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Gastroenterology

Gastroenterology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Gastroenterology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 813 activities in Gastroenterology for 747.25 total CME hours.


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Featured Article Activities

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Gastric Ulcer

Gastric ulcers are a break in the mucosa of the stomach lining that penetrates through the muscularis mucosa and extends ...
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Hours: 1.25

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Percutaneous Liver Biopsy

Percutaneous liver biopsy is a procedure in which a needle is introduced through the skin and, eventually liver tissue t ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Alcoholic Pancreatitis

Pancreatitis is defined as inflammation of the pancreas, leading to damage and dysfunction of the retroperitoneal organ. ...
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Hours: 1

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Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families

Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiri ...
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Hours: 1.5

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Coccidioidomycosis

The dimorphic fungus coccidioides causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, which is endemic to ...
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Hours: 1

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Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families

Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiri ...
Read the Article No Registration Required

Rating: -.-
Hours: 1.5

Activity MD/PA Info Activity DO Info

Gastroenterology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
A Review Of Hereditary Colorectal Cancers Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Many cases of colorectal cancer are associated with lifestyle factors such as obe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abacavir Abacavir is an approved nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in combination with ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aorta Repair Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is performed because the mortality rates are as high as 78% following rupture. Open and endovascular surgery are the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abetalipoproteinemia Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder marked by low or absent levels of plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and very-lo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acalculous Cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis is a hypokinetic condition of gallbladder emptying. It often presents as an acute ailment (acute cholecystitis), but it can a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achalasia Achalasia is an esophageal smooth muscle motility disorder that occurs due to a failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. This conditio ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achlorhydria Achlorhydria is a condition in which the stomach does not produce hydrochloric acid, one of the components of gastric acid. Hydrochloric acid plays an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ackee Fruit Toxicity Ingestion of unripe Ackee fruit may result in the metabolic syndrome known as "Jamaican vomiting sickness." Clinical manifestations may include profus ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare skin disorder associated with zinc deficiency that is most often seen in infants. Zinc is a very important micr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrokeratosis Paraneoplastica Bazex syndrome, also known as acrokeratosis paraneoplastica or acrokeratosis neoplastica syndrome is a rare, acral psoriasiform dermatosis associated ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinomycosis Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that typically colonize the human mouth, urogenital trac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Activated Charcoal An oral suspension of activated charcoal should be considered in poisonings when gastrointestinal decontamination of an ingested toxin is indicated. A ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acupuncture Acupuncture is a system of medical treatment and ideology that is based on the principle of applying small needles or pressure to specific points in t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Diverticulitis Acute diverticulitis is inflammation of a diverticulum, a sac-like protrusion from the colon wall, due to micro-perforation. Diverticulitis presents i ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Hepatic Porphyria Hepatic porphyrias are genetic disorders caused by the defect in an enzyme involved in heme synthesis and accumulation of heme precursors. Hepatic por ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Intermittent Porphyria Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It presents w ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury for fewer than twenty six weeks duration with encephalopathy and impaired synthetic functi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 35 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Porphyria Acute porphyrias are a group of rare disorders characterized by an enzymatic defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Patients present with acute, deb ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenomyomatosis Adenomyomatosis is a benign condition that can present with right upper quadrant pain and is characterized by hyperplasia of the gallbladder wall muco ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adhesiolysis Intra-abdominal adhesions are commonly formed after surgery, but can also be congenital. They are the most common cause of bowel obstruction. The majo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones which are necessary for normal body functioning, deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Metastasis Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland and the second most common tumor of the adrenal gland after benig ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Afferent Loop Syndrome This activity reviews the etiology, evaluation, and management of afferent loop syndrome (ALS), with particular attention to the difference in managem ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aflatoxin Toxicity Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which grow in soil, hay, decaying vege ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ala Dehydratase Deficiency Porphyria ALA dehydratase porphyria is an extremely rare type of acute porphyria that follows a chronic course punctuated by acute attacks. To avoid multiple re ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albendazole Albendazole has FDA approval for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum resulting from the larval form of the dog ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Liver Disease The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is hepatic steatosis, which involves the accumulation of small fat droplets under liver cells approaching t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Pancreatitis Pancreatitis is defined as inflammation of the pancreas, leading to damage and dysfunction of the retroperitoneal organ. It can be classified as Acute ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allopurinol Allopurinol is a urate-lowering medication that is FDA approved for the management of gout, prevention of tumor lysis syndrome, and prevention of recu ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used in the management and treatment of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a clinically under-recognized genetic disorder that causes the defective production of alpha-1 antitrypsin pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Mutation Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a protease inhibitor produced primarily in the liver. It inhibits the neutrophil elastase activity in the lung and hence can pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acid indigestion. It is in the antacid class of drugs. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amatoxin Mushroom Toxicity Amatoxin containing mushrooms are a rare but significant cause of acute fulminant liver failure. However, not all Amanita species have this toxin, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebiasis Amebiasis or amoebic dysentery is a parasitic intestinal infection caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. It may be asymptomatic or pres ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Colitis Amebic colitis is the result of invasive infection of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Losch first reported disease due t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Liver Abscess Amebic liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The life cycle involves consumption of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ammonia Toxicity Ammonia toxicity occurs when susceptible individuals suffer exposure to external sources of ammonia via ingestion, inhalation, direct contact with ski ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampicillin Ampicillin is a medication used in the management and treatment of certain bacterial infections. It is in the penicillin class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampullary Cancer Ampullary cancer arises from ampulla of Vater terminal to the confluence of the distal common bile duct (CBD) and the pancreatic duct. It is important ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Cancer Anal cancer is a rare tumor comprising only 2.5% of all digestive system malignancies in the United States. The pathophysiology of the development of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Fistulotomy Seton placement for anal fistulas is an accepted procedure in the treatment of anal fistulas that are deep to the sphincter complex. This activity rev ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ancylostoma Ancylostoma duodenale, the human hookworm, is the most common parasitic infection in countries with poor access to adequate water, sanitation, and hyg ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Andexanet Alfa Andexanet alfa is a recombinant modified Factor Xa protein approved by the FDA in May 2018 for the reversal of apixaban and rivaroxaban in patients wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anemia Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying condition and can be subdivided into ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiodysplasia Angiodysplasia is an abnormal, tortuous, dilated small blood vessel in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the GI tract. It is the most common vascul ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angular Chelitis Angular cheilitis describes an inflammatory skin process of variable etiology occurring at the labial commissure, the angle of the mouth. It is usuall ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Pancreas Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by encasement of the duodenum by a band of pancreatic tissue. AP is not commonly enco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorectal Fistula An anorectal fistula is a connection between the anorectal canal and perianal area. It is a morbid condition that commonly occurs following perianal a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoscopy Anoscopy is a bedside procedure that is inexpensive and can be performed quickly without bowel preparation or sedation. With this method, the examiner ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxia Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from inade ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antacids Antacids are a group of drugs that have been on the market for many years. They were initially first-line defense against peptic ulcer disease; howeve ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiplatelet Drug Toxicity Antiplatelet medications are primarily used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related events. Currently, there are fou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antitubercular Medications Antitubercular medications: rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are FDA approved for the treatment of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antitu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apixaban Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 for use in patients with non-valv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Cancer Appendiceal malignancies are a rare group of tumors often found incidentally during surgical removal of the appendix. Histologically, this malignancy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aprepitant Aprepitant is a medication used in the management and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and postoperative nausea and vomiti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
APUDoma APUDomas, currently known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argyria Argyria is a dermatologic condition that is acquired by exposure to or ingestion of silver, and it presents with the insidious onset of gray or blue m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis, is the most common parasitic worm in humans. Ascariasis can be asymptomatic causing only maln ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrophic Gastritis Gastric atrophy (GA) and intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa (GIM) are collectively known as chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). These early con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auto-brewery Syndrome Auto-brewery syndrome or gut fermentation syndrome is a condition in which ethanol is produced through endogenous fermentation by fungi or bacteria in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis refers to a chronic and progressive inflammation of the liver from an unknown cause. Proposed mechanism for the development of au ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Hepatitis and Pregnancy Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disorder that is usually characterized by circulating autoantibodies and elevated serum glo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Pancreatitis Autoimmune pancreatitis is a clinical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas from an autoimmune etiology. It is an uncommon cause of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azathioprine Azathioprine (AZA) is a medication used in the management and treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevention of kidney transplant r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacillus Cereus Bacillus cereus is a facultatively anaerobic, toxin-producing gram-positive bacteria that can be found in soil vegetation and even food. This may caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Diarrhea Diarrhea consists of the passage of watery and loose stools multiple times a day (usually more than 3), though specific definitions may vary when appl ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease characterized by an increase in bowel movement frequency with or without fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteroides Fragilis The human colon possesses the largest population of bacteria in the body, and the majority of these organisms are anaerobes; of these, about 25 percen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barium Swallow The barium swallow study, also known as a barium esophagogram or esophagram, is a contrast-enhanced radiographic study commonly used to assess structu ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barrett Esophagus Barrett esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium into metaplastic columnar ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barrett Metaplasia Barrett's esophagus is the condition in which a specialized columnar epithelium replaces the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. P ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Florid Vascular Proliferation Mimicking Vascular Neoplasm Florid vascular proliferation (FVP) is a benign pseudo-neoplastic reactive proliferation of small vessels in the colon, which can mimic other benign o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and shortly thereafter diazepam (Valium), benzodiazepines quickly became mainstrea ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antibiotics to prevent antibiotic resistance by inhibiting serine beta-l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bevacizumab Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and is used for the treatment of several differen ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Injury Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed over 750,000 times in the United States annually. As laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been increasingly used ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Stricture Bile duct strictures are segments of the narrowing of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary ductal system. The narrowing impedes the normal ant ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Colic Biliary colic is defined as pain in the abdomen, due to obstruction usually by stones in the cystic duct or common bile duct of the biliary tree. It t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Duct Hamartoma Biliary duct hamartomas, otherwise known as Von Meyenburg complexes, are dilated cystic bile ducts, which are embryologic remnants that failed to invo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Obstruction Biliary obstruction refers to blockage of the bile duct system preventing bile from flowing from the liver into the intestinal tract. Bile obstructio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Stenting Biliary stenting refers to the insertion of stents which are tubes made of plastic or metal to relieve obstruction in the biliary tree or to treat bil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cancer Biliary tract cancer consists of tumors that arise from epithelial cells lining the biliary tract, which consists of the intrahepatic bile duct, extra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cholangiocarcinoma The diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma are challenging and complex. To achieve good results and provide appropriate patient care, the trea ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliopancreatic Diversion With Duodenal Switch The biliopancreatic diversion was first described by Scorpinaro in 1979. This procedure combined a horizontal gastric resection with the closure of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilirubinuria Bilirubinuria is the presence of bilirubin in the urine, usually detected while performing a routine urine dipstick test. Its presence is abnormal and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biofeedback Biofeedback is a technique to augment the normal sensory feedback and allow better control of body functions that are usually considered involuntary. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs) Biologic response modifiers (BRMs), also known as immunomodulators, are the class of medications that target the disease-causing mechanism. They are u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisacodyl Bisacodyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic or functional constipation. This activity outlines the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bismuth Subsalicylate Bismuth subsalicylate is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of gastrointestinal discomfort and traveler's diarrhea. It is in th ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bloom Syndrome Bloom syndrome, also called Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome or congenital telangiectatic erythema, is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder char ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is also known as Bean syndrome. It is a rare syndrome of venous malformations that arise in the skin and gastrointesti ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boerhaave Syndrome Boerhaave syndrome is also known as spontaneous esophageal rupture or effort rupture of the esophagus. Although vomiting is thought to be the most com ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulism Botulism is a rare, potentially fatal syndrome of diffuse, flaccid paralysis caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) which is elaborated by the bacteriu ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bouveret Syndrome Bouveret syndrome is caused by a large stone passing through a bilioduodenal fistula causing gastric outlet obstruction. Morbidity and mortality rates ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Ischemia Bowel ischemia can classify as small intestine ischemia, which is commonly known as mesenteric ischemia and large intestine ischemia, which generally ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Necrosis Bowel necrosis is a late stage finding of several different disease processes characterized by cellular death due to reduced blood flow to the gastroi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Preparation Clinicians can use a range of methods to prepare the bowel for colonoscopy, the gold standard for imaging the mucosa of the colon to identify concerni ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cysts Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts that comprise approximately one-third of congenital neck masses. They are benign lesions and can ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brodalumab Brodalumab is a monoclonal antibody approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque ps ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brucellosis Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella species. It is known by many other names, including remitting fever, undulant fever, Mediterra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budd Chiari Syndrome Hepatic venous outflow obstruction due to any cause except the cardiac ones regardless of the level of obstruction is known as Budd-Chiari syndrome. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is a crystal deposition arthropathy involving the synovial and periarticular tissues. Its clinical pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Campylobacter Campylobacter is a bacterial species that represent one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. This infection is associated with th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabinoid Toxicity Cannabinoids are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. They include plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Capsule Endoscopy Capsule endoscopy, also known as wireless capsule endoscopy or video capsule endoscopy, is a gastrointestinal study that uses a pill camera to take im ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Syndrome Carcinoid syndrome refers to a number of symptoms caused by the release of humoral factors such as polypeptides, prostaglandins, and biogenic amines. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caroli Disease Caroli disease is a rare inherited disorder involving segmental dilatation of large, intrahepatic bile ducts which appear as cysts on imaging and hist ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caspofungin Caspofungin is a drug in the echinocandins class of medications, used in the management and treatment of several medical conditions. These conditions ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Castor Oil Castor oil is a vegetable oil made from Ricinus communis, a plant common in the Eastern areas of the world. Castor oil is most well known for its laxa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Hepatic Hemangiomas Hepatic hemangiomas are benign, hypervascular, venous malformations that occur in the liver. They are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cecal Volvulus Volvulus occurs when portions of the bowel get entangled upon a mesenteric axis, which can cause impairment of the blood supply or can result in compl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celecoxib The FDA recommends celecoxib and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), along with acetaminophen, as first-line analgesics for patients ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Celiac artery compression syndrome is also known as Dunbar syndrome or median arcuate ligament syndrome. It is a rare condition characterized by recur ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Plexus Block First described as a method of providing surgical anesthesia to the upper abdomen, the celiac plexus block (CPB) has been utilized in practice for nea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spine Fractures Overview The cervical spine is a dynamic structure tasked with protecting nervous innervation to the entire body while also maintaining a range of motion for t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cetuximab Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with the following FDA-approved indications: colorectal cancer, metastatic, KRAS wil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chance Fractures A Chance fracture is an unstable spine fracture that typically occurs at the thoracolumbar junction. It is a horizontal fracture extending from poster ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheilitis Cheilitis is an inflammation of the lips. It may be acute or chronic, involving the vermilion and/or surrounding skin of one or both lips. It is a fre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheilitis Granulomatosa Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare granulomatous disorder characterized by a recurrent firm swelling of one or both lips. This is called the cheil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chemotherapy Acral Erythema Acral erythema is also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia, hand-foot syndrome (HFS), or Burgdorf reacti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chilaiditi Syndrome Chilaiditi syndrome is a generally benign condition in which a segment of intestine is interposed between the liver and diaphragm, which can be confus ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and acute psychosis. It is in the category of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholangitis Acute cholangitis, also known as ascending cholangitis, is a life-threatening condition that is caused by an ascending bacterial infection of the bili ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholecystocutaneous Fistula Cholecystocutaneous fistulas are a rare surgical condition. This activity reviews their clinical presentation, underlying causes, pathophysiology, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledochal Cyst A choledochal cyst (CC) or biliary cyst is a congenital or acquired anomaly affecting the biliary tree. It involves the dilation of the biliary tree t ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledocholithiasis Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones within the common bile duct. It is estimated that common bile duct stones are present in anywhere from 1 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis or gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small organ located just ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholera Cholera is an acute secretory diarrheal illness caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. It is estimated to cause upwards of four million cases per yea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholestatic Jaundice Cholestasis is defined as stagnation, or at least a marked reduction, in bile secretion and flow. Cholestasis can be due to a functional impairment of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholestyramine Resin Cholestyramine is used for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia. The reduction in LDL cholesterol by the resin is dose-dependent. A dose of 8 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromhidrosis Chromhidrosis is a rare condition with a characteristic presentation of the secretion of colored sweat. This condition can further subdivide into apoc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cholecystitis Chronic cholecystitis is a prolonged, subacute condition caused by the mechanical or functional dysfunction of the emptying of the gallbladder. It pre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Diarrhea Chronic diarrhea is defined as loose/watery stools, which occur three or more times within 24 hours and lasts for 4 or more weeks. This activity outli ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Iron Deficiency Chronic iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world and a significant common cause of anemia worldwide. It is mainly caused by ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Liver Disease Chronic liver disease is a progressive deterioration of liver functions. Liver functions include the production of clotting factors and other proteins ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral vascular disease in which the blood supply fails to meet the metabolic demands of visceral organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder that leads to irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic parenchyma cau ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chylous Ascites Chylous ascites (CA) is defined as a milky appearing, triglyceride-rich peritoneal fluid in the abdominal cavity. It is characterized by the accumulat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cimetidine Cimetidine is a drug with the indication of peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and for dermatological conditions including warts, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cinacalcet Cinacalcet is a medication used in the management and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (on dialysis population), primary hyperparathyroidism ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiac dysfunction that develops in patients with cirrhosis without other known cardiac disease. It develops in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cisatracurium Cisatracurium besylate is an intermediate-acting, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD). Cisatracurium has a benzylisoquinolinium struct ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma Among the genitourinary cancers, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common cancer in men and has a high mortality rate. The prognosis of m ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clear Liquid Diet A clear liquid diet is a specific dietary plan that only includes liquids that are fully transparent at room temperature. Some items that may be allow ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonorchis Sinensis Clonorchis sinensis is also known as the Chinese liver fluke. These are most commonly found in Eastern Asia but are also commonly found in Russia. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridial Cholecystitis Emphysematous cholecystitis is a fulminant variety of acute cholecystitis that differs in its pathology and epidemiology from cholecystitis induced by ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccidioidomycosis The dimorphic fungus coccidioides causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, which is endemic to the arid regions of the Weste ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Collagenous And Lymphocytic Colitis Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea that becomes more common as we age. Two types of microscopic colitis are collagenous ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common diagnosis and second deadliest malignancy for both sexes combined. The incidence of new cases and mor ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Diverticulitis Diverticulitis has increased in incidence over the past few decades and represents a significant healthcare burden in western countries. In the United ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Polyps Colon polyps are protrusions occurring in the colon lumen most commonly sporadic or as part of other syndromes. Polyps are classified as diminutive if ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Resection Colon resection is the removal of either a portion of or the entire colon. This activity reviews the indications and contraindications for colon resec ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colonoscopy A colonoscopy is a vital tool utilized in modern medicine today. Its versatility and utility make it a vital life-saving procedure, both in the short ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colostomy Care Colostomy care, as the name suggests, is an all-encompassing term referring to colostomy management, from its creation to peristomal skin management, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colovesicular Fistula The most common cause of colovesicular fistulas is the sequelae of complicated diverticulitis and accounts for over two-thirds of cases. The second mo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Common Variable Immunodeficiency Common variable immunodeficiency is a disorder characterized by defective B cell function leading to impaired immunoglobulin production. It can presen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is usually secondary to hepatocellular disease or cholestasis (intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ). Early workup and diagno ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constipation Functional constipation is a prevalent condition in childhood, about 29.6% worldwide. In the United States, represents 3% to 5% of pediatric visits an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cooley Anemia Thalassemia major or Cooley anemia is one of the common monogenic hereditary hemoglobin disorders. It results from the absence of a beta-globin chain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Copper Toxicity Copper metabolism plays an important role in physiologic homeostasis. Copper toxicity, however, induces several pathologic processes that are detrimen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cordotomy Cordotomy is the name of a surgical procedure aimed at destroying the pain-conducting tracts of the spinal cord. The cordotomy to be effective at decr ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Cameral Fistula Coronary cameral fistula is an abnormal communication existing between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber. It appears in less than 1% of the po ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cowden Disease Cowden disease, also known as Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant genodermatosis and is a member of the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coxiella Burnetii Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, which is a zoonotic disease. Q fever can present as a febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Stricturoplasty Stricturoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to alleviate bowel narrowing due to scar tissue that has built up in the intestinal wall from an inf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryglobulinemic Vasculitis Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is an immune complex-mediated inflammation of blood vessels. It is usually seen as part of other diseases and is the most ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryoglobulinemia Cryoglobulins are proteins that precipitate from an individual’s serum or plasma at temperatures lower than 37°C. They can be a mixture of immunoglobu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptogenic Cirrhosis Cryptogenic cirrhosis is cirrhosis of uncertain etiology that lacks definitive clinical and histological criteria for a specific disease. Although the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium is the second major cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children younger than two and an important cause of mortality worldwide. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Curling Ulcer Stress ulcers is a well-known clinical entity described as stress-induced gastritis or gastropathy where the gastric and sometimes esophageal or duode ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Crohn Disease Crohn’s disease, a well-known subtype of inflammatory bowel disease, is an inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract with numerous possible ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized by recurrent episodes of nausea and vomiting lasting from hours to days in the absence of identifiable patho ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Fibrosis And Liver Disease Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive (AR) disorder that commonly affects the White population with an annual incidence of approximately 1 in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Colitis The management of cytomegalovirus colitis is complex, and new approaches have been introduced. To achieve satisfactory outcomes, the basic and clinica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Esophagitis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which has the largest genome of any herpes virus. It is spread through bodily fluids su ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dapsone Dapsone is indicated for a variety of conditions, both dermatologic and non-dermatologic. The FDA-approved indications are leprosy and dermatitis herp ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation or presence of a thrombus in the deep veins. DVT occurs mostly in the lower extremities and to a lesser ex ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis herpetiformis is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease that causes an extremely pruritic rash that predominantly affects the extensor s ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatoses of Pregnancy Skin changes during pregnancy may be physiological. However, some dermatoses are specific to pregnancy, while others are altered by pregnancy. These c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is defined by objective delaying of gastric emptying without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetic gastroparesis is a potenti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diaphragmatic Hernia A diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is a protrusion of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity as a result of a defect within the diaphragm. It is most co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Didanosine Didanosine is a medication used in the management and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase i ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dietary Calcium Adequate calcium intake, from either direct food sources or calcium supplements, is essential for nutrition in patients of all ages. This article will ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dieulafoys Lesion Causing Gastrointestinal Bleeding Dieulafoy lesion is a developmental vascular malformation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). It is an enlarged submucosal blood vessel that bleeds i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm Diffuse esophageal spasm is an esophageal motility disorder that often manifests as dysphagia. If the diagnosis is delayed, diffuse esophageal spasm i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure and certain arrhythmias and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside cla ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diltiazem Diltiazem is an oral and parenteral non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in many clinical scenarios as an antihypertensive, anti-ar ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dimercaprol Dimercaprol is a medication used in the treatment of toxic exposure to arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead. It is in the chelating class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphyllobothrium Latum Diphyllobothriasis is a zoonotic infection that suffers from a lack of awareness in the medical field but has seen a recent resurgence in cases global ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are a class of drugs indicated for the treatment of several inflammatory arthritides including rheumato ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disk Battery Ingestion Disk batteries (or button batteries) are found in many consumer electronics. The last few decades have seen an increase in demand for compact electron ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diverticulosis Diverticulosis is a clinical condition in which multiple sac-like protrusions (diverticula) develop along the gastrointestinal tract. Though diverticu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Docetaxel Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent used in the management of multiple metastatic and non-resectable tumor types. It is a newer agent from the taxane ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Docusate Docusate is a medication used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the stool softener class of drugs. This activity reviews the i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dornase Alfa Dornase alfa is a medication used in the management and treatment of cystic fibrosis. It is in the category B class of drugs. This activity outlines t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Esophagitis Drugs can be damaging to the esophageal wall by having a direct toxic effect on the esophageal mucosa. They may produce a caustic effect by creating a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is an acute or chronic liver injury secondary to drugs or herbal compounds. It is difficult to diagnose because the presen ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dubin Johnson Syndrome In 1954, Dubin and Johnson described a new clinicopathological entity consisting of chronic idiopathic jaundice with unidentified pigment in the liver ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Biopsy A duodenal biopsy is performed during endoscopy in either a directed or random manner. The biopsy results further characterize visualized areas on en ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Perforation Duodenal perforations can either be free or contained. Free perforation arises when bowel contents leak freely into the abdominal cavity and causing d ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duodenal Ulcer Duodenal ulcers occur when there is a disruption to the surface of the mucosa of the duodenum. These ulcers are part of peptic ulcer disease, which in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysphagia Dysphagia is defined as objective impairment or difficulty in swallowing, resulting in an abnormal delay in the transit of a liquid or solid bolus. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dyspnea on Exertion Dyspnea, also called shortness of breath, is a patient's perceived difficulty to breathe. Sensations and intensity can vary and are subjective. It is ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EBV Positive Mucocutaneous Ulcer Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a spectrum of diseases that range from self-limiting, localized cond ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ecchinococcus Echinococcus is a parasite that leads to cyst formation in different viscera of the human body particularly the liver and lungs. These cysts can ruptu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Echinococcus Granulosus Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosis) is a zoonotic larval infection that infects humans globally. Patients with this condition may be asymptomatic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Abnormal Waveforms Abnormal waveforms seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG) recording include epileptiform and non-epileptiform abnormalities. In order to identify abnor ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EEG Triphasic Waves Triphasic waves are abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms seen with a multitude of clinical conditions including encephalopathy and structural ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elevated Hemidiaphragm Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs most commonly from direct or indirect injury to the phrenic nerve. It is often found as an incidental finding on diagnos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Encopresis Encopresis or fecal incontinence is defined as the involuntary passing of stool into inappropriate places such as the underwear in children older than ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2 33 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a combined endoscopic and fluoroscopic procedure in which an endoscope is advanced into the s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterocutaneous Fistula Enterocutaneous fistula mortality rates vary from 6 to 33 percent. Associated morbidity and complications can also be significant. Enterocutaneous fis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a bacterial infection resulting in bloody dysentery and an increased risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome (H ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enterovesical Fistula An enterovesical fistula is a pathologic connection between the bowel and the bladder. This activity reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Esophagitis The esophagus physiologically lacks eosinophils, and when present, the condition is considered to be pathologic. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was on ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Eosinophilic gastroenteritis belongs to the group of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, which comprise of eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Epidermal inclusion cysts are the most common cutaneous cysts and can occur anywhere on the body. These cysts typically present as fluctuant nodules u ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiphrenic Diverticula Epiphrenic diverticulum, also known as a pulsion diverticulum, is a rare type of esophageal diverticulum occurring in the distal 10 centimeters of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythromycin Erythromycin has traditionally; it has been used for various respiratory infections (i.e., community-acquired pneumonia, Legionnaires disease), prophy ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a deadly malignancy with a very low survival, even with treatment. In the United States, esophageal cancers represent the fifth m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Candidiasis The most prevalent cause of infectious esophagitis is esophageal candidiasis. Of patients that have infectious esophagitis, 88% are from Candida albic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Cyst Esophageal cysts are rare congenital malformations that categorize as being epithelial-lined or duplication in nature. They are usually diagnosed in c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Diverticula An esophageal diverticulum is a relatively rare disease in which there is an outpouching of the esophageal mucosa. Patients typically present if they ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Hematoma Intramural hematoma of the esophagus (IHE) or dissecting intramural hematoma of the esophagus is an uncommon condition which presents with acute esoph ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis Dysphagia is a common symptom with multiple possible etiological factors, one of which is diffuse intramural esophageal diverticulosis. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Leiomyoma Esophageal leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the esophagus. This activity explains how to properly evaluate for esophageal leiomyoma, a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Perforation And Tears Esophageal perforation poses a significant interprofessional challenge to the entire therapeutic team. It can occur in three different anatomical comp ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Stricture An esophageal stricture is an abnormal narrowing of the esophageal lumen. It often presents with difficulty swallowing and has many potential etiologi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Trauma Esophageal injury (EI) is a rare but challenging clinical finding in the setting of trauma. Esophageal injuries or perforations are transmural disrupt ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Ulcer An esophageal ulcer is a distinct break in the margin of the esophageal mucosa. This mucosal damage to the esophagus is often caused by gastroesophage ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Varices Esophageal varices are dilated submucosal distal esophageal veins connecting the portal and systemic circulations. They form due to portal hypertensio ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Webs And Rings Esophageal webs and rings are usually asymptomatic but can occasionally present with intermittent dysphagia to solids. Some patients may develop food ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagial Foreign Body Most patients who present for evaluation of a foreign body in the esophagus do so after accidental ingestion of a known object, and the patient has mi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagitis Esophagitis refers to inflammation or injury to the esophageal mucosa. One of the most common causes is gastroesophageal reflux, which can lead to ero ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure used to visualize the oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Hemorrhoid Hemorrhoid disease is a common pathology that can yield symptoms ranging from minimal discomfort or inconvenience to excruciating pain and significant ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fabry Disease Fabry disease is a multi-systemic, X-linked recessive lysosomal storage disease caused by decreased activity of alpha-galactosidase A and results in l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or familial polyposis coli (FPC) is an autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome with varying degrees of penetrance. ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hyperlipidemia Type 1 Familial hyperlipidemia Type 1, commonly known as familial hyperchylomicronemia syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder that is cau ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Hypertriglyceridemia Familial hypertriglyceridemia (type IV familial dyslipidemia) is a disorder characterized by the overproduction of very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Familial Mediterranean Fever Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autoinflammatory genetic disorder that mainly affects people of Mediterranean origin. FMF is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fanconi Syndrome Fanconi syndrome, not to be confused with Fanconi anemia, is a defect of the proximal tubule that prevents the absorption of electrolytes and other su ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fascioliasis Fascioliasis is a parasitic infection primarily of the hepatobiliary system caused by one of 2 digenean flatworms, Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fatty Liver Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) or "Fatty Liver" corresponds to the presence of macrovesicular changes without inflammation (steatosis) and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fatty Liver In Pregnancy Acute fatty liver in pregnancy (AFLP) is an obstetric emergency and carries high morbidity and mortality, including death in the mother and her fetus. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fecal Impaction Fecal impaction occurs because of hardened fecal matter retained in the large bowel which cannot be evacuated by regular peristaltic activity. If this ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fecal Incontinence Fecal incontinence is a highly prevalent problem resulting in an inability to control the discharge of bowel contents. Its severity can range from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Feeding Jejunostomy Tube The feeding jejunostomy tube is a method of delivering feeds through jejunal access in the small bowel. It is used when there is a contraindication to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Feeding Tube Feeding tubes are tubes inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to provide a patient with enteral nutrition or for decompression. Tubes come in a var ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Hernia Femoral hernias are less frequent than inguinal hernias. Recognition of a femoral hernia is an important factor in the workup and evaluation of a pati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fentanyl Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid, which, similar to morphine, produces analgesia but to a greater extent. This robust pharmacologic agent is typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fever of Unknown Origin Fever of unknown origin (FUO) was first described by Dr. Petersdorf and Dr. Beesom in 1961. FUO was defined as a temperature of 101 F (38.3 C) or high ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare cancer of the liver and it displays features that make it very different in its behavior and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Needle Aspiration Fine-needle aspiration is a minimally invasive way to obtain a cell sample to confirm a diagnosis or to guide treatment. Fine-needle aspiration is an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fistula In Ano Fistula-in-ano is a tract connecting the anal canal to the perianal skin. It requires surgical treatment in the majority of cases. Proper management i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is inflammation of the liver capsule with adhesion formation resulting in right upper quadrant pain. It is an uncommon chron ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluorouracil 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a medication used for the treatment of various neoplasms. It is in the chemotherapy class of medications. This activity outli ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is FDA-approved for major depressive disorder (age eight and older), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, binge eating d ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flutamide Flutamide is used in the management and treatment of androgen-dependent tumors like prostate cancer and conditions associated with hyperandrogenism li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluvastatin In adults, fluvastatin is indicated for hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia to decrease the amount of total cholesterol in the blood. Specific ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia In 1958, pathologist, Hugh Edmondson, MD, first described focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a solid, benign hepatic mass of non-vascular origin. Unli ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folic Acid Folic acid has FDA-approval for the treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias due to folic deficiency. Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Folinic Acid Folinic acid is a medication used in the treatment of various cancers in combination with 5-FU. It is also commonly used as an antidote to folic acid ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foscarnet Foscarnet is a medication used in the management and treatment of CMV, HSV, and VZV viral infections in AIDS and immunocompromised patients. It is in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fructose 1-Phosphate Aldolase Deficiency Fructose 1-phosphate aldolase deficiency or hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency in aldol ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Functional Abdominal Pain In Children Functional abdominal pain is a common disorder in children. The diagnostic Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain must be fulfilled for at lea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Functional Dyspepsia Functional dyspepsia is a common gastrointestinal disorder that is benign. It is difficult to diagnose because the presentation is similar to other c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungemia Candidiasis Candidemia describes the presence of the yeast species Candida in the bloodstream. It is the most common fungal bloodstream infection, and the fourth ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder cancer (GC) is a rare malignancy but represents almost 50% of all biliary tract cancer. Biliary cancers are highly fatal malignancies with ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Empyema Empyema of the gallbladder is the most severe complications of acute cholecystitis. It is usually the result of the progression of acute cholecystitis ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Mucocele Mucocele of the gallbladder is a condition caused by the prolonged blockage of the cystic duct, usually by an impacted gallstone. Another name for thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Polyp Gallbladder polyps describe several conditions that present as projections into the gallbladder lumen. They may be asymptomatic, or they may be relate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallbladder Volvulus Gallbladder volvulus (GV) is an uncommon condition presenting as an acute abdomen. Urgent surgical intervention is necessary. In a majority of cases, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallstone Ileus Gallstone ileus is one of the rarest forms of all mechanical bowel obstructions and is a complication of cholelithiasis. Patients have non-specific sy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gallstones (Cholelithiasis) Gallstones or cholelithiasis are stones that form in the gallbladder composed of cholesterol, bilirubin, and bile. These stones are asymptomatic in mo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gardner Syndrome Gardner syndrome is a phenotypic variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous adenomatous ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Cancer Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The only potentially curative tre ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Emptying Scan This activity describes the use of gastric emptying scintigraphy in the evaluation of gastric motility and related disorders. It discusses its role in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a result of any disease process that causes a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. It can be caused by mecha ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Perforation Perforation of the stomach is a full-thickness injury of the wall of the organ. Since peritoneum completely covers the stomach, perforation of the wal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Polyp Gastric polyps are intraluminal projections of mucosal or submucosal tissue. They are generally asymptomatic and, as such, are typically found inciden ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Resection Gastric resection remains the preferred surgical treatment option for many diseases of the stomach including malignancy, peptic ulcer disease, and bar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Stasis Gastroparesis (gastric stasis) is derived from Greek words gastro/gaster or stomach, and paresis or partial paralysis. It is a clinical condition resu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Ulcer Gastric ulcers are a break in the mucosa of the stomach lining that penetrates through the muscularis mucosa and extends more than 5 mm in diameter. W ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastric Volvulus Gastric volvulus is a rare, clinical event that occurs in both adults and pediatric patients. In 1886, Berti was the first to describe a gastric volvu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrinoma Gastrinomas are neuroendocrine tumors characterized by the secretion of gastrin with resultant excessive gastric acid production causing severe peptic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastritis The current classification of gastritis is based on time course (acute versus chronic), histological features, anatomic distribution, and underlying p ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding can fall into two broad categories: upper and lower sources of bleeding. The anatomic landmark that separates upper and low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Foreign Body Foreign body (FB) and food impaction are one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints seen in the emergency department. Foreign bodies tend to p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Stromal Cancer Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are typically benign tumors that most commonly occur along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While only compris ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) accounts for 1% to 3 % of all TB cases worldwide. It can occur in the context of active pulmonary disease or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrojejunostomy Gastrojejunostomy is a procedure that connects the stomach to the jejunum. It is typically performed in either an open or laparoscopic manner. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is an uncommon condition in the community that can be associated with significant morbidity, healthcare burden and could have poor outco ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroschisis Gastroschisis is a paraumbilical abdominal wall defect associated with protrusion of the bowel through the defect. A membrane does not cover the bowe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrostomy Tube Replacement A gastrostomy tube (G-tube) is indicated in patients that need long-term pre-pyloric feeding. Endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement is now the preferr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gaucher Disease Gaucher disease is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism due to the toxic accumulation of glucocerebroside lipids in various organs. It re ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Giardia Lamblia Enteritis Giardia lamblia enteritis is small-intestine gastroenteritis caused by the pathogenic protozoan Giardia lamblia, (Giardia duodenalis or Giardia intest ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gilbert Syndrome Gilbert syndrome is a genetic disorder of bilirubin metabolism in the liver. There is decreased glucuronidation and excretion of bilirubin leading to ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gitelman Syndrome Gitelman syndrome is a salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutation of genes encoding sodium chloride (NCCT) and magnesium transporters in the thiazide- ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glanders And Melioidosis Glanders and melioidosis are infectious diseases caused by Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei, respectively. Glanders has been eliminat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoglycemia, as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, an ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucagonoma Syndrome Glucagonomas are neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreatic islets that secrete glucagon. Glucagonoma syndrome occurs due to the effects of elevated gluc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase is an enzyme found in the cytoplasm of all cells in the body. It is a housekeeping enzyme that plays a vital role in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gluten And Associated Medical Problems Gluten is a recent topic of significant interest and research. It has become a media darling over the past few years for a variety of medical and non- ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glycogenic Hepatopathy Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is a rare or possibly under-diagnosed complication seen in children and young adults with poorly controlled type 1 diabete ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graft Versus Host Disease Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs due to the presence of immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the graft attacking the immunodeficient recipient tiss ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gram Positive Bacteria Gram-positive organisms have highly variable growth and resistance patterns. The SCOPE project (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granular Cell Tumor Granular cell tumors are rare neoplasms derived from Schwann cells with characteristic pathologic findings. They can exhibit either benign or malignan ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halothane Toxicity Halothane is a medication previously used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. After its large impact on medicine and anesthesia speci ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamartoma A hamartoma is a local malformation made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissue. Although most hamartomas are benign, they cause morbidity by v ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hearing Loss The management of hearing loss is challenging and complex. To achieve good outcomes, the goals and objectives of hearing loss management must be defin ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Helicobacter Pylori H. pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can infect humans. It is often found in the stomach of affected individuals and causes in ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Helminthiasis Helminthiasis causes a significant health problem with increased morbidity and, to some extent, mortality in an underdeveloped and developing country, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Bone marrow transplant, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HPSCT) involves the administration of healthy hematopoietic stem cells to pa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hematuria Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria can be gross or microscopic; gross hematuria is visible blood in urine whereas microscopic ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemochromatosis Hemochromatosis is a disorder that causes excess iron deposition and, in turn, multiple organ dysfunction. Organs affected by hemochromatosis include ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhoid, Banding The popular technique of rubber band ligation for the treatment of symptomatic internal hemorrhoids is a relatively simple technique that has been use ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemorrhoidectomy Hemorrhoidal disease is a common disorder requiring surgical intervention in approximately 10% of cases. The overall prevalence is unknown because asy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemothorax Hemothorax is a collection of blood in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura (pleural space). The clinical findings in such patients incl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Henoch Schonlein Purpura Henoch-Schonlein purpura is an IgA-mediated immune vasculitis involving the small vessels of the joints, kidneys, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, skin, a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Adenoma Hepatic adenomas also called hepatocellular adenomas, are rare but benign epithelial tumors of the liver frequently associated with the use of oral co ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver secondary to chronic injury, leading to alteration of the normal lobular orga ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cyst Hepatic cysts are fluid-filled cavities in the liver generally asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies. They can sometimes be associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Cystadenoma Hepatic cystic lesions were once thought to be relatively uncommon; however, they are being diagnosed more frequently with the continued advancement a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatic Encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome observed in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This syndrome is characterized by a wide sp ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Failure Acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by coagulopathy, elevated liver biochemistry, and hepatic encephalopathy withou ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatic Lymphoma Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) which primarily involves the liver. This is in contrast to predominant lym ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver — hepatitis most commonly results from viruses. But drugs, alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases, i ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis A The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Picornaviridae. It replicates primarily within h ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B infection is a serious global healthcare problem. Often transmitted via body fluids like blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, the hepatit ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis B Vaccine The hepatitis B vaccine is a medication used in the prevention of hepatitis B infection, which can lead to chronic liver failure and hepatocellular ca ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis C Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem affecting 185 million people worldwide. The percentage of people who are seropositive for ant ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis D Hepatitis D virus (HDV) was discovered in 1977 in patients with chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Originally thought to be an unrecognized H ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatitis E Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is classified in the genus Orthohepevirus of the Hepeviridae family and is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the w ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatobiliary Iminodiacetic Acid Scan Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a diagnostic nuclear medicine procedure that uses radiotracers to evaluate the biliary system and indirectly, the liver. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a nuclear imaging technique that permits evaluation of the liver and biliary system for acute and chronic cholecystitis, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatobiliary Tract Cancer In the past, the term cholangiocarcinoma was used to reference intrahepatic bile duct cancer. However, usage of the term has evolved and it is now use ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatoblastoma Hepatoblastomas are the most common primary malignant liver tumor in pediatric patients, and most often occur within the first 2 years of life. The hi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary tumor of the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes more than 90% of the primary tumor of the liver. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatopulmonary Syndrome Hepatopulmonary syndrome is hypoxemia due to dilated intrapulmonary vasculature in the presence of liver disease or portal hypertension. Its a serious ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hepatorenal Syndrome Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a multiorgan condition of acute kidney injury seen in those with advanced liver disease. Patients with this condition pr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance Hereditary fructose intolerance is an autosomal recessive disorder where patients lack the enzyme to breakdown fructose-1-phosphate. This disease usua ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hereditary Spherocytosis Hereditary spherocytosis, a type of congenital hemolytic anemia, is the most prevalent cause of hemolytic anemia due to an abnormal red cell membrane. ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Virus Type 8 The Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), also called Kaposi sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), belongs to the family of DNA viruses Herpeseviridae. It causes Kaposi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heyde Syndrome Heyde syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of aortic stenosis (AS), gastrointestinal bleeding, and acquired von Willebrand sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hiatal Hernia A hiatal hernia is a condition in which the upper part of the stomach or other internal organ bulges through the hiatus of the diaphragm. When there i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hidradenitis Suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also called acne inversus, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with lesions including deep-seated nodules and absc ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
High-Output Cardiac Failure High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the simplest form, it is stil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hirschsprung Disease Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells (GC) at the Meissner's plexus (submucosa) and Auerba ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Histamine Toxicity Scombroid poisoning results from eating fish that have been improperly stored. The primary toxic agent implicated in scombroid toxicity is histidine, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HIV Prevention Of Opportunistic Infections Opportunistic infections (OI) are those caused by microorganisms that are, in normal circumstances, not virulent enough to cause clinical infection. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HLA B27 Syndromes The human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are gene loci in the major histocompatibility complex class I of genes on chromosome 6, present on all nucleated ce ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Holiday Heart Syndrome The holiday heart syndrome is a common cause of cardiac disease predominantly in the United States of America. The Holiday heart syndrome, also referr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hookworm Hookworm infection is one of the common parasitic infestations in developing countries. They are mainly causing iron deficiency anemia in exposed pati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocodone and Acetaminophen Hydrocodone is one of the most common pain medications prescribed by clinicians and one of the most abused by the patients. It is a relatively potent ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperamylasemia Hyperamylasemia refers to elevated levels of serum amylase. It is most commonly observed and evaluated in patients with acute pancreatitis to confirm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Radiation Proctitis Radiation therapy of the pelvis is used to treat a variety of cancers, for example, ovarian, uterine, cervical, prostate, bladder, and rectal cancers. ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperchloremic Acidosis Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a pathological state that results from bicarbonate loss, rather than acid production or retention. Bicarbonate lo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypercoagulability Hypercoagulability or thrombophilia is the increased tendency of blood to thrombose. A normal and healthy response to bleeding for maintaining hemosta ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertriglyceridemia Hypertriglyceridemia in many cases is multifactorial, resulting from the combination of genetic factors and other causes of increased production and o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperuricosuria Uric acid renal calculi are formed as a consequence of various metabolic abnormalities. Although rare, its prevalence is increasing with the change in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoalbuminemia Hypoalbuminaemia is one of the most prevalent disorders in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Hypoalbuminaemia may be a result of decreased pro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypophosphatemia Given its widespread role in nearly every molecular, cellular function, aberrations in serum phosphate levels can be highly impactful. Hypophosphatemi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypopituitarism Hypopituitarism is defined as a deficiency of one or more of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The presence of hypopituitarism is associat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
IgA Deficiency Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a common primary immunodeficiency characterized by undetectable serum IgA, a concomitant lack of secretory IgA, a ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
