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Nutrition Medicine

Nutrition Medicine

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Nutrition Medicine activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 171 activities in Nutrition Medicine for 166 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Dyslipidemia

Dyslipidemia is the imbalance of lipids such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), triglycerides ...
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Hours: 1

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Anemia

Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying conditi ...
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Hours: 1

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Vitamin D Deficiency

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin used by the body for normal bone development and maintenance by increasing the absorp ...
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Hours: 1

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Crohn Disease Stricturoplasty

Stricturoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to alleviate bowel narrowing due to scar tissue that has built up in t ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Dental Caries

Dental caries is a common chronic infectious, transmissible disease resulting from tooth-adherent specific bacteria, pri ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Dyslipidemia

Dyslipidemia is the imbalance of lipids such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), triglycerides ...
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Hours: 1

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Nutrition Medicine Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Achlorhydria Achlorhydria is a condition in which the stomach does not produce hydrochloric acid, one of the components of gastric acid. Hydrochloric acid plays an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare skin disorder associated with zinc deficiency that is most often seen in infants. Zinc is a very important micr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aflatoxin Toxicity Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which grow in soil, hay, decaying vege ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a cardiac disease caused by chronic alcohol consumption. It is characterized by ventricular dilation and impairment ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkaptonuria Alkaptonuria is a rare genetic inborn error of protein metabolism. It is the result of the deficiency of an enzyme (homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase - HG ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anemia Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying condition and can be subdivided into ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia and Cachexia Cachexia is a significant loss of muscle and adipose tissue. It occurs in patients with advanced cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beeturia Beeturia is the discoloration of urine following the consumption of beets or foods colored with beetroot. The typical color can range from pink to dee ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliopancreatic Diversion With Duodenal Switch The biliopancreatic diversion was first described by Scorpinaro in 1979. This procedure combined a horizontal gastric resection with the closure of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotin Biotin is an alternative medication used in the management and treatment of pathological hair conditions. It is in the vitamin class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotin Deficiency Biotin is a B-complex vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases: pyruvate carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, prop ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biotinidase Deficiency Biotin acts as a coenzyme for four carboxylation enzymes in the body: 3-methylcrontonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), acetyl-CoA c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Dysmorphic Disorder Body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, formally known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric condition defined in the DSM 5 as a preoccupation with a perceiv ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Necrosis Bowel necrosis is a late stage finding of several different disease processes characterized by cellular death due to reduced blood flow to the gastroi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cachexia Cachexia is a complicated metabolic syndrome related to underlying illness and characterized by muscle mass loss with or without fat mass loss that is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Calcium homeostasis is critical and is controlled by three hormones: the parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and calcitriol. Dysregulation of calcium lev ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotenemia First described in 1919 by Hess and Meyers, carotenemia is the medical terminology describing yellow-orange skin pigmentation due to high levels of ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholestyramine Resin Cholestyramine is used for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia. The reduction in LDL cholesterol by the resin is dose-dependent. A dose of 8 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral vascular disease in which the blood supply fails to meet the metabolic demands of visceral organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chylous Ascites Chylous ascites (CA) is defined as a milky appearing, triglyceride-rich peritoneal fluid in the abdominal cavity. It is characterized by the accumulat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Diverticulitis Diverticulitis has increased in incidence over the past few decades and represents a significant healthcare burden in western countries. In the United ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of intellectual disability. This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Congenital muscular dystrophy is one of the variants of muscle weakness disorders presenting early in life during infancy and soon after birth. The di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cow Milk Allergy Cow's milk allergy is an allergic reaction to the protein found in cow’s milk. Diagnosis can be difficult as it is primarily based on history and phys ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Stricturoplasty Stricturoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to alleviate bowel narrowing due to scar tissue that has built up in the intestinal wall from an inf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deferoxamine