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Nurse-Transport (CTRN)

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EMS Methods To Cool A Patient In The Field

Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 degrees C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In s ...
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EMS Pre-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Asthma in Children

Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease and a frequent reason for pediatric emergency medical treatment. Thi ...
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Polytraumatized Patient

Polytrauma is when a patient has sustained multiple injuries, some of which may cause significant disability and may be ...
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Transfusion Reactions

Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They r ...
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APGAR Score

In 1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at Columbia University, developed the Apgar score. Serendipitously, APG ...
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Babinski Reflex

The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated ...
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Nurse-Transport (CTRN) Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abdominal Gunshot Wounds An abdominal gunshot wound is a multisystemic, traumatic injury that commonly causes high morbidity and mortality. Practitioners should recognize that ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Acute Eclampsia Eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder that manifests as new-onset generalized tonic colonic seizures. Typically eclampsia occurs after gestational ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity Info
Acute Postpartum Hemorrhage Obstetric hemorrhage is the most common and dangerous complication of childbirth. Traditionally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has been defined as great ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alcohol Withdrawal Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually appear when an individual discontinues or reduces alcohol intake after a period of prolonged consumption. In most ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
APGAR Score In 1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at Columbia University, developed the Apgar score. Serendipitously, APGAR is also a useful mnemonic t ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide and shortly thereafter diazepam, benzodiazepines quickly became popular medications secondar ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Bladder Trauma Bladder injury is broadly divided into extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal injuries. Extraperitoneal bladder injuries generally occur with pelvic frac ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Breech Presentation Breech presentation refers to the fetus in the longitudinal lie with the buttocks or lower extremity entering the pelvis first. The three types of bre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Adults Cardiopulmonary arrest is the cessation of adequate heart function and respiration and results in death without reversal. Often this condition is foun ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Children Unlike in adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in rare in children and less likely to be a primary cardiac event. Early onset of effective, high-quality CPR ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chemical Decontamination Contending with a mass casualty incident involving a chemical exposure seems daunting; fortunately, these are rare events. It is quite possible that ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Child Abuse and Neglect The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and explo ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Child Physical Abuse And Neglect Approximately one in four children experience child abuse or neglect in their lifetime. Of maltreated children, 18 percent are abused physically, 78 p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coma Altered mental status is a catch-all term that includes a spectrum of patient behaviors ranging from confusion to deep unresponsiveness. Coma is at on ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that are frequently used in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first choice for ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Defibrillation Cardiac defibrillation is the act of administering a transthoracic electrical current to a person experiencing one of the two lethal ventricular dysrh ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Digit Amputation Digital amputation is often associated with traumatic injuries but is also seen within the elective surgery setting, such as in the case of cancer res ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Dysbarism Dysbarism describes any condition resulting from changes in ambient pressure that occur at a rate outpacing the body's ability to adapt safely. Exampl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Airway Management In Adverse Conditions Managing the airway of the critically ill or injured patient is a core skill in emergency medical care. In addition to difficulties arising from physi ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
EMS Chest Injury Chest injuries account for nearly one-fourth of all trauma-related mortality, second only to head and neck injuries. They often require rapid interven ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
EMS Facilitated Intubation Without Paralytics Facilitated intubation, also known as medication-facilitated intubation or sedation-facilitated intubation, refers to intubation performed using a sed ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
EMS Field Identification Of CHF Congestive heart failure (CHF) can arise from multiple causes, all resulting in decreased perfusion of body tissues. CHF may result from a drug overdo ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity Info
EMS Field Intubation Field intubation is the placement of an advanced airway or endotracheal tube (ET) by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel outside the hospital s ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
EMS Methods To Cool A Patient In The Field Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 degrees C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In sepsis, the immunologic reactio ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
EMS Pneumothorax The majority of emergency medical service (EMS) providers in the United States have protocols for rapid assessment and treatment of pneumothorax. Ther ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
EMS Pneumothorax Identification Without Ancillary Testing Pneumothorax is a principal diagnosis for emergency medical services (EMS) providers to identify, which is a potentially life-threatening condition. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Portable Ventilator Management Patients intubated in the field will need some form of artificial ventilation started. BVM ventilation is unreliable and inconsistent and requires a d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Prehospital Deliveries There are approximately 3.9 million deliveries in the United States every year. Fortunately, most of these deliveries are appropriately anticipated an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
