Cardiology-Interventional CME

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All of our activities are approved by AMA PRA Category 1 (MD or PA) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the American Board of Internal Medicine® and American Osteopathic Board of Internal Medicine® content outlines. 166 authors and 4 editors have contributed to the development of the Cardiology-Interventional content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Cardiology-Interventional Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction An acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurs due to occlusion of one or more coronary arteries, causing transmural myocardial ischemia which in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction An acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurs due to occlusion of one or more coronary arteries, causing transmural myocardial ischemia which in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Angioplasty Angioplasty with or without stenting is a nonsurgical procedure used to open clogged or narrow coronary arteries due to underlying atherosclerosis. Th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Angioplasty Angioplasty with or without stenting is a nonsurgical procedure used to open clogged or narrow coronary arteries due to underlying atherosclerosis. Th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valve Disease Aortic valve disease consists of both regurgitations comprising retrograde flow throw the aortic valve and stenosis or narrowing of the orifice limiti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Aortic Valve Disease Aortic valve disease consists of both regurgitations comprising retrograde flow throw the aortic valve and stenosis or narrowing of the orifice limiti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is performed to treat aortic valve insufficiency with outcomes comparable to the valve replacement. When performed in a high volum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is performed to treat aortic valve insufficiency with outcomes comparable to the valve replacement. When performed in a high volum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valve Ross Operation The Ross procedure, also known as the switch procedure or pulmonary autograft procedure, is a cardiac surgery in which a diseased aortic valve is repl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Aortic Valve Ross Operation The Ross procedure, also known as the switch procedure or pulmonary autograft procedure, is a cardiac surgery in which a diseased aortic valve is repl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose and initiate e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose and initiate e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Atheroembolic Kidney Disease Atheroembolic renal disease is caused by the occlusion of small arteries in the kidneys by cholesterol crystal emboli from ulcerated atherosclerotic p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Atheroembolic Kidney Disease Atheroembolic renal disease is caused by the occlusion of small arteries in the kidneys by cholesterol crystal emboli from ulcerated atherosclerotic p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity DO
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Balloon Valvuloplasty Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac intervention to open up a stenotic or stiffed heart valves (e.g., aortic or mitral) using a catheter with a balloon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Balloon Valvuloplasty Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac intervention to open up a stenotic or stiffed heart valves (e.g., aortic or mitral) using a catheter with a balloon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Bioprosthetic Stented Pericardial Porcine Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve repair is performed because severe aortic valvular disease uncorrected mortality rates are dismal. Half of the patients presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Bioprosthetic Stented Pericardial Porcine Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve repair is performed because severe aortic valvular disease uncorrected mortality rates are dismal. Half of the patients presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Bivalirudin Bivalirudin is a medication used to manage and treat patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction. It is in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Bivalirudin Bivalirudin is a medication used to manage and treat patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarction. It is in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Biventricular Devices Heart failure is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it is associated with poor life expectancy, poor quality of life, a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Biventricular Devices Heart failure is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it is associated with poor life expectancy, poor quality of life, a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Brugada Syndrome Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening inherited disease that predisposes patients to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The syndrome is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Brugada Syndrome Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening inherited disease that predisposes patients to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The syndrome is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Calcified Plaque Coronary artery calcification is frequently encountered during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Calcified plaque poses numerous challenges to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Calcified Plaque Coronary artery calcification is frequently encountered during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Calcified plaque poses numerous challenges to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Carbon Dioxide Angiography Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography is an alternative to conventionial iodinated contrast angiography, particularly in situations where there are contrai ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Angiography Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography is an alternative to conventionial iodinated contrast angiography, particularly in situations where there are contrai ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Aortic Valve Disorders Aortic valve disease is one of the most common valvular disorders in the United States and worldwide. Transcatheter management is emerging as a releva ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Aortic Valve Disorders Aortic valve disease is one of the most common valvular disorders in the United States and worldwide. Transcatheter management is emerging as a releva ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Atrial Septal Defect Transcatheter closure of the ASD