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Brain Injury Medicine

Brain Injury Medicine

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Brain Injury Medicine activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 171 activities in Brain Injury Medicine for 157.5 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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HIV Neurocognitive Disorders

Patients with Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV infection) have been noted to have various forms of neuropsych ...
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Hours: 1

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Uncal Herniation

Uncal herniation occurs when rising intracranial pressure causes portions of the brain to move from one intracranial com ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Gait Disturbances

Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous eti ...
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Hours: 1

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Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to th ...
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Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical featur ...
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Hours: 1

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Aminocaproic Acid

Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute bleeding dis ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Brain Injury Medicine Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Activities of Daily Living Activities of daily living (ADLs) are essential and routine tasks that most young healthy individuals can perform without assistance. The inability to ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agnosia Agnosia is a rare disorder whereby a patient is unable to recognize and identify objects, persons, or sounds using one or more of their senses despite ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Meningoencephalitis Amebic encephalitis is a rare but lethal central nervous system infection caused by free-living amoebae found in freshwater, lakes, and rivers. There ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosognosia Anosognosia is a neurological condition in which the patient is unaware of their neurological deficit or psychiatric condition. It is associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Anti NMDAR encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune encephalitis characterized by complex neuropsychiatric features and the presence of Immunogl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anton Syndrome Anton-Babinski syndrome, also known as ABS or Anton syndrome, is visual anosognosia, or denial of vision loss, associated with confabulation, or makin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphasia Aphasia is an impairment of language caused by damage to the language area of the brain, primarily Broca and Wernicke areas. Injury to the brain can b ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoid Cysts Arachnoid cysts are common incidental findings on cross-sectional neuroimaging of the brain. When they are present in the appropriate location and of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arnold Chiari Malformation Arnold-Chiari or Chiari malformations describe a group of deformities of the posterior fossa and hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ataxia Ataxia is a neurological sign that manifests in a lack of coordination in the movement of different muscles in the body. It is a clinical finding and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baclofen Baclofen is used to treat muscle spasticity; it is FDA-approved for the management of reversible spasticity, particularly for the relief of flexor spa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a psychotherapeutic intervention primarily used to eliminate or reduce maladaptive behavior in children or adults. While some ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved for the treatment of postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by ne ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic, Chemical, and Radiation Terrorism Review Terrorism is the intentional use of indiscriminate violence to create fear and terror as a means to achieve an ideological, financial, religious, or p ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Death Criteria Brain death accounts for about 2% of deaths in the United States and caused most likely by traumatic brain injury. Criteria of Brain death determinati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brainstem Death The revised memorandum in 1979 correlated the brain stem death with death itself. This activity outlines current recommendations set for diagnosing br ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caloric Testing Caloric testing is a useful clinical tool that can assess and quantify the functional status of the individual vestibular systems. The test utilizes t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Pain Syndrome Central sensitization of pain occurs when the patient's nervous system is persistently in a state of high activity. This state decreases sensitivity t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Hematoma Cerebellar hemorrhage or hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage in which the bleeding is located in the posterior fossa or cerebellum. This con ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a type of cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide within the leptomeninges a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Contusion Traumatic brain injury includes several types of insults to the parenchyma of the brain. One of the most severe forms of damage is a hemorrhagic cereb ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral ischemia is a common mechanism of acute brain injury that results from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cerebral ischemia represents a medic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a potential cause of hyponatremia in the setting of disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebral salt wasting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chaddock Reflex The Babinski reflex is part of the routine neurological examination to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract. However, in settings where p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Bouchard Aneurysm The rupture of Charcot Bouchard aneurysms causes intracerebral bleeds in the deep structures of the brain especially in patients predisposed to this c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorea According to the Committee on Classification of the World Federation of Neurology, chorea is defined as "a state of excessive, spontaneous movements, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Aspiration Chronic aspiration is a common condition that occurs in the elderly population, pediatric patients with certain neurological conditions, and chronical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly popular