EMS Pre-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Asthma in Children Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease and a frequent reason for pediatric emergency medical treatment. This activity reviews emergency m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Resuscitation During Contamination While Wearing PPE In a world of evolving disease, accidental industrial or commercial contamination, as well as foreign and domestic terrorism, emergency providers must ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in a variety of settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved f ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Flail Chest Flail chest is a traumatic condition of the thorax. It may occur when 3 or more ribs are broken in at least 2 places. It is considered a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Foreign Body Airway Obstruction According to the National Safety Council’s statistics, foreign-body airway obstruction (FBAO) is the fourth leading cause of unintentional death, resu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Frostbite Frostbite, also known as freezing cold injury is tissue damage that occurs due to cold exposure, occurring at temperatures below zero degrees celsius. ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoglycemia, as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, an ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hand Amputation This activity reviews the presentation and evaluation of patients with hand amputations. Additionally, it highlights the treatment options and associa ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Heat Illness The disorders of hyperthermia (also known as heat-related injury or illness) exist on a continuum of injury, which is marked by dysregulation of the b ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Heat Stroke Heat stroke is a severe heat-related illness that involves an elevation in body temperature which typically, but not always, is greater than 40C. The ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.25 4 Activity Info
Hemorrhage Hemorrhage can manifest in many different ways depending on the mechanism and anatomic location. It is a common and serious medical emergency that req ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hemorrhage Control Blood is mandatory to maintain adequate circulation within the cardiovascular system and perfuse the tissues of the body. Hemorrhage is the loss of bl ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
High Altitude Cerebral Edema High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and potentially fatal condition associated with high altitude illness that is often thought of as a la ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a severe form of high-altitude illness that, if left untreated, can lead to mortality in 50 percent of affecte ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypercapnea Hypercapnia is the increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic product of the many cellular pr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypertensive Emergency A hypertensive emergency is an acute, marked elevation in blood pressure that is associated with signs of target-organ damage. These can include pulmo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Intraosseous Vascular Access Obtaining vascular access is often difficult and delays patient care in the prehospital and hospital setting. Intraosseous (IO) access is a fast and r ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Intubation Endotracheal Tube Medications Mastering the skill of endotracheal intubation to secure airway plays a critical role in many settings such as pre-hospital environments, emergency ro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Isoproterenol Isoproterenol is a beta-1, and beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist indicated primarily for bradydysrhythmias. The administration and subsequent post-ad ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Joint Immobilization Splinting and immobilization are crucial skills for prehospital medical providers, as traumatic musculoskeletal injuries are commonly encountered by e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Kidney Trauma Renal trauma can result in injury to the parenchyma or the renal vasculature which can cause bleeding or injury to the collecting system with possible ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Laryngeal Injury Laryngotracheal injuries have a high mortality rate although they are infrequently seen. These injuries may be penetrating or blunt and can occur in t ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Laryngeal Mask Airway Laryngeal mask airways (LMA) are supraglottic airway devices. They may be used as a temporary method to maintain an open airway during the administrat ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
MAO Inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO Inhibitors) are medications used in the management and treatment of depression, among other neurological and psychia ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Meconium Aspiration Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is the neonatal respiratory distress that occurs in a newborn in the context of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MA ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as "heart attack," is caused by decreased or complete cessation of blood flow to a portion of the myoca ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Nasogastric Tube Nasogastric tubes are part of the standard of care in treating intestinal obstruction and can also be used to provide nutritional support. They are mo ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neck Trauma The management of neck trauma can be challenging and sometimes overwhelming, as this anatomical region contains many vital structures. These structure ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Neurogenic Shock Neurogenic shock, also known as vasogenic shock, is a devastating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that can manifest as hypotension, bradyarrhy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Norepinephrine Untreated hypotension can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Norepinephrine is a first-line agent for hypotension that does not respon ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Organophosphate Toxicity Most patients exposed to organophosphates come into contact with insecticides. The first organophosphate insecticide was created in the mid-1800s but ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Oropharyngeal Airway Acute respiratory failure is caused by a wide range of etiologies. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest and ultimately death is likely in the absenc ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity Info
Oxygen Administration Oxygen administration may be initiated for a variety of reasons. Increased metabolic demand, maintenance of oxygenation while providing anesthesia, su ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Parkland Formula Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation plays a fundamental role in the management of severe burn patients. The Parkland formula is the most widely u ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) describes a narrow complex tachycardia involving episodic supraventricular tachycardia with sudden onse ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Patient Restraint and Seclusion Patient restraint and seclusion is a controversial yet necessary aspect of medicine. Restraint encompasses both physical and chemical procedures. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Dehydration The World Health Organization defines dehydration as a condition that results from excessive loss of body water. The most common causes of dehydration ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pediatric Facial Trauma Pediatric facial trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma to the structures of the face in patients ages less than 18 years. This article primaril ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Pediatric Spine Trauma A spinal cord injury is a potentially crippling injury which often results in severe and permanent disability. Quite often when encountering multi-sys ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pelvic Fracture A pelvic fracture involves damage to the hip bones, sacrum, or coccyx - the bony structures forming the pelvic ring. Due to the inherent structural an ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Pelvic Trauma Pelvic injuries are the result of high energy trauma; they frequently have associated injuries. The injuries can be life-threatening and lead to life- ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Penetrating abdominal trauma is most commonly caused by stabbing or gunshot wound. The most commonly injured regions are the small bowel, large bowel, ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive procedure to open b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pericarditis Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac and is the most common pathologic process involving the pericardium. Temporally, it may be further ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Phencyclidine Toxicity Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that is a commonly used recreational drug. PCP is a crystalline powder that can be ingested orally, i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Polytraumatized Patient Polytrauma is when a patient has sustained multiple injuries, some of which may cause significant disability and may be life-threatening. Worldwide th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postictal Seizure State The postictal state is a period that begins when a seizure subsides and ends when the patient returns to baseline. It typically lasts between 5 and 30 ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pregnancy Trauma Trauma in pregnancy can ranges from mild, for example trauma associated with a single fall from standing height or hitting the abdomen on an object su ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Premature Ventricular Contraction During a premature ventricular contraction (PVC), the heartbeat is initiated by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node. Given that a PVC occurs b ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Pulseless ventricular tachycardia is a serious condition with high mortality and morbidity that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. This activity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Respiratory Failure Respiratory failure happens when the respiratory system fails to maintain gas exchange and is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to blood gas ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Shock Shock is a life-threatening manifestation of circulatory failure. Circulatory shock leads to cellular and tissue hypoxia resulting in cellular death ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sinus Tachycardia Sinus tachycardia is a regular cardiac rhythm in which the heart beats faster than normal. While it is common to have tachycardia as a physiological r ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition, which often results in severe morbidity and permanent disability. It occurs when the axons of ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Splenic Injury Injuries to the spleen are one of the most common injuries in abdominal trauma. The spleen is the most vascular organ in the body. Since bleeding in s ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Streptokinase Streptokinase can be useful in the management and treatment of acute ST-segment myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arter ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are life-threatening and result from the accumulation of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater. The incidence of subarach ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Subfalcine Herniation Herniation occurs when brain tissue is displaced across a structure within the cranium. Subfalcine herniation is the most common form of brain herniat ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Surgical Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning refers to the collective measures that are used for clearing the airway of a patient. It involves suctioning, clearing secretions, a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thermal Burns Thermal burns are skin injuries caused by excessive heat, typically from contact with hot surfaces, hot liquids, steam, or flame. Most burns are minor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block An atrioventricular block is a loss of the regular function of the cardiac electroconductive pathways linking the sinoatrial node (SA node) and the ve ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thrombolytic Therapy Thrombolytics or fibrinolytics are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of dissolving intravascular clots. They are in the plas ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tissue Plasminogen Activator Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is classified as a serine protease (enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins). It is thus one of the essential ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tracheal Injury Tracheal injury is an uncommon occurrence seen primarily after healthcare procedures, blunt and penetrating trauma, and caustic inhalations. Damage to ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tracheal Rapid Sequence Intubation Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is a technique that is used when rapid control of the airway is needed as a precaution for patients that may have a 'f ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Trauma Assessment Trauma is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United States, trauma is the leading cause of death in young adults and accounts for ten percen ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Uncal Herniation Uncal herniation occurs when rising intracranial pressure causes portions of the brain to move from one intracranial compartment to another. It is a l ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Unconscious Patient Unconsciousness is generally caused by a temporary or permanent impairment of either the reticular activating system in the brainstem, both cerebral h ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Universal Precautions Universal precautions were introduced by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1985, mostly in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ventilator Management Invasive mechanical ventilation is an intervention that is frequently used in acutely ill patients requiring either respiratory support or airway prot ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Ventricular Fibrillation Arrhythmias originating from the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system are grouped under ventricular arrhythmia (VA). This includes a subset o ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia is characterized as a wide complex tachyarrhythmia. It is classified by duration as non-sustained or sustained. Non-sustained ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Waddell Triad Waddell’s triad represents a pediatric emergency. The triad comprises of three distinct features seen in pediatric pedestrian patients subject to blun ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Wheezing Wheezing is the symptomatic manifestation of any disease process that causes airway obstruction. Wheezing is commonly experienced by people who have a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info

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Nurse-Transport (CTRN)

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Nurse-Transport (CTRN) activity. In this online self-assessment activity, read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 175 activities in Nurse-Transport (CTRN) for 193 total CE hours.


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