Sports Medicine CME

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All of our activities are approved by AMA PRA Category 1 (MD or PA) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM)®, the American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM)®, the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM)®, the American Board of Pediatrics (ABP)®, and American Osteopathic Sports Medicine Examination Committee® content outlines. 386 authors and 10 editors have contributed to the development of the Sports Medicine content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Sports Medicine Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
5th Metatarsal Fracture Fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common injuries that must be recognized and treated appropriately to avoid poor clinical outcomes for the patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
5th Metatarsal Fracture Fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common injuries that must be recognized and treated appropriately to avoid poor clinical outcomes for the patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Accessory Nerve Injury Cranial nerve XI is also known as the accessory nerve. It is prone to injury due to its long and superficial nature. Injury to the accessory nerve can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Accessory Nerve Injury Cranial nerve XI is also known as the accessory nerve. It is prone to injury due to its long and superficial nature. Injury to the accessory nerve can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Achilles Tendon Rupture Achilles tendon rupture is the most common tendon rupture in the lower extremity. The injury most commonly occurs in adults in their third to fifth d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Achilles Tendon Rupture Achilles tendon rupture is the most common tendon rupture in the lower extremity. The injury most commonly occurs in adults in their third to fifth d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Acromioclavicular Joint Injection The most frequently encountered causes of non-traumatic pain in the AC joint are overuse, degenerative changes, and distal clavicle osteolysis. Conser ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Acromioclavicular Joint Injection The most frequently encountered causes of non-traumatic pain in the AC joint are overuse, degenerative changes, and distal clavicle osteolysis. Conser ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury Acromioclavicular joint injuries account for more than forty percent of all shoulder injuries. Mild injuries are not associated with any significant ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury Acromioclavicular joint injuries account for more than forty percent of all shoulder injuries. Mild injuries are not associated with any significant ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity DO
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity MD/PA
Acute Mountain Sickness At higher altitudes, the decreased partial pressure of oxygen can cause several pathological presentations, including high altitude pulmonary edema, h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Acute Mountain Sickness At higher altitudes, the decreased partial pressure of oxygen can cause several pathological presentations, including high altitude pulmonary edema, h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Acute Scrotum Pain Acute scrotum pain is an umbrella term that includes a wide variety of unique disease processes. Patients may describe the rapid onset of symptoms wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Acute Scrotum Pain Acute scrotum pain is an umbrella term that includes a wide variety of unique disease processes. Patients may describe the rapid onset of symptoms wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Adductor Strain An adductor strain or injury to the adductor muscle group of the thigh is a common cause of medial leg and groin pain, especially among athletes. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Adductor Strain An adductor strain or injury to the adductor muscle group of the thigh is a common cause of medial leg and groin pain, especially among athletes. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Alternobaric Vertigo Alternobaric vertigo is a benign condition that affects individuals traveling in environments with changing ambient pressures, such as scuba diving or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Alternobaric Vertigo Alternobaric vertigo is a benign condition that affects individuals traveling in environments with changing ambient pressures, such as scuba diving or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anabolic Steroid Use Disorder Androgen use has become a major public health concern due to the transition of use of androgens from strictly sports to a much wider spectrum of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Anabolic Steroid Use Disorder Androgen use has become a major public health concern due to the transition of use of androgens from strictly sports to a much wider spectrum of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (also known as androgenic steroids) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Legal, as well as the illegal use of anabolic steroid ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (also known as androgenic steroids) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Legal, as well as the illegal use of anabolic steroid ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Aneurysmal Bone Cysts Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-malignant, tumor-like, vascular lesions that can grow aggressively, be locally destructive, and weaken bones to the poin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Aneurysmal Bone Cysts Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-malignant, tumor-like, vascular lesions that can grow aggressively, be locally destructive, and weaken bones to the poin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Ankle Arthrocentesis Acute arthritis, particularly monoarthropathy, is a common acute presentation. In regards to the ankle, there is not always a clear etiology for the m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ankle Arthrocentesis Acute arthritis, particularly monoarthropathy, is a common acute presentation. In regards to the ankle, there is not always a clear etiology for the m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Ankle Splinting Splinting is primarily used to immobilize a joint to allow for pain control, injury stabilization, and ultimately tissue healing. In the acute setting ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Ankle Splinting Splinting is primarily used to immobilize a joint to allow for pain control, injury stabilization, and ultimately tissue healing. In the acute setting ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments that aids in stabilizing the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured ligament ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments that aids in stabilizing the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured ligament ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Anterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow is one of the most common large joints to be dislocated. Anterior elbow dislocations are a rare injury due to the high force and position ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow is one of the most common large joints to be dislocated. Anterior elbow dislocations are a rare injury due to the high force and position ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anterior Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations are the most commonly encountered joint dislocations. They can be the result of low or high energy trauma. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Anterior Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations are the most commonly encountered joint dislocations. They can be the result of low or high energy trauma. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Anterior Hip Dislocation Anterior hip dislocations are usually caused by forceful abduction with external rotation of the thigh and most commonly following a motor vehicle acc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anterior Hip Dislocation Anterior hip dislocations are usually caused by forceful abduction with external rotation of the thigh and most commonly following a motor vehicle acc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anterior Shoulder Instability Anterior shoulder instability is defined as soft-tissue or bony insult of the shoulder that causes the humeral head to sublux or dislocate from the gl ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Anterior Shoulder Instability Anterior shoulder instability is defined as soft-tissue or bony insult of the shoulder that causes the humeral head to sublux or dislocate from the gl ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs due to compression or entrapment of the deep peroneal nerve. Most commonly, the deep peroneal nerve becomes ent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs due to compression or entrapment of the deep peroneal nerve. Most commonly, the deep peroneal nerve becomes ent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Apley Grind Test The Apley grind test, also known as the Apley compression test or the Apley test, is a maneuver performed to evaluate for meniscus injury. Clinicians ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Apley Grind Test The Apley grind test, also known as the Apley compression test or the Apley test, is a maneuver performed to evaluate for meniscus injury. Clinicians ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Arachnoid Cysts Arachnoid cysts are common incidental findings on cross-sectional neuroimaging of the brain. When they are present in the appropriate location and of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Arachnoid Cysts Arachnoid cysts are common incidental findings on cross-sectional neuroimaging of the brain. When they are present in the appropriate location and of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity DO
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity MD/PA
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Barosinusitis Barosinusitis is an uncommon entity that is rarely described within the otolaryngology literature. It is generally affiliated with pilots and scuba di ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Barosinusitis Barosinusitis is an uncommon entity that is rarely described within the otolaryngology literature. It is generally affiliated with pilots and scuba di ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Barotrauma Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damag ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Barotrauma Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damag ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Biceps Tendon Dislocation and Instability The long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) is a common source of pain in the shoulder. Biceps tendon pathology is often associated with rotator ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Dislocation and Instability The long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) is a common source of pain in the shoulder. Biceps tendon pathology is often associated with rotator ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Biceps Tendon Sheath Injection Shoulder pain is a common patient complaint encountered both by primary care physicians and orthopedic surgeons. Many shoulder structures can account ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Sheath Injection Shoulder pain is a common patient complaint encountered both by primary care physicians and orthopedic surgeons. Many shoulder structures can account ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Boutonniere Deformity Boutonniere deformity describes a medical condition in which the finger is flexed at the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and there is hyperexten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Boutonniere Deformity Boutonniere deformity describes a medical condition in which the finger is flexed at the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and there is hyperexten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Brachial Plexus Block Techniques Blockade of the brachial plexus is an effective method for providing anesthesia to the upper limb from the shoulder to the fingertips. There are multi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Block Techniques Blockade of the brachial plexus is an effective method for providing anesthesia to the upper limb from the shoulder to the fingertips. There are multi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Brachioradial Pruritus Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) is a localized neuropathic dysesthesia of the dorsolateral upper extremities. It is commonly seen in middle-aged white fe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Brachioradial Pruritus Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) is a localized neuropathic dysesthesia of the dorsolateral upper extremities. It is commonly seen in middle-aged white fe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Bursitis Bursitis is a swelling or inflammation of a bursa, which is a synovium-lined, sac-like structure found throughout the body near bony prominences and b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Bursitis Bursitis is a swelling or inflammation of a bursa, which is a synovium-lined, sac-like structure found throughout the body near bony prominences and b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Calcaneofibular Ligament Injury Isolated calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) injuries are rare. CFL injuries are often described in the lateral ankle compartment, specifically associated ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Calcaneofibular Ligament Injury Isolated calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) injuries are rare. CFL injuries are often described in the lateral ankle compartment, specifically associated ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Calcaneus Fractures Calcaneus fractures are rare but potentially debilitating injuries. The calcaneus is one of seven tarsal bones and is part of the hind-foot which incl ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Calcaneus Fractures Calcaneus fractures are rare but potentially debilitating injuries. The calcaneus is one of seven tarsal bones and is part of the hind-foot which incl ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Cardiorenal Syndrome The cardiorenal syndrome includes multiple subtypes based on underlying pathology and chronicity. Each subtype involves unique pathophysiology, and th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardiorenal Syndrome The cardiorenal syndrome includes multiple subtypes based on underlying pathology and chronicity. Each subtype involves unique pathophysiology, and th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Carpal Tunnel Injection Carpal tunnel injections are performed because of the extremely high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population. Carpal tunnel syn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Injection Carpal tunnel injections are performed because of the extremely high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population. Carpal tunnel syn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA
Cartilage Graft Cartilage graft transplantation is frequently used in the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions, most commonly in the knee. These procedures ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Cartilage Graft Cartilage graft transplantation is frequently used in the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions, most commonly in the knee. These procedures ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited cardiac condition characterized by left ventricular muscular hypertrophy in the absence of other car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited cardiac condition characterized by left ventricular muscular hypertrophy in the absence of other car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Cervical Traction Cervical traction is a non-invasive procedure used to provide symptomatic relief for a variety of cervical pathologies. Though it can lead to temporar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cervical Traction Cervical traction is a non-invasive procedure used to provide symptomatic relief for a variety of cervical pathologies. Though it can lead to temporar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cheiralgia Paresthetica Cheiralgia paresthetica is a compression neuropathy of the superficial radial nerve. It manifests as sensory disturbances, such as paresthesias, to th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cheiralgia Paresthetica Cheiralgia paresthetica is a compression neuropathy of the superficial radial nerve. It manifests as sensory disturbances, such as paresthesias, to th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Chlorine Gas Toxicity Gaseous chlorine is poisonous and classified as a pulmonary irritant. It has intermediate water solubility with the capability of causing acute damage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Chlorine Gas Toxicity Gaseous chlorine is poisonous and classified as a pulmonary irritant. It has intermediate water solubility with the capability of causing acute damage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Chokes Chokes, or pulmonary decompression sickness, is a rare but severe manifestation of decompression sickness (DCS) that can be rapidly fatal even with ap ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Chokes Chokes, or pulmonary decompression sickness, is a rare but severe manifestation of decompression sickness (DCS) that can be rapidly fatal even with ap ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Chondromalacia Patella Chondromalacia is an affliction of the hyaline cartilage coating of the articular surfaces of the bone. It results in the softening and then subsequen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Chondromalacia Patella Chondromalacia is an affliction of the hyaline cartilage coating of the articular surfaces of the bone. It results in the softening and then subsequen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.75 43 Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.75 43 Activity MD/PA
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly popular in the scientific literature over the past few decades. However, the first ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly popular in the scientific literature over the past few decades. However, the first ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Clavicle Fractures Fractures of the clavicle are quite common, accounting for up to 10% of all fractures. It is the most common fracture of childhood. A fall onto the la ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Clavicle Fractures Fractures of the clavicle are quite common, accounting for up to 10% of all fractures. It is the most common fracture of childhood. A fall onto the la ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Colles' Fracture This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injuries that require medical manag ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Colles' Fracture This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injuries that require medical manag ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Commotio Cordis Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is an important cause of sudden ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Commotio Cordis Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is an important cause of sudden ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Comprehensive Shoulder Evaluation Strategies Shoulder pathology is very common. A comprehensive history should be acquired by clinicians evaluating patients with acute or chronic shoulder dysfunc ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity DO
Comprehensive Shoulder Evaluation Strategies Shoulder pathology is very common. A comprehensive history should be acquired by clinicians evaluating patients with acute or chronic shoulder dysfunc ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronoid Fractures Coronoid fractures are believed to occur due to a shearing force when excess stress is placed on the elbow. They are often the result of an associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronoid Fractures Coronoid fractures are believed to occur due to a shearing force when excess stress is placed on the elbow. They are often the result of an associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Crutches Crutches are medical devices designed to aid in ambulation, by transferring body weight from the legs to the torso and arms. They are mainly used to a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Crutches Crutches are medical devices designed to aid in ambulation, by transferring body weight from the legs to the torso and arms. They are mainly used to a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Cuboid Stress Fractures Overuse injuries are a common entity in medical practice. Stress reactions and fractures make up a significant portion of patients in a typical sports ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Cuboid Stress Fractures Overuse injuries are a common entity in medical practice. Stress reactions and fractures make up a significant portion of patients in a typical sports ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
De Quervain Tenosynovitis De Quervain tenosynovitis is named after the Swiss surgeon, Fritz de Quervain, who first described it in 1895. It is a condition which involves tendon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
De Quervain Tenosynovitis De Quervain tenosynovitis is named after the Swiss surgeon, Fritz de Quervain, who first described it in 1895. It is a condition which involves tendon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Decompression Sickness Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when dissolved gasses (usually nitrogen or helium, used in mixed gas diving) exit solution and form bubbles inside ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Decompression Sickness Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when dissolved gasses (usually nitrogen or helium, used in mixed gas diving) exit solution and form bubbles inside ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion tensor imaging is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging modality that uses the Brownian motion of water molecules to provide data for image ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion tensor imaging is an advanced magnetic resonance imaging modality that uses the Brownian motion of water molecules to provide data for image ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Discectomy Lumbar disc herniation is a common pathology and leads to a significant healthcare burden. Patients with low back pain and related conditions may seek ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Discectomy Lumbar disc herniation is a common pathology and leads to a significant healthcare burden. Patients with low back pain and related conditions may seek ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Discoid Meniscus Menisci are two crescent-shaped structures in the knee that act as shock absorbers between the femur and tibia, dissipating stress and dispersing comp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Discoid Meniscus Menisci are two crescent-shaped structures in the knee that act as shock absorbers between the femur and tibia, dissipating stress and dispersing comp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Distal Radius Fractures Emergency Department and primary care clinics are frequently called on to evaluate orthopedic complaints. It is essential for most providers to feel c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Distal Radius Fractures Emergency Department and primary care clinics are frequently called on to evaluate orthopedic complaints. It is essential for most providers to feel c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Diving At Altitude Increased popularity in recreational scuba diving adds to an ongoing category of diving-related injuries and illnesses. Whether recreational or occupa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Diving At Altitude Increased popularity in recreational scuba diving adds to an ongoing category of diving-related injuries and illnesses. Whether recreational or occupa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Diving Gas Embolism Diving using an underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) of any type involves inspiration of compressed gas by the diver at pressures above normal surface ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Diving Gas Embolism Diving using an underwater breathing apparatus (UBA) of any type involves inspiration of compressed gas by the diver at pressures above normal surface ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Diving Mask Squeeze Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask during descent, resulting in damage ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Diving Mask Squeeze Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask during descent, resulting in damage ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Dysbaric osteonecrosis is a type of avascular necrosis of the bone that is most commonly found in undersea divers and workers that breathe compressed ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Dysbaric osteonecrosis is a type of avascular necrosis of the bone that is most commonly found in undersea divers and workers that breathe compressed ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Electrophysiologic Study Indications And Evaluation An electrophysiology study is performed for the identification of arrhythmias and risk stratification of patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. Mea ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity DO
Electrophysiologic Study Indications And Evaluation An electrophysiology study is performed for the identification of arrhythmias and risk stratification of patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. Mea ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA
Electrophysiologic Testing The invasive electrophysiological study (EPS) became a widely used procedure, performed all over the world as an essential part of the diagnosis of ar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Electrophysiologic Testing The invasive electrophysiological study (EPS) became a widely used procedure, performed all over the world as an essential part of the diagnosis of ar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Enthesopathies Enthesopathies encompass a broad range of pathologies that include ligamentous and tendinous injuries. They are relatively common and can be the initi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Enthesopathies Enthesopathies encompass a broad range of pathologies that include ligamentous and tendinous injuries. They are relatively common and can be the initi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Epstein Barr Virus Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus in which over 90% of the population worldwide has been infected. EBV infection can range from asymptomatic t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Epstein Barr Virus Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus in which over 90% of the population worldwide has been infected. EBV infection can range from asymptomatic t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Erythromelalgia Erythromelalgia is a rarely occurring disease entity characterized by a triad of erythema, warmth, and recurrent burning pain, most notably affecting ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Erythromelalgia Erythromelalgia is a rarely occurring disease entity characterized by a triad of erythema, warmth, and recurrent burning pain, most notably affecting ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Exercise Induced Asthma Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes a transient and reversible contraction of bronchial smooth muscle after physical exertion that ma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Exercise Induced Asthma Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes a transient and reversible contraction of bronchial smooth muscle after physical exertion that ma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Exertional Compartment Syndrome Exertional compartment syndrome is a commonly underdiagnosed entity which occurs secondary to elevated intra-compartmental pressures in the absence of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Exertional Compartment Syndrome Exertional compartment syndrome is a commonly underdiagnosed entity which occurs secondary to elevated intra-compartmental pressures in the absence of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Facial Nerve Trauma Facial nerve palsy is a common presentation to family doctors, the emergency department, and otolaryngologists. Trauma accounts for 10% to 23% of all ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Facial Nerve Trauma Facial nerve palsy is a common presentation to family doctors, the emergency department, and otolaryngologists. Trauma accounts for 10% to 23% of all ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Female Athlete Triad Female