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Cardiology

Cardiology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Cardiology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 835 activities in Cardiology for 761.5 total CME hours.


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Featured Article Activities

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Commotio Cordis

Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Sodium Nitroprusside

Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is adm ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Hypertensive Encephalopathy

Hypertensive encephalopathy is a less commonly encountered type of hypertensive emergency, highlighted by mental status ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Hypertensive Heart Disease

Hypertensive heart disease refers to a constellation of changes in the left ventricle, left atrium and coronary arteries ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Double Defibrillation

Refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) is an unexpected complication of cardiac arrest that complicates the managemen ...
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Hours: 1

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Vitamin B12 Deficiency

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is derived from animal products such as red meat, ...
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Rating: 5.00
Hours: 1.75

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Cardiology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
131 I Sodium Iodide Radioiodine-131 is a therapeutic agent used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. This activity describes the ind ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aorta Repair Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is performed because the mortality rates are as high as 78% following rupture. Open and endovascular surgery are the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition which requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or sym ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Imaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are a relatively common pathology. Ruptured aneurysms have an exceptionally high mortality rate. Early diagnosis an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acalculous Cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis is a hypokinetic condition of gallbladder emptying. It often presents as an acute ailment (acute cholecystitis), but it can a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetazolamide Acetazolamide is a diuretic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication that is used to treat several illnesses. FDA-approved indications include glau ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Angioedema Angioedema is characterized by one or more areas of well-demarcated, non-pitting edema of deep subcutaneous tissues. It is primarily known to involve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myocarditis Acute myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium. It is typically seen in infants and teenagers but can occur at any age. It most commonly results ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction An acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurs due to occlusion of one or more coronary arteries, causing transmural myocardial ischemia which in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Afatinib Afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a widely used medication for non-small cell lung carcinoma. This activity educates health care providers on ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that under normal circumstances do not contain air. The term air leak synd ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a cardiac disease caused by chronic alcohol consumption. It is characterized by ventricular dilation and impairment ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aliskiren Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor medication that is FDA approved to treat hypertension in adults and children six years and older. It may be used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Altitude Induced Pulmonary Hypertension This activity describes the development of pulmonary hypertension due to high altitude. We describe a phenomenon known as HAPH (high altitude pulmonar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amaurosis Fugax The term amaurosis fugax is often used interchangeably to describe transient visual loss (TVL). However, it is employed widely in medicine to refer to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amlodipine Amlodipine is an oral dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Compared to nifedipine and other medications in the dihydropyridine class, amlodipine h ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous acquired or hereditary disease that results from the abnormal deposition of beta-sheet fibrillar protein aggregates in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Andexanet Alfa Andexanet alfa is a recombinant modified Factor Xa protein approved by the FDA in May 2018 for the reversal of apixaban and rivaroxaban in patients wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioplasty Angioplasty with or without stenting is a nonsurgical procedure used to open clogged or narrow coronary arteries due to underlying atherosclerosis. Th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade has is a common and successful strategy in the treatment of several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart fa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Brachial Index The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a non-invasive tool for the assessment of vascular status. It consists of the ratio between the systolic blood press ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Myocardial Infarction Anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common heart disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Advancement in diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome The anterior spinal artery syndrome refers to ischemic infarction of the spinal cord resulting from direct occlusion of the anterior spinal artery, ar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction Anteroseptal myocardial infarctions are commonly caused by rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the left anterior descending artery. Delay ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthracyclines Anthracyclines are drugs extracted from Streptomyces spp and used in the treatment of various types of cancers. These agents are among the most effect ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticoagulation Safety One class of drugs that has been implicated in serious adverse drugs reactions for many decades are the oral anticoagulants, especially warfarin. Ther ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticonvulsants Toxicity Anticonvulsants, or antiepileptics, are an ever-growing class of medications that act through multiple different mechanisms to control seizures. Antie ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antimalarial Medications When treating patients suspected of having malaria, it is essential that treatment does not initiate until the diagnosis of malaria has been establish ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiparasitic Drugs Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiplatelet Medications Over time, numerous antiplatelet agents have been developed with a multitude of indications. Antiplatelet medications divide into oral and parenteral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antisialagogues Antisialagogues are medications often used in the management and treatment of patients with noisy breathing near the end of life. These medications ar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Arch Aneurysm An isolated aortic arch aneurysm represents the less frequent cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms but poses a significant surgical challenge as it invo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Disease Aortic valve disease consists of both regurgitations comprising retrograde flow throw the aortic valve and stenosis or narrowing of the orifice limiti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Infective endocarditis occurs globally and is defined by the infection of the endocardial surface of the native valve, prosthetic heart valve, or an i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Surgical Treatment Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease involving the endocardial surface of the heart and can include the valves and/or the mural endocardium ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is performed to treat aortic valve insufficiency with outcomes comparable to the valve replacement. When performed in a high volum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Replacement The aortic valve lies at the junction of the left ventricle and aorta and is a semilunar valve with three leaflets. It allows unidirectional blood flo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Ross Operation The Ross procedure, also known as the switch procedure or pulmonary autograft procedure, is a cardiac surgery in which a diseased aortic valve is repl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortofemoral Bypass Aortofemoral bypass surgery has been used in the management of aortoiliac occlusive disease since the 1950s. Today, revascularization with endovascula ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease Aortoiliac occlusive disease is defined by atherosclerotic blockage of the distal abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. Patients commonly present with c ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apixaban Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 for use in patients with non-valv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia(HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of heparin ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), a condition also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), is a genetic diso ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ashman Phenomenon Ashman phenomenon was initially described by Dr. Gouaux and Dr. Ashman in 1947. They described that the earlier in the cycle a premature atrial contra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atenolol Atenolol is a second-generation beta-1-selective adrenergic antagonist indicated in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and acute myocardi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atorvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Tachycardia A focal atrial tachycardia is an arrhythmia with electrical impulses originating and confined within the atria. Focal tachycardia typically occurs in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Block Second-Degree A delay in conduction between the atria and ventricles results in an atrioventricular conduction block. This is indicated by a prolongation of the PR ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Canal Defects Atrioventricular canal defects comprise a spectrum of defects such as exclusive ventricular or atrial defects, septal defects, atrioventricular anomal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Dissociation Atrioventricular dissociation is a cardiac conduction defect where the atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. It can occur due to vari ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry Tachycardia Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia that results due to the presence of a re-ent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) is a macroreentrant tachycardia that needs an accessory pathway to bypass the conventional conductio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Antipsychotic Agents In recent years, the atypical antipsychotics or second-generation antipsychotics have become the drugs of choice for acute psychoses. They are “atypic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Austin Flint Murmur American physician Austin Flint first described his namesake murmur in 1862. In his own poetic words: "The murmur is oftener rough than soft. The roug ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Automatic Internal Cardiac Defibrillator The automated internal cardiac defibrillator or shock box is the common name given to the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD). ICD is a state ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azilsartan Azilsartan is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin-receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteremia Bacteremia, in the strictest sense, refers to viable bacteria in the blood. Asymptomatic bacteremia can occur in normal daily activities such as condu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balloon Valvuloplasty Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac intervention to open up a stenotic or stiffed heart valves (e.g., aortic or mitral) using a catheter with a balloon ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Becker Muscular Dystrophy Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder due to mutation in the Dystrophin gene that results in progressive muscle degenerati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in the management and treatment of open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bidirectional Glenn Procedure or Hemi-Fontan The bidirectional Glenn (BDG) and hemi-Fontan are the types of surgical techniques used to create superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, the second stage ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bioprosthetic Stented Pericardial Porcine Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve repair is performed because severe aortic valvular disease uncorrected mortality rates are dismal. Half of the patients presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisoprolol Bisoprolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is in the selective beta-blocker clas ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bivalirudin Bivalirudin is a medication used in the management and treatment of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Cardiac Injury A cardiac contusion is a misnomer used to indicate injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spect ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brugada Syndrome Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening inherited disease that predisposes patients to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The syndrome is ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buerger Disease Buerger disease is a nonatherosclerotic, progressive, segmental inflammatory disease affecting the small and medium-sized arteries of upper and lower ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bumetanide Bumetanide is FDA approved for the management of various edematous conditions secondary to cardiac failure, or hepatic or renal disease, including the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcified Plaque Coronary artery calcification is frequently encountered during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Calcified plaque poses numerous challenges t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are among the most commonly used cardiovascular drugs in the adult population. Like most other medications, when calci ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel antagonists, also known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have been widely used for many indications. These agents are often classif ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Gluconate Calcium gluconate is a medication used in the management of hypocalcemia, cardiac arrest and cardiotoxicity due to hyperkalemia or hypermagnesemia. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer-associated Thrombosis Cancer-associated thrombosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients. It commonly occurs in patients with clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Angiography Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography is an alternative to conventionial iodinated contrast angiography, particularly in situations where there are contrai ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Embolism Laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing popularity in clinical practice. As part of laparoscopic surgeries, gas insufflation is usually adopted to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Abscess A cardiac abscess is a suppurative infection of the myocardium, endocardium, native or prosthetic valve tissue. Similar to other abscesses, it develop ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Calcifications Cardiac calcifications carry different diagnostic and prognostic significance depending on their location. They can involve the coronary arteries, car ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Cancer Cardiac tumors are uncommon and can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, and the incidence is from 0.001 to 0.3% by autopsy. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Disease In Pregnancy Many cardiac diseases during pregnancy are under investigation, and many others which are still not understood require further inquiry. Some of these ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Fibroma Cardiac fibromas are the second most common primary cardiac tumor after rhabdomyoma in children. They are primarily composed of connective tissue and ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Manifestations Of Coronavirus Coronaviruses are a large family of single positive-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that can infect many animal species and humans. Human coronaviruse ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rehabilitation Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in the United States. Cardiac rehabilitati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Stratification Cardiac Risk Stratification is an essential evaluation among health professionals. In today's world, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Stress Imaging Cardiac stress imaging is a noninvasive modality used in evaluating coronary artery disease, myocardium viability, and exercise capacity. