also known as German measles, is an acute, self-limiting, contagious viral inf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rubeola (Measles) This activity reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of measles to further understand its epidemiological situation. This will hopefully lead to ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Pain The sacroiliac (SI) joint lies between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis. There are two joints, one on each side of the sacrum. The joint s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schizencephaly Schizencephaly is a rare congenital neuronal migration disorder characterized by cleft lined by the heterotopic gray matter, which connects the surfac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sheehan Syndrome Sheehan syndrome which is also called post-partum pituitary necrosis refers to the necrosis of cells of the anterior pituitary gland following signifi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Dystocia Shoulder dystocia is a complication of vaginal delivery in which the baby's shoulder gets caught above the mother's pubic bone. It is characterized by ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sickle Cell Crisis Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders affecting about 1 in 500 African American children and 1 in 36,000 Hispanic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small for Gestational Age Small for gestational age (SGA) is defined as a birth weight of less than 10th percentile for gestational age. The burden of fetal growth-restricted ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Smoking Tobacco smoking is a practice of burning tobacco with the smoke inhaled to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Around 23 percent of the world ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Anesthesia Development of regional anesthesia started with the isolation of local anesthetics, the first being cocaine (the only naturally occurring local anesth ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Dysraphism And Myelomeningocele Spinal dysraphism is a congenital abnormality that results in an abnormal structure in the spine, including the bony structure, the spinal cord, and t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stages of Labor Labor is a process that subdivides into three stages. The first stage starts when labor begins and ends with full cervical dilation and effacement. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Streptococcus Group B Group B Streptococcus (GBS) commonly appears in up to 35% of healthy women's reproductive or gastrointestinal tracts. Pregnant women colonized with GB ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stretch Marks Striae, or stretch marks, are indented streaks that often affect the abdomen, buttocks, thighs, back, breasts, axillae and groin. They are divided int ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subchorionic Hemorrhage Subchorionic hemorrhage is bleeding beneath the chorion membranes that enclose the embryo in the uterus. It is thought to occur due to partial detachm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Substance Use In Pregnancy Substance use disorder (SUD) in pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Patients with substance use disorders in the peripartum period fa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superficial Thrombophlebitis Superficial thrombophlebitis, increasingly known as superficial venous thrombosis, is no longer considered a benign entity. It is often associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Surfactant Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that lines the alveoli and decreases the surface tension to prevent lung atelectasis. Surfactant deficie ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Surgical Access Incisions A well-planned surgical incision is one of the most crucial steps in any surgical procedure. It is always essential to determine the proper location o ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Ocular Manifestations Syphilis is caused by infection by the spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Ocular manifestations can occur at any stage of the disease with varied clinica ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Threatened Abortion A threatened abortion is vaginal bleeding during pregnancy that does not meet diagnostic criteria for spontaneous abortion. In a threatened abortion, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy Thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelet count of under 150 x 10^9/L, is the second most common hematological abnormality in pregnancy. This CME activi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroid Disease And Pregnancy Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disorder after diabetes in pregnancy. Thyroid disease poses a substantial challenge on the physiol ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyrotoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical state associated with excess thyroid hormone activity, usually due to inappropriately high-circulating thyroid hormones ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tocolysis Tocolysis is an obstetrical procedure to prolong gestation in patients, some of which are experiencing preterm labor. This is achieved through various ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
TORCH Complex The term TORCH complex or TORCHes infection includes toxoplasmosis, others (syphilis, hepatitis B), rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex. These ar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. Although many people are infected worldwide, the disea ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Turner Syndrome Turner syndrome, also referred to as congenital ovarian hypoplasia syndrome is the most common sex chromosomal abnormality found in females. It result ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Twin Births Twin births account for approximately 3 percent of live births in the United States. Barring pregnancies that result from assisted reproductive techno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a potential complication of monochorionic twin or higher gestations. There are numerous possible outcomes of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Umbilical Cord Prolapse Umbilical cord prolapse is a condition where the umbilical cord exists the cervical os before the fetal presenting part. Compression of the cord resul ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ureteral Injury Overall, a ureteral injury is rare. The most common cause is iatrogenic trauma during open surgery, laparoscopic, or endoscopic procedures. Penetratin ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is one of the most common causes of hydronephrosis in children. If it is left untreated, it might cause loss ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urinary Tract Infection In Pregnancy Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered in pregnant women. Pyelonephritis is the most common serious medical condition seen in preg ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uterine Atony Uterine atony is a principal cause of postpartum hemorrhage, an obstetric emergency. Globally, it is one of the top 5 causes of maternal mortality. Ut ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uterine Inversion Uterine inversion is one of the most serious complications of childbirth. It refers to the collapse of the fundus into the uterine cavity. Although it ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uterine Leiomyomata Uterine leiomyomata or fibroids are an extremely common benign neoplasm in women of reproductive age. Although they are benign, they can have a signif ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaccine (Vaccination) Immunization is a successful use of immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vacuum Extraction Operative vaginal delivery is used to expedite vaginal delivery for either maternal or fetal indication. Options for operative delivery include both v ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) describes a vaginal delivery in a women who has given birth via cesarean section in a former pregnancy. Pa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vaginal Delivery Vaginal delivery is safest for the fetus and for the mother when the newborn is full-term at the gestational age of 37 to 42 weeks. Vaginal delivery i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Valproic Acid Valproic acid is an anticonvulsive and mood stabilizer medication. It is extensively used in the adult population for the treatment of convulsions, mi ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Variable Decelerations Electronic fetal monitoring is widely utilized intrapartum to assess fetal status, to prevent adverse neonatal outcomes such as fetal asphyxia or cere ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) is an acute febrile rash illness that was very common in children in the United States before the universal vaccin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicella Zoster Chickenpox or varicella is a contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus is responsible for chickenpox (usually primary i ... Read the Article 1.75 29 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicella Zoster Immune Globulin Varicella-zoster immune globulin (VZIG) is a medication used for postexposure prophylaxis and treatment of varicella. It is in the "Opportunistic Infe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Ring Double Aortic Arch The term "vascular ring" refers to the vascular structures that encircle and compress the trachea and esophagus causing respiratory and gastrointestin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vasodilators Vasodilators are useful in the management of hypertension, angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and more. This activity reviews the indicatio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Pneumonia The increasing role of viral pathogens in pneumonia and the increased recognition of bacterial and viral coinfections in patients with pneumonia neces ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin A Toxicity Vitamin A toxicity can due to either topical or oral vitamin A administration. Oral vitamin A toxicity can be acute, due to the ingestion of a large a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zika Virus Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family and the genus Flavivirus. In the majority of people, infection by the Zika virus is mild and s ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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