Anesthesiology-Cardiothoracic CME

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All of our activities are approved by AMA PRA Category 1 (MD or PA) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the American Board of Anesthesiology®; and American Osteopathic Board of Anesthesia® content outlines. 210 authors and 6 editors have contributed to the development of the Anesthesiology-Cardiothoracic content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Anesthesiology-Cardiothoracic Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Adaptive Support Ventilation Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a type of mechanical ventilation, which is a relatively newer mode of closed-loop ventilation. Other modes of me ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Adaptive Support Ventilation Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a type of mechanical ventilation, which is a relatively newer mode of closed-loop ventilation. Other modes of me ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Airway For Laser Surgery Maintenance of a patent airway and adequate ventilation during the surgery of the upper respiratory tract can be difficult due to the need to maintain ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Airway For Laser Surgery Maintenance of a patent airway and adequate ventilation during the surgery of the upper respiratory tract can be difficult due to the need to maintain ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity DO
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity MD/PA
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Allen Test The Allen test is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands, generally in preparation for a procedure that has the potential to disrupt blood ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands, generally in preparation for a procedure that has the potential to disrupt blood ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Anesthesia For Labor, Delivery, And Cesarean Section In High-Risk Heart Disease Obstetric anesthesia in high-risk cardiac patients is a challenging and rewarding subspecialty of anesthesia. Anesthesiologists must be well-versed i ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity DO
Anesthesia For Labor, Delivery, And Cesarean Section In High-Risk Heart Disease Obstetric anesthesia in high-risk cardiac patients is a challenging and rewarding subspecialty of anesthesia. Anesthesiologists must be well-versed i ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity MD/PA
Anesthesia For Laryngeal Surgery Anesthetic considerations for surgical interventions on the laryngeal structures necessitate the maintenance of ventilation. Jet ventilation is often ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Anesthesia For Laryngeal Surgery Anesthetic considerations for surgical interventions on the laryngeal structures necessitate the maintenance of ventilation. Jet ventilation is often ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Anesthesia For Patients With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Medical knowledge and treatment advances have led to increased survival of extremely premature neonates. Prematurity increases the incidence of having ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anesthesia For Patients With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Medical knowledge and treatment advances have led to increased survival of extremely premature neonates. Prematurity increases the incidence of having ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anesthesia For Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension Or Right Heart Failure Patients with pulmonary hypertension require special anesthetic considerations when undergoing anesthesia and surgery because of their increased morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anesthesia For Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension Or Right Heart Failure Patients with pulmonary hypertension require special anesthetic considerations when undergoing anesthesia and surgery because of their increased morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anesthesia Inhalation Agents Cardiovascular Effects Many providers lack thorough knowledge of the effects of inhaled anesthetics on the cardiovascular system. This can lead to significant intra-operativ ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Anesthesia Inhalation Agents Cardiovascular Effects Many providers lack thorough knowledge of the effects of inhaled anesthetics on the cardiovascular system. This can lead to significant intra-operativ ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Anesthesia Machine The closed-circuit anesthesia machine has become the main-stay for providing oxygenation, ventilation, and administration of volatile anesthetics to p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Anesthesia Machine The closed-circuit anesthesia machine has become the main-stay for providing oxygenation, ventilation, and administration of volatile anesthetics to p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) refers to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) refers to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anesthetic Considerations For Bronchoscopic Procedures Bronchoscopy is a common diagnostic procedure performed to assess a multitude of pulmonary conditions. There are a variety of techniques to safely per ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anesthetic Considerations For Bronchoscopic Procedures Bronchoscopy is a common diagnostic procedure performed to assess a multitude of pulmonary conditions. There are a variety of techniques to safely per ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anesthetic Considerations In Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic herniation results in unique pathophysiologic changes that may prove to be a challenge to manage perioperatively. Anesthesiol ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anesthetic Considerations In Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic herniation results in unique pathophysiologic changes that may prove to be a challenge to manage perioperatively. Anesthesiol ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anesthetic Management For Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery (ERACS) Since the advent of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) initiative, enhanced recovery protocols exist for many surgical specialties. Many studi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anesthetic Management For Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery (ERACS) Since the advent of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) initiative, enhanced recovery protocols exist for many surgical specialties. Many studi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anesthetic Management For Enhanced Recovery After Major Surgery (ERAS) Enhanced recovery after major surgery (ERAS) protocols are evidence-based, multimodal approaches used to facilitate recovery after major surgical proc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Anesthetic Management For Enhanced Recovery After Major Surgery (ERAS) Enhanced recovery after major surgery (ERAS) protocols are evidence-based, multimodal approaches used to facilitate recovery after major surgical proc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity DO
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity DO