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Surgery Cardiac surgery is the specialty of medicine concerning the surgical treatment of pathologies related to the heart and thoracic aorta. The spectrum of ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Trauma Cardiac trauma can be categorized as either blunt or penetrating according to the mechanism of injury. Outcomes range from spontaneously-resolving arr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Ultrasound Cardiac ultrasound, or echocardiography, is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that can provide detailed hemodynamic information in a short period of t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioactive Steroid Toxicity Cardioactive steroids (CAS) are medically important compounds historically used for conditions like edema and "dropsy." They are available in several ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioembolic Stroke An estimated 26 million people suffer a stroke each year, making it a significant source of mortality and long-term disability. Up to two-thirds of st ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioplegia Cardioplegia serves to intentionally and temporarily arrest the heart for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. This activity describes cardio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Fitness Cardiopulmonary fitness testing is a durable and versatile tool that provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information regarding patients with c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiorenal Syndrome The cardiorenal syndrome includes multiple subtypes based on underlying pathology and chronicity. Each subtype involves unique pathophysiology, and th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiovascular Disease The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and its blood vessels. A wide array of problems can arise within the cardiovascular system, a few of w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carney Complex Carney complex (CNC) is a rare genetic disorder associated with one of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Carney complex affects multip ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carnitine Deficiency Carnitine deficiency is a condition characterized by low carnitine levels in the body. Carnitine deficiency could be primary (due to defect in carniti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Fibromuscular Dysplasia Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) of the carotid artery is a non-atherosclerotic and noninflammatory disease that can lead to stenosis and/or aneurysm of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Stenosis The distinction between hemodynamic and embolic stroke in the setting of chronic internal carotid artery occlusion is important. Embolic symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Stenting Traditionally, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been the primary method of treating high-grade asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. A ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Surgery Symptoms of extracranial carotid disease are usually caused by embolization. Arterial emboli account for approximately 25 percent of strokes in Europe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Contusion The neck has several important anatomical structures which include the carotid arteries bilaterally. While the injury to the carotid artery is not a c ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Endarterectomy Atherosclerosis can lead to a build-up of plaque in the carotid artery, causing narrowing and carotid artery disease, which increases the risk for cer ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is an exaggerated response to pressure applied to the carotid sinus located in the carotid bifurcation, resulting in br ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotidynia Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome or TIPIC Syndrome, is a rare vascular disorder that presents with atypical pain in the face and neck area. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Castor Oil Castor oil is a vegetable oil made from Ricinus communis, a plant common in the Eastern areas of the world. Castor oil is most well known for its laxa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Ablation Catheter ablation is a rapidly evolving field and has proven to be a valid solution for many patients suffering from recurrent arrhythmias. Even thoug ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Aortic Valve Disorders Aortic valve disease is one of the most common valvular disorders in the United States and worldwide. Transcatheter management is emerging as a releva ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Atrial Septal Defect Transcatheter closure of the ASD is currently available for secundum type of ASDs, and currently, there are two FDA-approved devices in the United Sta ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Coarctation Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta typically at the location of the ductus arteriosus distal to the left subclavian artery accountin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices For patients with atrial fibrillation, percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) emerged as a valid alternative to oral anticoagulation. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most common valvular abnormalities. Medical management along with regular surveillance is the typical recommen ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Mitral Stenosis The diagnostic test of choice for percutaneous transcatheter mitral valve replacement (PMVR) remains to be the echocardiogram. While surgery is the pr ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common abnormality that describes the presence of a small opening between the top two chambers of the heart. Several l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Ventricular Septal Defect Traditionally, ventricular septal defects (VSDs) have been closed with an open approach, but since then, a percutaneous transcatheter closure been dev ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catheter Management Pulmonary Valvular Disorders Transcatheter intervention for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation was a remarkable advancemen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central and Peripheral Cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the distal extremities (Hands, fingertips, toes), and can sometimes involve circumoral and periorbi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the sudden blockage of the central retinal artery, resulting in retinal hypoperfusion, rapidly progressive ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Access of The Subclavian Vein In the United States, more than 5 million central venous catheters are inserted every year in both hospitalized and surgical patients. Once an indicat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlorthalidone Chlorthalidone is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the thiazide-like diuretics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Selection of Treatment Modality The term stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) often is used synonymously with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and encompasses a variety of condi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral vascular disease in which the blood supply fails to meet the metabolic demands of visceral organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Testicular Pain Chronic orchialgia is defined as 3 months of intermittent or constant testicular pain that is significantly bothersome to the patient. It is the cause ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Thrombo-Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Chronic pulmonary embolism (also known as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is a potentially life-threatening condition and is associated ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Total Occlusion Of The Coronary Artery Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are diagnosed in patients who are undergoing coronary angiography as part of the evaluation of ischemic heart di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Churg Strauss Syndrome Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, belongs to a group of diseases characterized by necrotizing v ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciliary Dysfunction The majority of newborns with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), formerly known as immotile cilia syndrome, develop neonatal respiratory distress with ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cilostazol Cilostazol is a quinolone derivative primarily used for the treatment of intermittent claudication due to peripheral vascular disease; this is the FDA ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiac dysfunction that develops in patients with cirrhosis without other known cardiac disease. It develops in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonidine Toxicity Clonidine is a commonly prescribed biochemical derivative of imidazoline with a variety of clinical uses. It was originally developed as a nasal decon ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clozapine Clozapine is an FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is not the first-line drug of choice d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colesevelam Colesevelam is an FDA approved antihyperlipidemic drug. When treating hyperlipidemia, colesevelam should be used in conjunction with restriction of ch ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Commotio Cordis Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is an important cause of sudden ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Coronary Artery Lesions Contemporary treatment of coronary artery disease is highly dependent on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) along with medical management. PCI t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that covers the heart. Besides acting as a protective barrier, it also affects cardiac hemodynamics. Constrict ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrast Agent Toxicity Contrast agents, also called contrast media, are substances used to enhance the radiodensity of a targeted tissue by altering the way that electromagn ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cor Pulmonale Cor pulmonale is a Latin word that means "pulmonary heart," its definition varies, and presently, there is no consensual definition. Cor pulmonale can ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cor Triatriatum Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital heart defect in which a thin, fibromuscular membrane causes division of either the right or left atrium, resultin ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Arterial Pressure Evaluation Coronary artery pressure measurement is fundamental in treating angiographically intermediate lesions. Inappropriate percutaneous coronary interventio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Coronary arteriovenous fistula should be suspected in patients who present with unexplained heart failure, have continuous murmur on auscultation, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Anomalies With the increasing application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as the standard of care for patients with acute chest pain, health ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Of The Gastroepiploic Artery Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the mainstay for the treatment of coronary artery disease for several decades. Various vessels have be ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Redo The coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure is used to improve blood flow to at-risk areas of myocardial tissues. When a patient requires subseq ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Calcification Arterial calcium development is closely related to vascular injury, inflammation, and repair. Calcification occurs very early in the process of athero ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Disease Prevention In the United States, cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. According to the AHA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Dissection Coronary artery dissection is the separation of the coronary arterial wall and can be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. This activity will focus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Fistula Coronary artery fistulas are aberrant connections between coronary arteries and other structures, such as other branches of arteries or heart chambers ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Perforation Coronary artery perforation is a rare complication associated with a percutaneous coronary intervention. This activity highlights the risk factors, de ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Stents Coronary artery stents have become the cornerstone in the management and treatment of coronary artery disease. This activity illustrates the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Surgery Coronary artery surgery is performed because coronary artery disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Variations in technique a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Vasospasm Coronary artery vasospasm (CAVS) is a constriction of the coronary arteries that can cause complete or near-complete occlusion of the vessel. In 1959, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Cameral Fistula Coronary cameral fistula is an abnormal communication existing between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber. It appears in less than 1% of the po ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary CT Angiography Chest pain is often the herald of cardiovascular disease and is one of the most common diagnostic challenges encountered by practicing clinicians. Car ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Ectasia Treatment of coronary ectasia encompasses multiple options across different disciplines. The treatment goal is to correct the defects leading to ische ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Flow Effects of Arterial Spasm or Microembolization Two conditions that can lead to angina symptoms include coronary artery spasm and microembolization. Coronary artery spasm can cause partial or comple ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Sinus Thrombosis The coronary venous system generally receives minimal attention in the medical literature. Even though the coronary sinus is a major access site for m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Costochondritis Costochondritis is a benign cause of chest wall pain that results from inflammation of the costal cartilage, the cartilage that connect the ribs to th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryoballoon Pulmonary Vein Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia encountered in the United States. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation dramatically in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that find frequent use in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first-line choice ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Danon Disease Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant genetic disorder that manifests with the clinical triad of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and intellectu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Daptomycin Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic derived from the organism Streptomyces roseosporus. Daptomycin is used for the treatment of various bact ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deadly Single Dose Agents Although the basics of evaluating and treating most unknown ingestants are well known, many overdoses require very specific treatment if the patient i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Defibrillation Cardiac defibrillation is the act of administering a transthoracic electrical current to a person experiencing one of the two lethal ventricular dysrh ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