athletes often complain of low energy availability, which is defined as energy from oral nutrition less energy used for exercise. As such, low ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Female Athlete Triad Female athletes often complain of low energy availability, which is defined as energy from oral nutrition less energy used for exercise. As such, low ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Femoroacetabular Impingement Femoroacetabular impingement is an increasingly recognized source of hip pain, particularly in the young adult population. This condition is a known r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Femoroacetabular Impingement Femoroacetabular impingement is an increasingly recognized source of hip pain, particularly in the young adult population. This condition is a known r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Fibula Fractures Isolated fibula fractures are quite rare, much less common than fibula fractures with associated ligamentous involvement and/or tibia fractures. Fortu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Fibula Fractures Isolated fibula fractures are quite rare, much less common than fibula fractures with associated ligamentous involvement and/or tibia fractures. Fortu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Fifth Metacarpal Fractures Metacarpal fractures account for 40% of all hand fractures. A fracture of the neck of the fifth metacarpal, or boxer's fracture, named for the classic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Fifth Metacarpal Fractures Metacarpal fractures account for 40% of all hand fractures. A fracture of the neck of the fifth metacarpal, or boxer's fracture, named for the classic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Foot Dislocation Foot dislocations are uncommon injuries that can occur at multiple different joints of the foot. The three most common joints involved include the sub ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Foot Dislocation Foot dislocations are uncommon injuries that can occur at multiple different joints of the foot. The three most common joints involved include the sub ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Freiberg Infarction Freiberg infarction pattern results in flattening and collapse of the head of the second metatarsophalangeal joint, leading to degenerative changes an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Freiberg Infarction Freiberg infarction pattern results in flattening and collapse of the head of the second metatarsophalangeal joint, leading to degenerative changes an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Gamekeepers Thumb The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the thumb plays an important role in functional hand movements such as gripping and pinching. The radial and ul ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Gamekeepers Thumb The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the thumb plays an important role in functional hand movements such as gripping and pinching. The radial and ul ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicity Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is pharmaceutically manufactured as sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy. This formulation is considered a Sched ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicity Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is pharmaceutically manufactured as sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy. This formulation is considered a Sched ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Gastrocnemius Rupture Gastrocnemius injuries are common in both recreational and competitive athletes. This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of g ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Rupture Gastrocnemius injuries are common in both recreational and competitive athletes. This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of g ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Gastrocnemius Strain The gastrocnemius muscle consists of two heads. The medial head originates from the posterior medial femoral condyle while the lateral head arises fro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Strain The gastrocnemius muscle consists of two heads. The medial head originates from the posterior medial femoral condyle while the lateral head arises fro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Glenoid Fractures The glenohumeral joint is a complex joint that lacks innate stability; the humeral head relies heavily on the ligaments of the shoulder and the rotato ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Glenoid Fractures The glenohumeral joint is a complex joint that lacks innate stability; the humeral head relies heavily on the ligaments of the shoulder and the rotato ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Glucosamine Sulfate Glucosamine sulfate is an oral supplement used in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. This activity outlines the indications, hypothesized ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Glucosamine Sulfate Glucosamine sulfate is an oral supplement used in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. This activity outlines the indications, hypothesized ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Golfers Elbow Golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylitis or pitcher's elbow) is tendinopathy caused by overuse or overload and affects the medial common flexor tendon of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Golfers Elbow Golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylitis or pitcher's elbow) is tendinopathy caused by overuse or overload and affects the medial common flexor tendon of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Greater Trochanteric Syndrome Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a degenerative condition that affects the gluteal tendons and bursa. Repetitive friction between the grea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Greater Trochanteric Syndrome Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a degenerative condition that affects the gluteal tendons and bursa. Repetitive friction between the grea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Guyon Canal Syndrome Guyon canal syndrome is a relatively rare peripheral ulnar neuropathy that involves injury to the distal portion of the ulnar nerve as it travels thro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Guyon Canal Syndrome Guyon canal syndrome is a relatively rare peripheral ulnar neuropathy that involves injury to the distal portion of the ulnar nerve as it travels thro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Hallux Rigidus Hallux rigidus is a condition that refers to degenerative arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Davies-Colley first described the co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hallux Rigidus Hallux rigidus is a condition that refers to degenerative arthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Davies-Colley first described the co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hamate Fractures Fractures of the hamate are rare, under-reported injuries. They can be divided anatomically into two groups: body or hook. While conventional X-rays m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hamate Fractures Fractures of the hamate are rare, under-reported injuries. They can be divided anatomically into two groups: body or hook. While conventional X-rays m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hamstring Injury Hamstring muscles comprise the three major muscles of the posterior aspect of the thigh. These include the semimembranous as the medial most, long and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hamstring Injury Hamstring muscles comprise the three major muscles of the posterior aspect of the thigh. These include the semimembranous as the medial most, long and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hand Extensor Tendon Lacerations Extensor tendon lacerations are relatively common injuries and, when not treated appropriately, may result in a lasting impairment of hand function. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Hand Extensor Tendon Lacerations Extensor tendon lacerations are relatively common injuries and, when not treated appropriately, may result in a lasting impairment of hand function. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Hand Nerve Compression Syndromes Nerve compression syndrome is a common complaint in the general population. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe. This activity w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hand Nerve Compression Syndromes Nerve compression syndrome is a common complaint in the general population. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe. This activity w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hand Splint There are many different indications for hand splinting. These include phalanx fractures, conditions requiring immobilization of the metacarpophalange ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hand Splint There are many different indications for hand splinting. These include phalanx fractures, conditions requiring immobilization of the metacarpophalange ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Heat Illness The disorders of hyperthermia, also known as heat-related injury or illness, exist on a continuum, which is marked by dysregulation of the body’s ther ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Heat Illness The disorders of hyperthermia, also known as heat-related injury or illness, exist on a continuum, which is marked by dysregulation of the body’s ther ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Heat Stroke Heat stroke is a severe heat-related illness that involves an elevation in body temperature which typically, but not always, is greater than 40C. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Heat Stroke Heat stroke is a severe heat-related illness that involves an elevation in body temperature which typically, but not always, is greater than 40C. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
High Altitude Cardiopulmonary Diseases High altitude cardiopulmonary edema is a largely preventable condition. Lack of knowledge about how to prevent, recognize, and treat this disease expl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
High Altitude Cardiopulmonary Diseases High altitude cardiopulmonary edema is a largely preventable condition. Lack of knowledge about how to prevent, recognize, and treat this disease expl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
High Altitude Cerebral Edema High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and potentially fatal condition associated with high altitude illness that is often thought of as a la ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
High Altitude Cerebral Edema High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and potentially fatal condition associated with high altitude illness that is often thought of as a la ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a severe form of high-altitude illness that, if left untreated, can lead to mortality in 50 percent of affecte ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a severe form of high-altitude illness that, if left untreated, can lead to mortality in 50 percent of affecte ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
High Pressure Diving Nervous Syndrome High-pressure nervous syndrome or high-pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) is characterized by neurological, psychological, and electroencephalograp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
High Pressure Diving Nervous Syndrome High-pressure nervous syndrome or high-pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) is characterized by neurological, psychological, and electroencephalograp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Hip Pointer Injuries A hip pointer is a contusion of the iliac crest and/or the greater trochanteric region of the femur following a direct impact or collision. The manage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hip Pointer Injuries A hip pointer is a contusion of the iliac crest and/or the greater trochanteric region of the femur following a direct impact or collision. The manage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Human Papillomavirus The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded, circular DNA virus that is responsible for causing multiple epithelial lesions and ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Human Papillomavirus The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded, circular DNA virus that is responsible for causing multiple epithelial lesions and ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Humeral Shaft Fractures Midshaft humeral fractures usually occur due to a direct blow to the upper arm, which commonly results from falls, motor vehicle accidents, or motorcy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Humeral Shaft Fractures Midshaft humeral fractures usually occur due to a direct blow to the upper arm, which commonly results from falls, motor vehicle accidents, or motorcy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is a rare condition presenting as temporary periods of severe muscle weakness or paralysis. To treat this condition ap ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is a rare condition presenting as temporary periods of severe muscle weakness or paralysis. To treat this condition ap ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Hypermagnesemia Magnesium is an essential element for the life of plants as it is part of chlorophyll. Moreover, it is abundant in animal tissues, where it is fundame ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hypermagnesemia Magnesium is an essential element for the life of plants as it is part of chlorophyll. Moreover, it is abundant in animal tissues, where it is fundame ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hypernatremia The human body maintains sodium and water homeostasis by concentrating the urine secondary to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and increased f ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Hypernatremia The human body maintains sodium and water homeostasis by concentrating the urine secondary to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and increased f ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare channelopathy caused by the skeletal muscle ion channel mutations, commonly calcium channel and less commonly ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare channelopathy caused by the skeletal muscle ion channel mutations, commonly calcium channel and less commonly ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome Iliotibial band syndrome is a