Deferoxamine is a medication used in Iron and aluminum toxicity. It is in the chelator class of drugs. This activity reviews the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusions Of Parasitosis This activity reviews delusions of parasitosis, a rare psychiatric disorder. Communicating and evaluating patients with this condition can be complex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dental Caries Dental caries is a common chronic infectious, transmissible disease resulting from tooth-adherent specific bacteria, primarily Streptococci Mutans th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depression Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic Stat ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diet and Nutrition To Prevent Dental Problems Dental caries is a dynamic process that involves susceptible tooth surfaces, cariogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus and a ferm ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dietary Calcium Adequate calcium intake, from either direct food sources or calcium supplements, is essential for nutrition in patients of all ages. This article will ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphyllobothrium Latum Diphyllobothriasis is a zoonotic infection that suffers from a lack of awareness in the medical field but has seen a recent resurgence in cases global ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyslipidemia Dyslipidemia is the imbalance of lipids such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2 33 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Falls and Fall Prevention Falls account for one of the most common and serious issues contributing to a disability, especially among elderly individuals. Tinetti et al. in 1988 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Feeding Jejunostomy Tube The feeding jejunostomy tube is a method of delivering feeds through jejunal access in the small bowel. It is used when there is a contraindication to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Feeding Tube Feeding tubes are tubes inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to provide a patient with enteral nutrition or for decompression. Tubes come in a var ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folic Acid Folic acid has FDA-approval for the treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias due to folic deficiency. Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folic Acid Deficiency Folate is an essential water-soluble vitamin, naturally present in food, especially in fruits, green leafy vegetables, and liver. Folic acid is the s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Galactokinase Deficiency Galactokinase deficiency or galactosemia type II is a rare inborn error of galactose metabolism. Galactosemia type II is rarer and more insidious than ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Resection Gastric resection remains the preferred surgical treatment option for many diseases of the stomach including malignancy, peptic ulcer disease, and bar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrojejunostomy Gastrojejunostomy is a procedure that connects the stomach to the jejunum. It is typically performed in either an open or laparoscopic manner. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glossitis Glossitis refers to inflammation of the tongue and has numerous potential etiologies. While most causes are benign or idiopathic, glossitis can be the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucosamine Sulfate Glucosamine sulfate is an oral supplement used in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. This activity outlines the indications, hypothesized ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogen Storage Disease Glycogen storage diseases (GSDs) are inherited inborn errors of metabolism of carbohydrates. In general, these results from a lack of specific enzymes ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemochromatosis Hemochromatosis is a disorder that causes excess iron deposition and, in turn, multiple organ dysfunction. Organs affected by hemochromatosis include ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver secondary to chronic injury, leading to alteration of the normal lobular orga ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome observed in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This syndrome is characterized by a wide sp ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive disorder where patients lack the enzyme to breakdown fructose-1-phosphate. This disease usua ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hirschsprung Disease Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells (GC) at the Meissner's plexus (submucosa) and Auerba ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydroxocobalamin Hydroxocobalamin is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency and acute cyanide toxicity. It is in the anti-anemic c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Hyperemesis gravidarum refers to intractable vomiting during pregnancy that leads to weight loss and volume depletion, resulting in ketonuria and/or k ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypogonadism Male hypogonadism, acquired or congenital, can be caused by defects that interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. It is essential to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypokalemia One of the most common electrolyte disturbances seen in clinical practice is hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is more prevalent than hyperkalemia, and most ca ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypophosphatemia Given its widespread role in nearly every molecular, cellular function, aberrations in serum phosphate levels can be highly impactful. Hypophosphatemi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ileostomy An ileostomy is a procedure in which the lumen of the ileum, part of the small bowel, is brought through the abdominal wall via a surgically-created o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infant Nutrition Requirements and Options Infancy is a period of rapid growth second only to the fetal period, with a pressing need to optimize nutrition to ensure adequate growth and organ de ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is identified as an impaired biologic response to insulin stimulation of target tissues, primarily the liver, muscle, and adipose t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron deficiency anemia is the most common cause of anemia worldwide, which results in microcytic and hypochromic red cells on the peripheral smear. Th ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iron