DeWinter Pattern Acute coronary syndromes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis has a central role, as to allow a timely reperfusion strategy. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dexamethasone Dexamethasone has a wide variety of uses in the medical field. As a treatment, dexamethasone has been useful in the treatment of acute exacerbation of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dexmedetomidine The FDA-approved indications for dexmedetomidine are sedation of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextran Dextran is a medication used in the management and treatment of various clinical conditions, including during hemorrhage, shock, surgical procedures, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextrocardia Dextrocardia is a congenital condition in which the heart is located in the right side of the thorax. This activity reviews the evaluation and managem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2 33 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Fistula Dialysis fistula creation is a commonly performed procedure for patients with end-stage renal disease who require permanent vascular access for hemodi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digitalis Toxicity Digoxin is a well-known cardiac glycoside and one of the oldest drugs used today in cardiovascular medicine. It has wide-ranging beneficial effects an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure and certain arrhythmias and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside cla ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diltiazem Diltiazem is an oral and parenteral non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in many clinical scenarios as an antihypertensive, anti-ar ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenhydramine Toxicity Diphenhydramine is most often used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, allergic rhinitis, mild to severe allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dipyridamole Dipyridamole is an antiplatelet agent used in secondary prophylaxis against stroke and as an adjunctive agent with warfarin post mechanical valve repl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dipyridamole Nuclear Stress Test While conventional stress tests are exercise based, in certain circumstances, there may be contraindications to exercise. In these cases, pharmacologi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disopyramide Disopyramide is a medication used for the treatment of heart rhythm abnormalities, which can be life-threatening, such as ventricular tachycardia/fibr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dobutamine The FDA approveD dobutamine for short-term use in patients with decreased contractility due to heart failure or cardiac surgical procedures leading to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dofetilide Clinical uses of dofetilide include maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation. Dofetilide is indicated in adults for the conversio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Aortic Arch Double aortic arch is the commonest form of a group of defects that affect the development of the aorta. This defect causes an abnormal circular forma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Chambered Right Ventricle The double-chambered right ventricle was first described in the 19th century. It is now considered a distinctive anatomic entity; wherein there is a m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Defibrillation Refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) is an unexpected complication of cardiac arrest that complicates the management of the patient and increases ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Double Orifice Mitral Valve Double orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is a rare, congenital, or acquired anomaly that is typically asymptomatic. With time, however, it may lead to mitra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxepin Doxepin is a medication used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety, insomnia as well as in the management of skin pruritus. It is in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin is an antibiotic derived from the Streptomyces peucetius bacterium. It has widespread use as a chemotherapeutic agent since the 1960s. Dox ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dressler Syndrome Dressler syndrome, also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome, is a form of secondary pericarditis with or without pericardial effusion that occ ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug and Alcohol Use The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition includes 10 separate classes of drugs of abuse, which include alcohol, caffei ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Valvular Heart Disease Drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) is a condition involving changes in the morphology and functionality of valvular leaflets secondary to exp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Unfortunately, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not only one of the most severe forms of inherited muscular dystrophies but also the most common h ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duloxetine Duloxetine is a medication used in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), fibromyalgia, diabetic perip ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyslipidemia Dyslipidemia is the imbalance of lipids such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystrophinopathies This activity covers a group of X-linked muscle disorders, with their most recognized pathology being Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), followed by B ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ebstein Anomaly And Malformation Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve is a congenital malformation, in which there is downward displacement of insertion of septal and posterior leaf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Echocardiogram Cardiac echocardiography is a safe and non-invasive test that provides the clinical team with important cardiac function data. This functional data is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eisenmenger Syndrome Eisenmenger syndrome (ES) is a constellation of symptoms that arise from a congenital heart defect and result in large anatomic shunts. Due to anatomi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Alternans Electrical alternans is defined as alternating QRS amplitudes in any or all leads on an electrocardiogram (ECG) with no additional evident changes in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrocardiogram Electrocardiogram (abbreviated as EKG or ECG) represents a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Willem Einthoven first invented it in 1 ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrophysiologic Study Interpretation During the last decades, electrophysiology has evolved into an essential subspecialty in the field of cardiology. Through meticulous electrophysiologi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrophysiologic Testing The invasive electrophysiological study (EPS) became a widely used procedure, performed all over the world as an essential part of the diagnosis of ar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elevated Hemidiaphragm Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs most commonly from direct or indirect injury to the phrenic nerve. It is often found as an incidental finding on diagnos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enalapril Enalapril is a medication used in the management of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. This ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2 33 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocardial Fibroelastosis Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is primarily a disease of infants and children, but can rarely present in adulthood as well. In 1943, Endocardial fib ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents despite new advantages in management and prophyla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endocarditis Antibiotic Regimens Infective endocarditis is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It requires prompt identification and carefully selected antibiotic therap ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endomyocardial Biopsy The role and utility of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in the work-up of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial and the practice varies widely in ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endomyocardial Fibrosis Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF) is characterized by left and right ventricular endocardial fibrosis and resultant restrictive cardiomyopathy. EMF is rar ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enoxaparin Enoxaparin is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and was first approved for medical use in 1993 and is derived from heparin. It has approval for the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication used in the management and treatment of clinically significant hypotension. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medication ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epididymitis Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis, a tubular structure on the testis where sperm mature. Epididymitis is a relatively common condition ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eplerenone Eplerenone is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, as well as hypertension. It is in the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eptifibatide Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa class platelet inhibitor drug used to reduce ischemic cardiac events in specific patient populations. This act ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythema Marginatum Erythema marginatum is reactive inflammatory erythema seen most commonly in association with acute rheumatic fever. Although a rare cutaneous manifest ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Escitalopram Escitalopram is a medication used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. It is in the selectiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings including urgent c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Hematoma Intramural hematoma of the esophagus (IHE) or dissecting intramural hematoma of the esophagus is an uncommon condition which presents with acute esoph ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis Dysphagia is a common symptom with multiple possible etiological factors, one of which is diffuse intramural esophageal diverticulosis. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ethacrynic Acid Ethacrynic acid is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic heart failure. It is in the loop diuretic class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Excimer Laser Coronary Angioplasty Excimer laser coronary angioplasty (ELCA) is a safe and effective technique as an adjunct to conventional PCI and can improve clinical outcomes when u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Pacemaker External pacing is one of the fastest methods for treating multiple types of conduction abnormalities. It can be applied in the hospital setting or by ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fabry Disease Fabry disease is a multi-systemic, X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by decreased activity of alpha-galactosidase A and results in l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is known as a group of inherited genetic defects that lead to the severe elevation of serum cholesterol concentrations. ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hyperlipidemia Type 2a Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism presenting at birth. It is characterized by very high low-den ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Mediterranean Fever Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory genetic disorder that mainly affects people of Mediterranean origin. FMF is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Felodipine Felodipine is a medication used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension. It is a member of the dihydropyridine class of calcium chan ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Aneurysm Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm consists of an outpouching of 1 or 2 layers of the vessel wall. A true aneurysm, on the other hand, involves all the 3 l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Vascular Closure Devices After Catheterization Procedure Femoral vascular closure devices have become powerful tools for interventional cardiologists and other proceduralists to achieve hemostasis at the cat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fenoldopam Fenoldopam is used primarily for the lowering of blood pressure during episodes of severe hypertension. Fenoldopam has a unique mechanism of action co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrate Medications Fibrates are a class of drugs utilized in the management and treatment of dyslipidemia. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrinous Pericarditis The fibrous pericardium is the outer layer and holds the heart in place and protect it from surrounding infections. It is composed of thick connective ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibromuscular Dysplasia Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare systemic vascular disease, affecting younger women and accounting for 10% to 20% of the cases of renal artery ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
First Degree Heart Block First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is a condition of abnormally slow conduction through the AV node. It is defined by ECG changes that include a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flecainide Flecainide is a class IC antiarrhythmic agent. This activity will highlight the mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, evidenced-based usage and toxic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) Fludeoxyglucose F18 is a radioactive tracer that acts as a glucose analog and is used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with Positron Emitting To ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluorides and Fluorocarbons Toxicity Fluorocarbons are fluorinated carbon chain polymers that are used in an assortment of household and commercial products as waterproofing agents, lubri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluvastatin In adults, fluvastatin is indicated for hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia to decrease the amount of total cholesterol in the blood. Specific ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foscarnet Foscarnet is a medication used in the management and treatment of CMV, HSV, and VZV viral infections in AIDS and immunocompromised patients. It is in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fosinopril Fosinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Fosinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fractional Flow Reserve Angiographic results alone can guide the decision to perform a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Angiography is used to visually assess the co ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Endocarditis Endocarditis is the inflammation of the endocardium, the innermost lining of the heart. Endocarditis may be due to infective or non-infective etiologi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Furosemide Furosemide is a loop diuretic that has been in use for decades. However, clinicians must be aware of updates related to the indications and administra ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil is an FDA approved fibric acid agent (fibrate) for the management of hypertriglyceridemia (particularly in type IV and V hyperlipidemia). ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ginkgo Biloba Ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements used in the world. This activity reviews the potential indications, action, and cont ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) inhibitors prevent platelet aggregation by blocking glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors on their platelet's plasma mem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamartoma A hamartoma is a local malformation made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissue. Although most hamartomas are benign, they cause morbidity by v ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Failure And Ejection Fraction Heart failure (HF) is a common and potentially fatal disease if left untreated. This article aims to describe the different types of heart failure. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Transplantation A heart transplant is performed in patients with refractory acute and chronic heart failure. An orthotopic heart transplant is the most commonly utili ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Allograft Vasculopathy Despite advances in mechanical circulatory support, cardiac transplant remains the definitive treatment intervention for patients with advanced heart ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Patient Selection Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide, and falls second only to pancreatic cancer as the p ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Rejection Heart transplantation (HTx) is a procedure performed in patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) who remain symptomatic despite appropriate medical ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heart-Lung Transplantation A heart-lung transplant is performed for unsalvagable dual cardiac and pulmonary failure. An organ transplant is an established life-saving therapy fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemochromatosis Hemochromatosis is a disorder that causes excess iron deposition and, in turn, multiple organ dysfunction. Organs affected by hemochromatosis include ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Hepatopulmonary syndrome is hypoxemia due to dilated intrapulmonary vasculature in the presence of liver disease or portal hypertension. Its a serious ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heyde Syndrome Heyde syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of aortic stenosis (AS), gastrointestinal bleeding, and acquired von Willebrand sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High-Output Cardiac Failure High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the simplest form, it is stil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holiday Heart Syndrome The holiday heart syndrome is a common cause of cardiac disease predominantly in the United States of America. The Holiday heart syndrome, also referr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holt Oram Syndrome Holt-Oram syndrome also referred to as the heart-hand syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder that is distinguished by upper limb abnormalities in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holter Monitor The Holter monitor is a device that works on Galvanometer's principle to record electrocardiographic signals from an individual who is going about his ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydralazine Hydralazine is used orally as a therapeutic agent to treat essential hypertension and intravenously to lower blood pressure urgently or emergently. FD ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrochlorothiazide Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide-type diuretic which has been used clinically for more than half a century. The drug has been widely used to t ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism occurs due to the excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Hyperaldosteronism can initially present as essential an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Cardiovascular Effects Both the high-pressure environment as well as the hyperoxygenation that is associated with hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) have numerous consequen ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels within the body. It is a very com ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Emergency A hypertensive emergency is an acute, marked elevation in blood pressure that is associated with signs of target-organ damage. These can include pulmo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Encephalopathy Hypertensive encephalopathy is a less commonly encountered type of hypertensive emergency, highlighted by mental status changes and severely elevated ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Heart Disease Hypertensive heart disease refers to a constellation of changes in the left ventricle, left atrium and coronary arteries as a result of chronic blood ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertriglyceridemia Hypertriglyceridemia in many cases is multifactorial, resulting from the combination of genetic factors and other causes of increased production and o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a mutation in sarcomere protein genes which effect contraction of the hea ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoaldosteronism Hypoaldosteronism is a clinical condition characterized by a deficiency of aldosterone or its impaired action at the tissue level. The disorder may re ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypokalemia One of the most common electrolyte disturbances seen in clinical practice is hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is more prevalent than hyperkalemia, and most ca ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypophosphatemia Given its widespread role in nearly every molecular, cellular function, aberrations in serum phosphate levels can be highly impactful. Hypophosphatemi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoplastic Lung Disease Pulmonary hypoplasia is a relatively uncommon medical condition characterized by incomplete development of the lungs that can affect the overall devel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ibuprofen Ibuprofen is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid disorders, mild to moderate pain, fever, dysmenorr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ibutilide Ibutilide is indicated for the conversion of acute atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm (NSR). Off-label uses of ibutilide in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Artery Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension, also known as idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH), it is a progressive disease that affects the precapillary pulmo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung disorder where there is scarring of the lungs from an unknown cause. It is usually a progressive disease ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease characterized by repeated episodes of a diffuse alveolar hemorrhage resulting in the accumu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Idioventricular Rhythm Idioventricular rhythm is a slow regular ventricular rhythm with a rate of less than 50 bpm, absence of P waves, and a prolonged QRS interval. When th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imatinib Imatinib is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other malignancies ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imipramine Imipramine is a medication used in the treatment of depression and anxiety. It is a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Immersion Pulmonary Edema Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is used as an umbrella term for scuba divers pulmonary edema (SDPE) and swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Both ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Implantable Defibrillator Practitioners use the terms sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) and sudden cardiac death interchangeably; however, their definitions are distinct. Sudden card ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Implantable Loop Recorder Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is an invaluable tool to assist in diagnosing certain cardiac conditions. There are a variety of ambulat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inamrinone Inamrinone is a medication used in the short-term management and treatment of congestive heart failure. It is a phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor, which ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infectious Endocarditis Infectious endocarditis refers to the colonization of cardiac valve endocardium by virulent microorganisms. It is a rare condition that can lead to r ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Myocardial Infarction Without timely treatment, coronary artery occlusion results in decreased perfusion to the myocardium, resulting in myocardial ischemia followed by my ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Filter Inferior vena cava filters (IVC filters) are indicated as a treatment to prevent pulmonary embolism in a select group of patients that have venous thr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS) is caused by physical invasion or compression by a pathological process or by thrombosis within the vein itself. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Caval Thrombosis Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is a disease associated with high morbidity. Although the condition is considered rare, case reports have shown th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infrainguinal Occlusive Disease Infra inguinal occlusive diseases are amongst the commonest vascular diseases, worldwide. This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment and managem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Innocent Murmur Murmurs are the most common reason for pediatric cardiologist referral and evaluation. There are reports that up to 72% of children will have a murmur ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death in men and women in the United States. The instantaneous wave-free ratio (IFR) can be used to de ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is identified as an impaired biologic response to insulin stimulation of target tissues, primarily the liver, muscle, and adipose t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intermittent Claudication Intermittent claudication (IC) typically refers to lower extremity skeletal muscle pain that occurs during exercise. IC presents when there is insuffi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Internal jugular vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus develops in the lumen of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Hereditary and acquired risk factors ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Mammary Artery Bypass Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and coronary artery bypass graft is considered the mainstay for the treatment of seve ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interrupted Aortic Arch A rare type of congenital heart disease is an interrupted aortic arch (IAA), which affects approximately 1.5% of congenital heart disease patients. In ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interventions In Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients can present with symptoms at any phase of life and may have an elevated risk of sudden cardiac death based on ris ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interventricular Septum Abscess An interventricular septal abscess is a life-threatening complication of infective endocarditis. It occurs as a consequence of either native or prosth ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in the patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracardiac Shunts Intracardiac shunts are abnormal pathways for blood flow in the heart that form either in addition to or in place of normal pathways for blood flow. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracoronary Stents On September 16, 1977, in Zurich Germany, Andreas Grunzig performed the first balloon angioplasty in a coronary artery on Andreas Bachman. Grunzig use ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraoperative Echocardiography Although transesophageal ultrasound was first reported in the 1970s, the advent of phased array transducers and flexible transesophageal probes in the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) describes ineffective blood pumping by the heart as a result of ischemic damage to the myocardium. It is a common condit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isolated Coronary Artery Anomalies Coronary artery anomalies (CAAs) are a varied group of congenital disorders that refer to abnormalities involving the origin, course, and structure of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isoproterenol Isoproterenol is a beta-1, and beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist indicated primarily for bradydysrhythmias. The administration and subsequent post-ad ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isosorbide Isosorbide is a medication used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris in patients with coronary heart disease. It is in the nitrate class ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Itraconazole Itraconazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the antifungal class of medications. This activity re ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ivabradine Ivabradine is FDA-approved in the United States for use in patients with symptoms due to stable heart failure and an ejection fraction of 35% or less ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jervell and Lange Nielsen Syndrome Jervell and Lange Nielsen syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and a prolonged QTc in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jod Basedow Syndrome Jod-Basedow syndrome, also known as iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, is a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis seen typically after the administration of exoge ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jugular Venous Distention The jugular venous examination is a vital component of the cardiovascular exam. This activity outlines the identification and assessment of jugular ve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Junctional Rhythm The sinoatrial node is the natural cardiac pacemaker located in the upper right atrium. The atrioventricular node is a separate cardiac pacemaker loca ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited medium vessel vasculitis that has a predilection for the coronary arteries. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kearns Sayre Syndrome Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a subtype of chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). KSS is defined by the following triad: Onset before t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kingella Kingae This activity reviews the microbiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology and the clinical manifestations of Kingella kingae infection. It also highlights ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kissing Bug Bite Kissing bugs bites and the subsequent developments of Chagas disease are under-recognized and frequently go untreated. Chagas disease can be challengi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the result of 2 or more X chromosomes in a phenotypic male. The clinical phenotype of KS was first described in males wit ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Labetalol Due to their negative inotropic and chronotropic actions, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists are typically indicated in individuals with chronic car ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lacunar Syndromes Lacunar syndromes are clinical manifestations of lacunar infarctions, which are defined as small subcortical lesions less than 15 millimeters in diame ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lambls Excrescences Lambl’s excrescences, a histological term describing rare cardiac growths that develop at the valvular coaptation sites of the heart which are seen as ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an idiopathic condition characterized by proliferation of abnormal Langerhans (antigen-presenting) cells. The d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Late Onset Depression In the older population, one of the serious health concerns that are associated with comorbidity, impaired functioning, excessive use of health care ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lateral Wall Myocardial Infarction Isolated lateral wall myocardial infarction (LMI), similar to other acute myocardial infarctions (MI), is caused by acute atherosclerotic plaque ruptu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Atrial Enlargement Left atrial enlargement (LAE) is an anatomic variation of the left atria and is a result of increased left atrial pressure for a prolonged period. Lef ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Bundle Branch Block Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is a common electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormality seen in patients whose normal cardiac conduction down both anterior ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Assist Devices Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of inpatient admissions. The Framingham study in 1993 described the risk factors for heart failure and showed u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the central measure of left ventricular systolic function. LVEF is the fraction of chamber volume ejected ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Failure Left heart failure occurs when there is dysfunction of the left ventricle, resulting insufficient delivery of blood to vital organs. Left ventricular ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular False Aneurysm Left ventricular false aneurysm is a rare complication of myocardial rupture contained by non-myocardial tissue. The most common cause of a false aneu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a condition in which an increase in left ventricular mass occurs secondary to an increase in wall thickness, an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Non-compaction Cardiomyopathy Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a very rare congenital cardiomyopathy. It is a disease of endomyocardial trabeculations that increase in num ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) can occur at the valvular, subvalvular, or supravalvular level. In general, there is an obstruction ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Ventricular Rupture Left ventricular (LV) rupture is a catastrophic but a common occurrence with acute myocardial infarction patients. The incidence of LV free-wall ruptu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lemierre Syndrome Lemierre syndrome (LS) is a rare complication of bacterial pharyngitis/tonsillitis and involves an extension of the infection into the lateral pharyng ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leriche Syndrome Leriche Syndrome also commonly referred to as aortoiliac occlusive disease, is caused by severe atherosclerosis affecting the distal abdominal aorta, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Libman Sacks Endocarditis Libman-Sacks endocarditis, also known as murantic or verrucous endocarditis, is a form of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) which involves t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipid Emulsion Therapy Lipid emulsion therapy is a medication used in the management and treatment of Local anesthetic toxicity. This activity reviews the indications, actio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipid Lowering Drug Therapy Patients at an increased risk of having a cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or uns ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lisinopril Lisinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Lisinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lithium Toxicity The drug of choice for recurrent bipolar illness management remains to be lithium. Lithium, a monovalent cation similar to sodium with an unknown mech ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Toxicity One of the most important causes of liver dysfunction is drug-induced liver injury (DILI) which can lead to a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from m ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Transplantation Cirrhosis and decompensated liver disease were the ninth leading cause of death for males in 2016 in the United States. Liver transplantation (LT) is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Loeffler Endocarditis Loeffler endocarditis