common cause of lateral knee pain in athletes. Iliotibial band syndrome is often successfully treated with nonoperative ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome Iliotibial band syndrome is a common cause of lateral knee pain in athletes. Iliotibial band syndrome is often successfully treated with nonoperative ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Immersion Pulmonary Edema Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is used as an umbrella term for scuba divers pulmonary edema (SDPE) and swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Both ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Immersion Pulmonary Edema Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is used as an umbrella term for scuba divers pulmonary edema (SDPE) and swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE). Both ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Inferior Shoulder Dislocations The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body and accounts for approximately 50% of all major dislocations ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Inferior Shoulder Dislocations The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body and accounts for approximately 50% of all major dislocations ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Inner Ear Decompression Sickness Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is an incompletely understood condition observed in compressed-gas divers likely resulting from precipitation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Inner Ear Decompression Sickness Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is an incompletely understood condition observed in compressed-gas divers likely resulting from precipitation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Interscalene Block An interscalene nerve block anesthetizes most of the territory innervated by the brachial plexus, sparing the inferior trunk. This block is generally ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Interscalene Block An interscalene nerve block anesthetizes most of the territory innervated by the brachial plexus, sparing the inferior trunk. This block is generally ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Intersection Syndrome Intersection syndrome is a condition that affects the first and second compartments of the dorsal wrist extensors. The condition is thought to occur a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Intersection Syndrome Intersection syndrome is a condition that affects the first and second compartments of the dorsal wrist extensors. The condition is thought to occur a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Irukandji Syndrome Irukandji syndrome is a painful, potentially lethal condition caused by the sting and envenomation from multiple jellyfish species. It is characterize ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Irukandji Syndrome Irukandji syndrome is a painful, potentially lethal condition caused by the sting and envenomation from multiple jellyfish species. It is characterize ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis occurs when there is an anterior subluxation or “slippage” of the vertebral body above on the vertebral body below. In most cases, s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis occurs when there is an anterior subluxation or “slippage” of the vertebral body above on the vertebral body below. In most cases, s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Jersey Finger This activity aims to review "jersey finger" injuries. Jersey finger is a distal avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon from its inse ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Jersey Finger This activity aims to review "jersey finger" injuries. Jersey finger is a distal avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon from its inse ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Joint Immobilization Splinting and immobilization are crucial skills for prehospital medical providers, as traumatic musculoskeletal injuries are commonly encountered by e ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Joint Immobilization Splinting and immobilization are crucial skills for prehospital medical providers, as traumatic musculoskeletal injuries are commonly encountered by e ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Jumpers Knee “Jumper's knee,” also called patellar tendinopathy, is a painful condition of the knee caused by small tears in the patellar tendon that mainly occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Jumpers Knee “Jumper's knee,” also called patellar tendinopathy, is a painful condition of the knee caused by small tears in the patellar tendon that mainly occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Junctional Rhythm The sinoatrial node is the natural cardiac pacemaker located in the upper right atrium. The atrioventricular node is a separate cardiac pacemaker loca ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Junctional Rhythm The sinoatrial node is the natural cardiac pacemaker located in the upper right atrium. The atrioventricular node is a separate cardiac pacemaker loca ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Kidney Trauma Renal trauma can result in injury to the parenchyma or the renal vasculature which can cause bleeding or injury to the collecting system with possible ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Kidney Trauma Renal trauma can result in injury to the parenchyma or the renal vasculature which can cause bleeding or injury to the collecting system with possible ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Klippel Feil Syndrome Klippel-Feil syndrome presents with an abnormal fusion of 2 or more bones in the cervical spine. This creates a characteristic appearance of a short n ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Klippel Feil Syndrome Klippel-Feil syndrome presents with an abnormal fusion of 2 or more bones in the cervical spine. This creates a characteristic appearance of a short n ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Knee Dislocation A knee dislocation is a potentially devastating injury and is often a surgical emergency. This injury requires prompt identification, evaluation with ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Knee Dislocation A knee dislocation is a potentially devastating injury and is often a surgical emergency. This injury requires prompt identification, evaluation with ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Knee Effusion The knee is a hinge joint and susceptible to injury from trauma, inflammation, infection, and degenerative changes. A knee effusion may result from ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Knee Effusion The knee is a hinge joint and susceptible to injury from trauma, inflammation, infection, and degenerative changes. A knee effusion may result from ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Knee Extensor Mechanism Injuries Knee extensor mechanism injuries are a group of morbidities that involve the quadriceps muscles, quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Knee Extensor Mechanism Injuries Knee extensor mechanism injuries are a group of morbidities that involve the quadriceps muscles, quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Knee Meniscal Tears The lateral and medial menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures that collectively cover approximately 70% of the articular surface of ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Knee Meniscal Tears The lateral and medial menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures that collectively cover approximately 70% of the articular surface of ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a somewhat rare cause of knee dysfunction and pain that has been recognized for over one hundred years, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a somewhat rare cause of knee dysfunction and pain that has been recognized for over one hundred years, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Lachman Test The Lachman test is a specific clinical exam technique used to evaluate patients with a suspected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The test re ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Lachman Test The Lachman test is a specific clinical exam technique used to evaluate patients with a suspected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The test re ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Laryngeal Fracture A laryngeal fracture requires a considerable impact force. The most common cause of laryngeal trauma is a motor vehicle accident or sports injury, fol ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Laryngeal Fracture A laryngeal fracture requires a considerable impact force. The most common cause of laryngeal trauma is a motor vehicle accident or sports injury, fol ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Lateral Ankle Instability Lateral ankle instability is a complex condition that can, at times, prove difficult to evaluate and treat for general practitioners. The difficulty i ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity DO
Lateral Ankle Instability Lateral ankle instability is a complex condition that can, at times, prove difficult to evaluate and treat for general practitioners. The difficulty i ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity MD/PA
Lateral Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries The lateral collateral ligament (LCL), also known as the fibular ligament serves as one of the key stabilizers of the knee joint. Originating on the l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Lateral Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries The lateral collateral ligament (LCL), also known as the fibular ligament serves as one of the key stabilizers of the knee joint. Originating on the l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) can occur at the valvular, subvalvular, or supravalvular level. In general, there is an obstruction ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) can occur at the valvular, subvalvular, or supravalvular level. In general, there is an obstruction ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Legg Calve Perthes Disease Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is idiopathic osteonecrosis or idiopathic avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis of the femoral head. T ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Legg Calve Perthes Disease Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is idiopathic osteonecrosis or idiopathic avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis of the femoral head. T ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Lionfish, Scorpionfish, And Stonefish Toxicity More than 50 percent of all venomous vertebrates are fish, and which pose a threat to divers around the world. The family Scorpaenidae includes the mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Lionfish, Scorpionfish, And Stonefish Toxicity More than 50 percent of all venomous vertebrates are fish, and which pose a threat to divers around the world. The family Scorpaenidae includes the mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Lisfranc Dislocation A Lisfranc dislocation or injury describes a spectrum of injuries involving the tarsometatarsal joints of the foot. The Lisfranc joint is comprised of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Lisfranc Dislocation A Lisfranc dislocation or injury describes a spectrum of injuries involving the tarsometatarsal joints of the foot. The Lisfranc joint is comprised of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Low Carbohydrate Diet Low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets are a strategy for weight loss. Today, there continues to be an interest in low-carb approaches. While all low car ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Low Carbohydrate Diet Low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets are a strategy for weight loss. Today, there continues to be an interest in low-carb approaches. While all low car ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Lumbosacral Discogenic Syndrome Lumbosacral discogenic syndrome is a common cause of axial low back pain (ABP), which can arise from structures such as facet joints, spinal muscles, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Lumbosacral Discogenic Syndrome Lumbosacral discogenic syndrome is a common cause of axial low back pain (ABP), which can arise from structures such as facet joints, spinal muscles, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis Lumbosacral spondylolisthesis is a forward translation of the fifth lumbar vertebrae over the first sacral vertebrae. Untreated, it may be associated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis Lumbosacral spondylolisthesis is a forward translation of the fifth lumbar vertebrae over the first sacral vertebrae. Untreated, it may be associated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Lunotriquetral Instability Lunotriquetral joint instability is often misdiagnosed and if left untreated can result in lunotriquetral dissociation. Although patients may lack sym ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Lunotriquetral Instability Lunotriquetral joint instability is often misdiagnosed and if left untreated can result in lunotriquetral dissociation. Although patients may lack sym ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Malignant Hypertension Malignant hypertension is a term that has been used to describe patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) and multiple complications with poor progno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Malignant Hypertension Malignant hypertension is a term that has been used to describe patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) and multiple complications with poor progno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Mallet Finger Mallet finger injuries are commonly encountered in everyday clinical practice. Mallet, which means hammer, was the term used to describe the hammer-li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Mallet Finger Mallet finger injuries are commonly encountered in everyday clinical practice. Mallet, which means hammer, was the term used to describe the hammer-li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Mallet Finger Injuries Mallet finger is the term usually applied to extensor avulsion fractures. However, this entity may also be caused by distal extensor tendon ruptures. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Mallet Finger Injuries Mallet finger is the term usually applied to extensor avulsion fractures. However, this entity may also be caused by distal extensor tendon ruptures. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