in the scientific literature over the past few decades. However, the first ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coma Altered mental status is a catch-all term that includes a spectrum of patient behaviors ranging from confusion to deep unresponsiveness. Coma is at on ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Partial Seizure Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, refers to focal seizures that st ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Concussion A concussion is a "traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function." Concussions are a subset of the neurologic injuries known as trauma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conduction Aphasia Conduction aphasia is a rare form of aphasia in which both expression and comprehension remain intact, but the patient shows an isolated impairment in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrecoup Brain Injury Contrecoup brain injury occurs at sites remote to the actual impact site on the head. The etiology and significance of this type of injury have been d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cortical Blindness Cortical blindness is an important cause of blindness due to damage to the occipital cortex. It is commonly associated with posterior circulation stro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniotomy A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to expose the brain and perform an intracranial procedure. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decerebrate And Decorticate Posturing Decorticate and decerebrate posturing are abnormal posturing responses typically to noxious stimuli. They involve stereotypical movements of the trunk ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dejerine Roussy Syndrome Central post-stroke pain, also known as Dejerine Roussy syndrome or thalamic pain syndrome, is a rare central neuropathic pain syndrome occurs after i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dementia Dementia describes an overall decline in memory and other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. I ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depressive Cognitive Disorders Depressive cognitive disorders, also called pseudodementia (a term founded by Kiloh in the year 1961), is defined as the cognitive and functional impa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of or response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasop ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Axonal Injury Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that results from a blunt injury to the brain. In the United States, traumatic b ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion tensor imaging is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging modality that uses the Brownian motion of water molecules to provide data for image ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diplopia Diplopia refers to seeing two images and is due either to ocular misalignment in which case it disappears when either eye is occluded or to an optical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duret Hemorrhages Duret hemorrhages are attributed to descending transtentorial herniation from any cause. It can be challenging to distinguish Duret hemorrhages from p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eastern Equine Encephalitis Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) is one of the most severe arboviral encephalitis affecting America. Currently considered an emerging disease showing ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Localization Related Epilepsies An electroencephalogram (EEG) is essential to define an epileptic syndrome, especially a focal epileptic seizure. It also aids in both localizing and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Triphasic Waves Triphasic waves are abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms seen with a multitude of clinical conditions including encephalopathy and structural ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elder Abuse Elder abuse comes in many forms, including physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, as well as less obvious forms such as financial exploitation and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Feeding Jejunostomy Tube The feeding jejunostomy tube is a method of delivering feeds through jejunal access in the small bowel. It is used when there is a contraindication to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontotemporal Lobe Dementia Frontotemporal dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of intellectual functions, such as memory problems, impaired abstract th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallervorden Spatz Disease Hallervorden-Spatz disease now known as pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disord ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halo Brace The halo vest immobilizer (halo brace) device is the most rigid form of external immobilization of the upper cervical spine to date. Indications for i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hangman's Fractures A hangman’s fracture is a bilateral fracture traversing the pars interarticularis of cervical vertebrae 2 (C2) with an associated traumatic subluxatio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Headache With Neurological Deficits and CSF Lymphocytosis Headache with neurological deficits and CSF lymphocytosis (HaNDL syndrome) is a migraine-like headache associated with aphasia, sensory, and motor def ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Helminthiasis Helminthiasis causes a significant health problem with increased morbidity and, to some extent, mortality in an underdeveloped and developing country, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemiballismus Hemiballism is a hyperkinetic involuntary movement disorder characterized by intermittent, sudden, violent, involuntary, flinging, or ballistic high a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may be further subdivided into intracerebral ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heterotopic Ossification Heterotopic ossification is frequently observed in the rehabilitation population. It consists of the formation of mature, lamellar bone in extraskelet ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Encephalitis HIV encephalitis is a complication of HIV infection, which presents with neurocognitive dysfunction of varying severity. Almost half of HIV-infected p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Neurocognitive Disorders Patients with Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV infection) have been noted to have various forms of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Notably, neu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV-1 Encephalopathy And Aids Dementia Complex Neurocognitive deficits are the presenting complaint in 4 to 15 percent of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV-associated neurocogni ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Homonymous Hemianopsia Homonymous