is restrictive cardiomyopathy, defined as an impaired relaxation of the heart with impaired diastolic filling. Diffuse eosinophi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lomitapide Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) medications comprise mipomersen and lomitapide. Lomitapide is an FDA-approved besides a diet low in fa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Long QT Syndrome The QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) represents the duration of the ventricular action potential, and this physiologically correlates with th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Loop Diuretics Loop diuretics are medications used in the management and treatment of fluid overload conditions such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosi ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Loperamide Loperamide is a medication used in the treatment of diarrhea. It classifies as an anti-diarrheal agent. The use of loperamide in high doses has been a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Losartan Losartan is FDA approved for the treatment of several medical conditions, which include the following: hypertension, diabetic nephropathy. ARBs are kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lovastatin Lovastatin is a lipid-lowering medication part of the statin drug class used in the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease, hypercholester ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lown Ganong Levine Syndrome Lown-Ganong-Levine (LGL) pattern is a rare pre-excitation pathway that may present on EKG in patients of various ages. Occasionally, tachyarrhythmias ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Sympathetic Block The autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. As the name implies, the lumbar sympathetic block can be utili ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Pancoast Tumor Pancoast or superior sulcus tumor consists of a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall and producing a characteristic syndrome named Panc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lung Perfusion Scan A ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scan is a diagnostic test using radioisotopes to evaluate lung perfusion and ventilation. Its most common clinical use is ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lutembacher Syndrome Lutembacher syndrome (LS) was first described in a letter by anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel in 1750. Corvisart who later described the association ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lyme Carditis Lyme carditis has been reported in 1% to 5% of diagnosed patients with Lyme disease. The most prominent manifestations are conduction system disturban ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread by ticks. Lyme disease is divided into three stages: early local ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignancy-Related Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic abnormality seen in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Depending on the serum calcium levels, hypercalcemia i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hypertension Malignant hypertension is a term that has been used to describe patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) and multiple complications with poor progno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Management of Antithrombotics Around Gastrointestinal Procedures Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are used to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients at high risk. However, when these patients need ga ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marfan Syndrome One of the most common inherited disorders affecting connective tissue, Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant condition with a reported incid ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
May-Thurner Syndrome May-Thurner syndrome (MTS), described in 1957 by Dr. May and Dr. Thurner, as a left common iliac vein (LCIV) thrombosis secondary to compression by an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Cancer The mediastinum is a cavity that separates the lungs from the other structures in the chest. Generally, it is further divided into three main parts: a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinal Trauma The mediastinum is contained within the thoracic cavity and has a high concentration of major vascular and visceral structures. Traumatic injury to an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mediastinitis Mediastinitis refers to inflammation or infection that involves the mediastinum, the cavity within the thorax that is bordered by the pleural sacs, th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medical Error Prevention This activity provides an in-depth description of the significance of medical error in the practice of medicine. It also highlights a number of impor ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Artery Thrombosis Mesenteric artery thrombosis (MAT) is a condition involving occlusion of the arterial vascular supply of the intestinal system. It is a severe and pot ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Vasculitis Mesenteric vasculitis can present in a variety of vasculitic disorders and some systemic, systemic diseases. The diagnosis of this condition can be ve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis Mesenteric venous thrombosis is caused by impairment of venous return of the bowel due to local blood coagulation. Primary mesenteric venous thrombosi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is an accumulation of several disorders, which together raise the risk of an individual developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metformin Metformin, FDA-approved in 1994, is an antidiabetic agent used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin comes in both immediate-release and extended-rel ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methamphetamine Methamphetamine is one of the powerful stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS). It is sometimes a second-line treatment for attention deficit h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methamphetamine Toxicity Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug that is a derivative of amphetamine. Methamphetamine can produce euphoria and stimulant eff ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methyldopa Methyldopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the centrally acting anti-hypertensive class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methylene Blue Methylene blue is a medication used in the management and treatment of methemoglobinemia, a condition in which hemoglobin decreases its ability to car ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone is an FDA-approved medication for the management and treatment of allergic conditions, arthritis, asthma exacerbations, long-term a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metolazone Metolazone is a cardiovascular agent, specifically a quinazoline diuretic related to the thiazide class. It is available in a generic formulation in t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mexiletine Mexiletine is largely used to suppress ventricular arrhythmias but also has a role in peripheral neuropathy and chronic pain, although the use for eit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mid-Ventricular Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Mid-ventricular Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a rare, reversible myocardial injury that presents with distinctive regional wall abnormalities of the lef ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Milk Thistle Herbal products have become increasingly popular, especially among those with chronic disease. Milk thistle has been used for hundreds of years by her ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Milrinone Milrinone is a medication indicated for cardiac support in patients with acute heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or chronic heart failure. It fun ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Surgery Aortic valve replacement is the standard treatment for patients with severe or symptomatic aortic insufficiency or aortic stenosis. In the past, the s ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Commissurotomy Mitral valve commissurotomy is the technique used to repair mitral valve stenosis. Mitral stenosis is most commonly due to rheumatic heart disease. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is caused by the retrograde flow of blood from the left ventricle (LV) into the left atrium (LA) through the mitral valve (M ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Insufficiency This review article discusses clinical aspects of mitral regurgitation (MR), in terms of etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular he ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mitral Valve Repair Mitral valve repair is commonly used to treat mitral valve pathology due to mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary o ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a rare autoimmune disease diagnosed when a specific antibody known as anti-U1-ribonucleoprotein is present, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morvan Syndrome Morvan syndrome or Morvan’s fibrillary chorea (MFC) is a rare constellation of neurological symptoms, consisting of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
MR Angiogram Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) encompasses several imaging techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) developed for studying the arter ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a supraventricular tachycardia resulting in a rapid, irregular atrial rhythm that is caused by multiple ectopic ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries (of =2.5mm diameter). This article helps in under ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mural Thrombi Mural thrombi are thrombi that attach to the wall of a blood vessel and cardiac chamber. Mural thrombus occurrence in a normal or minimally atheroscle ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps result in continuous, involuntary, painful, and localized contraction of an entire muscle group, individual single muscle, or select mus ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycotic Aneurysm A mycotic aneurysm is an infection of vessel wall which can be bacterial, fungal, or viral in origin; they are a rare but severe complication of syste ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as "heart attack," is caused by decreased or complete cessation of blood flow to a portion of the myoca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myocardial Stunning and Hibernation Coronary artery disease can result in acute and chronic myocardial perfusion deficits. This hypoperfusion can result in impaired myocardial contractil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myopericarditis The terms pericarditis refers to inflammation of the pericardium and myocarditis. Both can occur together in clinical practice, and hence the term myo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myotonic Dystrophy Myotonic dystrophy is a rare progressive disorder that universally presents with weakness. In addition to musculoskeletal weakness, cardiac conduction ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nadolol Nadolol is a medication used in the treatment of angina and hypertension, which are significant risk factors for the development of coronary artery di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nail Clubbing Clubbing of the nails is soft tissue swelling of the terminal phalanx resulting in flattening of the angle that exists between the nail bed and the na ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nebivolol Nebivolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neointimal Hyperplasia Atherosclerosis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and many interventions are performed to treat it. However, despite the potenti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical syndrome defined by massive proteinuria (greater than 40 mg/m2 per hour) responsible for hypoalbuminemia (less t ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Agents Nerve agents represent a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in toxicology and emergency medicine. Patients affected by nerve agents pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical condition arises as acute respiratory distress taking place in conjunction with severe neurological dam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurological Sequelae Of Endocarditis Endocarditis is inflammation or infection of the endocardium, the inner lining of cardiac valves and cardiac muscle. It most commonly results from bac ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin The uses of niacin are yet to be fully comprehended and embraced. This activity assists in improving knowledge of the benefits niacin has to offer, no ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin Deficiency Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency results in a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra includes the triad of dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea and can res ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin Toxicity Niacin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperlipidemia. It is in the vitamin supplement class of drugs. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
NICKS Procedure Nicks procedure is performed to avoid patient prosthesis mismatch in patients with the small aortic annulus. The main goal is to implant a prosthetic ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotinic Ganglionic Blocker Mecamylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the nicotinic ganglion blocker class of drugs. This activi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nifedipine Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker in the dihydropyridine subclass. It is primarily used as an antihypertensive and as an anti-anginal medication ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nisoldipine Nisoldipine is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It falls under the class of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrates Nitrates are useful in the management and treatment of angina. They are a group of medications that cause vasodilation by donating nitric oxide. This ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitric Oxide Nitric oxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn ( ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin is a vasodilatory drug used primarily to provide relief from anginal chest pain. It is currently FDA approved for the acute relief of a ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms originating from the lymphoid tissues, mainly the lymph nodes. These tumors may result due to c ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonitis Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) is one class of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). NSIP is chronic interstitial pneumonia with the hom ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDs are a class of medications used to treat pain, fever, and other inflammatory processes. This activity describes the indications, mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonviral Myocarditis Myocarditis is a significant cause of sudden death and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, especially in the young. It has a very diverse and sometime ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Norepinephrine Untreated hypotension can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Norepinephrine is a first-line agent for hypotension that does not respon ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nortriptyline Nortriptyline is indicated for use in the treatment of depression (FDA-approved). It can also be used off-label for conditions such as chronic pain, d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by episodes of complete collapse of the airway or partial collapse with an associated decrease in oxyge ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ochronosis Ochronosis is named for the reddish-brown hue of tissue termed "ochre-like" that was first described by a young physician named Archibald Garrod in th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ofloxacin Ofloxacin is a medication in the fluoroquinolone class used in the treatment of multiple gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Olmesartan Olmesartan is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This activity revi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Omeprazole Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor used in the management and treatment of several conditions, including peptic ulcer disease, gastrointestinal ref ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Atherectomy Orbital atherectomy (OA) is an adjunctive therapy used for lesion preparation of calcified plaque with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and pe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orthostasis When one stands up from laying down, gravity causes 500 to 800 milliliters of blood volume to shift from the upper body to the lower body and splanchn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orthostatic Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing from a sitting or supine position. Clinically, this is diagnosed b ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orthostatic Syncope Orthostatic syncope is transient loss of consciousness due to reduced blood flow to the cerebrum that can be associated with symptoms like dizziness, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Overdrive Pacing Temporary cardiac pacing (TCP) is a type of exogenous cardiac pacing in which an external energy source that delivers electrical impulses to stimulate ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Pacemakers are adjustable artificial electrical pulse generators that can be temporary or permanent. They frequently emit a pulse lasting between 0.5 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Indications Pacemakers are electronic devices that stimulate the heart with electrical impulses to maintain or restore a functional heartbeat. Pacemakers were ini ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Malfunction Pacemakers are implanted in patients with rhythmic cardiac problems. These pacemakers can often malfunction and produce a set of symptoms that require ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Mediated Tachycardia Pacemaker mediated tachycardia is a type of arrhythmia that happens in patients with dual-chamber pacemakers due to reentry. Patients who develop this ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pacemaker Syndrome Pacemakers have become an established modality for long-term management of life-threatening arrhythmias and can significantly improve patients' qualit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Palpitations Palpitations are defined as rapid pulsations or abnormally rapid or irregular beating of the heart. They are often described as the perception of a sk ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papillary Fibroelastoma Papillary fibroelastomas are one of the most common types of primary cardiac tumors. They are increasingly recognized as the spatial resolution of ima ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papillary Muscle Rupture Papillary muscle rupture is a rare and potentially fatal complication that typically follows a myocardial infarction or occurs secondary to infective ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paradoxical Embolism Paradoxical embolism is an uncommon cause for acute arterial occlusion. Paradoxical Embolism (PDE) occurs when a thrombus crosses an intracardiac def ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes an irregularly irregular heart rhythm. AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia characterized by disorganized, rapid ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia Atrial tachycardia is a form of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) usually seen in patients with structural heart abnormalities but also seen in patie ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) describes a narrow complex tachycardia involving episodic supraventricular tachycardia with sudden onse ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Partial And Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection Total and partial anomalous venous connection comprises a wide spectrum of congenital cardiovascular malformations where one or more pulmonary veins r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vessel that allows the oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the fetal lungs in utero. At birth, a newborn inh ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) occurs when a remnant of normal fetal anatomy abnormally persists into adulthood. It represents a benign finding in the new ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
PCSK9 Inhibitors Familial hypercholesterolemia is a syndrome characterized by extremely high levels of total and LDL-cholesterol, premature vascular disease, and tendo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
PDE5 Inhibitor The discovery of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5 inhibitors) for causing the erection of the penis was accidental, noticed as a side effect while ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pemphigus Vegetans Pemphigus is a group of vesiculobullous autoimmune diseases. The most common type of pemphigus is pemphigus vulgaris, characterized by mucocutaneous b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pentoxifylline Pentoxifylline is a drug used in the management of peripheral vascular disease. It is a xanthine derivative. This activity outlines the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical, invasive procedure wi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive procedure to open b ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneously Inserted Ventricular Assist Device There are now percutaneous inserted ventricular assist devices available. This device is a non-pulsatile axial flow pump that is placed across the aor ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardial Calcification The pericardium is a rigid, avascular, fibrous sac. Its primary functions are anchoring, lubricating, and preventing overdistention of cardiac chamber ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardial Cyst A pericardial cyst is typically considered a congenital anomaly, with most patients diagnosed via incidental findings on routine chest imaging. Rarely ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardial Effusion A pericardial effusion refers to the accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial sac surrounding the heart. In a healthy individual, the pericardi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericardiocentesis Pericardiocentesis is a procedure performed to remove pericardial fluid from the pericardial sac that surrounds the myocardium. It is often performed ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericarditis Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac and is the most common pathologic process involving the pericardium. Temporally, it may be further ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Sleep-related movement disorders are an important group of sleep diseases encountered commonly in clinical practice that requires thorough evaluation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Cardiac Management The importance of the appropriate perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery lies in the high number of surgical procedures performed eac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripartum Cardiomyopathy Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare cause of cardiomyopathy that occurs during late pregnancy or in the early postpartum period. It is characte ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Arterial Disease Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a circulatory problem causing a reduced blood flow through the arteries. This typically reduces blood flow to the ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Edema Peripheral edema is a very common finding in daily medical practice both in outpatient and inpatient settings. It can vary from benign condition to se ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Vascular Bypass Peripheral vascular bypass (PVB) refers to surgical revision of blood flow to restore perfusion distal to an occluded or otherwise disrupted arterial ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and limb loss in the United States. An early identification and risk factor modifica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pharmacological Cardioversion Cardioversion is the process of converting an abnormal and potentially dangerous heart rhythm into a normal sinus rhythm. The normal heart rate comes ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenol Nerve Block It was not until 1926 that the use of phenol as a neurolytic agent was described by Doppler et al., followed by a description of intrathecal injection ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phlegmasia Alba And Cerulea Dolens Phlegmasia alba dolens (PAD) and phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) are uncommon conditions that result from acute, massive venous thromboembolism. These ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are class medications used in the management and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), erectile dysfu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Photosensitivity Photosensitivity refers to various symptoms, diseases, and photodermatoses caused or exacerbated by exposure to sunlight. Photosensitive conditions ar ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pigmented Purpuric Dermatitis Pigmented purpuric dermatosis (PPD) is the term used to describe a collection of subtypes of generally benign, chronic, purpuric skin eruptions that a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pioglitazone Pioglitazone is a drug used in the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2). It belongs to the class of medications called thiazoli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Platypnea Platypnea diagnosis and treatment are usually challenging and complex to health practitioners. This activity reviews the causes of Pltypnea, simplifie ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyarteritis Nodosa Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis first described in 1866 by Adolph Kussmaul and Rudolph Maier. It typically affects med ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Kidney Disease Polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is a multisystem and progressive disease with cysts formation and kidney enlar ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polygenic Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia causes atherosclerotic vascular disease leading to the development of coronary artery disease, transient ischemic attack, stroke, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polypharmacy The term polypharmacy refers to the use of 5 or more medications, based on a review of current data. Aging places individuals at risk of multi-morbidi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pontine Infarction Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Pontine strokes, in particular, are catastrophic. Clinical presentation o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome The rare clinical manifestation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (PAES) was defined approximately 40 years ago. It has a preference for young t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Porcelain Aorta Porcelain aorta (PA) is a structural aortic wall disease characterized by extensive heavy calcification of the ascending thoracic aorta extending to t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portal Hypertension Portal hypertension is increased pressure within the portal venous system. It is determined by increased portal pressure gradient (the difference in p ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portal Vein Thrombosis Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a narrowing or blockage of the portal vein by a blood clot. Thrombosis can develop in the main body of the portal vein ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Positive Pressure Ventilation Positive pressure ventilation describes the process of either using a mask or, more commonly, a ventilator to deliver breaths and to decrease the work ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post Infarct Ventricular Septal Rupture The most severe potential complications of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involve tearing or rupture of acutely infarcted myocardial ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Myocardial Ischemia Posterior myocardial infarction (PMI) accounts for a substantial number of cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, true PMI is often under-re ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurologic disorder in which a person presents with visual disturbance, seizure, headaches, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postpartum Cardiomyopathy Postpartum cardiomyopathy, also known as peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), is defined as new onset heart failure between the last month of pregnancy a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome is a condition where an unusually significant increase in heart rate accompanies the action of an individual ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Potassium Potassium is an essential mineral constituent of the human body and is the chief cation found within the intracellular fluid of all cells. The chief i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Potassium Iodide Potassium Iodide (KI) has effects in the production of thyroid hormone and is useful in treating conditions related to thyroid hormone, especially sev ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prasugrel Prasugrel is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous intervention. Prasugrel is a thienop ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pravastatin Pravastatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. It falls und ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prazosin Prazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, PTSD associated nightmares, and Raynaud p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Atrial Contractions Premature atrial contractions, when isolated, are benign findings in most patients. While typically non-threatening, in association with underlying me ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Premature Ventricular Contraction During a premature ventricular contraction (PVC), the heartbeat is initiated by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node. Given that a PVC occurs b ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Presyncope Presyncope or near-syncope is often ill-defined and may have different meanings to different providers but denotes near fainting or a prodrome of sync ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prinzmetal Angina Prinzmetal angina (vasospastic angina or variant angina) is a known clinical condition characterized by chest discomfort or pain at rest with transien ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Procainamide Procainamide is a medication used in the management and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias, atrial flutter/fibrillatio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Procaine Procaine is a medication used for analgesia before a procedural intervention. It is in the local anesthetics class of drugs. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Propofol Toxicity Propofol is a phenol derivative administered intravenously that is commonly used for sedation and in general anesthesia. The most common formulation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Propranolol Propranolol can be used to ameliorate the sympathetic response in angina, tachyarrhythmias, prevention of acute ischemic attacks, migraine prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are a group of endogenously produced compounds that play essential roles in regulating human physiology. Synthetically derived prostagl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) comes from the process of ion-exchange chromatography from the cryoprecipitate supernatant of large plasma pools ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudoaneurysm Pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that occur at the site of arterial injury. They are unlike true aneurysms as a layer of the arterial wall does no ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation A pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) is a rare pulmonary condition described as a pathologic right-to-left shunt which impairs gas exchange a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVMs) Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVMs) is a rare clinical problem in which abnormal communications develop between a pulmonary artery and a pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Banding This activity outlines indications, contraindications, and surgical steps of pulmonary artery banding and highlights the role of the interprofessional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Sling Pulmonary artery sling is a specific type of anatomical vascular anomaly that can compress nearby structures. Instead of arising from the main pulmona ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum This activity provides a detailed review of the complex congenital heart defect pulmonary atresia with the intact ventricular septum. This review art ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is frequently used to assess left ventricular filling, represent left atrial pressure, and assess mitral val ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Patients ofte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Idiopathic Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined as mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 25 mm Hg measured during right heart catheterization. The term p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Regurgitation Pulmonary regurgitation is a valvular abnormality with a myriad of etiologies, the most common of which being secondary to the repair of tetralogy of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonic Regurgitation Pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is most commonly seen secondary to various etiologies causing pulmonary hypertension. It also appears in post valvotomy pa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonic Stenosis Pulmonic stenosis is a typically benign condition in most patients. While generally non-life-threatening after the neonatal period, complications and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulseless Electrical Activity Pulseless electrical activity (PEA), also known as electromechanical dissociation, is a clinical condition characterized by unresponsiveness and impal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Pulseless ventricular tachycardia is a serious condition with high mortality and morbidity that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulsus Alternans Pulsus alternans is an arterial pulse with alternating strong and weak beats. It is found in the setting of severe ventricular dysfunction and other f ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulsus Bisferiens Pulsus bisferiens is a single central pulse wave with two peaks separated by a distinct mid-systolic dip. An early component percussion wave results f ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulsus Paradoxus Pulsus paradoxus refers to a systolic pressure drop greater than 10mmHg during inspiration. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Q Fever Q fever is a zoonotic febrile disease affecting workers involved in farming livestock. It is an underreported disease with lesser recognition. This ac ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