is currently available for secundum type of ASDs, and currently, there are two FDA-approved devices in the United Sta ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Atrial Septal Defect Transcatheter closure of the ASD is currently available for secundum type of ASDs, and currently, there are two FDA-approved devices in the United Sta ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Coarctation Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta typically at the location of the ductus arteriosus distal to the left subclavian artery accountin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Coarctation Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta typically at the location of the ductus arteriosus distal to the left subclavian artery accountin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited cardiac condition characterized by left ventricular muscular hypertrophy in the absence of other car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited cardiac condition characterized by left ventricular muscular hypertrophy in the absence of other car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices For patients with atrial fibrillation, percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) emerged as a valid alternative to oral anticoagulation. This ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices For patients with atrial fibrillation, percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) emerged as a valid alternative to oral anticoagulation. This ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most common valvular abnormalities. Medical management along with regular surveillance is the typical recommen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most common valvular abnormalities. Medical management along with regular surveillance is the typical recommen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Mitral Stenosis The diagnostic test of choice for percutaneous transcatheter mitral valve replacement (PMVR) remains to be the echocardiogram. While surgery is the pr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Mitral Stenosis The diagnostic test of choice for percutaneous transcatheter mitral valve replacement (PMVR) remains to be the echocardiogram. While surgery is the pr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common abnormality that describes the presence of a small opening between the top two chambers of the heart. Several l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common abnormality that describes the presence of a small opening between the top two chambers of the heart. Several l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Ventricular Septal Defect Traditionally, ventricular septal defects (VSDs) have been closed with an open approach, but since then, a percutaneous transcatheter closure has been ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Ventricular Septal Defect Traditionally, ventricular septal defects (VSDs) have been closed with an open approach, but since then, a percutaneous transcatheter closure has been ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Pulmonary Valvular Disorders Transcatheter intervention for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation was a remarkable advancemen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Catheter Management Pulmonary Valvular Disorders Transcatheter intervention for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation was a remarkable advancemen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Selection of Treatment Modality The term stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) often is used synonymously with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and encompasses a variety of condi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Selection of Treatment Modality The term stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) often is used synonymously with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and encompasses a variety of condi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Chronic Total Occlusion Of The Coronary Artery Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are diagnosed in patients who are undergoing coronary angiography as part of the evaluation of ischemic heart di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Chronic Total Occlusion Of The Coronary Artery Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are diagnosed in patients who are undergoing coronary angiography as part of the evaluation of ischemic heart di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Complex Coronary Artery Lesions Contemporary treatment of coronary artery disease is highly dependent on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) along with medical management. PCI t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Complex Coronary Artery Lesions Contemporary treatment of coronary artery disease is highly dependent on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) along with medical management. PCI t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Contrast Agent Toxicity Contrast agents, also called contrast media, are substances used to enhance the radiodensity of a targeted tissue by altering the way that electromagn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Contrast Agent Toxicity Contrast agents, also called contrast media, are substances used to enhance the radiodensity of a targeted tissue by altering the way that electromagn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Arterial Pressure Evaluation Coronary artery pressure measurement is fundamental in treating angiographically intermediate lesions. Inappropriate percutaneous coronary interventio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Arterial Pressure Evaluation Coronary artery pressure measurement is fundamental in treating angiographically intermediate lesions. Inappropriate percutaneous coronary interventio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Coronary arteriovenous fistula should be suspected in patients who present with unexplained heart failure, have continuous murmur on auscultation, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Coronary arteriovenous fistula should be suspected in patients who present with unexplained heart failure, have continuous murmur on auscultation, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Anomalies With the increasing application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as the standard of care for patients with acute chest pain, health ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Anomalies With the increasing application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as the standard of care for patients with acute chest pain, health ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Redo The coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure is used to improve blood flow to at-risk areas of myocardial tissues. When a patient requires subseq ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Redo The coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure is used to improve blood flow to at-risk areas of myocardial tissues. When a patient requires subseq ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Calcification Arterial calcium development is closely related to vascular injury, inflammation, and repair. Calcification occurs very early in the process of athero ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Calcification Arterial calcium development is closely related to vascular injury, inflammation, and repair. Calcification occurs very early in the process of athero ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Dissection Coronary artery dissection is the separation of the coronary arterial wall and can be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. This activity will focus ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Dissection Coronary artery dissection is the separation of the coronary arterial wall and can be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. This activity will focus ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Perforation Coronary artery perforation is a rare complication associated with a percutaneous coronary intervention. This activity highlights the risk factors, de ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Perforation Coronary artery perforation is a rare complication associated with a percutaneous coronary intervention. This activity highlights the risk factors, de ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Stents Coronary artery stents have become the cornerstone in the management and treatment of coronary artery disease. This activity illustrates the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Stents Coronary artery stents have become the cornerstone in the management and treatment of coronary artery disease. This activity illustrates the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Surgery Coronary artery surgery is performed because coronary artery disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Variations in technique a ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Surgery Coronary artery surgery is performed because coronary artery disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Variations in technique a ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Vasospasm Coronary artery vasospasm (CAVS) is a constriction of the coronary arteries that can cause complete or near-complete occlusion of the vessel. In 1959, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Vasospasm Coronary artery vasospasm (CAVS) is a constriction of the coronary arteries that can cause complete or near-complete occlusion of the vessel. In 1959, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Cameral Fistula Coronary cameral fistula is an abnormal communication existing between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber. It appears in less than 1% of the po ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Cameral Fistula Coronary cameral fistula is an abnormal communication existing between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber. It appears in less than 1% of the po ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Ectasia Treatment of coronary ectasia encompasses multiple options across different disciplines. The treatment goal is to correct the defects leading to ische ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Ectasia Treatment of coronary ectasia encompasses multiple options across different disciplines. The treatment goal is to correct the defects leading to ische ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Flow Effects of Arterial Spasm or Microembolization Two conditions that can lead to angina symptoms include coronary artery spasm and microembolization. Coronary artery spasm can cause partial or comple ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Coronary Flow Effects of Arterial Spasm or Microembolization Two conditions that can lead to angina symptoms include coronary artery spasm and microembolization. Coronary artery spasm can cause partial or comple ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Sinus Thrombosis The coronary venous system generally receives minimal attention in the medical literature. Even though the coronary sinus is a major access site for m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Coronary Sinus Thrombosis The coronary venous system generally receives minimal attention in the medical literature. Even though the coronary sinus is a major access site for m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cryoballoon Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia encountered in the United States. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation dramatically in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cryoballoon Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia encountered in the United States. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation dramatically in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
DeWinter Pattern Acute coronary syndromes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis has a central role, as to allow a timely reperfusion strategy. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
DeWinter Pattern Acute coronary syndromes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis has a central role, as to allow a timely reperfusion strategy. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Dressler Syndrome Dressler syndrome, also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome, is a form of secondary pericarditis with or without pericardial effusion that occ ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Dressler Syndrome Dressler syndrome, also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome, is a form of secondary pericarditis with or without pericardial effusion that occ ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Electrophysiologic Study Indications And Evaluation An electrophysiology study is performed for the identification of arrhythmias and risk stratification of patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. Mea ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity DO
Electrophysiologic Study Indications And Evaluation An electrophysiology study is performed for the identification of arrhythmias and risk stratification of patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. Mea ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA
Endomyocardial Biopsy The role and utility of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in the work-up of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial and the practice varies widely in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Endomyocardial Biopsy The role and utility of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in the work-up of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial and the practice varies widely in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Eptifibatide Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa class platelet inhibitor drug used to reduce ischemic cardiac events in specific patient populations. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Eptifibatide Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa class platelet inhibitor drug used to reduce ischemic cardiac events in specific patient populations. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Excimer Laser Coronary Angioplasty Excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) is a safe and effective technique as an adjunct to conventional PCI and can improve clinical outcomes when u ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Excimer Laser Coronary Angioplasty Excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) is a safe and effective technique as an adjunct to conventional PCI and can improve clinical outcomes when u ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
External Pacemaker External pacing is one of the fastest methods for treating multiple types of conduction abnormalities. It can be applied in the hospital setting or by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
External Pacemaker External pacing is one of the fastest methods for treating multiple types of conduction abnormalities. It can be applied in the hospital setting or by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Anticoagulation Thromboembolism formation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a common complication experienced for patients requiring prolonged respiratory ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Anticoagulation Thromboembolism formation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a common complication experienced for patients requiring prolonged respiratory ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Femoral Aneurysm Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm consists of an outpouching of 1 or 2 layers of the vessel wall. A true aneurysm, on the other hand, involves all the 3 l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Femoral Aneurysm Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm consists of an outpouching of 1 or 2 layers of the vessel wall. A true aneurysm, on the other hand, involves all the 3 l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Femoral Vascular Closure Devices After Catheterization Procedure Femoral vascular closure devices have become powerful tools for interventional cardiologists and other proceduralists to achieve hemostasis at the cat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Femoral Vascular Closure Devices After Catheterization Procedure Femoral vascular closure devices have become powerful tools for interventional cardiologists and other proceduralists to achieve hemostasis at the cat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Fluoroscopic Percutaneous Coronary Interventions, Assessment, Protocols, and Interpretation Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous coronary intervention is a widely performed procedure to treat coronary artery disease. This activity reviews the imp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Fluoroscopic Percutaneous Coronary Interventions, Assessment, Protocols, and Interpretation Fluoroscopic guided percutaneous coronary intervention is a widely performed procedure to treat coronary artery disease. This activity reviews the imp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Fluoroscopy Contrast Materials Fluoroscopy is a valuable imaging tool that can provide a functional and anatomic assessment of patients in real-time while minimizing radiation expos ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Fluoroscopy Contrast Materials Fluoroscopy is a valuable imaging tool that can provide a functional and anatomic assessment of patients in real-time while minimizing radiation expos ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Fractional Flow Reserve Angiographic results alone can guide the decision to perform a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Angiography is used to visually assess the co ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Fractional Flow Reserve Angiographic results alone can guide the decision to perform a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Angiography is used to visually assess the co ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) inhibitors prevent platelet aggregation by blocking glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors on their platelet's plasma mem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) inhibitors prevent platelet aggregation by blocking glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors on their platelet's plasma mem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Heyde Syndrome Heyde syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of aortic stenosis (AS), gastrointestinal bleeding, and acquired von Willebrand sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Heyde Syndrome Heyde syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of aortic stenosis (AS), gastrointestinal bleeding, and acquired von Willebrand sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Idiopathic Pulmonary Artery Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension, also known as idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH), is a progressive disease that affects the precapillary pulmonar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Artery Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension, also known as idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH), is a progressive disease that affects the precapillary pulmonar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Infarct Avid Imaging Study Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Approximately half of the patients with coronary artery disease can have dysf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Infarct Avid Imaging Study Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Approximately half of the patients with coronary artery disease can have dysf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in men and women in the United States. The instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR) can be used to de ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in men and women in the United States. The instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR) can be used to de ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Interventions In Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients can present with symptoms at any phase of life and may have an elevated risk of sudden cardiac death based on ris ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Interventions In Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients can present with symptoms at any phase of life and may have an elevated risk of sudden cardiac death based on ris ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various cardi ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity DO
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various cardi ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity MD/PA
