NP-Nephrology CE

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All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Nephrology Nursing Certification Commission (NNCC®) content outlines. 386 authors and 13 editors have contributed to the development of the NP-Nephrology content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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NP-Nephrology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used to treat and manage hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease, heart failure, s ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Acute Renal Colic Acute renal colic is severe pain resulting from the presence of a stone in the urinary system. The stone can be present anywhere along the path betwee ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Acute Renal Tubular Necrosis The most common intrinsic cause of acute kidney injury is acute tubular necrosis. Acute tubular necrosis is most common in hospitalized patients and c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Transplantation Rejection Acute transplant rejection occurs days to months after a transplant when the immune system identifies a grafted organ as foreign and attacks it. Acute ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Adrenal Cortical Nodular Hyperplasia A number of heterogeneous disorders can result in adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia. Cortical hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the gland. Nor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Allopurinol Allopurinol is a urate-lowering medication that is FDA approved for managing gout, prevention of tumor lysis syndrome, and prevention of recurrent cal ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Alport Syndrome Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, loss of hearing, and eye abnormalities. It takes place due to an abnormality o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amlodipine Amlodipine is an oral dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Compared to nifedipine and other medications in the dihydropyridine class, amlodipine h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous acquired or hereditary disease that results from the abnormal deposition of beta-sheet fibrillar protein aggregates in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Analgesic Nephropathy Analgesic nephropathy is chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by chronic use of analgesics such as acetaminophen, aspirin, and nonsteroidal ant ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Anemia Of Chronic Renal Disease Anemia of chronic renal disease, also known as anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a form of normocytic, normochromic, hypoproliferative anemia ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Awake Craniotomy Awake craniotomy, also known as awake brain surgery, is a type of procedure performed on the brain while the patient is awake and able to talk to the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Transplant Surgery With the increasing number of organ procurement and transplantation, it is essential to know the needs of this patient population's pathophysiology an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease, heart fa ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade is a common and successful strategy in treating several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anticoagulation Safety One class of drugs that has been implicated in serious adverse drugs reactions for many decades are the oral anticoagulants, especially warfarin. Ther ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the properly collected urine of a patient that has no signs or symptoms of a urinary tract inf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atheroembolic Kidney Disease Atheroembolic renal disease is caused by occlusion of small arteries in the kidneys by cholesterol crystal emboli from ulcerated atherosclerotic plaqu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Autosomal Dominant Tubulointerstitial Kidney Disease Autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease (ADTKD) is a group of inherited kidney disorders. It is usually characterized by progressive rena ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Azathioprine Azathioprine (AZA) is a medication used in the management and treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevention of kidney transplant r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Azilsartan Azilsartan is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin-receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Azotemia Azotemia is a biochemical abnormality, defined as elevation, or buildup of, nitrogenous products (BUN-usually ranging 7 to 21 mg/dL), creatinine in th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bacteruria Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the urine and can be classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic. A patient with asymptomatic bacteriuria is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bartter Syndrome Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of salt reabsorption resulting in extracellular fluid volume depletion with low/normal blood press ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition encountered in aging men and a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms. Histological pre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Berger Disease Berger disease is a common cause of primary glomerulonephritis and it involves the deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium. It is a cause of pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved to treat postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by neurogenic ato ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bortezomib Bortezomib is FDA-approved for use in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. It is also FDA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Breast Transverse Rectus Abdominus Muscle Procedure Free tissue transfer has become a common technique for breast reconstruction following oncologic resection. Free transverse rectus abdominis muscle (T ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bumetanide Bumetanide is FDA approved for the management of various edematous conditions secondary to cardiac failure or hepatic or renal disease, including neph ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcinosis Cutis Calcinosis cutis occurs when calcium salts are deposited into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is classified into five main types: dystrophic, met ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calciphylaxis Calciphylaxis, also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a rare but potentially devastating condition most often observed in patients with end- ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Gluconate Calcium gluconate is a medication used to manage hypocalcemia, cardiac arrest, and cardiotoxicity due to hyperkalemia or hypermagnesemia. It is classi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Candesartan