Nurse-Pediatric (CPN) CE

Stay on top of your practice by subscribing to the StatPearls Unlimited CE program. Gain access to 408 PubMed indexed activities in Nurse-Pediatric (CPN). Your subscription also gives you unlimited access to all 6,325 PubMed indexed CE activities in our library.

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All of our activities are approved by ANCC (LVN, RN, and CNS) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Pediatric Nursing Certification Board® content outlines. 546 authors and 9 editors have contributed to the development of the Nurse-Pediatric (CPN) content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Nurse-Pediatric (CPN) Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Abrasion Abrasion is the superficial denudation of the epithelium due to scraping, impact, or pressure. While the management of abrasions is relatively simple, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect refer to the actions or inactions of an individual's caregiver or parent inflicting physical, sexual, or emotional harm on the indiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acneiform Eruptions Acneiform eruptions are a group of disorders characterized by papules and pustules resembling acne vulgaris. Acneiform eruptions demonstrate an acute ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute Chest Syndrome Acute chest syndrome occurs due to vaso-occlusion within the pulmonary vasculature of patients with sickle cell disease. This results in deoxygenation ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Agitation Agitation is a nonspecific constellation of relatively unrelated behaviors that can be seen in various clinical situations, usually presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Airborne Precautions An airborne disorder is any disease that is caused by a microorganism that is transmitted through the air. There are many airborne diseases that are o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain the patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease presenting with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an IgE ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Anemia Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying condition and can be subdivided into ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Anemia Of Chronic Renal Disease Anemia of chronic renal disease, also known as anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a form of normocytic, normochromic, hypoproliferative anemia ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Antifungal Ergosterol Synthesis Inhibitors The ergosterol inhibitor class of medications ("conazoles") is used to manage and treat fungal infections. These drugs inhibit ergosterol in the cell ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
APGAR Score In 1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at Columbia University, developed the Apgar score. Serendipitously, APGAR is also a useful mnemonic t ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Asthma Medication in Children Asthma typically presents with a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, and is characterize ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Asthma Medications Asthma is a wide-reaching, chronic inflammatory illness that impacts millions of people daily. It is frequently responsible for unscheduled healthcare ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy Athetoid cerebral palsy, also known as dyskinetic cerebral palsy, is the second most common subtype of cerebral palsy. It is a non-progressive, perman ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a specific form of eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Atopic dermatitis has a complex etio ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been surrounded by controversy over the last century. Over the past 30 years, how ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of rapidly growing disabilities. They are characterized by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacitracin Topical Bacitracin is a topical antibiotic ointment widely used by both medical professionals and the general public to treat minor skin injuries including cu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also informally known as "pink eye," makes up the majority of ophthalmologic disorders seen at primary care clinics. Patients present ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization is a commonly performed procedure in all hospitals. It can be performed by external, urethral, and suprapubic techniques. It i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Brief Resolved Unexplained Event In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended replacing the term apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) with brief resolved unexplained even ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bullying Bullying is common in our society and has become a public health emergency. It is a form of repeated peer aggression which is intentional and involves ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Burn Fluid Management In the United States, approximately 500,000 people seek care for burn injuries each year. For civilians, these injuries are typically sustained in hou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Children Unlike in adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in rare in children and less likely to be a primary cardiac event. Early onset of effective, high-quality CPR ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Care Of A Central Line Central venous catheters (CVC) are frequently used in critical care units, hemodialysis units, and oncology units for the administration of intravenou ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Carotenemia First described in 1919 by Hess and Meyers, carotenemia is the medical terminology describing yellow-orange skin pigmentation due to high levels of ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Central Line Management Central venous access is required for many hospitalized patients. Placement of central line catheters is done for many reasons, including inadequate p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cheyne Stokes Respirations Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a type of breathing disorder characterized by cyclical episodes of apnea and hyperventilation. Although described in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Child Abuse and Neglect The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and explo ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Child Development The stages through which a child goes through from birth until he or she becomes an adult is child development. Children are first newborns, and durin ... Read the Article 4.5 85 Activity Info