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity DO
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity MD/PA
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Bidirectional Glenn Procedure or Hemi-Fontan The bidirectional Glenn (BDG) and hemi-Fontan are the types of surgical techniques used to create superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, the second stage ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Bidirectional Glenn Procedure or Hemi-Fontan The bidirectional Glenn (BDG) and hemi-Fontan are the types of surgical techniques used to create superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, the second stage ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Blood Gas Temperature Correction Blood gas temperature correction is an important process to implement when assessing blood gas laboratory values. The laws of physics concerning gas s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Blood Gas Temperature Correction Blood gas temperature correction is an important process to implement when assessing blood gas laboratory values. The laws of physics concerning gas s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity MD/PA
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis Carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis is a condition that develops when excessive CO2 is present in the bloodstream, leading to a depressed level of conscious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis Carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis is a condition that develops when excessive CO2 is present in the bloodstream, leading to a depressed level of conscious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Cardioplegia Cardioplegia serves to intentionally and temporarily arrest the heart for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. This activity describes cardio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardioplegia Cardioplegia serves to intentionally and temporarily arrest the heart for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. This activity describes cardio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Carotid Endarterectomy Atherosclerosis can lead to a build-up of plaque in the carotid artery, causing narrowing and carotid artery disease, which increases the risk for cer ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Carotid Endarterectomy Atherosclerosis can lead to a build-up of plaque in the carotid artery, causing narrowing and carotid artery disease, which increases the risk for cer ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Dexmedetomidine The FDA-approved indications for dexmedetomidine are sedation of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Dexmedetomidine The FDA-approved indications for dexmedetomidine are sedation of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Diaphragm Rupture Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively uncommon, representing less than 1% of traumatic injuries. They are typically considered a marker of severe trau ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Diaphragm Rupture Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively uncommon, representing less than 1% of traumatic injuries. They are typically considered a marker of severe trau ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Diaphragmatic Pacing Diaphragmatic pacing is a procedure that is performed to stimulate the phrenic nerve to cause diaphragm contraction. This diaphragm contraction helps ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Diaphragmatic Pacing Diaphragmatic pacing is a procedure that is performed to stimulate the phrenic nerve to cause diaphragm contraction. This diaphragm contraction helps ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Dobutamine The FDA approveD dobutamine for short-term use in patients with decreased contractility due to heart failure or cardiac surgical procedures leading to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Dobutamine The FDA approveD dobutamine for short-term use in patients with decreased contractility due to heart failure or cardiac surgical procedures leading to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Double Lumen Endobronchial Tubes A double-lumen tube (DLT) is an endotracheal tube designed to isolate the lungs anatomically and physiologically. Double-lumen tubes (DLTs) are the mo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Double Lumen Endobronchial Tubes A double-lumen tube (DLT) is an endotracheal tube designed to isolate the lungs anatomically and physiologically. Double-lumen tubes (DLTs) are the mo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Epidural Morphine Epidural morphine is a medication used for analgesia, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, or as a sole technique for surgical anesthesia. Morphine wa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Epidural Morphine Epidural morphine is a medication used for analgesia, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, or as a sole technique for surgical anesthesia. Morphine wa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Erector Spinae Plane Block Erector spinae plane block is a relatively novel approach to pain management for a variety of surgical procedures, as well as for acute and chronic pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Erector Spinae Plane Block Erector spinae plane block is a relatively novel approach to pain management for a variety of surgical procedures, as well as for acute and chronic pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Etomidate Etomidate is an ultrashort-acting, non-barbiturate hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. It is administered only by intravenous route. Etomidate has ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Etomidate Etomidate is an ultrashort-acting, non-barbiturate hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. It is administered only by intravenous route. Etomidate has ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Fontan Completion The Fontan procedure provides a palliative treatment option for children that are diagnosed with functionally univentricular congenital heart disease. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Fontan Completion The Fontan procedure provides a palliative treatment option for children that are diagnosed with functionally univentricular congenital heart disease. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Heart Transplantation A heart transplant is performed in patients with refractory acute and chronic heart failure. An orthotopic heart transplant is the most commonly utili ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Heart Transplantation A heart transplant is performed in patients with refractory acute and chronic heart failure. An orthotopic heart transplant is the most commonly utili ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Heart Transplantation Rejection Heart transplantation (HTx) is a procedure performed in patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) who remain symptomatic despite appropriate medical ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Rejection Heart transplantation (HTx) is a procedure performed in patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) who remain symptomatic despite appropriate medical ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