Candesartan is an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker. The FDA approved candesartan for the management of hypertension in adults. It is available as ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Captopril Captopril is an FDA-approved medication used in the management of hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection not related to an infection at ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Line Placement A central line is a large-bore central venous catheter that is typically placed using a sterile technique unless a patient is unstable, in which case ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cephalexin Cephalexin is an FDA-approved antibiotic. Cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin utilized in the treatment of urinary tract infections, respir ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Inflammation Chronic inflammation is also referred to as slow, long-term inflammation lasting several months to years. Generally, the extent and effects of chronic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities (CINAC) Chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities is a new form of chronic kidney disease; its etiology is not linked to diabetes, hypertensi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Kidney Transplant Rejection Kidney transplantation is currently the definitive treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Compared to dialysis, kidney transpla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Chronic Transplantation Rejection Transplant rejection can be classified as hyperacute, acute, or chronic. Hyperacute rejection is usually caused by specific antibodies against the gra ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cinacalcet Cinacalcet is a medication used in the management and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (on dialysis population), primary hyperparathyroidism ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma Among the genitourinary cancers, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common cancer in men and has a high mortality rate. The prognosis of m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common presenting causes of sepsis in hospitals, and urinary tract infections have a wide variety o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity Info
Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is one of the renal replacement methods that include intermittent hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Contrast Agent Toxicity Contrast agents, also called contrast media, are substances used to enhance the radiodensity of a targeted tissue by altering the way that electromagn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Craniopharyngioma Craniopharyngioma is a rare, virtually benign tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a partly cystic embryonic malformation that can occur i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Crescentric Glomerulonephritis Crescentric glomerulonephritis, also known as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, is a condition of the kidney characterized by a rapid loss of re ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that are frequently used in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first choice for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cystic Kidney Disease Cystic kidney diseases are multisystemic disorders that can develop due to genetic or non-genetic causes in children and adults. These can be a seriou ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cystinuria Cystine stones are due to an inherited defect in the transport of the amino acid cystine leading to excessive excretion in the kidney causing cystinur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cystoscopy Cystourethroscopy is one of the most common procedures performed by a urologic surgeon. It allows for direct visualization of the urethra, urethral sp ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dextran Dextran is a medication used in managing and treating various clinical conditions, including during hemorrhage, shock, surgical procedures, radiologic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin or AVP) ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in developed countries, including the United States. It is consider ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Dialysis Catheter Dialysis catheters are artificial indwelling transcutaneous conduits used to access the intravascular space or intraperitoneal space for renal replace ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) refers to an array of neurological manifestations that are seen during or following dialysis. The symptoms can ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dialysis Fistula Dialysis fistula creation is a commonly performed procedure for patients who suffer from the end-stage renal disease who require permanent vascular ac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma, accounting for about 25% to 30% of all the non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It typically pres ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) is a common and serious histological form of renal injury seen commonly in those suffering from autoim ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Eclampsia This article discusses preeclampsia and eclampsia, one of the four categories of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Eclampsia is a severe complicati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Enalapril Enalapril is a medication used in the management of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. This ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Endocarditis Antibiotic Regimens Infective endocarditis is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It requires prompt identification and carefully selected antibiotic therap ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
End-Stage Renal Disease More than 500,000 people in the United States live with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progre ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Eplerenone Eplerenone is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and hypertension. It is in the aldoste ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Epoetin Alfa Epoetin alfa is a medication used in the management of anemia secondary to bone marrow failure. It is one of the erythropoiesis-stimulating classes of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely danger ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Exchange Transfusion Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure employed to "cleanse" the blood of various pathologic entities including antibodies, immune complexes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is defined as a serum sodium level below 135 mmol/L that develops during or up to 24 hours after physical activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is a rare autosomal dominant condition. It occurs as a result of mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fanconi Syndrome Fanconi