March Fracture March fractures (metatarsal stress fractures) were first described in 1855, when the term was coined for the foot pain and swelling experienced by Pru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
March Fracture March fractures (metatarsal stress fractures) were first described in 1855, when the term was coined for the foot pain and swelling experienced by Pru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Mastalgia Mastalgia refers to a common breast pain that a female suffers from during her lifetime. Approximately two-thirds of women develop this pain during t ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity DO
Mastalgia Mastalgia refers to a common breast pain that a female suffers from during her lifetime. Approximately two-thirds of women develop this pain during t ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity MD/PA
Medial Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a flat band of connective tissue that runs from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Medial Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a flat band of connective tissue that runs from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Medial Epicondylar Elbow Fractures Medial epicondylar fractures are fractures that occur at the medial distal humerus. These are common injuries in the pediatric population. Prompt diag ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Medial Epicondylar Elbow Fractures Medial epicondylar fractures are fractures that occur at the medial distal humerus. These are common injuries in the pediatric population. Prompt diag ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Medial Epicondyle Apophysitis (Little League Elbow) Medial epicondyle apophysitis (MEA) is an overuse injury prevalent among adolescent athletes whose sport involves repetitive overhand throwing, racket ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Medial Epicondyle Apophysitis (Little League Elbow) Medial epicondyle apophysitis (MEA) is an overuse injury prevalent among adolescent athletes whose sport involves repetitive overhand throwing, racket ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Medial Epicondyle Injection Medial epicondylitis, commonly known as golfer’s elbow, is an overuse injury that occurs from tendinosis of the medial elbow at the origin of the flex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Medial Epicondyle Injection Medial epicondylitis, commonly known as golfer’s elbow, is an overuse injury that occurs from tendinosis of the medial elbow at the origin of the flex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Medial Epicondylitis Medial epicondylitis refers to the chronic tendinosis of the wrist flexors and pronators that attach to the medial epicondyle. Medial epicondylitis oc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Medial Epicondylitis Medial epicondylitis refers to the chronic tendinosis of the wrist flexors and pronators that attach to the medial epicondyle. Medial epicondylitis oc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injuries of the lower extremity, often seen in athletes and military personnel. It involves e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injuries of the lower extremity, often seen in athletes and military personnel. It involves e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Metacarpal Fracture The metacarpals form the osseous base of the complex lever system of flexor and extensor tendons of the hand. Understandably, fractures of the metaca ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Metacarpal Fracture The metacarpals form the osseous base of the complex lever system of flexor and extensor tendons of the hand. Understandably, fractures of the metaca ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Millipede Envenomation This activity reviews millipede envenomation and the identification and evaluation of exposure by an interprofessional team. It discusses the manageme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Millipede Envenomation This activity reviews millipede envenomation and the identification and evaluation of exposure by an interprofessional team. It discusses the manageme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular he ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular he ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Multidirectional Shoulder Instability Multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder was first described in 1980 as a complex condition of the shoulder defined by instability in 2 or m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Multidirectional Shoulder Instability Multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder was first described in 1980 as a complex condition of the shoulder defined by instability in 2 or m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps result in continuous, involuntary, painful, and localized contraction of an entire muscle group, individual single muscle, or select mus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps result in continuous, involuntary, painful, and localized contraction of an entire muscle group, individual single muscle, or select mus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Myofascial Pain The fascia is made up of a solid (muscles) and liquid (blood, lymph) elements and components. The myofascial system comprises contractile muscle tissu ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Myofascial Pain The fascia is made up of a solid (muscles) and liquid (blood, lymph) elements and components. The myofascial system comprises contractile muscle tissu ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Myofascial Pain Syndrome Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is common among patients with musculoskeletal pain problems. MPS is a pain condition originating from muscle and surrou ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Myofascial Pain Syndrome Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is common among patients with musculoskeletal pain problems. MPS is a pain condition originating from muscle and surrou ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Nasal Septal Fracture Nasal bone and septal fractures are the most commonly fractured bone in the facial skeleton. These injuries can affect not only the cosmetic appearanc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Nasal Septal Fracture Nasal bone and septal fractures are the most commonly fractured bone in the facial skeleton. These injuries can affect not only the cosmetic appearanc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Nasal Septal Hematoma The nose is the most commonly injured facial structure. Most nasal injuries do not require immediate intervention, but trauma is resulting in septal h ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Nasal Septal Hematoma The nose is the most commonly injured facial structure. Most nasal injuries do not require immediate intervention, but trauma is resulting in septal h ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Nitrates Nitrates are useful in the management and treatment of angina. They are a group of medications that cause vasodilation by donating nitric oxide. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Nitrates Nitrates are useful in the management and treatment of angina. They are a group of medications that cause vasodilation by donating nitric oxide. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Nitrogen Narcosis In Diving Nitrogen narcosis, also known as depth intoxication or rapture of the deep, is a change in consciousness and neuromuscular function caused by breathin ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Nitrogen Narcosis In Diving Nitrogen narcosis, also known as depth intoxication or rapture of the deep, is a change in consciousness and neuromuscular function caused by breathin ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Nursemaid Elbow Nursemaid's elbow, or "radial head subluxation" is a common injury in young children in which the radial head slips under the annular ligament resulti ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Nursemaid Elbow Nursemaid's elbow, or "radial head subluxation" is a common injury in young children in which the radial head slips under the annular ligament resulti ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Olecranon Bursa Aspiration In its normal state, the olecranon bursa is a small fluid-filled subcutaneous sac which overlies the olecranon process in the elbow. Olecranon bursa s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Olecranon Bursa Aspiration In its normal state, the olecranon bursa is a small fluid-filled subcutaneous sac which overlies the olecranon process in the elbow. Olecranon bursa s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Olecranon Bursitis The olecranon bursa is synovial membrane located immediately posterior to the olecranon bone of the elbow. The bursa's function is to allow the bony o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Olecranon Bursitis The olecranon bursa is synovial membrane located immediately posterior to the olecranon bone of the elbow. The bursa's function is to allow the bony o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Olecranon Fracture The olecranon is the proximal articular portion of the ulna. Along with the coronoid process, it forms the greater sigmoid notch which articulates wi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Olecranon Fracture The olecranon is the proximal articular portion of the ulna. Along with the coronoid process, it forms the greater sigmoid notch which articulates wi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Open Fracture Management An open fracture is an injury where the fractured bone and/or fracture hematoma are exposed to the external environment via a traumatic violation of t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Open Fracture Management An open fracture is an injury where the fractured bone and/or fracture hematoma are exposed to the external environment via a traumatic violation of t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Os Peroneum Os peroneum is one of several accessory ossicles of the foot and ankle, located lateral to the cuboid within the distal peroneus longus tendon. Painfu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Os Peroneum Os peroneum is one of several accessory ossicles of the foot and ankle, located lateral to the cuboid within the distal peroneus longus tendon. Painfu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Osgood Schlatter Disease Osgood Schlatter disease, also known as osteochondrosis, tibial tubercle apophysitis, or traction apophysitis of the tibial tubercle, is a common caus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Osgood Schlatter Disease Osgood Schlatter disease, also known as osteochondrosis, tibial tubercle apophysitis, or traction apophysitis of the tibial tubercle, is a common caus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Osteitis Pubis Osteitis pubis (OP) is a noninfectious, chronic inflammatory state of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues with multiple etiologies, all r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Osteitis Pubis Osteitis pubis (OP) is a noninfectious, chronic inflammatory state of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues with multiple etiologies, all r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Osteochondral Allograft Osteochondral lesions represent a challenging entity with a high progression to osteoarthritis if left untreated. The most widespread cartilage preser ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Osteochondral Allograft Osteochondral lesions represent a challenging entity with a high progression to osteoarthritis if left untreated. The most widespread cartilage preser ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Osteochondritis Dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), also known as an osteochondral lesion, is not a fully understood process, though it is believed to be multi-factorial ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Osteochondritis Dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), also known as an osteochondral lesion, is not a fully understood process, though it is believed to be multi-factorial ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Osteochondroma Osteochondromas are common benign osseous surface lesions generally arising from the metaphysis of long bones. The lesions are most commonly asymptoma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Osteochondroma Osteochondromas are common benign osseous surface lesions generally arising from the metaphysis of long bones. The lesions are most commonly asymptoma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Muscle Energy and Counterstrain Procedure - Psoas Muscle Procedures Psoas syndrome is a disorder of the iliopsoas muscle leading to back pain, groin pain, snapping hip, buttock up, or difficulty standing. Psoas dysfunc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Muscle Energy and Counterstrain Procedure - Psoas Muscle Procedures Psoas syndrome is a disorder of the iliopsoas muscle leading to back pain, groin pain, snapping hip, buttock up, or difficulty standing. Psoas dysfunc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Osteoporosis In Females Osteoporosis is commonly encountered in older women with no underlying risk factors. This activity provides an overall basic and specialist knowledge ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Osteoporosis In Females Osteoporosis is commonly encountered in older women with no underlying risk factors. This activity provides an overall basic and specialist knowledge ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Paget Schroetter Syndrome Paget Schroetter syndrome (PSS) is effort-induced thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins associated with compression of the subclavian vein a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity DO
Paget Schroetter Syndrome Paget Schroetter syndrome (PSS) is effort-induced thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins associated with compression of the subclavian vein a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity MD/PA