Supplementation Iron is a medication used in the management and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. This activity illustrates the indications, action, and contraind ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. IBS, in the absence of any other causative disease, is ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ketogenic Diet Despite continuous advances in the medical world, obesity continues to remain a major worldwide health hazard with adult mortality as high as 2.8 mill ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Korsakoff Syndrome Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic neuropsychiatric syndrome that is caused by the deficiency of thiamine, also known as vitamin B1. This deficiency lead ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kwashiorkor Kwashiorkor is a disease marked by severe protein malnutrition and bilateral extremity swelling. It usually affects infants and children, most often a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lactose Intolerance Lactose intolerance is a clinical syndrome that manifests with characteristic signs and symptoms upon the consumption of food substances containing la ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lhermitte Sign Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, predominantly immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Neuropathic pain in MS is poorly understood ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative, intracellular, gram-positive rod that is responsible for causing the infection listeriosis. Listeria causes s ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Carbohydrate Diet Low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets are a strategy for weight loss. Today, there continues to be an interest in low-carb approaches. While all low car ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macrocytosis Macrocytosis refers to the finding of enlarged red blood cells (RBCs). The measurement of RBC size is reported in the complete blood count (CBC) as me ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malabsorption Syndromes This activity is a brief overview of malabsorption symptoms as they pertain to fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin, mineral, and trace elements digest ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malar Rash Malar rash, also named a butterfly rash, is a common facial presentation of multiple disorders. It is characterized by an erythematous flat or raised ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maple Syrup Urine Disease Maple syrup urine disease is a rare, inborn error of metabolism, resulting in decreased branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme activity. It can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marasmus Marasmus is a manifestation of severe dietary malnutrition which occurs as a result of a calorie deficiency. Marasmus is associated with a better prog ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maturity Onset Diabetes in the Young The most commonly recognized forms of diabetes mellitus include type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder, and type 2 diabetes, a polygenic disorder inf ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meconium Ileus Meconium Ileus (MI) is one of the earliest manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and presents in up to 20 percent of infants with CF. The inspissated ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medium-Chain Acyl-COA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Medium-chain acyl-COA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is one of the most common fatty acid ß-oxidation disorders. It is an autosomal recessive disorde ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Megaloblastic Anemia Megaloblastic anemia (MA) encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by the presence in the bone marrow of large red blood cell precur ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Menkes Kinky Hair Disease Menkes kinky hair disease is a rare X-linked recessive progressive multisystemic disease of copper metabolism. Patients usually exhibit a severe clini ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is an accumulation of several disorders, which together raise the risk of an individual developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muehrcke Lines Of The Fingernails Muehrcke lines are multiple transverse white linear bands parallel to the lunula of the fingernail. They represent an apparent leukonychia as they res ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis is the term employed for kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, and they are crystal concretions formed typically in the kidney. ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin The uses of niacin are yet to be fully comprehended and embraced. This activity assists in improving knowledge of the benefits niacin has to offer, no ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin Deficiency Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency results in a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra includes the triad of dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea and can res ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotinic Acid Deficiency Dietary deficiency of niacin results in pellagra. It is characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if not treated by giving ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Nonalcoholic, fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the ectopic accumulation of fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis) when no other causes of secon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normocalcemic Hyperparathyroidism Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (nHPT) is a condition characterized by normal serum calcium in the face of elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). It ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obesity Obesity is the excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat or adipose tissue in the body that may impair health. Obesity has become an epidemic which ha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obesity Surgery Pre-Op Assessment And Preparation Weight loss surgery is an efficacious treatment for patients with obesity; however, patients undergoing these procedures should have a thorough preope ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Candidiasis This activity illustrates the evaluation and treatment of oral candidiasis. It highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and tre ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orlistat Orlistat is a medication used in the management of obesity. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindications for orlistat as a val ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is the most common of the urea cycle disorders. It is an X-linked genetic disorder that prevents the breakdown a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paleolithic Diet A Paleolithic diet is the modern interpretation of the diet that humans ate during the Paleolithic or “Old Stone Age” era. This period, about 2.5 mill ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Insufficiency The pancreas has an essential role in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Damage to the cells producing pa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancrelipase Pancrelipase refers to a class of medications designed to treat malabsorption and abdominal pain secondary to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. These ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic ulcer disease is characterized by discontinuation in the inner lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract because of gastric acid secretion or p ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pernicious Anemia Pernicious anemia (PA) is megaloblastic anemia resulting from a deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12), which in turn is caused by a lack of intrinsic ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pharmacologic Therapy For Obesity Obesity is a metabolic disease represented by excessive adipose tissue. Its classification is based on the body mass index (BMI), which is a relations ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phenylketonuria Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) most often caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (P ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pica The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines pica as eating non-nutriti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portacaval Shunt With the advent of transjugular intrahepatic shunting procedures and less invasive techniques as sclerotherapy, portacaval shunt procedures have decre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post-Op Assessment and Management Of Obesity Surgery Obesity surgery is growing in popularity throughout the world. While patient selection is a key factor in determining the success of the surgery, post ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Potassium Potassium is an essential mineral constituent of the human body and is the chief cation found within the intracellular fluid of all cells. The chief i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prader-Willi Syndrome Prader Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare and complex genetic disease. The condition has numerous implications on metabolic, endocrine, and neurologic sys ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prediabetes Prediabetes is a precursor before the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Adults with prediabetes often may show no signs or symptoms of diabetes but will ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Probiotics Probiotics are used in managing and treating a variety of disease states. They are live microorganisms that are known to help improve gut health. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protein Losing Enteropathy Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a syndrome where there is an excess loss of proteins in the gastrointestinal tract. It can occur in many clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Calculi Renal calculi are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. They occur in one in 11 people at some ti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Riboflavin Deficiency Riboflavin, vitamin B2, is a heat-stable, water-soluble vitamin that the body uses to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and protein into glucose for ene ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rickets Rickets is a condition characterized by a defect in mineralization of the epiphyseal plates. Rickets could be inherited or acquired. The acquired rick ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Risk Factors For Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality among adults in the United States. While common, it is preventable. This activity ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Roux-en-y gastric bypass is a restrictive-malabsorptive operation performed for weight loss in individuals with a BMI of 40 or greater, or in those BM ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sarcopenia Sarcopenia is a musculoskeletal disease in which muscle mass, strength, and performance are significantly compromised with age. Sarcopenia most common ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selenium Selenium is a trace metal supplement used in the management and treatment of selenium deficiency. This activity reviews the indications, contraindicat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selenium Deficiency Selenium is a trace mineral that is essential to human health. Selenium, in the form of selenoproteins, carries out various functions in normal health ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shigella Shigellosis is a form of bacterial diarrhea caused by the Shigella species. It is common in developing countries and is transmitted via the ingestion ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Short Bowel Syndrome Short bowel syndrome (SBS) in adults is defined as less than 180 to 200 centimeters of remaining small bowel (normal length 275 to 850 cm) leading to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Short Stature Short stature is defined as a condition in which the height of an individual is in the 3rd percentile for the mean height of a given age, sex, and pop ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth In contrast to the large intestine, the concentration of the bacteria in the small intestine rarely exceeds 1000 organisms/mL. Gastric acid secretion ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Subacute Combined Degeneration Subacute combined degeneration is a preventable, reversible medical condition that affects the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerve with devastati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Steatorrhea The management of steatorrhea is complex and new approaches have been introduced. To achieve satisfactory outcomes, the basic and clinical aspects of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Spinal Cord Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord is a neurological complication of vitamin B12 deficiency. It is characterized by degeneration of