syndrome, not to be confused with Fanconi anemia, is a defect of the proximal tubule that prevents the absorption of electrolytes and other su ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Febuxostat Febuxostat is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. It is in a class of medications known as xanthine oxidase i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femoral Vein Central Venous Access Venous access can be obtained through the cannulation of peripheral veins, such as the antecubital vein or saphenous vein, or central veins, such as t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fibrinous Pericarditis The fibrous pericardium is the outer layer and holds the heart in place and protect it from surrounding infections. It is composed of thick connective ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fibromuscular Dysplasia Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is a rare systemic vascular disease, affecting younger women and accounting for 10% to 20% of the cases of renal artery ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Fluid Resuscitation The primary role of fluid resuscitation is to maintain organ perfusion (hemodynamics) and substrate (oxygen, electrolytes, among others) delivery thro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluoroscopy Contrast Materials Fluoroscopy is a valuable imaging tool that can provide a functional and anatomic assessment of patients in real-time while minimizing radiation expos ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluvastatin In adults, fluvastatin is indicated for hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia to decrease the amount of total cholesterol in the blood. Specific ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Focal segmental glomerular sclerosis (FSGS) is histologically characterized by segmental scarring that involves a part of the glomerulus and only affe ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Furosemide Furosemide is a loop diuretic that has been in use for decades. However, clinicians must be aware of updates related to the indications and administra ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Gadolinium Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast agents are pharmaceuticals that increase the information content of diagnostic images. They serve to improve the sensitivity and specificity ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Gitelman Syndrome Gitelman syndrome is a salt-losing tubulopathy caused by mutation of genes encoding sodium chloride (NCCT) and magnesium transporters in the thiazide- ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glomerulonephritis The term "glomerulonephritis" encompasses a subset of renal diseases characterized by immune-mediated damage to the basement membrane, mesangium, or t ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Goodpasture Syndrome Goodpasture syndrome also referred to as anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) disease, is an autoimmune disease that affects both the kidneys ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare vasculitis affecting small vessels. Hallmark features include necrotizing granulomas and pauci-immune ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hematuria Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria can be gross or microscopic; gross hematuria is visible blood in urine whereas microscopic ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hemodialysis Dialysis is a form of renal replacement therapy. The kidney’s role of filtration of the blood is supplemented by artificial equipment for the removal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by the presence of a triad of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, acute renal impa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Fever Renal Syndrome Hemorrhagic fever renal syndrome (HFRS) is an acute zoonotic disease transmitted through aerosolized excrement of rodents (mice, rats, shrews, and vol ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Vaccine The hepatitis B vaccine is a medication used in the prevention of hepatitis B infection, which can lead to chronic liver failure and hepatocellular ca ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hepatitis E Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is classified in the genus Orthohepevirus of the Hepeviridae family and is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the w ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hepatorenal Syndrome Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a multiorgan condition of acute kidney injury seen in those with advanced liver disease. Patients with this condition pr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a medication regimen used to manage and treat human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). It is compo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
HIV Nephropathy Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy is an aggressive condition that requires prompt diagnosis to prevent permanent damage to ren ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Horseshoe Kidney Horseshoe kidneys are the most common fusion defect of the kidneys occurring in approximately 1:500 individuals. They are characterized by abnormaliti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hydralazine Hydralazine is a direct vasodilator used orally to treat essential hypertension, among other diseases, and intravenously to rapidly reduce blood press ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Hydronephrosis And Hydroureter Hydronephrosis and hydroureter result from obstruction of urine flow in the urinary system at the renal pelvis and ureter level, respectively. This is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism occurs due to the excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Hyperaldosteronism can initially present as essential an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hypercalciuria Hypercalciuria is generally considered to be the most common identifiable metabolic risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis. It also contributes to os ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperchloremic Acidosis Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a pathological state that results from bicarbonate loss, rather than acid production or retention. Bicarbonate lo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypermagnesemia Magnesium is an essential element for the life of plants as it is part of chlorophyll. Moreover, it is abundant in animal tissues, where it is fundame ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypernatremia The human body maintains sodium and water homeostasis by concentrating the urine secondary to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and increased f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperphosphatemia This article summarises the basics of Hyperphosphatemia, including its pathophysiology, evaluation, and management. Though this condition is seen more ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypertensive Emergency A hypertensive