Pars Interarticularis Defect Pars interarticularis defects also referred to as spondylolysis, are a common cause of axial back pain in adolescents, especially young athletes. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Pars Interarticularis Defect Pars interarticularis defects also referred to as spondylolysis, are a common cause of axial back pain in adolescents, especially young athletes. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Pars Interarticularis Injury Pars interarticularis injury, a condition characterized by a fracture in the pars isthmus, is a common cause of low back pain, mainly among young athl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pars Interarticularis Injury Pars interarticularis injury, a condition characterized by a fracture in the pars isthmus, is a common cause of low back pain, mainly among young athl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Patella Dislocation Acute patellar dislocations typically occur as a result of trauma, usually a non-contact twisting injury to the knee, or from a direct blow to the med ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Patella Dislocation Acute patellar dislocations typically occur as a result of trauma, usually a non-contact twisting injury to the knee, or from a direct blow to the med ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Patella Fractures The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. The posterior aspect of the patella contains a thick cartilage layer, which is the thickes ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Patella Fractures The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. The posterior aspect of the patella contains a thick cartilage layer, which is the thickes ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Patellar Instability Patellar dislocations are common and represent 3 percent of all knee injuries. Additionally, they are a leading cause of knee hemarthrosis. Patellar d ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Patellar Instability Patellar dislocations are common and represent 3 percent of all knee injuries. Additionally, they are a leading cause of knee hemarthrosis. Patellar d ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Patellar Tendon Rupture A patellar tendon rupture involves a complete tear of the tendon that runs from the patella's inferior pole to the tibial tubercle. It is typically se ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Patellar Tendon Rupture A patellar tendon rupture involves a complete tear of the tendon that runs from the patella's inferior pole to the tibial tubercle. It is typically se ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Patellofemoral Arthritis Patellofemoral arthritis is a common cause of anterior knee pain. The patellofemoral joint is composed of the bony patella, which is a sesamoid bone e ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Patellofemoral Arthritis Patellofemoral arthritis is a common cause of anterior knee pain. The patellofemoral joint is composed of the bony patella, which is a sesamoid bone e ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Patellofemoral Syndrome Patellofemoral syndrome (PFS) is one of the most common causes of anterior knee pain. It is commonly known as runner's knee, patellofemoral pain syndr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Patellofemoral Syndrome Patellofemoral syndrome (PFS) is one of the most common causes of anterior knee pain. It is commonly known as runner's knee, patellofemoral pain syndr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Patent Foramen Ovale In Diving Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a condition in which the foramen ovale, present in the atrial septum of the developing fetus, fails to close after birth ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Patent Foramen Ovale In Diving Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a condition in which the foramen ovale, present in the atrial septum of the developing fetus, fails to close after birth ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pectoralis Major Tear Injuries of the pectoralis major muscle are rare. Although the injury typically occurs while lifting weights, specifically while performing a bench pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pectoralis Major Tear Injuries of the pectoralis major muscle are rare. Although the injury typically occurs while lifting weights, specifically while performing a bench pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pediatric Echocardiography Assessment, Protocols, and Interpretation Pediatric echocardiography is ultrasonography used to evaluate the anatomical structure and function of the heart. This activity reviews pediatric ech ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Pediatric Echocardiography Assessment, Protocols, and Interpretation Pediatric echocardiography is ultrasonography used to evaluate the anatomical structure and function of the heart. This activity reviews pediatric ech ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Pediatric Fluid Management Dehydration occurs commonly in children and many times requires resuscitation. Fluid resuscitation is essential in the management of critically ill ch ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Pediatric Fluid Management Dehydration occurs commonly in children and many times requires resuscitation. Fluid resuscitation is essential in the management of critically ill ch ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Pediatric Spine Trauma A spinal cord injury is a potentially crippling injury which often results in severe and permanent disability. Quite often when encountering multi-sys ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Pediatric Spine Trauma A spinal cord injury is a potentially crippling injury which often results in severe and permanent disability. Quite often when encountering multi-sys ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Pellegrini Stieda Disease Pellegrini-Stieda disease can be diagnosed when ossifications of the medial collateral ligament at or near its proximal insertion on the medial femora ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Pellegrini Stieda Disease Pellegrini-Stieda disease can be diagnosed when ossifications of the medial collateral ligament at or near its proximal insertion on the medial femora ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Perilunate Dislocation Perilunate dislocations (PLDs), lunate dislocations (LDs), and perilunate fracture-dislocations (PLFDs) are rare high-energy injuries. Because these i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Perilunate Dislocation Perilunate dislocations (PLDs), lunate dislocations (LDs), and perilunate fracture-dislocations (PLFDs) are rare high-energy injuries. Because these i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Peroneal Tendon Syndromes Peroneal tendon disorders are a cause of hindfoot and lateral foot pain. There are three primary disorders of the tendons; Peroneal tendonitis, perone ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Peroneal Tendon Syndromes Peroneal tendon disorders are a cause of hindfoot and lateral foot pain. There are three primary disorders of the tendons; Peroneal tendonitis, perone ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pes Anserine Bursitis The pes anserine describes a region where tendinous structures of the semitendinosus, gracilis, and sartorius muscles join to insert at the medial kne ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Pes Anserine Bursitis The pes anserine describes a region where tendinous structures of the semitendinosus, gracilis, and sartorius muscles join to insert at the medial kne ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Piezogenic Pedal Papule Piezogenic pedal papules are small papular herniations of subcutaneous tissue on the heel that occur only upon standing or with application of pressur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Piezogenic Pedal Papule Piezogenic pedal papules are small papular herniations of subcutaneous tissue on the heel that occur only upon standing or with application of pressur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Piriformis Syndrome Piriformis syndrome occurs due to sciatic nerve entrapment at the level of the ischial tuberosity. While there are multiple factors that may contribut ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Piriformis Syndrome Piriformis syndrome occurs due to sciatic nerve entrapment at the level of the ischial tuberosity. While there are multiple factors that may contribut ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Plantar Fasciitis Plantar fasciitis is the result of degenerative irritation of the plantar fascia origin at the medial calcaneal tuberosity of the heel as well as the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Plantar Fasciitis Plantar fasciitis is the result of degenerative irritation of the plantar fascia origin at the medial calcaneal tuberosity of the heel as well as the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Plica Syndrome A plica is a band of thick, fibrotic tissue that extends from the synovial capsule of a joint. The knee is the joint most commonly affected by plica t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Plica Syndrome A plica is a band of thick, fibrotic tissue that extends from the synovial capsule of a joint. The knee is the joint most commonly affected by plica t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome The rare clinical manifestation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (PAES) was defined approximately 40 years ago. It has a preference for young t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome The rare clinical manifestation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (PAES) was defined approximately 40 years ago. It has a preference for young t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Postconcussive Syndrome Postconcussive syndrome (PCS) describes the constellation of symptoms that commonly occur after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and patients who su ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Postconcussive Syndrome Postconcussive syndrome (PCS) describes the constellation of symptoms that commonly occur after mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), and patients who su ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee joint that functions to stabilize the tibia on the femur. It orig ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee joint that functions to stabilize the tibia on the femur. It orig ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Posterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow joint is considered relatively stable; however, elbow dislocations are a fairly common occurrence. This injury frequently occurs during spor ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Posterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow joint is considered relatively stable; however, elbow dislocations are a fairly common occurrence. This injury frequently occurs during spor ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Posterior Shoulder Dislocations The shoulder girdle is a complex articulation connecting the upper extremity to the axial skeleton. The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is the most ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Posterior Shoulder Dislocations The shoulder girdle is a complex articulation connecting the upper extremity to the axial skeleton. The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is the most ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Posterior Shoulder Instability Posterior shoulder instability is a rare clinical entity that represents a spectrum of instability ranging from posterior subluxation to posterior dis ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity DO
Posterior Shoulder Instability Posterior shoulder instability is a rare clinical entity that represents a spectrum of instability ranging from posterior subluxation to posterior dis ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) represents an acquired, progressive disease of the foot and ankle that is seen commonly in middle-aged pati ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) represents an acquired, progressive disease of the foot and ankle that is seen commonly in middle-aged pati ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Proximal Humeral Epiphysiolysis Proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, colloquially termed Little League shoulder, is a stress injury of the epiphyseal cartilage of the proximal humerus th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Proximal Humeral Epiphysiolysis Proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, colloquially termed Little League shoulder, is a stress injury of the epiphyseal cartilage of the proximal humerus th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Psoas Syndrome Psoas syndrome is a rare injury to the iliopsoas muscle, commonly seen in athletes, often runners, dancers, and high jumpers. It usually results from ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Psoas Syndrome Psoas syndrome is a rare injury to the iliopsoas muscle, commonly seen in athletes, often runners, dancers, and high jumpers. It usually results from ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pudendal Nerve Entrapment Syndrome Pudendal neuralgia caused by pudendal nerve entrapment is chronic, severely disabling, neuropathic pain in the distribution of the pudendal nerve in b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pudendal Nerve Entrapment Syndrome Pudendal neuralgia caused by pudendal nerve entrapment is chronic, severely disabling, neuropathic pain in the distribution of the pudendal nerve in b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary barotrauma related to self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is due to lung overexpansion when a diver returns to the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Pulmonary Barotrauma Pulmonary barotrauma related to self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is due to lung overexpansion when a diver returns to the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Quadriceps Tendon Rupture The quadriceps tendon is derived from the muscular junction of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius muscles a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Quadriceps Tendon Rupture The quadriceps tendon is derived from the muscular junction of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius muscles a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Radial Head Dislocation Radial head dislocations are very uncommon. Most commonly seen in children as a radial head subluxation. Radial head dislocations most commonly occur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Radial Head Dislocation Radial head dislocations are very uncommon. Most commonly seen in children as a radial head subluxation. Radial head dislocations most commonly occur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Radial Nerve Entrapment Radial nerve entrapment is an uncommon diagnosis that is prone to under-recognition. Compression or entrapment can occur at any location within the co ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Radial Nerve Entrapment Radial nerve entrapment is an uncommon diagnosis that is prone to under-recognition. Compression or entrapment can occur at any location within the co ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Radial