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Undersea and Hyperbaric

Undersea and Hyperbaric

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Undersea and Hyperbaric activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 95 activities in Undersea and Hyperbaric for 81.25 total CME hours.


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Featured Article Activities

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Wound Assessment

A wound is damaged or disruption to the skin and, before treatment, the exact cause, location, and type of wound must be ...
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Hours: 1

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Diving Mask Squeeze

Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask durin ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Hyperbaric Management Of Frostbite

Although evidence for treating frostbite with hyperbaric oxygen is sparse and limited to case reports and animal studies ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Middle Ear Barotrauma

Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEBT) remain the two most common complications of SCUBA div ...
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Rating: 5.00
Hours: 1

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Middle Ear Barotrauma

Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEBT) remain the two most common complications of SCUBA div ...
Read the Article No Registration Required

Rating: 5.00
Hours: 1

Activity MD/PA Info Activity DO Info
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Diving Mask Squeeze

Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask durin ...
Read the Article No Registration Required

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Hours: 0.75

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Undersea and Hyperbaric Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Anemia Acute anemia occurs when there is an abrupt drop in red blood cells, usually due to acute hemorrhage or hemolysis. This activity reviews the presentat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Traumatic Ischemia Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Trauma to a limb leads to direct tissue damage and local hypoxia due to edema, resulting in acute traumatic peripheral ischemia. The trauma can vary f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aerospace Decompression Illness Decompression sickness in aviation is most commonly seen following flights in nonpressurized aircraft, in flights with cabin pressure fluctuations, or ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alternobaric Facial Paresis Alternobaric facial paresis, facial baroparesis, baroparesis facialis, or alternobaric facial nerve palsy is a neurapraxia of the seventh cranial nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alternobaric Vertigo Alternobaric vertigo is a benign condition that affects individuals traveling in environments with changing ambient pressures, such as scuba diving or ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barosinusitis Barosinusitis is an uncommon entity that is rarely described within the otolaryngology literature. It is generally affiliated with pilots and scuba di ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barotrauma Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damag ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carboxyhemoglobin Toxicity Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-irritating gas formed with the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels). It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the sudden blockage of the central retinal artery, resulting in retinal hypoperfusion, rapidly progressive ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerumen Impaction Production of cerumen (earwax) is a normal and naturally occurring process. It protects the ear from infection and provides a barrier to insects and w ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chokes Chokes, or pulmonary decompression sickness, is a rare but severe manifestation of decompression sickness (DCS) that can be rapidly fatal even with ap ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciguatera Toxicity Ciguatera toxicity is a food-borne illness caused by eating fish contaminated with Ciguatoxin. This toxin is a potent neurotoxin, and it is produced b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cnidaria Toxicity Cnidaria is a classification of marine life that includes jellyfish, fire coral, stinging hydroids, sea wasps, sea nettle, and anemones. Jellyfish not ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cone Snail Toxicity Both experienced and novice scuba divers are drawn to warm, tropical seas, but when traveling to these areas, divers must take additional precautionar ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coral Toxicity Corals are invertebrates that fall within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They are one of the important reef builders in tropical oceans. M ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decompression Sickness Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when dissolved gasses (usually nitrogen or helium, used in mixed gas diving) exit solution and form bubbles inside ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Infections There are approximately 29 million people with diabetes in the United States, and approximately 25% of people older than age of 65 have diabetes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Diabetic foot ulcers are among the most common complications of patients who have diabetes mellitus which is not well controlled. It is usually the re ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diving At Altitude Increased popularity in recreational scuba diving adds to an ongoing category of diving-related injuries and illnesses. Whether recreational or occupa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diving Gas Embolism Diving using an underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) of any type involves inspiration of compressed gas by the diver at pressures above normal surface ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diving In Water Recompression In-water recompression is the appropriate procedure to initiate when traditional recompression in a dedicated chamber with full medical staff is unava ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diving Mask Squeeze Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask during descent, resulting in damage ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diving Rebreathers Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus (SCUBA) has been in use by recreational, exploration, scientific, and military divers since the advent o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Dysbaric osteonecrosis is a type of avascular necrosis of the bone that is most commonly found in undersea divers and workers that breathe compressed ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysbarism Dysbarism describes any condition resulting from changes in ambient pressure that occur at a rate outpacing the body's ability to adapt safely. Exampl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flying After Diving Exposure to reduced barometric pressure shortly after diving can increase a diver's risk of decompression sickness (DCS). Before flying, a diver shoul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fournier Gangrene Fournier gangrene is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening infectious process that involves the genital and perineal areas. The disease is one of th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gas Gangrene Gas gangrene is a highly lethal infection of soft tissue, caused by Clostridium species, with Clostridium perfringens being the most common. This is s ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Altitude Cardiopulmonary Diseases High altitude cardiopulmonary edema is a largely preventable condition. Lack of knowledge about how to prevent, recognize, and treat this disease expl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a severe form of high-altitude illness that, if left untreated, can lead to mortality in 50 percent of affecte ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High Pressure Diving Nervous Syndrome High-pressure nervous syndrome or high-pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) is characterized by neurological, psychological, and electroencephalograp ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Histamine Toxicity Scombroid poisoning results from eating fish that have been improperly stored. The primary toxic agent implicated in scombroid toxicity is histidine, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Compressed Air Workers, Caissons, Tunneling, Bounce Diving, and Saturation Diving This activity addresses the modalities used in the performance of compressed air work; caissons, tunneling, and commercial diving, and the various mod ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Cardiovascular Effects Both the high-pressure environment as well as the hyperoxygenation that is associated with hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) have numerous consequen ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Cataracts Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the administration of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than one-atmosphere absolute pressure (1 ATA) for a therape ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Of Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide toxicity occurs commonly in patients with smoke inhalation who have been removed from burning structures. Cyanide forms as a result of incomp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Of Intracranial Abscess Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy of intracranial abscesses refers to the following disorders: cerebral abscess, subdural empyema, and epidural empyema. ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Management Of Frostbite Although evidence for treating frostbite with hyperbaric oxygen is sparse and limited to case reports and animal studies, the proposed mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Patient Selection In hyperbaric medicine, it is important that healthcare professionals recognize that approved indications are not common knowledge amongst those that ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Related Myopia and Cataract Formation Oxygen has been shown to be harmful to many tissues in the body via the formation of oxygen free radicals through normal metabolic processes. The high ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Soft Tissue Radionecrosis Soft tissue radionecrosis refers to the delayed effects of radiation therapy which result in tissue breakdown from the impaired blood supply radiation ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Therapy For Skin Grafts And Flaps Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has shown promise in salvaging flaps in tissue that has been irradiated or in areas where there is decreased tissue perfusio ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Therapy For Wound Healing The international body that sets the standards for hyperbaric medicine is The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. There are currently 14 approved ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Therapy In Blood Loss Anemia Red blood cells contain hemoglobin; hemoglobin is the major carrier of oxygen throughout the human body. When hemoglobin levels decrease, anemia resul ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Brain Radiation Necrosis Delayed effects of radiation therapy can include radiation necrosis of the brain, which generally occurs in the area of the brain where the tumor was ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas that is formed from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing substances. Common sources are engines, non-ele ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is a relatively rare but potentially devastating ocular emergency. Patients present with sudden, painless mono ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Chronic Refractory Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is infection of the bone or marrow caused by bacteria or mycobacteria. It is difficult to treat due to the relative paucity of blood ves ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Clostridial Myositis And Myonecrosis Clostridial myonecrosis, also called gas gangrene, can rapidly cause death if not immediately detected and treated. It is caused by the anaerobic spor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment of Crush Injury And Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when compartment pressures increase to the point that circulation and tissue function is compromised. Human li ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Delayed Radiation Injury There will be 1.2 million cases of invasive cancer diagnosed in the United States this year. Half of those patients will receive radiation therapy as ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Diabetic Foot Ulcer Complications associated with diabetes are the leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations. Diabetic foot ulcers occur in approximately ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury The ischemia-reperfusion inflammatory reaction can occur with any injury that involves ischemic interruption of vascular flow. This includes many soft ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Radiation Proctitis Radiation therapy of the pelvis is used to treat a variety of cancers, for example, ovarian, uterine, cervical, prostate, bladder, and rectal cancers. ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Sensorineural Hearing Loss Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is defined as hearing loss of at least 30 decibels occurring over at least three consecutive audiometric fre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Thermal Burns Thermal burns are common in the United States, and approximately 2 million people are injured every year, with about 155 per million patients needing ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Zygomycotic Infections Invasive zygomycosis, or mucormycosis, are a group of infections caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. The most common species that cause infection ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immersion Pulmonary Edema Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is used as an umbrella term for scuba divers pulmonary edema (SDPE) and swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Both ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inner Ear Decompression Sickness Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is an incompletely understood condition observed in compressed-gas divers likely resulting from precipitation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Irukandji Syndrome Irukandji syndrome is a painful, potentially lethal condition caused by the sting and envenomation from multiple jellyfish species. It is characterize ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lionfish, Scorpionfish, And Stonefish Toxicity More than 50 percent of all venomous vertebrates are fish, and which pose a threat to divers around the world. The family Scorpaenidae includes the mo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Osteoradionecrosis Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is a severe iatrogenic disease of devitalized bone caused by radiation therapy of oral and oropharyngeal canc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Middle Ear Barotrauma Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEBT) remain the two most common complications of SCUBA diving, commercial diving, and cl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrogen Narcosis In Diving Nitrogen narcosis, also known as depth intoxication or rapture of the deep, is a change in consciousness and neuromuscular function caused by breathin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oxygen Saturation Oxygen saturation is an essential element of patient care. Oxygen is tightly regulated within the body because hypoxemia can lead to many acute advers ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oxygen Toxicity Oxygen is vital to sustaining life. However, breathing oxygen at higher than normal partial pressure leads to hyperoxia and can cause oxygen toxicity ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patent Foramen Ovale In Diving Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a condition in which the foramen ovale, present in the atrial septum of the developing fetus, fails to close after birth ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Post Resuscitation Management Mortality rates after pediatric cardiac arrest remain high after initial resuscitation and a return of spontaneous circulation. Several factors must b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pleurodesis Pleurodesis is a procedure performed to obliterate the pleural space to prevent recurrent pleural effusion or pneumothorax or to treat a persistent pn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary barotrauma related to self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is due to lung overexpansion when a diver returns to the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Purtscher Retinopathy Purtscher retinopathy, also known as traumatic retinal angiopathy, lymphorrhagia retinae, or retinal teletraumatism, is an occlusive microvasculopathy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Cystitis And Hyperbaric Management Radiation cystitis describes the inflammation and resultant cellular destruction of the bladder that occurs as an adverse effect of the radiation used ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Proctitis Radiation proctitis refers to injury or damage of the rectum secondary to radiation therapy. It is postulated that almost half of all patients with pe ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy Induced Skin Ulcer Management of acute or chronic skin injuries due to ionizing radiation is a complex challenge with injuries ranging from acute redness to chronic woun ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Detachment Retinal detachments constitute a serious ocular condition and can lead to permanent vision loss. When the retina, the neurosensory layer, detaches fro ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Return To Diving After an episode of decompression illness or other diving-related injuries, many divers want to go diving again either for recreation, work, or milita ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sea Snake Toxicity Sea snakes, thought to the most abundant venomous reptiles on the planet, are found in the warm, tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans but ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sea Urchin Toxicity Sea urchin envenomation occurs when a sea urchin spine penetrates the soft tissue of the victim. Frequently spines break off and remain in the soft ti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seabathers Eruption Seabather's eruption (SBE), also known as sea lice, is a pruritic dermatitis found in a bathing suit distribution and at sites of friction after bathi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shallow Water Blackout Shallow water blackout is a loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoxia towards the end of a breath-hold dive in shallow water. It is typically c ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shark Trauma There are over 470 species of sharks throughout the world, and sharks generally prefer shallow waters in temperate and tropical regions. These regions ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shellfish Toxicity Shellfish toxins are often associated with the presence of harmful algal blooms, when toxins can accumulate in shellfish and cause disease in humans. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Squeeze Sinus squeeze, also known as barosinusitis or aerosinusitis, is irritation of the mucosal lining in the sinuses as a result of the failure to equalize ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Grafting Skin grafting is a closure technique used in dermatology most commonly to close wounds created by the removal of skin cancer. Although currently less ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stingray Sting Stingray envenomations are common injuries. Practitioners should recognize that these injuries vary in level of severity and clinical concern should v ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Assessment A wound is damaged or disruption to the skin and, before treatment, the exact cause, location, and type of wound must be assessed to provide appropria ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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