Child Physical Abuse And Neglect Approximately one in four children experience child abuse or neglect in their lifetime. Of maltreated children, 18 percent are abused physically, 78 p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Child Sexual Abuse And Neglect Sexual abuse of children is the involvement of children or adolescents in sexual activities that he or she does not fully comprehend and can include e ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Chronic Iron Deficiency Chronic iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world and a significant common cause of anemia worldwide. It is mainly caused by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Liver Disease Chronic liver disease is a progressive deterioration of liver functions. Liver functions include the production of clotting factors and other proteins ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Chronic Suppurative Otitis Chronic suppurative otitis media continues to be an important disease in the pediatric population and a significant cause of hearing problems leading ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic agent in the fluoroquinolone class used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections and pneumonia. C ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Colic Infant colic is estimated to affect 20% of all infants. Despite its prevalence, a clear cause for infantile colic remains elusive. There have been man ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Condyloma Acuminata Condyloma acuminata is a manifestation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The condition is characterized by skin-colored, fleshy papules in the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of intellectual disability. This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Congenital Torticollis Torticollis, also known as a twisted neck, is the contraction or contracture of the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt to one side. It i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body's requirements. It results from any disorder ... Read the Article 2.5 38 Activity Info
Constitutional Growth Delay Short stature is defined as height at least two standard deviations below the age and sex-matched mean. Ideally, this should be matched to people of t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function inconsistent with patterns of kn ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Coprolalia Coprolalia comes from the greek "kopros," which means "dung, feces" and "lalein," which means "to babble." It's a tic-like occurrence that involves no ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Cow Milk Allergy Cow's milk allergy is an allergic reaction to the protein found in cow’s milk. Diagnosis can be difficult as it is primarily based on history and phys ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cradle Cap Cradle cap, or pityriasis capitis, is a subset of infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). It is a very common, mostly self-limiting, chronic non-inflam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn sodium is a medication used to manage bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and certain allergic eye conditions such as vernal conjunctivitis, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Cryptorchidism Cryptorchidism is the absence of at least one testicle from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect involving the male genitalia. About 3% of ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.75 16 Activity Info
Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR), also known as toxidermia, are skin manifestations resulting from systemic drug administration. These reaction ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyanotic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease (CHD) are structural abnormalities of the heart or intrathoracic great vessels occurring during fetal development. CHD is the ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 2.75 44 Activity Info
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Death and Dying Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers e ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to devel ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Depression Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic Stat ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Depression In Children Depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) include diagnoses of different disorders, for example, major ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Dermal Melanocytosis This activity outlines the evaluation and management of congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spot). It explains the role of the interprofessiona ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Development Milestones Developmental milestones are markers of a child’s development from infancy on into childhood. They are used to help determine if a child is undergoing ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Developmental Delay Delay in development occurs when the child fails to attain developmental milestones as compared to peers from the same population. It is caused by imp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Developmental Stages of Social Emotional Development In Children To apply knowledge regarding human growth and development, healthcare professionals need to be aware of 2 areas: (1) milestone competencies, for examp ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 In Children Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that leads to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells which in turn causes insufficient insulin production ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Diaper Dermatitis Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen i ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Diaphyseal Femur Fracture Diaphyseal femur fractures are commonly encountered in association with other high-energy injuries. These injuries can lead to life-threatening sequel ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Dietary Approaches To Obesity Treatment Obesity is an emerging epidemic in the modern world, and lifestyle modification remains the first line of therapy for weight management. Dietary inter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a toxin-mediated infection caused by Corynebacterium species, primarily Corynebacterium diphtheria. It causes skin and mucosal infection ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine The DTaP vaccine is administered to children from 6 weeks to 6 years of age to provide immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Doppler Renal Assessment, Protocols, And Interpretation Renal Doppler ultrasound is routinely performed because it is a useful technique for evaluating a wide range of various renal pathologic conditions. A ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Unfortunately, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not only one of the most severe forms of inherited muscular dystrophies but also the most common h ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Dyslexia Reading is a skill unique to humans and is crucial for living in the world today. Learning to read is one of the first teaching points of elementary s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Early Childhood Caries The presence of dental caries in the primary dentition of young children is known as early childhood caries (ECC), which is defined as one or more dec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Eczema Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a common chronic skin condition that can lead to recurrent infections and poor quality of life if left unt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Electrocardiogram Electrocardiogram (abbreviated as EKG or ECG) represents a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Willem Einthoven first invented it in 1 ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