High-Output Cardiac Failure High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the simplest form, it is stil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
High-Output Cardiac Failure High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the simplest form, it is stil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity DO
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity DO
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung disorder where there is scarring of the lungs from an unknown cause. It is usually a progressive disease ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lung disorder where there is scarring of the lungs from an unknown cause. It is usually a progressive disease ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Inhalational Anesthetic Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane, most commonly used agents in practice today) are used for induc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Inhalational Anesthetic Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane, most commonly used agents in practice today) are used for induc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Intercostal Neuralgia Intercostal neuralgia encompasses any painful condition of the intercostal nerves. There are a variety of causes of intercostal neuralgia which cause ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Intercostal Neuralgia Intercostal neuralgia encompasses any painful condition of the intercostal nerves. There are a variety of causes of intercostal neuralgia which cause ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Internal Jugular Vein Central Venous Access If an ultrasound machine is not immediately available and central venous access via the right jugular vein is required, a simple three-finger techniqu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Central Venous Access If an ultrasound machine is not immediately available and central venous access via the right jugular vein is required, a simple three-finger techniqu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Internal Mammary Artery Bypass Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and coronary artery bypass graft is considered the mainstay for the treatment of seve ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity DO
Internal Mammary Artery Bypass Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and coronary artery bypass graft is considered the mainstay for the treatment of seve ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA
Interpleural Analgesia The interpleural analgesic technique was first described by Reiestad et al. for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. It is believed that this te ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Interpleural Analgesia The interpleural analgesic technique was first described by Reiestad et al. for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. It is believed that this te ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various cardi ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity DO
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various cardi ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity MD/PA
Intraoperative Echocardiography Although transesophageal ultrasound was first reported in the 1970s, the advent of phased array transducers and flexible transesophageal probes in the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Intraoperative Echocardiography Although transesophageal ultrasound was first reported in the 1970s, the advent of phased array transducers and flexible transesophageal probes in the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Intrathecal Catheter The placement of an intrathecal catheter is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at releasing drugs directly into the subarachnoid space for the contr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Intrathecal Catheter The placement of an intrathecal catheter is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at releasing drugs directly into the subarachnoid space for the contr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Intrathecal Delivery System Intrathecal drug delivery systems are typically used for three main purposes, which are the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain, muscle spasticity ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Intrathecal Delivery System Intrathecal drug delivery systems are typically used for three main purposes, which are the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain, muscle spasticity ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Inverse Ratio Ventilation Inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) is an alternative strategy for mechanical ventilation that reverses the classical inspiratory/expiratory paradigm. Thi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Inverse Ratio Ventilation Inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) is an alternative strategy for mechanical ventilation that reverses the classical inspiratory/expiratory paradigm. Thi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Left Ventricular Assist Devices Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of inpatient admissions. The Framingham study in 1993 described the risk factors for heart failure and showed u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Left Ventricular Assist Devices Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of inpatient admissions. The Framingham study in 1993 described the risk factors for heart failure and showed u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Local Anesthetics In Children Local anesthetics (LA) consist of amino amide and amino ester medications used for several medical purposes. This activity will cover the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Local Anesthetics In Children Local anesthetics (LA) consist of amino amide and amino ester medications used for several medical purposes. This activity will cover the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Long QT Syndrome The QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) represents the duration of the ventricular action potential, and this physiologically correlates with th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Long QT Syndrome The QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) represents the duration of the ventricular action potential, and this physiologically correlates with th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Lung Isolation Anesthesia Lung isolation involves utilizing bronchial barrier devices to separate the lungs enabling each lung to function as a separate unit. Lung isolation is ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Lung Isolation Anesthesia Lung isolation involves utilizing bronchial barrier devices to separate the lungs enabling each lung to function as a separate unit. Lung isolation is ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Lung Torsion Lung torsion is a life-threatening pathology that occurs when the lung or a pulmonary lobe rotates causing vascular and airway obstruction. This is a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Lung Torsion Lung torsion is a life-threatening pathology that occurs when the lung or a pulmonary lobe rotates causing vascular and airway obstruction. This is a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Mediastinoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a thoracic surgical procedure performed with a mediastinoscope to examine the mediastinum— the