IgG4 Related Disease Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is also known as IgG4-related systemic disease, hyper-IgG4 disease, IgG4-related autoimmune disease, IgG4- ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ileal Atresia Jejunoileal atresia (JIA) is one of the common causes of intestinal obstruction in neonates. It has been generally reported that JIA occurs as a resul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ileostomy An ileostomy is a procedure in which the lumen of the ileum, part of the small bowel, is brought through the abdominal wall via a surgically-created o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ileus Ileus refers to the intolerance of oral intake due to inhibition of the gastrointestinal propulsion without signs of mechanical obstruction. The diagn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Illness Anxiety Disorder Illness anxiety disorder (previously called hypochondriasis) is a psychiatric disorder defined by excessive worry about having or developing a serious ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imatinib Imatinib is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other malignancies ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Impaired Bilirubin Conjugation Bilirubin circulates in both the unconjugated and conjugated forms. Disorders of impaired conjugation of bilirubin classically present with elevated l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Imperforate Anus Imperforate anus or anal atresia is a congenital anorectal malformation (ARM) where a normal anal opening is absent at birth. ARMs comprise of a broad ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Incisional Hernia Incisional hernias are a common complication of laparotomy incisions and a major healthcare burden. The management of incisional hernias are challengi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inclusion Body Myositis Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is an autoimmune myopathy that occurs mainly in people older than 50 years of age. The pathogenesis is not completely un ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infectious Colitis The management of infectious colitis is complex, and new approaches have been introduced. The basic and clinical aspects of infectious colitis must be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infectious Endocarditis Infectious endocarditis refers to the colonization of cardiac valve endocardium by virulent microorganisms. It is a rare condition that can lead to r ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Vena Caval Thrombosis Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is a disease associated with high morbidity. Although the condition is considered rare, case reports have shown th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract and is divided into Crohn disease and ulcerative coli ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infliximab Infliximab is a biologic, monoclonal-antibody drug. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Infliximab for moderate to sever ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Insulinoma Insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor characterized by hypersecretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia. This activity reviews the man ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interferon Induced Retinopathy Interferons are glycoproteins that have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory functions. They are used widely for the treatment of many c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Hemorrhoid Hemorrhoids are naturally occurring vascular tissues within the submucosa in the anal canal and comprise loose connective tissue, smooth muscle, and b ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Carcinoid Cancer Carcinoid tumor refers to a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that originate commonly in the gastrointestinal tract (about 55%) or in oth ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Fistula A fistula is an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces. An intestinal fistula is a fistula that connects the intestine to an adjacent ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Perforation Intestinal perforation, defined as a loss of continuity of the bowel wall, is a potentially devastating complication that may result from a variety of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Pseudo-Obstruction Intestinal pseudo-obstruction is characterized by the dilation of bowel in the absence of an anatomical obstruction. Patients present with the signs a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intestinal Trauma Intestinal injury is common in both blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Due to the potentially life-threatening nature of these injuries, provider ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Cancer Of The Pancreas Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are cystic neoplasms of the pancreas that grow within the pancreatic ducts and produce mucin. They ha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intussusception In Adults The diagnosis of intussusception in adults is rare and challenging. The management, on the other hand, is rather straight forward. To achieve good ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ipilimumab Ipilimumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of metastatic melanoma. It is in the CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody class of medications. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Irinotecan Irinotecan is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of solid tumors. It is in the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor class of drug ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. IBS, in the absence of any other causative disease, is ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Islets Transplantation Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is performed to prevent unrecognized hypoglycemia in type I diabetics. The procedure involves placing Islet cell ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jod Basedow Syndrome Jod-Basedow syndrome, also known as iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, is a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis seen typically after the administration of exoge ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kayser-Fleischer Ring Kayser–Fleischer (KF) rings are a common ophthalmologic finding in patients with Wilson disease. Initially thought to be due to the accumulation of si ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kernicterus Kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is bilirubin-induced neurological damage, which is most commonly seen in infants. It occurs when the unconju ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Klippel Trenaunay Weber Syndrome Klippel Trenaunay syndrome is cutaneous vascular malformation syndrome involving a triad of capillary and venous malformation and limb hypertrophy. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Korsakoff Syndrome Korsakoff syndrome is a chronic neuropsychiatric syndrome that is caused by the deficiency of thiamine, also known as vitamin B1. This deficiency lead ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Krukenberg Tumor Krukenburg tumor is a metastatic malignancy of the ovary characterized by mucin-rich signet-ring adenocarcinoma that primarily arises from a gastroint ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Labyrinthitis Labyrinthitis is an inflammation of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear and typically presents with vertigo, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, and/or ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lactose Intolerance Lactose intolerance is a clinical syndrome that manifests with characteristic signs and symptoms upon the consumption of food substances containing la ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lafora Disease Lafora disease is a type of progressive myoclonic epilepsy that is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and typically presents in previously hea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lamivudine Lamivudine is a medication used in the management and treatment of HIV-1 and hepatitis B. It is in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRT ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used for the removal of a diseased gallbladder. Since the early 1990s, this te ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Gastric Bypass is a common operation to assist patients with severe obesity with weight loss. This surgery was traditionally done with the open approa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Laryngopharyngeal reflux typically results from the effects of reflux on the glottis and vocal cords. Patients may present with a multitude of symptom ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Left Renal Vein Obstruction Left renal vein obstruction, also known as Nutcracker phenomenon (NCP), occurs due to the external compression of the left renal vein (LRV) in between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease transmitted by sandflies that is most commonly seen in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As travel pattern ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leptospirosis Leptospirosis, also called Weil disease, is the most common zoonotic infection in the world. Leptospirosis is caused by an infection with the spiroche ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leser Trelat Sign The sign of Leser-Trelat is considered to be a fairly rare paraneoplastic cutaneous marker of internal malignancy with the hallmark finding being an a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lichen Planus Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory disorder of the skin and mucous membranes with no known cause. It appears as pruritic, violaceous papules and pl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Li Fraumeni syndrome, also known as sarcoma, breast, leukemia, and adrenal gland (SBLA) syndrome, is a rare inherited autosomal dominant disorder asso ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Linitis Plastica This activity reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, genetic background, staging, histological assessment, evaluation, treatment, the prognosis of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoid Pneumonia Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of lung disease due to aspiration or inhalation of exogenous or endogenous lipid-containing products. In the past, thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoma Lipomas are common, benign subcutaneous tumors of fat cells (adipocytes) that present as soft, painless nodules that are most commonly seen on the tru ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liposarcoma Liposarcomas arise from lipocytes found in soft tissues as diverse as the esophagus, retroperitoneum, and popliteal fossa. The cellular subtypes of li ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative, intracellular, gram-positive rod that is responsible for causing the infection listeriosis. Listeria causes s ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Littoral Cell Splenic Angioma Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare splenic tumor. Both benign and malignant cases have been reported. This activity reviews the clinical presentati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Abscess A liver abscess is defined as a pus-filled mass in the liver that can develop from injury to the liver or from an intra-abdominal infection disseminat ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Angiosarcoma Angiosarcoma is described as a high-grade, malignant neoplasm of endothelial cells of blood or lymphatic vessels. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a ra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Biopsy Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of several liver disorders. With refinement in techniques, it has emerged as a safe, useful to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of primary liver cancer in the United States with three-quarters of primary and secondary liver cance ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Disease In Pregnancy Managing liver disease during pregnancy is quite challenging and requires a multispecialty approach. Physiological and anatomical changes during pregn ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Function Tests The liver has a significant role in metabolism, regulation of red blood cells (RBCs) and glucose synthesis and storage. The liver function tests typic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Imaging Liver lesions have a broad spectrum of pathologies ranging from benign liver lesions such as hemangiomas to malignant lesions such as primary hepatoce ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Metastasis The presence of hepatic metastases increases the morbidity and mortality of patients with another site of a primary tumor disease. The majority of pub ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Toxicity One of the most important causes of liver dysfunction is drug-induced liver injury (DILI) which can lead to a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from m ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Transplantation Cirrhosis and decompensated liver disease were the ninth leading cause of death for males in 2016 in the United States. Liver transplantation (LT) is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liver Trauma The liver is the most regularly injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Given its large size in the abdominal cavity, it can also be frequently injur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Loperamide Loperamide is a medication used in the treatment of diarrhea. It classifies as an anti-diarrheal agent. The use of loperamide in high doses has been a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lovastatin Lovastatin is a lipid-lowering medication part of the statin drug class used in the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease, hypercholester ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Carbohydrate Diet Low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets are a strategy for weight loss. Today, there continues to be an interest in low-carb approaches. While all low car ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Luspatercept Luspatercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes, primary myelofibrosis, and beta-thalassemia. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctocolitis Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctocolitis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the L1, L2, and L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lynch Syndrome Most colorectal cancers occur sporadically; however, inherited cancer syndromes or inherited mutations cause approximately 5 to 10 percent of cases. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macrocytic Anemia Macrocytic anemia refers to macrocytosis (mean corpuscular volume (MCV) greater than 100 fL) in the setting of anemia (hemoglobin less than 12 g/dL or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malabsorption Syndromes This activity is a brief overview of malabsorption symptoms as they pertain to fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin, mineral, and trace elements digest ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Atrophic Papulosis Malignant atrophic papulosis is a rare vasculopathy affecting the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and central nervous system. The systemic form has an a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mallory Weiss Syndrome Mallory-Weiss syndrome is one of the common causes of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is characterized by the presence of longitudinal super ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
MALToma The neoplastic proliferation of B cells in the marginal zone of lymphoid tissue gives rise to marginal zone B cell lymphomas. Mucosa-associated lympho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Management of Antithrombotics Around Gastrointestinal Procedures Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are used to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients at high risk. However, when these patients need ga ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marijuana Toxicity The term "marijuana" typically refers to the tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers of the plant cannabis sativa. The active ingredient i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mebendazole Mebendazole is a medication used in the treatment of parasitic infection. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, activity, adverse ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meckel Diverticulum Meckel diverticulum is a common congenital abnormality of the small intestine that is caused by incomplete obliteration of the vitelline (omphalomesen ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meigs Syndrome Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian tumor present along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1 % of ovarian tumors ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melanosis Coli First described by Andral and Cruveilhier in 1830, Melanosis coli is a condition associated with the deposition of lipofuscin (not melanin as the name ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Menetrier Disease Menetrier disease is excessive mucosal hypertrophy associated with protein loss. It is a rare but serious condition and is associated with gastric neo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mercaptopurine Mercaptopurine is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is in the class of medications known as purine ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesalamine (USAN) Mesalamine, is also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. It is under the drug classif ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Artery Ischemia Intestinal ischemia can affect the small intestine or the colon. Whereas, colonic ischemia refers to ischemia that affects the colon, mesenteric ische ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Artery Thrombosis Mesenteric artery thrombosis (MAT) is a condition involving occlusion of the arterial vascular supply of the intestinal system. It is a severe and pot ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Vasculitis Mesenteric vasculitis can present in a variety of vasculitic disorders and some systemic, systemic diseases. The diagnosis of this condition can be ve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis Mesenteric venous thrombosis is caused by impairment of venous return of the bowel due to local blood coagulation. Primary mesenteric venous thrombosi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metabolic Acidosis Acid-base disorders are disturbances in the homeostasis of hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma. Any process that increases the serum hydrogen ion ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition with life-threatening potential in which diminution of the oxygen-carrying capacity of circulating hemoglobin occurs ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methotrexate Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite most commonly used in chemotherapy and also as an immunosuppressant in auto-immune diseases. This activity d ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Metronidazole Metronidazole is one of the mainstay drugs for the treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections, protozoal infections, and microaerophilic bacterial in ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia Microcytic, hypochromic anemia, as the name suggests, is the type of anemia in which the circulating RBCs are smaller than the usual size of RBCs (mic ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Midazolam Intravenous midazolam is used for the induction of anesthesia and also in the management of acute seizures. Because of its water-soluble nature, midaz ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Midgut Malrotation Midgut malrotation is a defect in the normal embryonic rotation of the gut, which causes an abdominal obstruction that presents acutely or with chroni ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migratory Thrombophlebitis Migratory thrombophlebitis or thrombophlebitis migrans is an inflammatory reaction of the vein accompanied by a thrombus. It is characterized by the i ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Milk Thistle Herbal products have become increasingly popular, especially among those with chronic disease. Milk thistle has been used for hundreds of years by her ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Minocycline Minocycline is a medication used in the management and treatment of both infectious and non-infectious conditions. It is in the tetracycline class of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mirabegron Mirabegron is a medication used in the management of overactive bladder. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medications. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mirizzi Syndrome Mirizzi syndrome is a rare condition caused by the obstruction of the common bile duct or common hepatic duct by external compression from multiple im ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Misoprostol Misoprostol has four primary effects: cytoprotection of the gastrointestinal mucosa, uterotonic, diarrhea, and abdominal pain (diarrhea and abdominal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morgagni Hernia Morgagni hernia are rare congenital diaphragmatic defects that can lead to bowel obstruction and incarceration if not repaired. Surgery can be perform ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucinous Cystic Pancreatic Neoplasms Mucinous cystic pancreatic neoplasms (MCPN) are rare tumors of the pancreas, which mostly occur in middle-aged females. The survival rate for this dis ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucosa-associated Lymphoma Tissue Mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma is non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity reviews the etiolog ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muir-Torre Syndrome Muir-Torre Syndrome is an autosomal dominant phenotypic variant of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, which is also known as Lynch syndrome. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is a rare hereditary endocrine tumor syndrome. The most common tumors seen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias Type 2 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a hereditary cancer syndrome associated primarily with tumors of the adrenal gland, thyroid and parathy ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries (of =2.5mm diameter). This article helps in under ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps result in continuous, involuntary, painful, and localized contraction of an entire muscle group, individual single muscle, or select mus ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mushroom Toxicity The term mushroom refers to the fungal fruiting body. Anatomically, the prototypical mushroom comprises the stem and a cap with gills on the underside ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycobacterium Avium Intracellulare Mycobacterium avium complex consists of multiple nontuberculosis mycobacterial species (NTM), which cannot be distinguished in the microbiology labora ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycotic Aneurysm A mycotic aneurysm is an infection of vessel wall which can be bacterial, fungal, or viral in origin; they are a rare but severe complication of syste ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells have self-renewal capability and give rise to either myeloid or the lymphoid lineage which further differentiates ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myoclonus Myoclonus is defined as rapid, brief, jerky, or shock-like movements involving muscle or group of muscles. Among all hyperkinetic movement disorders, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Naproxen Naproxen is FDA-approved for the treatment of acute gout, ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, osteoarthriti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Narcotic Bowel Syndrome It is estimated that anywhere from 25% to 45% of the adult population suffers from long-term pain, which results in a poor quality of life, loss of pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasogastric Tube Nasogastric tubes are part of the standard of care in treating intestinal obstruction and can also be used to provide nutritional support. They are mo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare highly vascular tumor within the posterior nasal cavity found almost exclusively in adolescent boys. This activi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Natalizumab Natalizumab is an FDA-approved, monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. The drug was originally appr ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Necrolytic Migratory Erythema Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is a characteristic skin rash most often associated with the glucagonoma, an alpha-cell tumor of the pancreatic is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neomycin Neomycin is a medication used in the treatment and management of hepatic coma and also used in perioperative prophylaxis. This activity reviews the in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Block Anesthesia The purpose of peripheral nerve blocks is to inhibit impulse transmission distally in a nerve terminal, thus terminating the pain signal perceived by ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents The widespread use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) was a significant milestone in the development of anesthesia. Before the introduction of N ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neutropenic Enterocolitis Neutropenic colitis is a life-threatening condition usually seen in patients who are severely myelosuppressed. Although the exact pathogenesis is not ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neutropenic Enterocolitis (Typhlitis) Neutropenic enterocolitis is a severe inflammatory condition of the intestines, occurring mainly in the neutropenic, immune-compromised patients. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nevirapine Nevirapine is a drug used in the management and treatment of HIV. It is in the NNRTI class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, act ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin The uses of niacin are yet to be fully comprehended and embraced. This activity assists in improving knowledge of the benefits niacin has to offer, no ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin Deficiency Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency results in a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra includes the triad of dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea and can res ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nickel Allergy Nickel allergy is a type of contact dermatitis caused by direct contact with nickel. It is the most common identifiable cause of metal-related contact ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nicotinic Acid Deficiency Dietary deficiency of niacin results in pellagra. It is characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if not treated by giving ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nissen Fundoplication Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common illness that impacts many people in the modern era. It is recognized worldwide but has been shown to have ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a broad term used to cover a spectrum of conditions which are characterized by evidence of hepatic steato ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Nonalcoholic, fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the ectopic accumulation of fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis) when no other causes of secon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obesity Surgery Pre-Op Assessment And Preparation Weight loss surgery is an efficacious treatment for patients with obesity; however, patients undergoing these procedures should have a thorough preope ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Octreotide Octreotide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acromegaly and thyrotrophinomas. It is in the somatostatin analog class of drugs. T ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ogilvie Syndrome Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a distinct form of colonic dilatation occurring in the absence of underlying me ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Omentum Tumors The omentum is made up of cells that are mesothelial in origin. The omentum exhibits angiogenic, fibrotic, stem cells, and immune activities responsib ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Omeprazole Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor used in the management and treatment of several conditions, including peptic ulcer disease, gastrointestinal ref ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Open Cholecystectomy Gallbladder removal, also known as cholecystectomy, is one of the most common procedures done in the United States with more than 1.2 million cholecys ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Antagonists Opioid receptor antagonists block one or more of the opioid receptors in the central or peripheral nervous system. Opioid receptors are specific trans ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Induced Constipation Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) accounts for between 40 and sixty percent of patients without cancer receiving opioids. Laxatives must be started at ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Cutaneous Fistula Oral cutaneous fistulas (OCF) are an infrequent condition in which there is a pathologic communication between the oral cavity and the skin. Chronic d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is the most common of the urea cycle disorders. It is an X-linked genetic disorder that prevents the breakdown a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, commonly known as throat cancer or tonsil cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer that refers to the cancer o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osler-Weber-Rendu Disease Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is also known as Osler–Weber–Rendu disease. It is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), consists of the presence of digital clubbing, increased periosteal activity of the tubular bones, arthralgias, an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oxaliplatin Oxaliplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. It is in the platinum-based chemotherapeutic class o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Palliative Care The World Health Organization characterizes the field of palliative care as a form of specialized medical care which aims to optimize the quality of l ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreas Transplantation Pancreas transplantation provides effective glycemic control in diabetic patients and has the potential to cure this disease and prevent cardiovascula ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Abscess Pancreatic abscesses contain cellular debris, enzymes, and liquid and can be from an infectious or non-infectious source. They are usually serious com ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Ascites Pancreatic ascites is a somewhat rare entity that results from a pancreatic duct injury, leading to persistent leakage of pancreatic secretions into t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer refers to the carcinoma arising from the pancreatic duct cells, pancreatic ductal carcinoma. It is the fourth leading cause of cance ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Cysts Pancreatic cysts are often detected in patients undergoing imaging with either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for unrela ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Fistula Pancreatic fistula is an abnormal connection between the pancreatic ductal epithelium and another epithelium surface. This is due to a disruption of t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Insufficiency The pancreas has an essential role in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Damage to the cells producing pa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Islet Cell Cancer Islet cell cancer of the pancreas is a type of cancer of neuroendocrine origin. Since there are different types of islet cells, the presentation furth ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Mucinous Cystadenoma Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are often seen in the body and tail region of the pancreas in middle-aged women. They are considered premalignant les ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Pseudoaneurysm A pancreatic pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon clinical entity. However, it is important to recognize this condition early as it can result in life-threat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Pseudocyst A pancreatic pseudocyst is an encapsulated collection of homogenous fluid with little or no necrotic tissue located near the pancreas. It often presen ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma Pancreatic serous cystadenomas are mostly benign lesions. Their incidence has increased recently due to the improvements in imaging techniques nowaday ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatic Trauma Pancreatic trauma is a rare but potentially catastrophic injury that can be very difficult to diagnose. Conventional imaging modalities miss subtle fi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreaticoduodenectomy Pancreatic cancer is the fourth common cause of cancer death, and its 5-year survival rate is only about 12% despite the advancement in medical care, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is an acute response to injury of the pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis can result in permanent damage to the structure and endocrine ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancrelipase Pancrelipase refers to a class of medications designed to treat malabsorption and abdominal pain secondary to exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. These ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pancrelipase Therapy Pancrelipase, which is a combination of lipase, protease, and amylase, has been shown to benefit patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pantoprazole Pantoprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) widely used in hospitals and outpatient settings. Pantoprazole has approval from the Food and Drug Admin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paracentesis Paracentesis is a procedure performed to obtain a small sample of or drain ascitic fluid for both diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This activity de ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraneoplastic Syndromes Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders with complex systemic clinical manifestations due to underlying malignancy. In paraneoplastic syndromes, ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare disease that presents clinically with a variety of nonspecific symptoms. It causes complications m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestion Children commonly swallow foreign bodies. Coins are the most commonly swallowed foreign body that comes to medical attention in the USA; in other coun ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peliosis Hepatis Peliosis hepatis is a rare vascular condition that often goes unrecognized. Generally seen in adults of any age, it can also present in children with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as an inflammation of the upper genital tract due to an infection in women. The disease affects the uteru ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Penetrating abdominal trauma is most commonly caused by stabbing or gunshot wound. The most commonly injured regions are the small bowel, large bowel, ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Penicillamine Penicillamine has FDA approval as a treatment for Wilson disease and cystinuria. It is used as an off-label treatment option for lead poisoning in chi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pentamidine Pentamidine is a medication used in the management and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. It is in the anti-infe ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic ulcer disease is characterized by discontinuation in the inner lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract because of gastric acid secretion or p ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Cholangiography Patients presenting with obstructive biliary pathology can be challenging to evaluate with noninvasive imaging. Percutaneous cholangiography, in conju ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Parenteral and enteral feedings are considered in patients with insufficient oral intake or contraindications to anything by mouth. Nutritional suppor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Gastrostomy And Jejunostomy Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and percutaneous endoscopic gastro-jejunal (PEG-J) tubes are common procedures in the management of patients ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Percutaneous liver biopsy is a procedure in which a needle is introduced through the skin and, eventually liver tissue to obtain a specimen to help ai ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation Of Liver Tumors The liver is a common location for both primary and metastatic malignancies, which often result in significant morbidity and mortality. Traditional su ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiogram This activity reviews salient details regarding bile duct access via needle puncture through the body wall and liver via percutaneous transhepatic cho ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perianal Abscess Perianal abscesses are the most common type of anorectal abscesses. These abscesses can cause significant discomfort