the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tangier Disease Tangier disease occurs due to the accumulation of cholesterol esters within a body organ. This activity outlines the evaluation and management of it a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thalidomide Thalidomide is a medication used in the management and treatment of advanced leprosy and multiple myeloma as well as various other solid and hematolog ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroid Disease And Pregnancy Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disorder after diabetes in pregnancy. Thyroid disease poses a substantial challenge on the physiol ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Topiramate And Phentermine Phentermine and extended-release (ER) topiramate have been used separately in a variety of ways. Phentermine was first introduced in 1959 as part of a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Total Parenteral Nutrition Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment. It is in the nutrition class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Typhoid Fever Typhoid fever is an enteric fever characterized by systemic illness along with abdominal pain and fever in a “step-ladder” pattern. The organism respo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Urinary Diversions And Neobladders The urinary bladder is designed both to facilitate low-pressure filling and to efficiently expel urine using coordinated contractions. As the bladder ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ursodeoxycholic Acid Ursodeoxycholic acid is a medication used in the management and treatment of cholestatic liver disease. This activity reviews the indications, action, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilation Obesity-Hypoventilation Syndrome The prevalence of obesity in the United States has doubled since 1980 and currently, 35 percent of this country's population suffers from obesity. Obe ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin A Toxicity Vitamin A toxicity can due to either topical or oral vitamin A administration. Oral vitamin A toxicity can be acute, due to the ingestion of a large a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Vitamin B1 is one of the eight B vitamins, also known as thiamin (thiamine). Because thiamin can only be stored in the body for a short time before it ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency Thiamine, or vitamin B1, was the first vitamin identified to be identified. It functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through decarboxyla ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential vitamin and medication used in the management and treatment of pernicious anemia, ileal resection, treatment o ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is derived from animal products such as red meat, dairy, and eggs. Intrinsic fac ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Riboflavin is a medication used in the management and treatment of deficiency of vitamin B2. It is part of the B complex group of vitamins. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B3 Niacin is a medication used in the management and treatment of pellagra and hyperlipidemia. It is part of the B complex vitamins. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Pyridoxine is a vitamin and a medication used in the treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency, as well as the management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B6 Toxicity This activity describes the toxicity associated with vitamin B6 at higher doses. It explains in detail the pathophysiology and toxicokinetics of vitam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, antioxidant, and essential co-factor for collagen biosynthesis, carnitine and catecholamine metabolism, and diet ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin C Deficiency Vitamin C deficiency, also known as scurvy, is a disease primarily associated with socioeconomic status and access to food. Signs and symptoms are oft ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin D Vitamin D is labeled as the "sunshine vitamin," as it is produced in the skin on sun exposure. Vitamin D is required to maintain serum calcium concent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin used by the body for normal bone development and maintenance by increasing the absorption of calcium, magnesium, an ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin E Vitamin E is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin E deficiency states as well as disease prevention. This activity outlines th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin E Deficiency Vitamin E comes in 8 different forms, all of which can be absorbed in the small intestine. However, alpha-tocopherol is the only form that the liver c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin K Vitamin K is a medication used in the management and treatment of bleeding due to the coagulation disorder caused by warfarin and vitamin K deficiency ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin K Deficiency Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds involved in coagulation, bone development, and cardiovascular health. Vitamin K deficiency can co ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute neurological condition characterized by a clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. This disease i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition caused by a deficiency of thiamine or vitamin B1. Patients classically present with a clinical triad of oph ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wheat Allergy The etiology of a wheat allergy is either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergic reaction to wheat proteins. The result can be life-threatening and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xerophthalmia Xerophthalmia is the leading cause of preventable blindness and childhood blindness. Health education focusing on proper nutrition has the potential t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zinc Zinc is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the mineral and supplemental class of drugs. This activity outlines th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zinc Deficiency Zinc deficiency is common worldwide but is seen with greater frequency in developing countries. Zinc deficiency can be inherited or acquired, and typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zinc Toxicity Zinc is an important cofactor in the body and is essential for normal function; however, increased levels of zinc can become toxic. There are three ty ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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