QT Prolonging Drugs The heart has an electrical system that allows it to contract in a rhythm. A key aspect of this electrical system is depolarization and repolarization ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quinidine Quinidine is one of the oldest known antiarrhythmics; an interprofessional approach is necessary when using this drug, including specialties such as c ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Artery Coronary Bypass The radial artery graft is considered the second option as a conduit after the left internal mammary graft in coronary artery bypass grafting. Multipl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Induced Coronary Artery Disease Radiation-induced coronary artery disease (RICAD) is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality in mainly oncology patients treated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radionuclide Ventriculography The radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) scan is a non-invasive way of assessing the ventricular function and intracardiac hemodynamics. It assesses th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ranolazine Ranolazine was FDA approved in 2006 for the treatment of chronic angina. Angina is characterized by chest discomfort that occurs due to ischemia. Stab ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Raynaud Disease In response to cold temperatures, the body adapts by restricting blood flow to the skin. This is done as a thermoregulating mechanism to prevent furth ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reentrant Arrhythmias Reentrant arrhythmias are a diverse group of cardiac conduction defects that can manifest in a wide range of presentations. Proper diagnosis is crucia ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reentry Arrhythmia A reentry arrhythmia is a self-sustaining cardiac rhythm abnormality in which the action potential propagates in a manner analogous to a closed-loop c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Refractory Hypoxemia and Venovenous ECMO Refractory hypoxemia is a common problem encountered in patients on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Acute respiratory distress s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis is narrowing of the one or both of renal arteries. It is the major cause of hypertension and according to some reports is the ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renovascular Hypertension Renovascular hypertension is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. It is mostly due to the narrowing of blood vessels in the kidney ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reserpine Reserpine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Respiratory Failure Respiratory failure happens when the respiratory system fails to maintain gas exchange and is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to blood gas ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Restenosis Despite advances in cardiovascular health and interventional cardiology, coronary restenosis continues to be a challenge for interventional cardiologi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is characterized by diastolic dysfunction of a non-dilated ventricle. Multiple types of restrictive cardiomyopathies ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retinal Hemorrhage Retinal hemorrhages are a common clinical manifestation in patients visiting an eye clinic. Retinal hemorrhages give a clue to an underlying systemic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retrograde Cardioplegia To ensure the protection of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass, administration and even distribution of cardioplegia solution to the myocardium i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retroperitoneal Bleeding Retroperitoneal bleeding occurs when blood enters into the space behind the posterior reflection of the abdominal peritoneum. With a variety of possi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retroperitoneal Hematoma Retroperitoneal hematoma describes a heterogeneous condition that may arise spontaneously, as a result of trauma or iatrogenically. It is associated w ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatic Heart Disease Rheumatic heart disease is a systemic immune condition that occurs as a complication of rheumatic fever. This occurs after a beta-hemolytic streptococ ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Aortic Arches Right aortic arch anomalies occur in approximately 0.01 to 0.1 percent of the general population. In general, these anomalies do not directly cause an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Bundle Branch Block Right bundle branch block (RBB) is an electrocardiogram finding resulting in a widened QRS and electrocardiographic vector changes. Although usually ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Heart Cardiac Catheterization Right heart catheterization is an invasive hemodynamic procedure that allows direct measurement of right-sided cardiac pressures and calculation of ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Heart Failure Heart failure is a condition in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body. Right heart failure is most commo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a pathologic increase in muscle mass of the right ventricle in response to pressure overload, most commonly due ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Right Ventricular Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart diminishes or stops altogether causing irreversible damage to the heart muscles. A ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Risk Factors For Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality among adults in the United States. While common, it is preventable. This activity ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rivaroxaban Rivaroxaban is used for treatment and management venous thromboembolism as a postoperative thromboprophylaxis for patients undergoing orthopedic surge ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ropivacaine Ropivacaine is FDA-approved for surgical anesthesia and acute pain management. It is used in an epidural block for surgery—such as cesarean sections. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rosiglitazone Rosiglitazone is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the thiazolidinediones class of medications. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rosuvastatin Rosuvastatin is a statin medication used as a lipid-lowering agent. The FDA-approved indications are homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, hyperli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotation Vertebral Artery Syndrome Rotational vertebral artery syndrome, or "Bow Hunter syndrome," is a very rare diagnosis that is easily missed. Furthermore, symptoms are very nonspec ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotational Atherectomy Coronary stenoses with circumferential or significant vessel calcification are rigid and frequently not dilatable with use of conventional balloon ang ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saccular Aneurysm This activity will focus on saccular cerebral and aortic aneurysms. Most cerebral aneurysms are asymptomatic and small, and they are found incidentall ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacubitril/Valsartan Sacubitril/valsartan is the first agent to be approved in a new class of drugs called angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI). The medication ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleroderma Scleroderma is a chronic, autoimmune connective tissue disorder that is primarily characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin and other tiss ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleroderma And Primary Myocardial Disease Systemic scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that can affect internal organs. Cardiac manifestations of the disease can be a result of the prim ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Hypertension Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure (BP), which is secondary to an identifiable cause. This activity outlines the causes, history, and p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is mainly caused by mainly fibrovascular proliferation and is characterized by a combination of clinical findings ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Polycythemia Secondary polycythemia is a rare disease that involves the overproduction of red blood cells. The overproduction of the red cells can be due to a numb ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension In healthy individuals, the pulmonary circulation is a low-resistance, low-pressure system that allows deoxygenated blood in the right side of the hea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selecting A Treatment Modality In Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a commonly encountered diagnosis and a common reason for inpatient admission. Timely identification of this condition ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of medications that are most commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression. They are ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selenium Selenium is a trace metal supplement used in the management and treatment of selenium deficiency. This activity reviews the indications, contraindicat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selenium Deficiency Selenium is a trace mineral that is essential to human health. Selenium, in the form of selenoproteins, carries out various functions in normal health ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Emboli Septic embolism is an obstruction of a blood vessel, typically by an infected thrombus that has traveled through the bloodstream from a distant infect ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognosis. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sick Sinus Syndrome Sick sinus syndrome, also known as sinus node dysfunction, is a disorder of the sinoatrial node caused by impaired pacemaker function and impulse tran ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Silent Myocardial Ischemia Silent myocardial ischemia is a condition of reduced oxygen-rich blood flow to the heart that occurs in the absence of chest discomfort or other sympt ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Simvastatin Simvastatin is an oral HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of lovastatin, the first FDA-app ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Single Ventricle A single ventricle is an uncommon occurrence in embryogenesis, which results in the anatomical or functional loss of a ventricular cavity. These malfo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinoatrial Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia Sinoatrial nodal reentrant tachycardia (SANRT) is a rare form of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The American College of Cardiology/American ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Arrhythmia Sinus arrhythmia is a variation of normal sinus rhythm that characteristically presents with an irregular rate in which the change in the R-R interval ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Bradycardia Sinus bradycardia is a cardiac rhythm with appropriate cardiac muscular depolarization initiating from the sinus node and a rate of fewer than 60 beat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Node Dysfunction Sinus node dysfunction is a disease that is characterized by the inability of the sinoatrial node of producing an adequate heart rate that meets the p ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Of Valsalva Aneurysm A sinus of valsalva aneurysm (SOVA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic root located between the aortic valve annulus and the sinotubular junction ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Smoking Cessation Tobacco use, primarily as cigarette smoking, is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States. Assisting patients with smoki ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple disease pathologies. It is a general chemical compound by classifi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Channel Blocker Toxicity Medications that act by sodium channel blockade have a wide variety of clinical applications. Broadly they include Vaughn Williams Class 1 antiarrhyth ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Oxybate Sodium oxybate is a medication used in the management and treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy or excessive daytime sleepiness. It is a Central Nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperkalemia. This activity outlines and reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sotalol Sotalol has the following are the FDA and non-FDA indications: premature ventricular contractions, hemodynamically stable ventricular tachycardia, pha ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stable Angina Angina affects 10 million people in the United States. Providers must be able to differentiate between stable angina and other causes of chest pain to ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Statin Medications Statin medications are used in the management and treatment of hypocholesteremia. They are known to be inhibitors of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA red ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stent Thrombosis Stent thrombosis, also known as abrupt vessel closure and acute stent thrombosis, is one of the fatal complications of percutaneous coronary intervent ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stentless Autograft/Homograft Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve replacement is indicated when aortic stenosis or regurgitation disturbs the flow of blood out of the heart. Homograft valve and pulmonary ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sternal Fracture Sternal fractures have a reported incidence of 3%-6.8% in motor vehicle collisions as they are most commonly caused by blunt chest trauma. These fract ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Streptokinase Streptokinase can be useful in the management and treatment of acute ST-segment myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stress Echocardiography Stress echocardiography constitutes the combination of two-dimensional echocardiography with physical, pharmacological, or less commonly, electrical p ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stroke Anticoagulation Anticoagulation is a class of medications used in the management and prevention of stroke. This activity outlines the role, indications, action, and c ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stroke Prevention There is a significant overlap between the risk factors accounting for cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular events. The INTERHEART study looked a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stunned Myocardium Prolonged severe reduction of coronary blood flow leads to myocardial necrosis, eventually seizing myocardial contractility irreversibly. However, whe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardial surfaces of the heart, which includes 1 or more heart valves. The incidence of infectiv ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subaortic Stenosis Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), also called subaortic stenosis, is a rare disorder seen in infants. In most cases, it involves the presence of a me ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subclavian Artery Stenosis Subclavian artery stenosis is a form of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). It may present with transient episodes of vertigo and circulatory symptoms ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subclavian Artery Thrombosis Subclavian artery thrombosis is a common condition that is felt to be underdiagnosed. It involved obstruction of blood flow through the subclavian art ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subclavian Steal Syndrome Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), now termed subclavian-vertebral artery steal syndrome, refers to the diversion of blood flow away from its normal tar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subclavian Vein Thrombosis Subclavian vein thrombosis occurs due to either a primary etiology or a secondary etiology. It requires a thorough history and physical exam for diagn ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sudden Cardiac Death Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is death due to a cardiovascular cause that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms. A sudden cardiac arrest occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sudden Death in Athletes Sudden death in athletes has been a tragic occurrence in the fields of sports medicine, cardiology, primary care, and pediatrics. By far the most comm ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sumatriptan Sumatriptan is FDA approved as an abortive treatment for migraine attacks with or without aura in adults. Acute treatment of cluster headache episodes ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supravalvar Aortic