Intracoronary Stents On September 16, 1977, in Zurich Germany, Andreas Grunzig performed the first balloon angioplasty in a coronary artery on Andreas Bachman. Grunzig use ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Intracoronary Stents On September 16, 1977, in Zurich Germany, Andreas Grunzig performed the first balloon angioplasty in a coronary artery on Andreas Bachman. Grunzig use ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Intravascular Lithotripsy Shockwave intravascular lithotripsy is a novel device that modifies calcified lesions via calcium fracture to allow for effective stent deployment. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Intravascular Lithotripsy Shockwave intravascular lithotripsy is a novel device that modifies calcified lesions via calcium fracture to allow for effective stent deployment. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Intravascular Ultrasound Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an intravascular imaging modality primarily used in interventional cardiology to characterize lesion morphology, qu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Intravascular Ultrasound Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is an intravascular imaging modality primarily used in interventional cardiology to characterize lesion morphology, qu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Isolated Coronary Artery Anomalies Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are a varied group of congenital disorders that refer to abnormalities involving the origin, course, and structure of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Isolated Coronary Artery Anomalies Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are a varied group of congenital disorders that refer to abnormalities involving the origin, course, and structure of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Left Heart Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization is performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Despite significant advancement in non-invasive cardiac imaging, it ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Left Heart Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization is performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Despite significant advancement in non-invasive cardiac imaging, it ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Left Ventricular Assist Devices Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of inpatient admissions. The Framingham study in 1993 described the risk factors for heart failure and showed u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Left Ventricular Assist Devices Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of inpatient admissions. The Framingham study in 1993 described the risk factors for heart failure and showed u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the central measure of left ventricular systolic function. LVEF is the fraction of chamber volume ejected ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the central measure of left ventricular systolic function. LVEF is the fraction of chamber volume ejected ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Left Ventricular False Aneurysm Left ventricular false aneurysm is a rare complication of myocardial rupture contained by non-myocardial tissue. The most common cause of a false aneu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Left Ventricular False Aneurysm Left ventricular false aneurysm is a rare complication of myocardial rupture contained by non-myocardial tissue. The most common cause of a false aneu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a condition in which an increase in left ventricular mass occurs secondary to an increase in wall thickness, an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a condition in which an increase in left ventricular mass occurs secondary to an increase in wall thickness, an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Left Ventricular Rupture Left ventricular (LV) rupture is a catastrophic but a common occurrence with acute myocardial infarction patients. The incidence of LV free-wall ruptu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Left Ventricular Rupture Left ventricular (LV) rupture is a catastrophic but a common occurrence with acute myocardial infarction patients. The incidence of LV free-wall ruptu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Lutembacher Syndrome Lutembacher syndrome (LS) was first described in a letter by anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel in 1750. Corvisart who later described the association ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Lutembacher Syndrome Lutembacher syndrome (LS) was first described in a letter by anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel in 1750. Corvisart who later described the association ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. Symptomatic severe AS has a high mortality rate if left untreated. Surgical ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. Symptomatic severe AS has a high mortality rate if left untreated. Surgical ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Mid-Ventricular Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Mid-ventricular Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare, reversible myocardial injury that presents with distinctive regional wall abnormalities of the lef ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mid-Ventricular Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Mid-ventricular Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare, reversible myocardial injury that presents with distinctive regional wall abnormalities of the lef ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Surgery Aortic valve replacement is the standard treatment for patients with severe or symptomatic aortic insufficiency or aortic stenosis. In the past, the s ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Surgery Aortic valve replacement is the standard treatment for patients with severe or symptomatic aortic insufficiency or aortic stenosis. In the past, the s ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Commissurotomy Mitral valve commissurotomy is the technique used to repair mitral valve stenosis. Mitral stenosis is most commonly due to rheumatic heart disease. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mitral Commissurotomy Mitral valve commissurotomy is the technique used to repair mitral valve stenosis. Mitral stenosis is most commonly due to rheumatic heart disease. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity DO