Tunnel Syndrome Radial tunnel syndrome refers to a compressive neuropathy of the posterior interosseus nerve (PIN) in the radial tunnel. Symptoms include pain without ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Radial Tunnel Syndrome Radial tunnel syndrome refers to a compressive neuropathy of the posterior interosseus nerve (PIN) in the radial tunnel. Symptoms include pain without ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Recurrent Ankle Sprain Ankle sprains are one of the most common recurrent injuries of the lower extremity. Up to 40% of ankle sprains go on to develop chronic symptoms, incl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Recurrent Ankle Sprain Ankle sprains are one of the most common recurrent injuries of the lower extremity. Up to 40% of ankle sprains go on to develop chronic symptoms, incl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Rolando Fractures The term Rolando fracture was described for the first time in 1910 by Silvio Rolando, an Italian surgeon. The eponym is used to describe a comminuted ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Rolando Fractures The term Rolando fracture was described for the first time in 1910 by Silvio Rolando, an Italian surgeon. The eponym is used to describe a comminuted ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Rotator Cuff Injury Rotator cuff pathology is a commonly encountered condition, and the natural history suggests tears increase with increasing age. This activity will di ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Rotator Cuff Injury Rotator cuff pathology is a commonly encountered condition, and the natural history suggests tears increase with increasing age. This activity will di ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Rotator Cuff Syndrome The rotator cuff is made up of the muscle bellies and tendons of the infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles. Rotator cuf ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Rotator Cuff Syndrome The rotator cuff is made up of the muscle bellies and tendons of the infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles. Rotator cuf ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis Rotator cuff tendonitis is an inflammation of the tendons that make up the rotator cuff, i.e., supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis Rotator cuff tendonitis is an inflammation of the tendons that make up the rotator cuff, i.e., supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Sacroiliac Joint Injury Sacroiliac joint injury is a common type of low back pain. Differentiating SI joint pain from mechanical low back pain is essential. This activity out ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Injury Sacroiliac joint injury is a common type of low back pain. Differentiating SI joint pain from mechanical low back pain is essential. This activity out ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Salter Harris Fractures The Salter-Harris classification system is a method used to grade fractures that occur in children and involve the growth plate, which is also known a ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Salter Harris Fractures The Salter-Harris classification system is a method used to grade fractures that occur in children and involve the growth plate, which is also known a ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Scaphoid Wrist Fracture Scaphoid fractures are the most common carpal fractures and tend to occur in younger, active individuals. They account for 2% to 7% of all fractures a ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Scaphoid Wrist Fracture Scaphoid fractures are the most common carpal fractures and tend to occur in younger, active individuals. They account for 2% to 7% of all fractures a ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Sciatica Sciatica is a debilitating condition that is a result of the sciatic nerve or sciatic nerve root pathology. Affected patients experience pain and pare ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Sciatica Sciatica is a debilitating condition that is a result of the sciatic nerve or sciatic nerve root pathology. Affected patients experience pain and pare ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Sea Urchin Toxicity Sea urchin envenomation occurs when a sea urchin spine penetrates the soft tissue of the victim. Frequently spines break off and remain in the soft ti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Sea Urchin Toxicity Sea urchin envenomation occurs when a sea urchin spine penetrates the soft tissue of the victim. Frequently spines break off and remain in the soft ti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Second Impact Syndrome Second impact syndrome (SIS), also known as repetitive head injury syndrome, describes a condition in which individual experiences a second head injur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Second Impact Syndrome Second impact syndrome (SIS), also known as repetitive head injury syndrome, describes a condition in which individual experiences a second head injur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Segond Fractures Segond fractures are a type of avulsion fracture on the lateral aspect of the knee. They are relatively common and are highly associated with an under ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Segond Fractures Segond fractures are a type of avulsion fracture on the lateral aspect of the knee. They are relatively common and are highly associated with an under ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Septic Bursitis Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that produce small amounts of synovial fluid to reduce friction between mobile structures of the musculoskeletal system. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Septic Bursitis Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that produce small amounts of synovial fluid to reduce friction between mobile structures of the musculoskeletal system. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Sever Disease Sever disease, or calcaneal apophysitis, is an overuse injury in young athletes that causes heel pain. This overuse injury is thought to be caused by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Sever Disease Sever disease, or calcaneal apophysitis, is an overuse injury in young athletes that causes heel pain. This overuse injury is thought to be caused by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Shallow Water Blackout Shallow water blackout is a loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoxia towards the end of a breath-hold dive in shallow water. It is typically c ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Shallow Water Blackout Shallow water blackout is a loss of consciousness caused by cerebral hypoxia towards the end of a breath-hold dive in shallow water. It is typically c ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Shoulder Dislocations Overview Shoulder dislocations represent 50 percent of all major joint dislocations, with anterior dislocation being most common. The shoulder is an unstable j ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Shoulder Dislocations Overview Shoulder dislocations represent 50 percent of all major joint dislocations, with anterior dislocation being most common. The shoulder is an unstable j ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Shoulder impingement syndrome is a painful condition of the upper extremity resulting from a structural narrowing of the subacromial space. It is prim ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Shoulder impingement syndrome is a painful condition of the upper extremity resulting from a structural narrowing of the subacromial space. It is prim ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Shoulder Subluxation Shoulder subluxation is defined as partial or incomplete dislocation of the glenohumeral joint or translation between the humeral head and glenoid fos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Shoulder Subluxation Shoulder subluxation is defined as partial or incomplete dislocation of the glenohumeral joint or translation between the humeral head and glenoid fos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Sinus Squeeze Sinus squeeze, also known as barosinusitis or aerosinusitis, is irritation of the mucosal lining in the sinuses as a result of the failure to equalize ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Sinus Squeeze Sinus squeeze, also known as barosinusitis or aerosinusitis, is irritation of the mucosal lining in the sinuses as a result of the failure to equalize ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (slipped upper femoral epiphysis), is a common hip pathology in pre-adolescents and adolescents. It occurs when the ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (slipped upper femoral epiphysis), is a common hip pathology in pre-adolescents and adolescents. It occurs when the ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Smith's Fracture Review A Smith fracture is a fracture of the distal radius featuring volar displacement or angulation. It typically results from a fall on the dorsum of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Smith's Fracture Review A Smith fracture is a fracture of the distal radius featuring volar displacement or angulation. It typically results from a fall on the dorsum of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Snapping Hip Syndrome Snapping hip syndrome (dancer’s hip or coxa saltans) is a clinical condition characterized by a palpable or audible snapping sensation that is heard d ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Snapping Hip Syndrome Snapping hip syndrome (dancer’s hip or coxa saltans) is a clinical condition characterized by a palpable or audible snapping sensation that is heard d ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Spondylolysis Spondylolysis is a unilateral or bilateral defect in the region of the pars interarticularis, (isthmus or bone bridge between the inferior and superio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Spondylolysis Spondylolysis is a unilateral or bilateral defect in the region of the pars interarticularis, (isthmus or bone bridge between the inferior and superio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Sports Participation Evaluation Evaluation of a patient for participation in sporting activities has a traditional role in ensuring their health before enduring the effects and stres ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Sports Participation Evaluation Evaluation of a patient for participation in sporting activities has a traditional role in ensuring their health before enduring the effects and stres ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Sports Physicals This activity covering the “sports physical,” otherwise referred to as “preparticipation physical evaluation,” will discuss the purpose of the sports ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Sports Physicals This activity covering the “sports physical,” otherwise referred to as “preparticipation physical evaluation,” will discuss the purpose of the sports ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Stener Lesion A Stener lesion occurs when a complete distal, thumb ulnar collateral ligament tear results in the interposition of the aponeurosis of the adductor po ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Stener Lesion A Stener lesion occurs when a complete distal, thumb ulnar collateral ligament tear results in the interposition of the aponeurosis of the adductor po ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Sternoclavicular Joint Injury Sternoclavicular joint injuries are uncommon injuries that involve the sternoclavicular joint and its associated ligaments. They can be traumatic or a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Sternoclavicular Joint Injury Sternoclavicular joint injuries are uncommon injuries that involve the sternoclavicular joint and its associated ligaments. They can be traumatic or a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Stress Fractures Stress fractures occur when bone, typically in the lower extremities, is subjected to repeated mechanical stress that results in microscopic fractures ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Stress Fractures Stress fractures occur when bone, typically in the lower extremities, is subjected to repeated mechanical stress that results in microscopic fractures ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Stress Reaction and Fractures Stress injuries represent a spectrum of injuries ranging from periostitis, caused by inflammation of the periosteum, to complete stress fractures with ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Stress Reaction and Fractures Stress injuries represent a spectrum of injuries ranging from periostitis, caused by inflammation of the periosteum, to complete stress fractures with ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Subacromial Bursitis Subacromial bursitis is an inflammatory condition that is a common cause of shoulder pain. It is typically caused by repetitive overhead activities a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Subacromial Bursitis Subacromial bursitis is an inflammatory condition that is a common cause of shoulder pain. It is typically caused by repetitive overhead activities a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Subclavian Steal Syndrome Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), now termed subclavian-vertebral artery steal syndrome, refers to the diversion of blood flow away from its normal tar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Subclavian Steal Syndrome Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), now termed subclavian-vertebral artery steal syndrome, refers to the diversion of blood flow away from its normal tar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Sudden Cardiac Death Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is death due to a cardiovascular cause that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms. A sudden cardiac arrest occurs ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Sudden Cardiac Death Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is death due to a cardiovascular cause that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms. A sudden cardiac arrest occurs ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Sudden Death in Athletes Sudden death in athletes has been a tragic occurrence in the fields of sports medicine, cardiology, primary care, and pediatrics. By far the most comm ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Sudden Death in Athletes Sudden death in athletes has been a tragic occurrence in the fields of sports medicine, cardiology, primary care, and pediatrics. By far the most comm ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Superior