hemianopsia (or hemianopia) is a field loss deficit in the same halves of the visual field of each eye, often resulting from cerebrovascula ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia The visual field test maps the vision in each individual eye by measuring the entire scope of vision when vision is focused on a central point. A visu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Coma Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) is a clinical condition that arises from a complication of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes accounts for a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Encephalopathy Hypertensive encephalopathy is a less commonly encountered type of hypertensive emergency, highlighted by mental status changes and severely elevated ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertonic Fluids Clinicians use hypertonic fluids to increase intravascular fluid volume. Hypertonic saline can be utilized in the treatment of hyponatremia. Hypertoni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoxic Brain Injury The brain consumes a significant amount of energy compared to its weight and size. The term "anoxia" refers to the complete lack of oxygen delivery to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is an ocular movement disorder caused by a lesion of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. It is characterized by impaired ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracerebral Hemorrhage This activity aims to outline the pathophysiology, risk factors, presentation diagnosis, and complications of intracerebral hemorrhages. The activity ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhage encompasses four broad types of hemorrhage: epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraparenc ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring This activity outlines the current recommendations for ICP monitoring and reviews the role of current invasive and noninvasive methods of monitoring. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Catheter The placement of an intrathecal catheter is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at releasing drugs directly into the subarachnoid space for the contr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Delivery System Intrathecal drug delivery systems are typically used for three main purposes, which are the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain, muscle spasticity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intubation Endotracheal Tube Medications Mastering the skill of endotracheal intubation to secure airway plays a critical role in many settings such as pre-hospital environments, emergency ro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isoflurane Isoflurane is a volatile anesthetic that is approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kluver Bucy Syndrome Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder due to lesions affecting bilateral temporal lobes, especially the hippocampus and amygd ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
La Crosse Encephalitis La Crosse encephalitis is a relatively uncommon arboviral illness predominantly seen in the pediatric population but may also affect adults. Though no ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lacunar Syndromes Lacunar syndromes are clinical manifestations of lacunar infarctions, which are defined as small subcortical lesions less than 15 millimeters in diame ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lateral Medullary Syndrome Lateral medullary syndrome results from a vascular event in the lateral part of the medulla oblongata. The arteries commonly involved in lateral medul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Locked-in Syndrome Locked-in syndrome is a condition where a person experiences quadriplegia and bulbar palsy due to damage in the brainstem. Cognition and vertical eye ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Man In A Barrel Syndrome Man in a barrel syndrome is a neurological syndrome involving bilateral upper extremity weakness with preserved facial and lower extremity strength. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
MAO Inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO Inhibitors) are medications used in the management and treatment of depression, among other neurological and psychia ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common artery involved in acute stroke. It branches directly from the internal carotid artery and consist ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is caused by the retrograde flow of blood from the left ventricle (LV) into the left atrium (LA) through the mitral valve (M ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myofascial Pain Syndrome Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is common among patients with musculoskeletal pain problems. MPS is a pain condition originating from muscle and surrou ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical condition arises as acute respiratory distress taking place in conjunction with severe neurological dam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Shock Neurogenic shock, also known as vasogenic shock, is a devastating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that can manifest as hypotension, bradyarrhy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroleptic Medications Neuroleptics, also known as antipsychotic medications, are used to treat and manage symptoms of many psychiatric disorders. They fall into two classes ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurological Sequelae Of Endocarditis Endocarditis is inflammation or infection of the endocardium, the inner lining of cardiac valves and cardiac muscle. It most commonly results from bac ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroplasticity Neuroplasticity, also known as neural plasticity or brain plasticity, is a process that involves adaptive structural and functional changes to the bra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurosarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that results in the formation of granulomas which classically are non-caseating granulomas, that may be found throug ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus characteristically presents with progressive gait impairment, cognitive deficits, and urinary urgency and/or incontinenc ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Optic Nerve Sheath Ultrasound Point of care optic nerve sheath ultrasound (ONSUS) is a bedside practice that can be used to evaluate for increased intracranial pressure. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oxytocin Oxytocin is indicated and approved by the FDA for two specific time frames in the obstetric world: antepartum and postpartum. In the antepartum period ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is thought to be caused by an onconeural antibody to cancer that cross-reacts with self-antigen in the neurons and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parinaud Syndrome Parinaud syndrome is also known as sylvian aqueduct syndrome, dorsal midbrain syndrome, pretectal syndrome, and Koerber-Salus-Elschnig syndrome. Parin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parkinson Disease Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly presents in later life with generalized slowing of movements (bradykinesia) and at least ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Cerebral Aneurysm Similar to their adult counterparts, pediatric cerebral aneurysms are associated with a variety of systemic and intracranial disorders. The most comm ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Head Trauma Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is a significant cause of mortality in young individuals. PBI encompasses all traumatic brain injuries other than blunt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumocephalus Pneumocephalus, also known as pneumatocele or intracranial aerocele, is defined as the presence of air in the intracranial space. Pneumocephalus can o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pontine Infarction Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Pontine strokes, in particular, are catastrophic. Clinical presentation o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postconcussive Syndrome Postconcussive syndrome (PCS) describes the constellation of symptoms that commonly occur after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and patients who su ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurologic disorder in which a person presents with visual disturbance, seizure, headaches, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Headache Headaches are a frequent presenting complaint that disproportionally affects women of childbearing age. The incidence of headaches increases in the pu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post-Traumatic Headache Post-traumatic headaches (PTHA) is a common sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may progress to chronic and possibly debilitating conditions. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that results from being exposed to real or threatened injury, death, and sexu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postural Instability Postural instability is the inability to maintain equilibrium under dynamic and static conditions such as preparation of movements, perturbations, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare inflammatory disorder of the blood vessels of the brain and spinal cord occurring in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a severe, progressive, fatal demyelinating disease that presents in immunocompromised states. Treatment ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ranchos Los Amigos The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), also known as the Ranchos Scale, is a widely accepted medical scale used to describe the cognitive and behavioral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Repetitive Head Injury Syndrome Repetitive head injury syndrome, which is now known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting individ ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Second Impact Syndrome Second impact syndrome (SIS), also known as repetitive head injury syndrome, describes a condition in which individual experiences a second head injur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seizure A seizure represents the uncontrolled, abnormal electrical activity of the brain that may cause changes in the level of consciousness, behavior, memor ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spatial Neglect Spatial Neglect is a neuropsychological condition that occurs mainly due to damage to the right cerebral hemisphere after the right middle cerebral ar ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating complication of the measles virus. Although it is a rare complication and the measles viru ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are life-threatening and result from the accumulation of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater. The incidence of subarach ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subdural Empyema Intracranial subdural empyema is a loculated collection of pus in the subdural space between the dura mater and the arachnoid. It is a serious conditi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subdural Hematoma A subdural hematoma, as its name implies, forms because of an abnormal collection of blood under the dura mater. This is one of the intracranial injur ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Suboccipital Puncture Suboccipital puncture is a procedure that was developed at the beginning of the last century. It was designed to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for diagno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Substance Induced Mood Disorders Substance-induced disorders include, among other disorders, substance/medication-induced mental disorders. Substance/medication-induced mental disorde ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thalamic Pain Syndrome Thalamic pain syndrome is a chronic and disability neuropathic pain disorder seen following a cerebrovascular accident of the thalamus. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tizanidine Tizanidine is a myotonolytic agent FDA-approved for the management of spasticity, which may be caused by multiple sclerosis, an acquired brain injury, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tonsillar Herniation Tonsillar herniation is the movement of brain tissue from one intracranial compartment to another, specifically the movement of the cerebellar tonsils ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this art ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Organ Procurement Organ transplantation is defined as removal of organ from one person ( donor) to placement into another person who is called recipient.Transplantation ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uncal Herniation Uncal herniation occurs when rising intracranial pressure causes portions of the brain to move from one intracranial compartment to another. It is a l ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Artery Dissection Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare cause of stroke in the general population, but one of the more common causes of stroke in patients younger ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Artery Injury Injuries to the vertebral artery may either be traumatic or spontaneous. Traumatic injuries are most frequently due to blunt injury to the head and ne ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Waddell Triad Waddell’s triad represents a pediatric emergency. The triad comprises of three distinct features seen in pediatric pedestrian patients subject to blun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Pressure Injury Management Pressure injuries have been given various names over the last several years, including pressure ulcers, decubitus ulcers, or bed sores. Pressure injur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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