EMS Pre-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Asthma in Children Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease and a frequent reason for pediatric emergency medical treatment. This activity reviews emergency m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Encopresis Encopresis or fecal incontinence is defined as the involuntary passing of stool into inappropriate places such as the underwear in children older than ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Enuresis Enuresis is a common childhood disorder seen in outpatient settings. Enuresis can be promptly treated if cases are identified early. In this activity, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in various settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved for va ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Epistaxis Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency room or primary care. There are ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epstein Barr Virus Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus in which over 90% of the population worldwide has been infected. EBV infection can range from asymptomatic t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Epstein Pearls Epstein pearls are small, benign, self-resolving nodules commonly found in the oral cavities of newborns. This activity describes the evaluation and m ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Erb Palsy Erb palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of the most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythema Infectiosum Erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, is a common viral exanthem caused by parvovirus B19. It is commonly seen in children between five a ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Erythromycin Erythromycin has traditionally been used for various respiratory infections (i.e., community-acquired pneumonia, Legionnaires disease), prophylaxis of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Escherichia Coli Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative bacillus that is a causative organism of many diarrheal illnesses, including traveler’s diarrhea and dys ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Exercise Induced Asthma Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes a transient and reversible contraction of bronchial smooth muscle after physical exertion that ma ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Failure To Thrive Failure to thrive (FTT) is a common term used to describe lack of adequate weight gain in pediatric patients. Accepted definitions include a weight fo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Familial Short Stature Familial short stature (FSS) is the condition characterized by the final adult height below the third percentile of the mean for the patient's age, ge ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Febrile Seizure Febrile seizures are seizures that are caused by a sudden spike in body temperature with fevers greater than 38C or 100.4F, with no other underlying s ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Feeding Disability In Children Feeding disability in children is an inadequacy of food intake that results in poor weight gain, failure to thrive, and/or delayed milestones. This ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Feeding Tube Feeding tubes are tubes inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to provide a patient with enteral nutrition or for decompression. Tubes come in a var ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the five disorders that comprise fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These fetal alcohol spectrum disorders clas ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
First Degree Burn First-degree burns are superficial burns involving the epidermal layer of skin. The skin is the largest organ of the human body, with its weight compr ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Flea Bites Flea bites are common in North America, especially in outdoor or unkempt conditions. Improving the interprofessional team's skills to educate patients ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agents for benzodiazepine overdose a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is FDA-approved for major depressive disorder (age eight and older), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, binge eating d ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Food Allergies Food allergy is defined as an immune reaction to proteins in the food and can be immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated or non-IgE-mediated. IgE-mediated food ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Forearm Splinting The main goal of forearm splinting is to prevent pronation and supination of the forearm. There are a variety of indications for forearm splinting, in ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Foreign Body Airway Obstruction According to the National Safety Council’s statistics, foreign-body airway obstruction (FBAO) is the fourth leading cause of unintentional death, resu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Functional Abdominal Pain In Children Functional abdominal pain is a common disorder in children. The diagnostic Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain must be fulfilled for at lea ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Furosemide Furosemide is a loop diuretic that has been in use for decades. However, clinicians must be aware of updates related to the indications and administra ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Galactokinase Deficiency Galactokinase deficiency or galactosemia type II is a rare inborn error of galactose metabolism. Galactosemia type II is rarer and more insidious than ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Genital Warts Genital warts (condyloma acuminatum) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. These are spread by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glargine Insulin Insulin glargine is used to manage and treat hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a long-acting insulin and is us ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Glomerulonephritis The term "glomerulonephritis" encompasses a subset of renal diseases characterized by immune-mediated damage to the basement membrane, mesangium, or t ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used to manage and treat hypoglycemia as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, anaphylaxis refrac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC), also known as gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum when it occurs in neonates, is an infection that is transmitted by cont ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Gray Baby Syndrome Gray baby syndrome is an adverse reaction to chloramphenicol that is characterized