Labrum Anterior Posterior Lesions Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal complaint seen in outpatient clinics. A systematic approach to diagnosis is essential to exclud ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Superior Labrum Anterior Posterior Lesions Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal complaint seen in outpatient clinics. A systematic approach to diagnosis is essential to exclud ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Superior Labrum Lesions Superior labrum lesions, or frequently referred to as superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, are a subset of injuries of the labrum in th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Superior Labrum Lesions Superior labrum lesions, or frequently referred to as superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, are a subset of injuries of the labrum in th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Supracondylar Humerus Fractures Supracondylar fractures of humerus are the most common type of elbow fractures in children accounting for up to 60% of elbow fractures. This activity ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Supracondylar Humerus Fractures Supracondylar fractures of humerus are the most common type of elbow fractures in children accounting for up to 60% of elbow fractures. This activity ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Suprascapular Nerve Injury There is increasing interest in the literature regarding the clinical delineation of suprascapular nerve (SSN) injuries. While the underlying etiology ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Suprascapular Nerve Injury There is increasing interest in the literature regarding the clinical delineation of suprascapular nerve (SSN) injuries. While the underlying etiology ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Surfer's Ear Surfer’s ear or external auditory exostoses (EAE) is a slowly progressive disease caused by benign bone growth resulting from chronic cold water expos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Surfer's Ear Surfer’s ear or external auditory exostoses (EAE) is a slowly progressive disease caused by benign bone growth resulting from chronic cold water expos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Swimmer's Shoulder Swimmers have significant susceptibility for shoulder injuries due to the involvement of the shoulders required for various strokes and the high volum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity DO
Swimmer's Shoulder Swimmers have significant susceptibility for shoulder injuries due to the involvement of the shoulders required for various strokes and the high volum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA
Syncope Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous recovery. While there are numerous classifications schemes used ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Syncope Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous recovery. While there are numerous classifications schemes used ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Talocalcaneal Coalition Talocalcaneal coalition or peroneal spastic foot or subtalar coalition is an anomalous connection between the talus and the calcaneum that can present ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Talocalcaneal Coalition Talocalcaneal coalition or peroneal spastic foot or subtalar coalition is an anomalous connection between the talus and the calcaneum that can present ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Talus Fracture The talus ranks as the second largest tarsal bone with unique anatomic features and serves an important role in the mobility of the foot and ankle as ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Talus Fracture The talus ranks as the second largest tarsal bone with unique anatomic features and serves an important role in the mobility of the foot and ankle as ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Tarsal Navicular Fractures Fractures of the tarsal navicular bone are most commonly the result of either traumatic injury or undue stress, with the latter having a higher incide ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Tarsal Navicular Fractures Fractures of the tarsal navicular bone are most commonly the result of either traumatic injury or undue stress, with the latter having a higher incide ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Tendinosis Tendon injuries plague a wide variety of patients, ranging from vigorous athletes to non-athletes. Different sports and occupations expose patients to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Tendinosis Tendon injuries plague a wide variety of patients, ranging from vigorous athletes to non-athletes. Different sports and occupations expose patients to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Tennis Elbow Lateral epicondylitis, also commonly referred to as tennis elbow, describes an overuse injury that occurs secondary to an eccentric overload of the co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Tennis Elbow Lateral epicondylitis, also commonly referred to as tennis elbow, describes an overuse injury that occurs secondary to an eccentric overload of the co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity DO
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA
Tibial Anterior Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome occurs when the tissue pressure within a given compartment exceeds the perfusion pressure of the arterial supply, resulting in is ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Tibial Anterior Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome occurs when the tissue pressure within a given compartment exceeds the perfusion pressure of the arterial supply, resulting in is ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Tibial Eminence Fractures Tibial eminence fractures are very common in the pediatric population. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid the numerous associa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Tibial Eminence Fractures Tibial eminence fractures are very common in the pediatric population. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid the numerous associa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Tibial Plateau Fractures Tibial plateau fractures account for 1 percent of all fractures and are typically sustained with high-energy mechanisms. Tibial plateau fractures may ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Tibial Plateau Fractures Tibial plateau fractures account for 1 percent of all fractures and are typically sustained with high-energy mechanisms. Tibial plateau fractures may ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Tibial Tubercle Avulsion Tibial tubercle avulsion fractures are an uncommon cause of knee pain in jumping adolescent athletes. Tibial tubercle fractures are a fairly uncommon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Tibial Tubercle Avulsion Tibial tubercle avulsion fractures are an uncommon cause of knee pain in jumping adolescent athletes. Tibial tubercle fractures are a fairly uncommon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Tillaux Fracture Tillaux fractures are intraarticular fractures involving the physis and epiphysis of the distal tibia and are seen in children and adolescents. Thes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Tillaux Fracture Tillaux fractures are intraarticular fractures involving the physis and epiphysis of the distal tibia and are seen in children and adolescents. Thes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Tinea Cruris Tinea cruris, also known as jock itch, is an infection involving the genital, pubic, perineal, and perianal skin caused by pathogenic fungi known as d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Tinea Cruris Tinea cruris, also known as jock itch, is an infection involving the genital, pubic, perineal, and perianal skin caused by pathogenic fungi known as d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Tinea Manuum Tinea manuum is a superficial dermatophyte infection of one or both hands, and the involvement can include the palms. It is worldwide in its geographi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Tinea Manuum Tinea manuum is a superficial dermatophyte infection of one or both hands, and the involvement can include the palms. It is worldwide in its geographi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Transdermal Medications Transdermal drugs are medications used in managing and treating various conditions, including hypertension, motion sickness, pain, migraines, etc. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Transdermal Medications Transdermal drugs are medications used in managing and treating various conditions, including hypertension, motion sickness, pain, migraines, etc. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Trench Foot Trench foot is one of three subclasses of immersion foot, which are differentiated by the temperature of the exposure. Trench foot is caused by prolon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Trench Foot Trench foot is one of three subclasses of immersion foot, which are differentiated by the temperature of the exposure. Trench foot is caused by prolon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is a load-bearing structure between the lunate, triquetrum, and ulnar head. The function of the TFCC is t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is a load-bearing structure between the lunate, triquetrum, and ulnar head. The function of the TFCC is t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Triplane Ankle Fracture Triplane ankle fractures are distal tibia physeal fractures that occur in children from 10 to 17 years of age. The physis ossifies in a predictable or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Triplane Ankle Fracture Triplane ankle fractures are distal tibia physeal fractures that occur in children from 10 to 17 years of age. The physis ossifies in a predictable or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Trochanteric Bursitis Trochanteric bursitis is a common cause of lateral hip pain that occurs when the bursa of the hip becomes inflamed. This can be due to repetitive micr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Trochanteric Bursitis Trochanteric bursitis is a common cause of lateral hip pain that occurs when the bursa of the hip becomes inflamed. This can be due to repetitive micr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Turf Toe Bowers initially described the term turf toe in 1976 as a sprain of the plantar capsule ligament of the great toe metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. It ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Turf Toe Bowers initially described the term turf toe in 1976 as a sprain of the plantar capsule ligament of the great toe metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. It ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Uhthoff Phenomenon Uhthoff phenomenon, also known as Uhthoff sign or Uhthoff syndrome, is a transient worsening of neurological function lasting less than 24 hours that ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Uhthoff Phenomenon Uhthoff phenomenon, also known as Uhthoff sign or Uhthoff syndrome, is a transient worsening of neurological function lasting less than 24 hours that ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury Ulnar collateral ligament injury of the thumb, also known as skier's thumb or gamekeeper's thumb, is an injury of the ulnar collateral ligament of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury Ulnar collateral ligament injury of the thumb, also known as skier's thumb or gamekeeper's thumb, is an injury of the ulnar collateral ligament of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA
Volar Splinting The technique of volar splinting of the upper extremity can be used to immobilize hard and soft tissue injuries as well as painful non-traumatic condi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Volar Splinting The technique of volar splinting of the upper extremity can be used to immobilize hard and soft tissue injuries as well as painful non-traumatic condi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Volkmann Contracture Volkmann contracture, also known as Volkmann ischemic contracture, is a claw-like deformity of the hand named after the 19-century German doctor Richa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Volkmann Contracture Volkmann contracture, also known as Volkmann ischemic contracture, is a claw-like deformity of the hand named after the 19-century German doctor Richa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Waddell Sign Professor Gordon Waddell first described a group of eight clinical physical signs in 1980 known as Waddell signs. As an orthopedic surgeon, Waddell in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Waddell Sign Professor Gordon Waddell first described a group of eight clinical physical signs in 1980 known as Waddell signs. As an orthopedic surgeon, Waddell in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Wrist Dislocation Carpal instability represents about 7 to 10 percent of all reported carpal bone injuries. The majority of carpal instability is centered around the lu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Wrist Dislocation Carpal instability represents about 7 to 10 percent of all reported carpal bone injuries. The majority of carpal instability is centered around the lu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Wrist Drop The radial nerve is responsible for innervating the extensor muscles of the wrist and digits. Consequently, injury to the radial nerve results in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Wrist Drop The radial nerve is responsible for innervating the extensor muscles of the wrist and digits. Consequently, injury to the radial nerve results in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Wrist Splint The wrist is one of the most frequently splinted parts of the body, often after injury or surgery. Wrist splints provide rigid support to allow proper ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Wrist Splint The wrist is one of the most frequently splinted parts of the body, often after injury or surgery. Wrist splints provide rigid support to allow proper ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Wrist Sprain A wrist sprain is a common injury, particularly in work and athletic environments. An acute wrist sprain is an injury to a ligament often due to an ac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Wrist Sprain A wrist sprain is a common injury, particularly in work and athletic environments. An acute wrist sprain is an injury to a ligament often due to an ac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA

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