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Valve Insufficiency This activity discusses clinical aspects of mitral regurgitation (MR) in terms of etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment guideli ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Mitral Valve Insufficiency This activity discusses clinical aspects of mitral regurgitation (MR) in terms of etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment guideli ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Valve Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment The advent of minimally invasive mitral valve repair in recent years provides a necessary therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic mitral valv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mitral Valve Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment The advent of minimally invasive mitral valve repair in recent years provides a necessary therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic mitral valv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries of 2.5 mm diameter or more. This activity helps i ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries of 2.5 mm diameter or more. This activity helps i ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Myocardial Stunning and Hibernation Coronary artery disease can result in acute and chronic myocardial perfusion deficits. This hypoperfusion can result in impaired myocardial contractil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Myocardial Stunning and Hibernation Coronary artery disease can result in acute and chronic myocardial perfusion deficits. This hypoperfusion can result in impaired myocardial contractil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Nuclear Medicine PET Scan Cardiovascular Assessment, Protocols, And Interpretation Positron emission tomography (PET) is a prime example of molecular imaging, which has contributed immensely to understanding cardiac anatomy and patho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Nuclear Medicine PET Scan Cardiovascular Assessment, Protocols, And Interpretation Positron emission tomography (PET) is a prime example of molecular imaging, which has contributed immensely to understanding cardiac anatomy and patho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Nuclear Medicine SPECT Scan Cardiovascular Assessment, Protocols, And Interpretation Myocardial perfusion scan is a widely performed procedure to diagnose ischemic heart disease. This activity reviews the importance of myocardial perfu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Nuclear Medicine SPECT Scan Cardiovascular Assessment, Protocols, And Interpretation Myocardial perfusion scan is a widely performed procedure to diagnose ischemic heart disease. This activity reviews the importance of myocardial perfu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Orbital Atherectomy Orbital atherectomy (OA) is an adjunctive therapy used for lesion preparation of calcified plaque with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and pe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Orbital Atherectomy Orbital atherectomy (OA) is an adjunctive therapy used for lesion preparation of calcified plaque with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and pe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Overdrive Pacing Temporary cardiac pacing (TCP) is a type of exogenous cardiac pacing in which an external energy source delivers electrical impulses to stimulate the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Overdrive Pacing Temporary cardiac pacing (TCP) is a type of exogenous cardiac pacing in which an external energy source delivers electrical impulses to stimulate the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Pacemaker Pacemakers are adjustable artificial electrical pulse generators that can be temporary or permanent. They frequently emit a pulse lasting between 0.5 ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Pacemaker Pacemakers are adjustable artificial electrical pulse generators that can be temporary or permanent. They frequently emit a pulse lasting between 0.5 ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical, invasive procedure wi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical, invasive procedure wi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Balloon Catheters Angioplasty is performed to treat atherosclerotic disease and its resultant complications such as myocardial infarction, strokes, renal failure, and l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Balloon Catheters Angioplasty is performed to treat atherosclerotic disease and its resultant complications such as myocardial infarction, strokes, renal failure, and l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive procedure to open b ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive procedure to open b ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneous Tricuspid Valve Repair Percutaneous tricuspid valve intervention is a new upcoming intervention for the treatment of tricuspid valve lesions. Percutaneous intervention offer ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Percutaneous Tricuspid Valve Repair Percutaneous tricuspid valve intervention is a new upcoming intervention for the treatment of tricuspid valve lesions. Percutaneous intervention offer ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneously Inserted Ventricular Assist Device There are now percutaneous inserted ventricular assist devices available. This device is a non-pulsatile axial flow pump that is placed across the aor ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Percutaneously Inserted Ventricular Assist Device There are now percutaneous inserted ventricular assist devices available. This device is a non-pulsatile axial flow pump that is placed across the aor ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Porcelain Aorta Porcelain aorta (PA) is a structural aortic wall disease characterized by extensive heavy calcification of the ascending thoracic aorta extending to t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Porcelain Aorta Porcelain aorta (PA) is a structural aortic wall disease characterized by extensive heavy calcification of the ascending thoracic aorta extending to t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Post Infarct Ventricular Septal Rupture The most severe potential complications of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involve tearing or rupture of acutely infarcted myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Post Infarct Ventricular Septal Rupture The most severe potential complications of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involve tearing or rupture of acutely infarcted myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Procedural Sedation Procedural sedation permits the safe performance of procedures that a patient cannot tolerate in the fully conscious state. Through this activity, th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Procedural Sedation Procedural sedation permits the safe performance of procedures that a patient cannot tolerate in the fully conscious state. Through this activity, th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pseudoaneurysm Pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that occur at the site of arterial injury. They are unlike true aneurysms as a layer of the arterial wall does no ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Pseudoaneurysm Pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that