space in the thoracic cavity between ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mediastinoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a thoracic surgical procedure performed with a mediastinoscope to examine the mediastinum— the space in the thoracic cavity between ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Valve Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment The advent of minimally invasive mitral valve repair in recent years provides a necessary therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic mitral valv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mitral Valve Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment The advent of minimally invasive mitral valve repair in recent years provides a necessary therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic mitral valv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Valve Repair Mitral valve repair is commonly used to treat mitral valve pathology due to mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary o ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Mitral Valve Repair Mitral valve repair is commonly used to treat mitral valve pathology due to mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary o ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as "heart attack," is caused by decreased or complete cessation of blood flow to a portion of the myoca ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as "heart attack," is caused by decreased or complete cessation of blood flow to a portion of the myoca ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Myocardial Protection Several anatomical and physiological concepts are essential to fully comprehend the various techniques of myocardial protection. This activity explain ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Myocardial Protection Several anatomical and physiological concepts are essential to fully comprehend the various techniques of myocardial protection. This activity explain ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Myotonic Dystrophy Myotonic dystrophy is a rare progressive disorder that universally presents with weakness. In addition to musculoskeletal weakness, cardiac conduction ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Myotonic Dystrophy Myotonic dystrophy is a rare progressive disorder that universally presents with weakness. In addition to musculoskeletal weakness, cardiac conduction ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Neonatal Anesthesia Neonatal anesthesia requires a unique knowledge of neonatal physiology, which is different from older infants, children, or adults. Oftentimes, health ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Neonatal Anesthesia Neonatal anesthesia requires a unique knowledge of neonatal physiology, which is different from older infants, children, or adults. Oftentimes, health ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Open Airway Procedural Sedation Open airway procedural sedation (OAPS) allows practitioners to perform various procedures in different clinical settings that would otherwise be poorl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Open Airway Procedural Sedation Open airway procedural sedation (OAPS) allows practitioners to perform various procedures in different clinical settings that would otherwise be poorl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Balloon Catheters Angioplasty is performed to treat atherosclerotic disease and its resultant complications such as myocardial infarction, strokes, renal failure, and l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Balloon Catheters Angioplasty is performed to treat atherosclerotic disease and its resultant complications such as myocardial infarction, strokes, renal failure, and l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pericardiocentesis Pericardiocentesis is a procedure performed to remove pericardial fluid from the pericardial sac that surrounds the myocardium. It is often performed ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pericardiocentesis Pericardiocentesis is a procedure performed to remove pericardial fluid from the pericardial sac that surrounds the myocardium. It is often performed ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Perioperative Cardiac Management The importance of the appropriate perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery lies in the high number of surgical procedures performed eac ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Perioperative Cardiac Management The importance of the appropriate perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery lies in the high number of surgical procedures performed eac ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Pneumonectomy A pneumonectomy is an invasive procedure used as a management option for patients with advanced malignant and non-malignant lung disease. Proper patie ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Pneumonectomy A pneumonectomy is an invasive procedure used as a management option for patients with advanced malignant and non-malignant lung disease. Proper patie ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Positive Pressure Ventilation Positive pressure ventilation describes the process of either using a mask or, more commonly, a ventilator to deliver breaths and to decrease the work ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Positive Pressure Ventilation Positive pressure ventilation describes the process of either using a mask or, more commonly, a ventilator to deliver breaths and to decrease the work ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Procedural Sedation Procedural sedation permits the safe performance of procedures that a patient cannot tolerate in the fully conscious state. Through this activity, th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Procedural Sedation Procedural sedation permits the safe performance of procedures that a patient cannot tolerate in the fully conscious state. Through this activity, th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are a group of endogenously produced compounds that play essential roles in regulating human physiology. Synthetically derived prostagl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are a group of endogenously produced compounds that play essential roles in regulating human physiology. Synthetically derived prostagl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Radial Artery Cannulation Arterial lines placement is for real-time monitoring of blood pressures and arterial blood sampling in critically ill patients or those undergoing com ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Radial Artery Cannulation Arterial lines placement is for real-time monitoring of blood pressures and arterial blood sampling in critically ill patients or those undergoing com ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Retrograde Cardioplegia To ensure the protection of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass, administration and even distribution of cardioplegia solution to the myocardium i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Retrograde Cardioplegia To ensure the protection of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass, administration and even distribution of cardioplegia solution to the myocardium i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Right Heart Failure Heart failure is a condition in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body. Right heart failure is most commo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity DO