emergency is an acute, marked elevation in blood pressure that is associated with signs of target-organ damage. These can include pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hypertensive Encephalopathy Hypertensive encephalopathy is a less commonly encountered type of hypertensive emergency, highlighted by mental status changes and severely elevated ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperuricosuria Uric acid renal calculi are formed as a consequence of various metabolic abnormalities. Although rare, its prevalence is increasing with the change in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypoalbuminemia Hypoalbuminaemia is one of the most prevalent disorders in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Hypoalbuminaemia may be a result of decreased pro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypocitraturia And Renal Calculi Renal calculi are one of the most common cases that physicians encounter. It's been estimated that half of all symptomatic kidney stones could be prev ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Hypokalemia One of the most common electrolyte disturbances seen in clinical practice is hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is more prevalent than hyperkalemia, and most ca ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypokalemic Metabolic Alkalosis Since the first step out of the marine world, the animals had to adapt to the lack of fluid and electrolytes found in abundance in seawater. Over time ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare channelopathy caused by the skeletal muscle ion channel mutations, commonly calcium channel and less commonly ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hypomagnesemia Magnesium is an important electrolyte. It is a key part of many reactions that occur in the human body, affecting cellular function, nerve conduction, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypophosphatemia Given its widespread role in nearly every molecular, cellular function, aberrations in serum phosphate levels can be highly impactful. Hypophosphatemi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypotension Hypotension is a decrease in systemic blood pressure below accepted low values. While there is not an accepted standard hypotensive value, pressures l ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemorrhage Idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage is a rare condition caused by bleeding into the lower respiratory tract, usually the alveoli. Its classical presentati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
IgA Nephropathy IgA nephropathy is a common form of glomerulonephritis caused by the deposition of IgA immunoglobulins in the glomerular basement membrane. Immune-med ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Indinavir Indinavir is an alpha-amino acid amide protease inhibitor used as a treatment therapy for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Infectious Endocarditis Infectious endocarditis refers to the colonization of cardiac valve endocardium by virulent microorganisms. It is a rare condition that can lead to r ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Inhalational Anesthetic Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane, most commonly used agents in practice today) are used for induc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Interstitial Nephritis Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is one of the common causes of acute kidney injury (AKI). AIN presents as renal failure, and there are a few extrar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Isopropanol Toxicity Isopropanol, or isopropyl alcohol, is a clear, colorless liquid that emits an odor that resembles acetone. It is a commercially available product main ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Itraconazole Itraconazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the antifungal class of medications. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kidney Transplantation Kidney transplantation is performed to prolong and improve the lives of those with end-stage renal disease. Open and laparoscopic surgery are the two ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Leptospirosis Leptospirosis, also called Weil disease, is the most common zoonotic infection in the world. Leptospirosis is caused by an infection with the spiroche ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Liddle Syndrome Resistant hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure continues to be greater than 140/90 mm Hg despite compliance with a regimen of 3 antihyp ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lisinopril Lisinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Lisinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Loop Diuretics Loop diuretics are medications used in the management and treatment of fluid overload conditions such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Losartan Losartan is FDA approved for the treatment of several medical conditions, which include the following: hypertension, diabetic nephropathy. ARBs are kn ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Lupus Nephritis Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that results in chronic inflammation and damage of more than one organ. It is diagnosed cl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lytic Bone Lesions Bone tumors are mostly benign. The most important determinants in imaging of bone tumors are morphology on plain radiograph (well-defined lytic, ill-d ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malaria Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito that leads to acute life-threatening disease and poses a significant global hea ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Malignancy-Related Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic abnormality seen in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Depending on the serum calcium levels, hypercalcemia i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Medication Dispensing Errors And Prevention Close to 6,800 prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States. To further complicate a practitioner' ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Medullary Sponge Kidney Medullary sponge kidney is a benign congenital abnormality that was first described in 1939. Anatomically it is characterized by cystic dilatation of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Membranous Glomerulonephritis Membranous nephropathy (MN) is an immune complex deposition disease. IgG and complements predominantly deposit beneath the podocytes on the sub-epithe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Membranous Nephropathy Membranous nephropathy (MN), also known as membranous glomerulopathy, is one of the many glomerular diseases causing nephrotic syndrome. It is charact ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mercaptopurine Mercaptopurine is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is in the class of medications known as purine ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mesalamine (USAN) Mesalamine, is also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. It is under the drug classif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mesna Mesna is a medication used in the management and treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with chemotherapy. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Metabolic Acidosis Acid-base disorders are disturbances in the homeostasis of hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma. Any process that increases the serum hydrogen ion ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Metformin Metformin, FDA-approved in 1994, is an antidiabetic agent used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin comes in both immediate-release and extended-rel ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Microalbuminuria The current definition of microalbuminuria (MA) is an amount of urinary albumin that is greater than the normal value, but also lower than what is det ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Microscopic Polyangiitis Microscopic polyangiitis is a small vessel necrotizing vasculitis, a part of a large spectrum of disorders termed as anti-neutrophil-cytoplasmic-antib ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Minimal Change Disease Minimal change disease (MCD), is one of the most common causes of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children. In the past, MCD was given the labels "ni ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Mirabegron Mirabegron is a medication used in the management of overactive bladder. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medications. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
MR Angiogram Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) encompasses several imaging techniques based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) developed for studying the arter ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Multimodal Postoperative Pain Control After Orthopaedic Surgery Multimodal pain control is an important modality to control pain in the post-operative period in all patients undergoing surgery or various other proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell proliferative disorder characterized by the abnormal increase of monoclonal paraprotein leading to evide ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Myeloma Kidney Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells producing monoclonal proteins and caus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myoglobinuria Myoglobinuria is the presence of an excess amount of myoglobin in the urine. It is mostly caused by muscle breakdown, releasing a high amount of myogl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nadolol Nadolol is a medication used in the treatment of angina and hypertension, which are significant risk factors for the development of coronary artery di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nail Patella Syndrome Nail patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare multisystemic disease with a classic clinical tetrad of fingernail dysplasia, hypoplasia or absence of the patel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nephritic Syndrome The nephritic syndrome is a clinical syndrome presenting as hematuria, hypertension, oliguria, and edema. It can be due to a primary renal disease or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nephrocalcinosis Nephrocalcinosis, a term first coined in 1934 by Fuller Albright, refers to augmented calcium content within the kidney which can be in the form of ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a progressive multiorgan fibrosing condition mainly caused by patients' exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis is the term employed for kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, and they are crystal concretions formed typically in the kidney. ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical syndrome defined by massive proteinuria (greater than 40 mg/m2 per hour) responsible for hypoalbuminemia (less t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Nephrotoxic Medications Numerous drugs used to manage and treat multiple diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and other pathologies, are nephrotoxic. These agents are ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
New Onset Diabetes After Transplant New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) is the development of diabetes mellitus after solid organ transplantation. NODAT frequently ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nitrates Nitrates are useful in the management and treatment of angina. They are a group of medications that cause vasodilation by donating nitric oxide. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nitrofurantoin Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic medication that is used for the treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection. It is effective against most ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nocturia Nocturia is defined as the need for patients to get up at night on a regular basis to urinate. A period of sleep must precede and follow the urinary e ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms originating from the lymphoid tissues, mainly the lymph nodes. These tumors may result due to c ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Normal Saline Fluid therapy is a critical component of the clinical management of patients. It consists of colloid therapy as well as crystalloid therapy. The most ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Orthostatic Proteinuria Orthostatic proteinuria, also known as postural proteinuria, is a condition where an abnormally large amount of protein is excreted in the urine when ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Osteomalacia Vitamin D deficiency accounts for the most common nutritional deficiency among children and adults. Osteomalacia describes a disorder of “bone softeni ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Page Kidney Page kidney or Page phenomenon results from external compression of the kidney by a chronic subcapsular hematoma. It is a rare, treatable cause of sec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Palliative Care The World Health Organization characterizes the field of palliative care as a form of specialized medical care which aims to optimize the quality of l ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Pathologic Fractures Pathologic fractures occur secondary to altered skeletal physiology and mechanics in the setting of a benign or malignant lesion. Therefore, proper di ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Pediatric Fluid Management Dehydration occurs commonly in children and many times requires resuscitation. Fluid resuscitation is essential in the management of critically ill ch ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pelvic Kidney The term pelvic kidney encompasses a range of anatomical abnormalities that occur when the kidney fails to rise from the pelvis in its metanephros sta ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pembrolizumab Pembrolizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of various oncologic conditions. It is in the cancer immunotherapy class of drugs. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Penicillamine Penicillamine has FDA approval as a treatment for Wilson disease and cystinuria. It is used as an off-label treatment option for lead poisoning in chi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical, invasive procedure wi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Percutaneous Nephrostomy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing the renal collecting system via a puncture through the lumbar region of the back (percutaneo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pericarditis Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac and is the most common pathologic process involving the pericardium. Temporally, it may be further ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Perinephric Abscess A perinephric abscess is usually a complication of urologic infection which results from fat necrosis. Before the era of antibiotics, perinephric absc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common yet under-recognized problem that increases mortality, morbidity, and increases the cost of hospit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral Vascular Bypass Peripheral vascular bypass (PVB) refers to surgical revision of blood flow to restore perfusion distal to an occluded or otherwise disrupted arterial ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Peritoneal Dialysis Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is used by less than 7 percent of dialysis patients in the United States. In Canada, more than 50 percent of dialysis patient ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunoc ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity Info
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Prophylaxis Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening condition caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii affecting immunocompromised individuals. Patients at hig ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Polyarteritis Nodosa Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis first described in 1866 by Adolph Kussmaul and Rudolph Maier. It typically affects med ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Polycystic Kidney Disease Polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is an autosomal dominant disorder. It is a multisystem and progressive disease with cysts formation and kidney enlar ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Polycystic Kidney Disease In Adults Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a disorder in which there is an enlargement of the kidneys with multiple cyst formation. There is a de ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Polycystic Kidney Disease Of Childhood There are two inherited varieties of polycystic kidney disease (PKD): autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive pol ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Post Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-known, life-threatening complication of organ transplantation, predominantly occurring a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Postobstructive Diuresis Urinary retention is a relatively common urological problem encountered in both inpatient and outpatient settings. It should be high on the differenti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Post-op Urinary Retention Postoperative urinary retention is the inability to urinate after a surgical procedure despite having a full bladder. It is a relatively common compli ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) results from a bacterial infection that causes rapid deterioration of the kidney function due to an inflam ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Potter Syndrome Potter syndrome is a fatal congenital disorder characterized by the changes in physical appearances of neonate due to oligohydramnios caused by renal ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Prazosin Prazosin is a medication used to manage and treat hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, PTSD-associated nightmares, and the Raynaud phenomenon. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Preeclampsia Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disease that occurs during pregnancy. This disease encompasses 2% to 8% of pregnancy-related complications, greater tha ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Preexposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention Pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis is a relatively new concept that consists of daily intake of antiretroviral medications that protect high-risk individua ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Prerenal Kidney Failure Prerenal AKI is an extensively researched topic, which requires prompt identification and early intervention to prevent long term sequelae. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prostaglandin E2 (Dinoprostone) Prostaglandin E2 is an FDA-approved medication used both for the evacuation of uterine contents and labor induction. It is in the prostaglandin class ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Prostate Abscess A prostate abscess is a complication resulting from the acute infectious process of the prostate. This activity outlines the pathogenesis and evaluati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Proteinuria Proteinuria is a very common finding in outpatient as well as inpatient settings. Any such results warrant further investigation, especially in the se ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Proteus Mirabilis Infections Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative facultative anaerobe with swarming motility and an ability to self-elongate and secrete a polysaccharide which al ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pseudohyponatremia Pseudohyponatremia is an uncommon laboratory artifact finding that can lead to severe morbidity and mortality if not recognized promptly. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Pyelonephritis Xanthogranulomatous Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare and aggressive variant of chronic pyelonephritis. It usually occurs due to chronic nephrolithiasis and in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Quinolones Quinolones are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics used in the management and treatment of many different bacterial infections. This activity review ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Radiation Cystitis And Hyperbaric Management Radiation cystitis describes the inflammation and resultant cellular destruction of the bladder that occurs as an adverse effect of the radiation used ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis is the cause of rapid loss of renal function. It is a rare syndrome but has a high rate of renal failure and mo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common cause of morbidity, especially in young women. However, with appropriate care, they can be easi ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Reflux Nephropathy Reflux nephropathy (RN) often presents in early adulthood with various clinical manifestations of chronic kidney disease. Reflux nephropathy was previ ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Remdesivir Remdesivir is the first drug that has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for clinical use in hospitalized patients with COVID- ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis is narrowing of the one or both of renal arteries. It is the major cause of hypertension and according to some reports is the ca ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Renal Artery Thrombosis Renal artery thrombosis is a rare pathology that may be overlooked when evaluating impaired renal function. It is the formation of a blood clot in one ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renal Biopsy This activity reviews the process of obtaining kidney tissue samples for analysis of both focal renal lesions and diffuse renal diseases via needle pu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Renal Calculi Renal calculi are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. They occur in one in 11 people at some ti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Renal Cancer Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the kidney and constitutes over 90 percent of all renal malignancies. RCC may be spor ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Renal Cell Cancer Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), which originate within the renal cortex, are responsible for 80% to 85% of all primary renal neoplasms. Transitional cel ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Renal Clear Cell Cancer Clear cell renal cancer is the most common type of kidney cancer, comprising 80 percent of all malignant tumors found within the kidney. It is known a ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Renal Cyst Renal cysts are the most common lesion of the kidney and are seen in approximately 40 percent of patients that undergo imaging studies involving the a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renal Failure The term renal failure denotes inability of the kidneys to perform excretory function leading to retention of nitrogenous waste products from the bloo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Renal Lymphoma Renal involvement in lymphoma is commonly in the presence of widespread nodal or extranodal lymphoma. This is classified as secondary renal lymphoma ( ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renal Mass Renal mass is an abnormal growth in the kidney. The majority of renal masses are benign; however, a significant number of them require further interve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renal Osteodystrophy Renal osteodystrophy is one of the main complications of end-stage renal disease that leads to skeletal and extraskeletal manifestations. Although it ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renal Transplantation Rejection Various factors merit consideration to match the donor kidney with the recipient, as the donor kidney acts as an alloantigen. In general, when transpl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Renal Tubular Acidosis Kidneys play a pivotal role in maintaining the acid-base balance of body along with lungs, and they do so by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate and remo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Renal Vein Thrombosis Renal vein thrombosis (RVT), the presence of thrombus in the major renal veins or its tributaries, is a rare clinical entity. It can present acutely o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renovascular Hypertension Renovascular hypertension is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. It is mostly due to the narrowing of blood vessels in the kidney ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Resistant Hypercalcemia Resistant Hypercalcemia mainly occurs in diseased states with severely elevated serum calcium levels. It is predominantly reported in Malignancy-assoc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Retroperitoneal Fibrosis Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a relatively rare condition that is characterized by a chronic inflammatory and fibrosis in the retroperitoneum that ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Rosuvastatin Rosuvastatin is a statin medication used as a lipid-lowering agent. The FDA-approved indications are homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, hyperli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in organs. This condition mostly af ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis (Schistosoma haematobium), more specifically known as urogenital schistosomiasis, is an endemic disease to many countries in Africa an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Scleroderma Scleroderma is a chronic, autoimmune connective tissue disorder that is primarily characterized by thickening and hardening of the skin and other tiss ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Scleroderma And Primary Myocardial Disease Systemic scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that can affect internal organs. Cardiac manifestations of the disease can be a result of the prim ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Scleroderma And Renal Crisis Scleroderma renal crisis is a life-threatening complication of scleroderma. It typically presents with the abrupt onset of severe hypertension accompa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal failure is a condition characterized by inappropriate secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), secondary ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Secondary Hypertension Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure (BP), which is secondary to an identifiable cause. This activity outlines the causes, history, and p ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Septic Peritonitis Sepsis secondary to peritonitis can have life-threatening ramifications. The abdominal compartment can become a large nidus for pathogens resistant to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Nephropathy Sickle cell disease (SCD), is an autosomal recessive hemoglobin disorder that results from the replacement of glutamate for valine at the sixth amino ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Simple Renal Cyst A simple kidney cyst is the most common type of renal cyst. It is a fluid-filled sac that originates from the surface of the kidney. One or more simpl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sjogren Syndrome Primary Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder commonly presenting with dryness involving the eyes and mouth due to inflammation and resul ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperkalemia. This activity outlines and reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Statin Medications Statin medications are used in the management and treatment of hypocholesteremia. They are known to be inhibitors