occur at the site of arterial injury. They are unlike true aneurysms as a layer of the arterial wall does no ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation A pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare pulmonary condition described as a pathologic right-to-left shunt which impairs gas exchange a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation A pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare pulmonary condition described as a pathologic right-to-left shunt which impairs gas exchange a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is frequently used to assess left ventricular filling, represent left atrial pressure, and assess mitral val ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is frequently used to assess left ventricular filling, represent left atrial pressure, and assess mitral val ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonic Regurgitation Pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is most commonly seen secondary to various etiologies causing pulmonary hypertension. It also appears in post valvotomy pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pulmonic Regurgitation Pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is most commonly seen secondary to various etiologies causing pulmonary hypertension. It also appears in post valvotomy pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonic Stenosis Pulmonic stenosis is a typically benign condition in most patients. While generally non-life-threatening after the neonatal period, complications and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pulmonic Stenosis Pulmonic stenosis is a typically benign condition in most patients. While generally non-life-threatening after the neonatal period, complications and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pulsus Paradoxus Pulsus paradoxus refers to a systolic pressure drop greater than 10mmHg during inspiration. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Pulsus Paradoxus Pulsus paradoxus refers to a systolic pressure drop greater than 10mmHg during inspiration. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Radial Artery Cannulation Arterial lines placement is for real-time monitoring of blood pressures and arterial blood sampling in critically ill patients or those undergoing com ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Radial Artery Cannulation Arterial lines placement is for real-time monitoring of blood pressures and arterial blood sampling in critically ill patients or those undergoing com ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Restenosis Despite advances in cardiovascular health and interventional cardiology, coronary restenosis continues to be a challenge for interventional cardiologi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Restenosis Despite advances in cardiovascular health and interventional cardiology, coronary restenosis continues to be a challenge for interventional cardiologi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is characterized by diastolic dysfunction of a non-dilated ventricle. Multiple types of restrictive cardiomyopathies ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is characterized by diastolic dysfunction of a non-dilated ventricle. Multiple types of restrictive cardiomyopathies ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Right Bundle Branch Block Right bundle branch block (RBB) is an electrocardiogram finding resulting in a widened QRS and electrocardiographic vector changes. Although usually ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Right Bundle Branch Block Right bundle branch block (RBB) is an electrocardiogram finding resulting in a widened QRS and electrocardiographic vector changes. Although usually ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Right Heart Cardiac Catheterization Right heart catheterization is an invasive hemodynamic procedure that allows direct measurement of right-sided cardiac pressures and calculation of ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Right Heart Cardiac Catheterization Right heart catheterization is an invasive hemodynamic procedure that allows direct measurement of right-sided cardiac pressures and calculation of ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Right Ventricular Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart diminishes or stops altogether, causing irreversible damage to the heart muscles. ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Right Ventricular Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart diminishes or stops altogether, causing irreversible damage to the heart muscles. ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Rotational Atherectomy Coronary stenoses with circumferential or significant vessel calcification are rigid and frequently not dilatable with use of conventional balloon ang ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Rotational Atherectomy Coronary stenoses with circumferential or significant vessel calcification are rigid and frequently not dilatable with use of conventional balloon ang ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Saphenous Vein Grafts In 1967 Dr. Rena Favaloro first described the use of an autologous reversed greater saphenous vein (GSV) graft as a bypass graft. The GSV continued t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Saphenous Vein Grafts In 1967 Dr. Rena Favaloro first described the use of an autologous reversed greater saphenous vein (GSV) graft as a bypass graft. The GSV continued t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Selecting A Treatment Modality In Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a commonly encountered diagnosis and a common reason for inpatient admission. Timely identification of this condition ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity DO
Selecting A Treatment Modality In Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a commonly encountered diagnosis and a common reason for inpatient admission. Timely identification of this condition ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA
Sinus Of Valsalva Aneurysm A sinus of valsalva aneurysm (SOVA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic root located between the aortic valve annulus and the sinotubular junction ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Sinus Of Valsalva Aneurysm A sinus of valsalva aneurysm (SOVA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic root located between the aortic valve annulus and the sinotubular junction ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Stent Thrombosis Stent thrombosis, also known as abrupt vessel closure and acute stent thrombosis, is one of the fatal complications of percutaneous coronary intervent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Stent Thrombosis Stent thrombosis, also known as abrupt vessel closure and acute stent thrombosis, is one of the fatal complications of percutaneous coronary intervent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Stentless Autograft/Homograft Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve replacement is indicated when aortic stenosis or regurgitation disturbs the flow of blood out of the heart. Homograft valve and pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Stentless Autograft/Homograft Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve replacement is indicated when aortic stenosis or regurgitation disturbs the flow of blood out of the heart. Homograft valve and pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Stunned Myocardium Prolonged severe reduction of coronary blood flow leads to myocardial necrosis, eventually seizing myocardial contractility irreversibly. However, whe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Stunned Myocardium Prolonged severe reduction of coronary blood flow leads to myocardial necrosis, eventually seizing myocardial contractility irreversibly. However, whe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Subaortic Stenosis Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), also called subaortic stenosis, is a rare disorder seen in infants. In most cases, it involves the presence of a me ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Subaortic Stenosis Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), also called subaortic stenosis, is a rare disorder seen in infants. In most cases, it involves the presence of a me ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Gebrochenes-Herz syndrome, transient apical ballooning syndrome, apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, stress-indu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Gebrochenes-Herz syndrome, transient apical ballooning syndrome, apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, stress-indu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Thrombectomy Thrombectomy involves removing a clot from a blood vessel, most commonly from the brain, heart, or lungs. Stroke and myocardial infarction remain two ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity DO
Thrombectomy Thrombectomy involves removing a clot from a blood vessel, most commonly from the brain, heart, or lungs. Stroke and myocardial infarction remain two ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity MD/PA
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Surgical aortic valve replacement has been the standard treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Previously, patients dete ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Surgical aortic valve replacement has been the standard treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Previously, patients dete ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Transcatheter Management of Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysms Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms (LVP) are very rare but commonly lethal complications that are secondary to myocardial infarctions, cardiac surgeries ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Transcatheter Management of Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysms Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms (LVP) are very rare but commonly lethal complications that are secondary to myocardial infarctions, cardiac surgeries ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Transluminal Extraction Coronary Atherectomy Transluminal coronary atherectomy is performed on heavily calcified and stubborn coronary lesions otherwise not amenable to a conventional percutaneou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Transluminal Extraction Coronary Atherectomy Transluminal coronary atherectomy is performed on heavily calcified and stubborn coronary lesions otherwise not amenable to a conventional percutaneou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Transmyocardial Laser Extravascular Angiogenesis Transmyocardial laser extravascular angiogenesis (TMLR) has emerged as an option in patients suffering from chronic refractory angina that can improve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Transmyocardial Laser Extravascular Angiogenesis Transmyocardial laser extravascular angiogenesis (TMLR) has emerged as an option in patients suffering from chronic refractory angina that can improve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Unstable Angina Unstable angina is chest discomfort or pain caused by an insufficient flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. It is part of the acute coronary syndrome ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Unstable Angina Unstable angina is chest discomfort or pain caused by an insufficient flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. It is part of the acute coronary syndrome ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Vascular Access Closure Devices Angiography is currently one of the most common procedures performed across many specialties including diagnostic and interventional cardiology, vascu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Vascular Access Closure Devices Angiography is currently one of the most common procedures performed across many specialties including diagnostic and interventional cardiology, vascu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Vascular Aortic Arch Ring Aortic arch anomalies can give rise to vascular rings, a rare vascular anomaly with significant health implications. This activity deals with underst ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Vascular Aortic Arch Ring Aortic arch anomalies can give rise to vascular rings, a rare vascular anomaly with significant health implications. This activity deals with underst ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Vein Graft Stenosis The long-term patency and success of venous grafts in bypass surgery remains a challenge due to a variety of complications, such as the accelerated ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Vein Graft Stenosis The long-term patency and success of venous grafts in bypass surgery remains a challenge due to a variety of complications, such as the accelerated ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Ventricular Septal Rupture In 1847, Latham first introduced the diagnosis of ventricular septal rupture (VSR). The interventricular septum divides the ventricular chamber into r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Rupture In 1847, Latham first introduced the diagnosis of ventricular septal rupture (VSR). The interventricular septum divides the ventricular chamber into r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Wellens Syndrome Wellens syndrome describes an abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern, deeply inverted T waves in leads V2 and V3, that are secondary to proximal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Wellens Syndrome Wellens syndrome describes an abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern, deeply inverted T waves in leads V2 and V3, that are secondary to proximal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA

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