Right Heart Failure Heart failure is a condition in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body. Right heart failure is most commo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA
Sciatic Nerve Block The sciatic nerve supplies the vast majority of motor and sensory function to the lower limb. Regional anesthetic blockade of the sciatic nerve can be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Sciatic Nerve Block The sciatic nerve supplies the vast majority of motor and sensory function to the lower limb. Regional anesthetic blockade of the sciatic nerve can be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Segmental Lung Resection Segmental lung resection is the removal of the sublobar anatomic portion of pulmonary parenchyma. The current guidelines for lung cancer are for lobar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Segmental Lung Resection Segmental lung resection is the removal of the sublobar anatomic portion of pulmonary parenchyma. The current guidelines for lung cancer are for lobar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Sellick Maneuver Cricoid pressure is a technique that has become part of rapid sequence intubation to prevent aspiration of gastric contents. The technique has limited ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Sellick Maneuver Cricoid pressure is a technique that has become part of rapid sequence intubation to prevent aspiration of gastric contents. The technique has limited ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Single Lung Ventilation Single lung ventilation involves ventilating one lung and letting the other collapse for providing surgical exposure in the thoracic cavity or isolati ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Single Lung Ventilation Single lung ventilation involves ventilating one lung and letting the other collapse for providing surgical exposure in the thoracic cavity or isolati ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Sinus Bradycardia Sinus bradycardia is a cardiac rhythm with appropriate cardiac muscular depolarization initiating from the sinus node and a rate of fewer than 60 beat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Sinus Bradycardia Sinus bradycardia is a cardiac rhythm with appropriate cardiac muscular depolarization initiating from the sinus node and a rate of fewer than 60 beat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Spinal Cord Ischemia Spinal cord ischemia and infarction occur less frequently than cerebral infarction but result in significant mortality, disability, and reduced qualit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Spinal Cord Ischemia Spinal cord ischemia and infarction occur less frequently than cerebral infarction but result in significant mortality, disability, and reduced qualit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant Spinal cord stimulator implantation is an essential procedure for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In select patient's spinal stimulators ca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant Spinal cord stimulator implantation is an essential procedure for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In select patient's spinal stimulators ca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Spinal Opioids In Anesthetic Practice Spinal opioids for use in anesthesia offers several advantages to systemic pain management. This occurs mainly through the mechanism of action when pl ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity DO
Spinal Opioids In Anesthetic Practice Spinal opioids for use in anesthesia offers several advantages to systemic pain management. This occurs mainly through the mechanism of action when pl ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity MD/PA
Spirometry Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches to test pulmonary function. It measures the volume of exhaled air vs. time. This activity highl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Spirometry Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches to test pulmonary function. It measures the volume of exhaled air vs. time. This activity highl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Subcutaneous Emphysema Subcutaneous emphysema is the de novo generation or infiltration of air underneath the dermal layers of skin. The development of subcutaneous air may ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Subcutaneous Emphysema Subcutaneous emphysema is the de novo generation or infiltration of air underneath the dermal layers of skin. The development of subcutaneous air may ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Supraclavicular Block The supraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique used as an alternative or adjunct to general anesthesia or used for postoperative pain co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Supraclavicular Block The supraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique used as an alternative or adjunct to general anesthesia or used for postoperative pain co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Synchronized Electrical Cardioversion When tachycardic rhythms fail to respond to pharmacologic treatment or present with or deteriorate into unstable manifestations, synchronized cardiove ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Synchronized Electrical Cardioversion When tachycardic rhythms fail to respond to pharmacologic treatment or present with or deteriorate into unstable manifestations, synchronized cardiove ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity DO
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity MD/PA
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity DO
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA
Thoracic Paravertebral Block This topic concerns the use of thoracic paravertebral block in patients undergoing general thoracic surgery. There are different regional anesthesia t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Thoracic Paravertebral Block This topic concerns the use of thoracic paravertebral block in patients undergoing general thoracic surgery. There are different regional anesthesia t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Thoracic Segmental Spinal Anesthesia Thoracic segmental spinal anesthesia is a technique of regional anesthesia that can potentially be a suitable alternative to general anesthesia for ce ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Thoracic Segmental Spinal Anesthesia Thoracic segmental spinal anesthesia is a technique of regional anesthesia that can potentially be a suitable alternative to general anesthesia for ce ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Thoracotomy Thoracotomy is described as an incision made between the ribs to access the contents of the thoracic cavity. Due to the anatomic location of the conte ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Thoracotomy Thoracotomy is described as an incision made between the ribs to access the contents of the thoracic cavity. Due to the anatomic location of the conte ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Thrombin Thrombin is a topical hemostatic agent used to control and minimize blood loss during surgical procedures, is utilized in conjunction or as an alterna ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Thrombin Thrombin is a topical hemostatic agent used to control and minimize blood loss during surgical procedures, is utilized in conjunction or as an alterna ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Total Laryngectomy The primary goal for the treatment of laryngeal cancer is the control of the disease. Preservation of speech, swallowing functions, and avoidance of t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Total Laryngectomy The primary goal for the treatment of laryngeal cancer is the control of the disease. Preservation of speech, swallowing functions, and avoidance of t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Tracheal Bronchus The tracheal bronchus is a congenital anomaly defined as abnormal bronchus arising anywhere from the cricoid cartilage to the carina. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Tracheal Bronchus The tracheal bronchus is a congenital anomaly defined as abnormal bronchus arising anywhere from the cricoid cartilage to the carina. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Tracheal Rapid Sequence Intubation Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is a technique that is used when rapid control of the airway is needed as a precaution for patients that may have a 'f ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Tracheal Rapid Sequence Intubation Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is a technique that is used when rapid control of the airway is needed as a precaution for patients that may have a 'f ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Tracheal Resection Tracheal resection is performed when tracheal stenosis is unresponsive to conservative management, such as balloon dilation and scar excision. Trachea ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Tracheal Resection Tracheal resection is performed when tracheal stenosis is unresponsive to conservative management, such as balloon dilation and scar excision. Trachea ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity DO
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity MD/PA
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity DO
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA
Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a clinical syndrome in which there is an acute, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with hypox ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a clinical syndrome in which there is an acute, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with hypox ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Transversus Abdominis Plane Block This activity outlines the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks, relevant anatomy, as well as indications and contraindications to performing this ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Transversus Abdominis Plane Block This activity outlines the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks, relevant anatomy, as well as indications and contraindications to performing this ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ultrasound-Guided Intercostal Nerve Block The blockage of anterior branches of the intercostal nerves is a selective superficial block, with a very low incidence of complications and effective ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Ultrasound-Guided Intercostal Nerve Block The blockage of anterior branches of the intercostal nerves is a selective superficial block, with a very low incidence of complications and effective ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Vecuronium Vecuronium bromide is an FDA approved peripherally acting, monoquarternary, steroidal, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker with an intermediate dur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Vecuronium Vecuronium bromide is an FDA approved peripherally acting, monoquarternary, steroidal, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker with an intermediate dur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Venous Gas Embolism A venous gas embolism is an abnormal collection of gas that forms a bubble in the systemic venous circulation, which can act as an embolus and affect ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Venous Gas Embolism A venous gas embolism is an abnormal collection of gas that forms a bubble in the systemic venous circulation, which can act as an embolus and affect ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Ventilation Assist Control Mechanical ventilation is a common intervention used to treat patients with acute respiratory failure. Assist-control ventilation is the most common s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ventilation Assist Control Mechanical ventilation is a common intervention used to treat patients with acute respiratory failure. Assist-control ventilation is the most common s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ventilator Complications Mechanical ventilation is an essential medical intervention in the context of critical illness. However, this intervention is associated with the risk ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Ventilator Complications Mechanical ventilation is an essential medical intervention in the context of critical illness. However, this intervention is associated with the risk ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Ventilator Management Invasive mechanical ventilation is an intervention that is frequently used in acutely ill patients requiring either respiratory support or airway prot ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Ventilator Management Invasive mechanical ventilation is an intervention that is frequently used in acutely ill patients requiring either respiratory support or airway prot ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Ventilator Weaning Mechanical ventilation is an established supportive treatment for patients with various forms of respiratory failure. Despite the widespread use and c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Ventilator Weaning Mechanical ventilation is an established supportive treatment for patients with various forms of respiratory failure. Despite the widespread use and c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) Ventilator-induced lung injury is the acute lung injury inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation during treatment and has the potential to ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) Ventilator-induced lung injury is the acute lung injury inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation during treatment and has the potential to ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has revolutionized the approach to and management of many pulmonary and cardiac diseases over the past two ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has revolutionized the approach to and management of many pulmonary and cardiac diseases over the past two ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Warm Blood Cardioplegia The current gold standard of cardiac surgical myocardial protection is the administration of cardioplegia. The optimal temperature of the cardioplegia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Warm Blood Cardioplegia The current gold standard of cardiac surgical myocardial protection is the administration of cardioplegia. The optimal temperature of the cardioplegia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA

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