Stenosis Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a congenital heart defect that accounts for 8 to 14 percent of all cases of congenital aortic stenosis. It inv ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sympathomimetics Sympathomimetics are a classification of medication used in the management and treatment of cardiovascular pathology, hypersensitivity, COPD, and glau ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Synchronized Electrical Cardioversion When tachycardic rhythms fail to respond to pharmacologic treatment, or present with or deteriorate into unstable manifestations, synchronized cardiov ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syncope Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous recovery. While there are numerous classifications schemes used ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syncope And Related Paroxysmal Spells Paroxysmal spells are non-epileptic events that may mimic epileptic seizures but are not associated with rhythmic discharges of cortical neurons typic ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.5 46 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Sclerosis Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disorder with unknown and complex pathogenesis. Scleroderma can be divided into two forms, Localized Scleroder ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systolic Hypertension Isolated systolic hypertension is the predominant form of hypertension in the elderly population. Traditionally it has been defined as a systolic bloo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Takayasu Arteritis Takayasu arteritis (pulseless disease) is a systemic inflammatory condition characterized by damage to the large and medium arteries and their branche ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Gebrochenes-Herz syndrome, transient apical ballooning syndrome, apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, stress-indu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Technetium (99mTc) Sestamibi Technetium 99m sestamibi (MIBI), also known as 99m Tc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the evaluation of pathology within ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporal Arteritis Temporal arteritis (TA), also called giant cell arteritis (GCA) or cranial arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of medium and large-sized ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thallium-201 Thallium-201 is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in the diagnosis of coronary artery disease and parathyroid hyperactivity. Other useful applications ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thiazide Diuretics Thiazide diuretics are an FDA-approved class of drugs that inhibit the reabsorption of 3% to 5% of luminal sodium in the distal convoluted tubule of t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thiazolidinediones Thiazolidinediones are medications used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These medications may be acting as a nuclear tran ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thioridazine Similar to other first-generation, or typical, antipsychotics, thioridazine is a medication used to treat schizophrenia. Other indications for use inc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block An atrioventricular block is a loss of the regular function of the cardiac electroconductive pathways linking the sinoatrial node (SA node) and the ve ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic and Lung Ultrasound Thoracic ultrasound has rapidly gained popularity over the past 10 years. This is in part because ultrasound equipment is available in many settings, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysms require a prompt diagnosis as most patients are asymptomatic until dissection or rupture of the aorta occurs, leading to wor ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracotomy Thoracotomy is described as an incision made between the ribs to access the contents of the thoracic cavity. Due to the anatomic location of the conte ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombectomy Thrombectomy involves removing a clot from a blood vessel, most commonly from the brain, heart, or lungs. Stroke and myocardial infarction remain two ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombin Thrombin is a topical hemostatic agent used to control and minimize blood loss during surgical procedures, is utilized in conjunction or as an alterna ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thromboembolic Event Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease is the most feared complication of hospitalizations and is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortalit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tilt Table While there are multiple causes of syncope, many of these are neurally mediated. Some neurally mediated causes of syncope include vasovagal syncope, c ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tissue Plasminogen Activator Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is classified as a serine protease (enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins). It is thus one of the essential ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tolterodine Tolterodine is a medication used in the management and treatment of overactive bladder. It is in the antimuscarinic class of medications. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. Although many people are infected worldwide, the disea ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheo Innominate Artery Fistula Tracheoinnominate fistulas (TIFs) are life-threatening complications most frequently described as occurring after tracheostomy. They are associated wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Surgical aortic valve replacement has been the standard treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Previously, patients dete ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transcatheter Management of Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysms Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms (LVP) are very rare but commonly lethal complications that are secondary to myocardial infarctions, cardiac surgeries ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transesophageal Echocardiogram Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses ultrasound waves to examine the heart and great vessels. There are four basic TEE rescue views that are al ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transfusion Iron Overload Transfusion iron overload is associated with numerous blood transfusions. Excess iron from multiple blood transfusions deposit in different organs thr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a clinical syndrome in which there is an acute, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with hypox ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transient Ischemic Attack A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a medical emergency. It is defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction due to focal brain, spinal co ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transluminal Extraction Coronary Atherectomy Transluminal coronary atherectomy is performed on heavily calcified and stubborn coronary lesions otherwise not amenable to a conventional percutaneou ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transmyocardial Laser Extravascular Angiogenesis Transmyocardial laser extravascular angiogenesis (TMLR) has emerged as an option in patients suffering from chronic refractory angina that can improve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transposition Of The Great Arteries Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital pediatric cardiac defect arising from an embryological discordance between the aorta and pul ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trastuzumab Trastuzumab is a biologic antineoplastic agent that, at the time of its FDA approval in 1998, was among the first available targeted chemotherapies. I ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Treadmill Stress Testing Exercise testing is a form of cardiovascular stress testing that typically utilizes electrocardiography along with blood pressure monitoring and exerc ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Treprostinil Treprostinil is a medication used in the management and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). This activity outlines and reviews the indi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Triamterene Triamterene is a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous states. It is in the potassium-sparing diuretics class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Atresia Tricuspid atresia is a cyanotic congenital heart defect characterized by the complete agenesis of the tricuspid valve. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitation, also called tricuspid insufficiency, is a relatively common condition that can result from structural abnormalities of any pa ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Stenosis Very little is known about tricuspid valve when compared to other valves, and tricuspid stenosis is rarely described. It most often co-exists with mit ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis is uncommon compared to left-sided infective endocarditis. Right-sided infected infective endocarditis accounts ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Valve Repair Tricuspid valve repair is almost always performed due to tricuspid regurgitation and in conjunction with left-sided valve surgery or coronary artery b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trinucleotide Repeat Disorders Trinucleotide repeat disorders are neuropsychiatric disorders caused due to abnormal trinucleotide repeat expansions. Accurate diagnosis, with knowled ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Truncus Arteriosus Persistent truncus arteriosus (TA) is a rare, congenital, cyanotic heart defect characterized by a ventricular septal defect (VSD), a single truncal v ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrafiltration in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) associated with volume overload is responsible for an increasing number of hospital admissions. The volume ov ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unstable Angina Unstable angina is chest discomfort or pain caused by an insufficient flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. It is part of the acute coronary syndrome ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis Researchers have extensively studied deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. With the increased use of central venous catheters, cardiac ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uremic Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac surrounding the heart. It is composed of two layers, visceral and parietal, that are separated by a potential ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vagal Maneuver Vagal maneuvers are techniques used to increase vagal parasympathetic tone in an attempt to diagnose and treat various arrhythmias. They are often uti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Valsalva Maneuver The Valsalva maneuver is forced expiration against a closed glottis. It mimics many normal and in some cases routine activities, such as straining dur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicose Veins Venous reflux, also known as chronic venous insufficiency, is a common condition and usually the underlying cause of varicose veins, reticular veins, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Varicose Veins Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy Radiofrequency ablation is a minimally invasive technique for the treatment of superficial venous insufficiency causing varicose veins and chronic ven ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Aortic Arch Ring Aortic arch anomalies can give rise to vascular rings, a rare vascular anomaly with significant health implications. This activity deals with underst ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Reperfusion Injury The article describes that vascular reperfusion injury is a common complication encountered in clinical settings; post-myocardial infarction, cerebral ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vascular Ring Double Aortic Arch The term "vascular ring" refers to the vascular structures that encircle and compress the trachea and esophagus causing respiratory and gastrointestin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vasodilators Vasodilators are useful in the management of hypertension, angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and more. This activity reviews the indicatio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vein Graft Stenosis The long-term patency and success of venous grafts in bypass surgery remains a challenge due to a variety of complications, such as the accelerated ra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilation Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome The prevalence of obesity in the United States has doubled since 1980 and currently, 35 percent of this country's population suffers from obesity. Obe ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Complications Mechanical ventilation is an essential medical intervention in the context of critical illness. However, this intervention is associated with the risk ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Aneurysm A left ventricular aneurysm is one of the worst complications after acute myocardial infarction. The natural course leading to the formation of a vent ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Fibrillation Arrhythmias originating from the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system are grouped under ventricular arrhythmia (VA). This includes a subset o ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Premature Complexes Ventricular premature beats (VPBs), or premature ventricular complexes/contractions (PVCs), are ectopic beats that arise from within the ventricles. T ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Rupture In 1847, Latham first introduced the diagnosis of ventricular septal rupture (VSR). The interventricular septum divides the ventricular chamber into r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia is characterized as a wide complex tachyarrhythmia. It is classified by duration as non-sustained or sustained. Non-sustained ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Artery Injury Injuries to the vertebral artery may either be traumatic or spontaneous. Traumatic injuries are most frequently due to blunt injury to the head and ne ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) represents inadequate blood flow through the posterior circulation of the brain, which is supplied by the two vert ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammatory process of the myocardium. It can present in the acute, subacute, or chronic phase with either focal or diffuse involve ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency Thiamine, or vitamin B1, was the first vitamin identified to be identified. It functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through decarboxyla ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is derived from animal products such as red meat, dairy, and eggs. Intrinsic fac ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wallenberg Syndrome Wallenberg syndrome is also known as lateral medullary syndrome and posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome. This neurological disorder is assoc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Warfarin Warfarin is a medication used in the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and thromboembolic events. It is in the anticoagulant class of dru ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Warfarin Drug Interactions Warfarin has FDA approval for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its complications, such as a pulmonary embolus. It is also indica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Warm Blood Cardioplegia The current gold standard of cardiac surgical myocardial protection is the administration of cardioplegia. The optimal temperature of the cardioplegia ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wellens Syndrome Wellens syndrome describes an abnormal electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern, deeply inverted T waves in leads V2 and V3, that are secondary to proximal ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Whipple Disease The gram-positive bacterium, Tropheryma Whipplei causes Whipple's disease. Whipple disease is a systemic disorder which not only involves malabsorptio ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wide QRS Complex Tachycardia Wide complex tachycardia is a dysrhythmia with a long list of potential causes that ranges from various arrhythmias, structural heart abnormalities, e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Williams Syndrome WS is a rare genetic disorder that presents with congenital heart disease, distinctive facial features (elfin-like faces), hypercalcemia, neurodevelop ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome (WPW) is considered to be a congenital abnormality that involves the presence of abnormal electrical conductive circuit ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xanthelasma Palpebrarum Xanthelasma palpebrarum is a condition in which soft, yellow papules or plaques filled with cholesterol form over the medial canthus of the upper lid. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ziprasidone Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic that is used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and acute agitation in schizophrenic patients. Because it ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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