of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA red ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Struvite And Triple Phosphate Renal Calculi Struvite and triple phosphate renal calculi are formed as a result of urinary tract infection by urease-forming organisms. They grow rapidly and occup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are life-threatening and result from the accumulation of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater. The incidence of subarach ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Systemic Sclerosis Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disorder with unknown and complex pathogenesis. Scleroderma can be divided into two forms, localized scleroder ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Tacrolimus Tacrolimus is a medication used in the prevention and treatment of solid-organ transplant rejection. It is in the calcineurin-inhibitor class of medic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Therapeutic Uses Of Diuretic Agents Diuretics are a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous and other non-edematous disease conditions. Diuretics are a class of drug ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Thiazide Diuretics Thiazide diuretics are an FDA-approved class of drugs that inhibit the reabsorption of 3% to 5% of luminal sodium in the distal convoluted tubule of t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tobramycin Tobramycin is an antibiotic used in the management and treatment of systemic and ocular infections. It is a type of aminoglycoside. This activity desc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tolterodine Tolterodine is a medication used in the management and treatment of overactive bladder. It is in the antimuscarinic class of medications. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Topiramate Topiramate is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy and migraine. It is in the second-generation anti-epileptic drugs class of ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Transabdominal Ultrasound Ultrasound is an imaging modality that has been in clinical use for approximately 50 years, though its utility and efficacy have dramatically improved ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Transplantation Osteoporosis Transplantation has now become a standard treatment option for many end-stage disease processes. As the number of transplantations performed each year ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Trauma Organ Procurement Organ transplantation is defined as removal of organ from one person ( donor) to placement into another person who is called recipient.Transplantation ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Triamterene Triamterene is a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous states. It is in the potassium-sparing diuretics class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity Info
Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is a group of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases that involves the interstitium and tubules. Inflammation of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tumor Lysis Syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome is the most common oncologic emergency. This condition is prevalent in both adult and pediatric oncology patients undergoing chem ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Types of Arteriovenous Fistulas Nearly half a million people require hemodialysis, and each year approximately 100,000 new cases of end-stage renal disease are diagnosed. Consequentl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ultrafiltration in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) associated with volume overload is responsible for an increasing number of hospital admissions. The volume ov ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ultrasound Intravascular Access Ultrasound (US) guidance for intravenous (IV) access has been well documented for more than 20 years and is now routine in many settings for non-emerg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ultrasound of the Urinary Tract The most common indication for a point-of-care ultrasound of the urinary tract in the emergency department is flank pain, which is responsible for app ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Uremia Uremia is a clinical condition associated with worsening renal function. It is characterized by fluid, electrolyte, hormonal, and metabolic abnormalit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Uremic Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac surrounding the heart. It is composed of two layers, visceral and parietal, that are separated by a potential ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ureterolithiasis Ureterolithiasis is a painful condition that affects millions of Americans each year. To avoid the high morbidity and mortality associated with this c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is one of the most common causes of hydronephrosis in children. If it is left untreated, it might cause loss ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ureteroscopy Ureteroscopy is one of the most commonly performed procedures by urologists. It is primarily performed for urinary stone disease of the ureters or re ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis Uric acid nephrolithiasis is commonly seen with certain conditions like metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Increasing a ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Urosepsis Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection that can lead to multi-organ dysfunction, failure, and even death. Urosepsis is sepsis caused ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vascular Tunneled Central Catheter Access In contrast to non-tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), subcutaneously tunneled CVCs travel under the skin, away from the point of venous entry, ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Venous Gas Embolism A venous gas embolism is an abnormal collection of gas that forms a bubble in the systemic venous circulation, which can act as an embolus and affect ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vinca Alkaloid Toxicity Vinca alkaloids, which belong to a class of cell cycle phase M specific anti-tubulin agents are one of the first plant alkaloids to be developed for u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vitamin D Vitamin D is labeled as the "sunshine vitamin," as it is produced in the skin on sun exposure. Vitamin D is required to maintain serum calcium concent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Von Hippel Lindau Syndrome Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease affecting several organ systems. The disease is characterized by the growth of cysts ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome is a rare but life-threatening disorder associated with bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. In many cases, it is caused by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info

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