for patients. They are located at ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pericholangitis The diagnostic criteria for small-duct primary sclerosing cholangitis (SDPSC) included biochemical features of chronic cholestasis with unknown etiolo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perirectal Abscess The anorectal abscess can vary on the spectrum of complexity based on the location and involvement of surrounding tissue. A thorough knowledge of the ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peritoneal Cancer Peritoneal cancer is the invasion of the serous membrane lining the peritoneal cavity by malignant cells. The malignant cells originate de novo in the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peritoneal Metastasis The term peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) generally refers to the metastatic involvement of the peritoneum. The name was first coined in 1931 by Sampson ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peritoneovenous Shunt Peritoneovenous shunt placement is performed as a long- term treatment for chronic refractory ascites. The shunt used most commonly is the Denver shun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pernicious Anemia Pernicious anemia (PA) is megaloblastic anemia resulting from a deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12), which in turn is caused by a lack of intrinsic ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a hereditary syndrome characterized by gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis, mucocutaneous pigmented macules, and predispos ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pharmacologic Therapy For Obesity Obesity is a metabolic disease represented by excessive adipose tissue. Its classification is based on the body mass index (BMI), which is a relations ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Piezogenic Pedal Papule Piezogenic pedal papules are small papular herniations of subcutaneous tissue on the heel that occur only upon standing or with application of pressur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Platypnea Platypnea diagnosis and treatment are usually challenging and complex to health practitioners. This activity reviews the causes of Pltypnea, simplifie ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plummer Vinson Syndrome Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is a rare condition characterized by the classic triad of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia, and esophageal webbing. Plu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyarteritis Nodosa Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis first described in 1866 by Adolph Kussmaul and Rudolph Maier. It typically affects med ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Kidney Disease In Adults Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a disorder in which there is an enlargement of the kidneys with multiple cyst formation. There is a de ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycystic Liver Disease Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a progressive disease, but only a small subset of patients develop severe symptoms. Supportive management is recomme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia vera is a myeloproliferative disorder associated with a JAK2 kinase mutation that causes the neoplastic proliferation of the hematopoieti ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyethylene Glycol Polyethylene glycol is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the laxative class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type II Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 2 (PAS-2) is an autoimmune syndrome which leads to lymphocytic infiltration causing organ-specific damage. PAS- ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Porcelain Gallbladder Porcelain gallbladder refers to the condition in which the inner gallbladder wall is encrusted with calcium. The wall becomes brittle, hard, and often ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portacaval Shunt With the advent of transjugular intrahepatic shunting procedures and less invasive techniques as sclerotherapy, portacaval shunt procedures have decre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portal Hypertension Portal hypertension is increased pressure within the portal venous system. It is determined by increased portal pressure gradient (the difference in p ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portal Vein Obstruction Portal vein obstruction most commonly results from thrombosis or, to a lesser extent, from malignancy. It also occurs as a complication of several met ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portal Vein Thrombosis Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a narrowing or blockage of the portal vein by a blood clot. Thrombosis can develop in the main body of the portal vein ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy Portosystemic or hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a neuropsychiatric syndrome due to a portosystemic shunt. The causative factor is increased ammo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postcholecystectomy Syndrome Post-cholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) is the term used to describe the persistence of biliary colic or right upper quadrant abdominal pain with a variet ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post-Op Assessment and Management Of Obesity Surgery Obesity surgery is growing in popularity throughout the world. While patient selection is a key factor in determining the success of the surgery, post ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postoperative Ileus Postoperative ileus is a prolonged absence of bowel function after surgical procedures, usually abdominal surgery. It is a common postoperative compli ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pott Disease Pott disease, or tuberculosis of the spine, has recently shown a significant resurgence in developed nations secondary to global migration. Concurrent ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pramipexole Pramipexole is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinsonism and restless leg syndrome. It is in the anti-parkinsonian class of dr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pravastatin Pravastatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. It falls und ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prednisone Prednisone is a synthetic, anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid that derives from cortisone. It is biologically inert and converted to prednisolone in the ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy And Viral Hepatitis The common cause of jaundice in pregnancy is acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis could be caused by diseases distinctively associated with pregnancy and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pregnancy Intrahepatic Cholestasis Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disorder in pregnancy and is associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Presyncope Presyncope or near-syncope is often ill-defined and may have different meanings to different providers but denotes near fainting or a prodrome of sync ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Biliary Cholangitis Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), formerly termed primary biliary cirrhosis, is an autoimmune disorder that leads to the gradual destruction of intra ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic and progressive cholestatic liver disorder of unknown etiology. Inflammation, fibrosis, and strictur ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Probiotics Probiotics are used in managing and treating a variety of disease states. They are live microorganisms that are known to help improve gut health. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Proctitis And Anusitis Proctitis is inflammation of the rectal mucosa, distal to the rectosigmoid junction, within 18 cm of the anal verge. Anusitis is inflammation of the l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are a group of endogenously produced compounds that play essential roles in regulating human physiology. Synthetically derived prostagl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protein Intolerance Protein intolerance is a disorder that is the result of an adverse effect of the ingestion of food proteins. It is caused by various mechanisms and is ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Protein Losing Enteropathy Protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) is a syndrome where there is an excess loss of proteins in the gastrointestinal tract. It can occur in many clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) Proton pump inhibitors represent a class of medications used to treat a wide variety of pathologies related to the stomach's acid production. This act ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pruritus Gravidarum Pruritus is a common symptom in pregnancy. The causes of pruritus can be unrelated or specific to pregnancy. Pruritus specific to pregnancy must be ad ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudoaneurysm Pseudoaneurysms are false aneurysms that occur at the site of arterial injury. They are unlike true aneurysms as a layer of the arterial wall does no ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudoappendicitis Pseudoappendicitis can describe any condition mimicking appendicitis, a disease which classically presents with acute right lower quadrant abdominal p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency Pseudocholinesterase deficiency, also known as butyrylcholinesterase deficiency, refers to a rare acquired or inherited defect in the pseudocholineste ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudohyponatremia Pseudohyponatremia is an uncommon laboratory artifact finding that can lead to severe morbidity and mortality if not recognized promptly. This activit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudomembranous Colitis Pseudomembranous colitis, a severe inflammation of the inner lining of the large intestine, manifests as an antibiotic-associated colonic inflammatory ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudomyxoma Peritonei Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare clinical entity characterized by diffuse intra-abdominal gelatinous ascites with mucinous implants on peritonea ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Purtscher Retinopathy Purtscher retinopathy, also known as traumatic retinal angiopathy, lymphorrhagia retinae, or retinal teletraumatism, is an occlusive microvasculopathy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pylephlebitis Pylephlebitis is a rare disease process that is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality, especially if it is not recognized early in th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyoderma Gangrenosum Pyoderma gangrenosum is an ulcerative disorder that falls into the category of neutrophilic dermatoses. Pyoderma gangrenosum should not be confused wi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is the most common enzyme-related glycolytic defect that results in red cell hemolysis. Invariably, PKD results in he ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Enteritis Radiation enteritis is damage to small and/or large intestine secondary to radiation. Different terms like radiation colitis, radiation enteropathy, r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Esophagitis Radiation esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagitis due to radiation. Radiation esophagitis is typically an adverse effect that develops in indiv ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Proctitis Radiation proctitis refers to injury or damage of the rectum secondary to radiation therapy. It is postulated that almost half of all patients with pe ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy For Anal Cancer Cancers of the anal canal are rare, comprising approximately 10% of malignancies in the anorectal region, although its incidence has been increasing o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis (ReA) is inflammatory arthritis which manifests in several days to weeks after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectal Bleeding Rectal bleeding, or hematochezia, is a frequently encountered problem in the outpatient setting. It can herald a pathology in the proximal lower gastr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectal Cancer Colon and rectal cancers together are the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States and the second deadliest. Rectal cancer has distin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectal Exam The rectal exam is an oft-overlooked part of the physical exam. For those practitioners who understand how to interpret it, a lot of information can i ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectum Foreign Body Removal Rectal foreign bodies can be life-threatening if not promptly evaluated and removed. This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team in e ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rectus Sheath Hematoma Rectus sheath hematoma is a relatively uncommon entity that is most often associated with abdominal wall trauma or anticoagulation. Although it is a w ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reflux Esophagitis Esophageal reflux is considered the most common disease encountered by the gastroenterologists, and it contributes to a large proportion of cases trea ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) is a type of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) that is characterized by anemia and the presence of at lea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Renal Clear Cell Cancer Clear cell renal cancer is the most common type of kidney cancer, comprising 80 percent of all malignant tumors found within the kidney. It is known a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Reserpine Reserpine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Riboflavin Deficiency Riboflavin, vitamin B2, is a heat-stable, water-soluble vitamin that the body uses to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and protein into glucose for ene ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rifampin Rifampin is a medication used in the management and treatment of various mycobacterial and gram-positive bacterial infections. It belongs to the antim ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rifaximin Rifaximin is an antibiotic used in the treatment of several gastrointestinal and liver disease. This activity will review the indications, mechanism o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rivaroxaban Rivaroxaban is used for treatment and management venous thromboembolism as a postoperative thromboprophylaxis for patients undergoing orthopedic surge ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotor Syndrome Rotors syndrome, also known as Rotor type hyperbilirubinemia, is an autosomal recessive disease and a rare cause of mixed direct (conjugated) and indi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Roux-en-y gastric bypass is a restrictive-malabsorptive operation performed for weight loss in individuals with a BMI of 40 or greater, or in those BM ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Chronic Complications Bariatric surgery for weight loss has become a common practice. The second most common bariatric procedure done today is the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salmonella Salmonellae are motile gram-negative bacilli that infect or colonize humans, causing a number of clinical infections with different clinical features ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salmonella Typhi Salmonella enterica typhi is a gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for typhoid fever and has been a burden on developing nations for generatio ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schatzki Ring A schatzki ring is a circular membrane of mucosa and submucosa that forms at the squamocolumnar junction of the distal esophagus. Schatzki rings appea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium), more specifically known as urogenital schistosomiasis, is an endemic disease to many countries in Africa an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleritis Scleritis is a severe ocular inflammatory condition affecting the outer covering of the eye. Scleritis has high association with systemic disease. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleroderma Scleroderma is a chronic, autoimmune connective tissue disorder that is primarily characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin and other tiss ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scleroderma And Primary Myocardial Disease Systemic scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that can affect internal organs. Cardiac manifestations of the disease can be a result of the prim ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scrub Typhus Scrub typhus is one of the tropical rickettsial infections which if left untreated, can have fatal consequences. It is caused by Orientia tsutsugamush ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selecting A Treatment Modality In Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a commonly encountered diagnosis and a common reason for inpatient admission. Timely identification of this condition ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Selenium Selenium is a trace metal supplement used in the management and treatment of selenium deficiency. This activity reviews the indications, contraindicat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube In 1950 Robert W. Sengstaken and Arthur H. Blakemore recognized that the introduction of blood banks and the ability to provide patients with large qu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Peritonitis Sepsis secondary to peritonitis can have life-threatening ramifications. The abdominal compartment can become a large nidus for pathogens resistant to ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seronegative Spondyloarthropathy Seronegative spondyloarthropathies are a family of joint disorders that classically include ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sexual Assault Infectious Disease Prophylaxis Patients presenting for medical treatment after a sexual assault may be concerned about the possibility of acquiring an infectious disease. For many t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shigella Shigellosis is a form of bacterial diarrhea caused by the Shigella species. It is common in developing countries and is transmitted via the ingestion ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Short Bowel Syndrome Short bowel syndrome (SBS) in adults is defined as less than 180 to 200 centimeters of remaining small bowel (normal length 275 to 850 cm) leading to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome Schwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is the second most common cause of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency after c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sigmoid Volvulus Sigmoid volvulus is the most common type of colonic volvulus and occurs when a portion of the intestine twists around its blood supply. In sigmoid vol ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Singultus Hiccups can be acute, lasting less than 48 hours, persistent, lasting over 2 days, or intractable, lasting more than one month. They can result from a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sleeve Gastrectomy In the United States, obesity has been increasing at an alarming rate over the past 50 years. In 2014, obesity and its co-morbidities accounted for 14 ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sliding Hernia While paraesophageal hernias do confer increases in morbidity and mortality, new evidence shows that asymptomatic patients should not be rushed into s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small Bowel Cancer Small Bowel Cancer encompasses a series of malignant lesions that may be identified throughout the small intestine (SI). The small bowel lies between ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small Bowel Obstruction Small bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency due to mechanical blockage of the bowel. Though it can be caused by many pathologic processes, ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth In contrast to the large intestine, the concentration of the bacteria in the small intestine rarely exceeds 1000 organisms/mL. Gastric acid secretion ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperkalemia. This activity outlines and reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Solid and Papillary Epithelial Neoplasm Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic neoplasms are rare pancreatic tumors accounting for 1% to 2% of exocrine pancreatic lesions. Recent surveys report a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Somatic Syndrome Disorders According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), somatic symptom disorder (SSD) involves one or mo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Somatostatinoma Somatostatinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with an incidence of 1 in 40 million individuals and accounts for less than 5% of pancreatic NETs ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) is a rare clinical entity, often forgotten in the typical differential, but when identified, the treatment of whic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spironolactone Spironolactone is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure with some indications aside from cardiovascular ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis Blood clotting within the splanchnic veinous systems leads to splanchnic vein thrombosis. It includes thrombosis in the splenic vein, mesenteric vein, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Splenectomy Splenectomy is mainly performed for hematological disorders along with traumatic injuries. Splenectomy can be performed via the open traditional lapar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Splenic Abscess Splenic abscesses are relatively uncommon conditions that usually result from bacteremia. The diagnosis of a splenic abscess is a clinical challenge. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Splenic Infarcts Splenic infarction occurs when the blood supply to the spleen is compromised resulting in tissue ischemia and eventual necrosis. It may be the result ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is an acute infection of the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen (ascites), without an identifiable ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Steatorrhea The management of steatorrhea is complex and new approaches have been introduced. To achieve satisfactory outcomes, the basic and clinical aspects of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stercoral Colitis Stercoral colitis is a rare inflammatory colitis that occurs when impacted fecal material leads to distention of the colon and eventually fecaloma for ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stress-Induced Gastritis Gastric acid production is necessary for the body to digest food and break down nutritional components into absorbable amino acids, carbohydrates, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Strongyloidiasis Strongyloidiasis is a disease caused by the intestinal worms Strongyloides stercoralis or Strongyloides fuelleborni. The more common of the two, Sterc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subphrenic Abscess Subphrenic abscesses represent infected collections bounded above by the diaphragm, and below by the transverse colon and mesocolon, and the omentum. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Substance Induced Mood Disorders Substance-induced disorders include, among other disorders, substance/medication-induced mental disorders. Substance/medication-induced mental disorde ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sucralfate Sucralfate is a medication used in the treatment of duodenal ulcers, epithelial wounds, chemotherapy-induced mucositis, radiation proctitis, ulcers in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sulfasalazine Sulfasalazine is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) used in the treatment and management of autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare cause of proximal small bowel obstruction and is linked to significant morbidity and mortality when the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sweet Syndrome Sweet syndrome, also called acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is a rare disorder that typically presents with acute-onset tender plaques or nodul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.5 46 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Systemic Sclerosis Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disorder with unknown and complex pathogenesis. Scleroderma can be divided into two forms, Localized Scleroder ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
T Tube A T-tube is a T-shaped tube placed in the common bile duct following procedures involving the duct, such as after choledochotomy. T-tubes can also be ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tacrolimus Tacrolimus is a medication used in the prevention and treatment of solid-organ transplant rejection. It is in the calcineurin-inhibitor class of medic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tapeworm Cestodes are flat, parasitic, hermaphroditic tapeworms with complex life cycles that infect animals, including humans. Three cestodes that cause human ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Technetium-99m Technetium-99m (99mTc) is used for imaging and diagnostic purposes of organs and tissue. This activity describes the indications, actions, and contrai ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetracycline Tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, tigecycline) are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of bac ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
The Importance Of Cultural Competence in Pain and Palliative Care Managing pain is often a challenge for health professionals. This challenge is compounded when the patient in pain is dying. Living in an ethnically a ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Theophylline Toxicity Around the world, theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) is primarily used as a bronchodilator for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Third Generation Cephalosporins Third-generation cephalosporins are medications used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. They are in the bet ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Trauma Thoracic trauma accounts for up to 35 percent of trauma-related deaths in the United States and encompasses a broad range of injuries that can cause s ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombin Thrombin is a topical hemostatic agent used to control and minimize blood loss during surgical procedures, is utilized in conjunction or as an alterna ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tissue and Organ Donation Tissue/organ donation is a complex and multidisciplinary process that begins with the meticulous procedure of determining death. This is followed by a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Total Laryngectomy The primary goal for the treatment of laryngeal cancer is the control of the disease. Preservation of speech, swallowing functions, and avoidance of t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Total Parenteral Nutrition Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment. It is in the nutrition class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxic Megacolon Toxic megacolon is a rare, but potentially deadly complication of colonic inflammation. It is defined as a nonobstructive dilation of the colon, which ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Bronchus The tracheal bronchus is a congenital anomaly defined as abnormal bronchus arising anywhere from the cricoid cartilage to the carina. This activity re ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a well-established percutaneous modality for decreasing portal hypertension. The major clinica ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Travelers Diarrhea Traveler's diarrhea is a common ailment in individuals traveling to resource-limited destinations overseas. It is estimated to affect nearly 40 to 60 ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Treprostinil Treprostinil is a medication used in the management and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). This activity outlines and reviews the indi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trichinella Spiralis Trichinellosis, also called trichinosis, is a parasitic infection caused by roundworms (nematodes) from the genus Trichinella. It is caused by consumi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trichinosis Trichinosis or trichinellosis is a helminth infection primarily transmitted via the ingestion of improperly prepared food. Pork and its byproducts are ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tricuspid Atresia Tricuspid atresia is a cyanotic congenital heart defect characterized by the complete agenesis of the tricuspid valve. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Truncal Vagotomy Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a prevalent condition in the United States affecting 2 percent of the country’s population. The treatment of PUD has evo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tubular Adenoma Colonic adenomas are raised protrusions of colonic mucosa, i.e., polyps formed by glandular tissue. Although a tumor of benign nature, these adenomas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Turcot Syndrome Turcot syndrome is the association of primary brain tumors with colorectal cancer. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and familial ade ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Type II Hypersensitivity Reaction Type II hypersensitivity reaction is a form of immune-mediated reaction in which antibodies are directed against cellular or extracellular matrix anti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Typhoid Fever Typhoid fever is an enteric fever characterized by systemic illness along with abdominal pain and fever in a “step-ladder” pattern. The organism respo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ulcerative Colitis Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the colon which results in diffuse friability and superficial erosions on the colonic wa ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Umbilical Hernia An umbilical hernia is a ventral hernia located at or near the umbilicus. In general, umbilical hernias tend to have a narrow neck, which increases ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is a condition defined as elevated serum or plasma bilirubin (unconjugated) levels above the reference range of the la ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis Researchers have extensively studied deep vein thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities. With the increased use of central venous catheters, cardiac ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common problem that is estimated to occur in 80 to 150 out of 100,000 people each year. Estimated mortalit ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ursodeoxycholic Acid Ursodeoxycholic acid is a medication used in the management and treatment of cholestatic liver disease. This activity reviews the indications, action, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Uveitis Uveitis is a disease process that involves inflammation of the eye. There are multiple different causes of uveitis. These include infections, inflamma ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventilator Complications Mechanical ventilation is an essential medical intervention in the context of critical illness. However, this intervention is associated with the risk ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vibrio Cholerae Cholera is a well-known disease caused by intestinal infection with the toxin-producing bacteria Vibrio cholerae. This potentially fatal diarrheal dis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection can cause variable types of illness including gastroenteritis, wound infections, and, in more severe cases, sepsis. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Villous Adenoma Adenoma refers broadly to any benign tumor of glandular tissue. Adenomatous polyps are the most common type of polyp in the colon whose prevalence in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vinca Alkaloid Toxicity Vinca alkaloids, which belong to a class of cell cycle phase M specific anti-tubulin agents are one of the first plant alkaloids to be developed for u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ViPoma Vasoactive intestinal peptide tumors (VIPoma) are neuroendocrine tumors secreting vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in an unregulated manner. The VI ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Diarrhea Viruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis both in the United States and globally, accounting for the majority of acute cases of community ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Encephalitis Viral encephalitis is inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by a virus. It is the most common type of encephalitis and often coexists with viral ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Gastroenteritis Acute infectious gastroenteritis is a common illness seen around the world, and most cases are caused by viral pathogens. The acute diarrheal disease ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Vitamin B1 is one of the eight B vitamins, also known as thiamin (thiamine). Because thiamin can only be stored in the body for a short time before it ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency Thiamine, or vitamin B1, was the first vitamin identified to be identified. It functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through decarboxyla ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential vitamin and medication used in the management and treatment of pernicious anemia, ileal resection, treatment o ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is derived from animal products such as red meat, dairy, and eggs. Intrinsic fac ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Riboflavin is a medication used in the management and treatment of deficiency of vitamin B2. It is part of the B complex group of vitamins. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Pyridoxine is a vitamin and a medication used in the treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency, as well as the management of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin C Deficiency Vitamin C deficiency, also known as scurvy, is a disease primarily associated with socioeconomic status and access to food. Signs and symptoms are oft ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin D Vitamin D is labeled as the "sunshine vitamin," as it is produced in the skin on sun exposure. Vitamin D is required to maintain serum calcium concent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin used by the body for normal bone development and maintenance by increasing the absorption of calcium, magnesium, an ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin D Toxicity Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in some animal food products and is also synthesized in our bodies via exposure to the sun. Toxicity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin E Vitamin E is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin E deficiency states as well as disease prevention. This activity outlines th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin E Deficiency Vitamin E comes in 8 different forms, all of which can be absorbed in the small intestine. However, alpha-tocopherol is the only form that the liver c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin K Deficiency Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds involved in coagulation, bone development, and cardiovascular health. Vitamin K deficiency can co ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wheat Allergy The etiology of a wheat allergy is either IgE-mediated or non-IgE-mediated allergic reaction to wheat proteins. The result can be life-threatening and ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Whipple Disease The gram-positive bacterium, Tropheryma Whipplei causes Whipple's disease. Whipple disease is a systemic disorder which not only involves malabsorptio ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wilson Disease Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by abnormal copper accumulation in the body particularly ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Yellow Fever Yellow fever is a mosquito-borne viral illness found in tropical and subtropical areas in South America and Africa. Transmission is primarily via Aede ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Yersinia Enterocolitica In order to improve health outcomes for patients, practitioners should recognize that yersinia enterocolitica has an acute diarrheal form of infection ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis Yersinia pseudotuberculosis causes food-borne infection characterized by self-limited mesenteric lymphadenitis that mimics appendicitis. This activity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zenker Diverticulum Zenker diverticulum develops in the hypopharynx, typically between the cricopharyngeus muscle and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle at the le ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zinc Zinc is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the mineral and supplemental class of drugs. This activity outlines th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zinc Deficiency Zinc deficiency is common worldwide but is seen with greater frequency in developing countries. Zinc deficiency can be inherited or acquired, and typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zollinger Ellison Syndrome Zollinger-Ellison syndrome could impact the patient's quality of life and increase mortality if it is not recognized and treated. This activity covers ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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