by abdominal distention, hemodynamic collapse, and ashen-gray skin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Grief Support Health professionals frequently deal with the loss of a patient in the emergency department and in intensive care units. These deaths are often due to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Group B Coxsackie Virus Coxsackie B virus belongs to the Picornavirus family and can cause a variety of diseases, including gastrointestinal illness, myocarditis, pneumonia, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Gynecologic Examination The gynecological exam traditionally includes an examination of the external and internal genitalia. Under some conditions, it may be necessary to per ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gynecomastia Gynecomastia is an increase in male breast volume. This condition most often occurs during times of hormonal change such as at birth, during adolescen ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Haemophilus Influenza Type B Vaccine The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent invasive H. influenzae infections (usually caused by H. influenzae type b ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hand Foot And Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness usually affecting infants and children but can affect adults. The infection usually inv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Heat Illness The disorders of hyperthermia, also known as heat-related injury or illness, exist on a continuum, which is marked by dysregulation of the body’s ther ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Height Assessment Height assessment is important from a clinical, anthropological, forensic as well as medico-legal standpoint. This activity describes the significance ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by the presence of a triad of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, acute renal impa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Hemophilia A Hemophilia encompasses a group of inherited disorders that alter blood coagulation. Classical hemophilia, also known as hemophilia A, is a hereditary ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Disease Of Newborn Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a life-threatening condition that is due to insufficient vitamin K levels in newborns as a result of various cau ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hemothorax Hemothorax is a collection of blood in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura (pleural space). The clinical findings in such patients incl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hepatitis A The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Picornaviridae. It replicates primarily within h ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hepatitis A Vaccine Hepatitis A infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This activity will describe how to prevent this infection through t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Vaccine The hepatitis B vaccine is a medication used in the prevention of hepatitis B infection, which can lead to chronic liver failure and hepatocellular ca ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
HIV Disease Current Practice The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an enveloped retrovirus that contains 2 copies of a single-stranded RNA genome. It causes the acquired immun ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Holter Monitor The Holter monitor is a device that works on Galvanometer's principle to record electrocardiographic signals from an individual who is going about his ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Human Bites Human bites account for a relatively low percentage (3%) of the total bites encountered in the ED, but they have the potential for severe morbidity du ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Human Growth and Development Evaluation of growth and development is a crucial element in the physical examination of a patient. A piece of good working knowledge and the skill to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) is a vaccine used in the management and prevention of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Human Papillomavirus The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded, circular DNA virus that is responsible for causing multiple epithelial lesions and ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Human Trafficking Human trafficking is a pressing public health concern which transcends all races, social classes, demographics, and gender. No population is exempt fr ... Read the Article 2 22 Activity Info
Humerus Fractures Overview Humerus fractures account for 4 to 6 percent of all fractures in young patients and 1 to 3 percent of all fractures in elderly patients. In young men, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Huntington Disease Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by involuntary choreatic movements with cognitive and behav ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hydrocodone Hydrocodone is a schedule II semi-synthetic opioid medication used to treat pain. Hydrocodone is also an antitussive indicated for cough in adults. In ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypoalbuminemia Hypoalbuminaemia is one of the most prevalent disorders in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Hypoalbuminaemia may be a result of decreased pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ibuprofen Ibuprofen is a medication used to manage and treat inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid disorders, mild to moderate pain, fever, dysmenorrhea, and osteoa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy A seizure can be defined as abnormal, hypersynchronous discharge of cortical neurons, and epilepsy defined as a propensity to have seizures. Idiopathi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated or inappropriate immunologic responses occurring in response to an antigen or allergen. Type I, II and III ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Immunization Immunization has become a vital part of public health and disease prevention, yet remain a controversial topic. Diseases which were once responsible f ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Impetigo Impetigo is a common infection of the superficial layers of the epidermis that is highly contagious and most commonly caused by gram-positive bacteria ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Incentive Spirometer and Inspiratory Muscle Training Postoperatively, pulmonary complications require extraordinary attention from the medical community, as they are a direct cause of morbidity and morta ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure t ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Infant Apnea Apnea in infants is the term used to describe episodes of cessation of breathing and may be due to many physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Bri ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Infant Nutrition Requirements and Options Infancy is a period of rapid growth second only to the fetal period, with a pressing need to optimize nutrition to ensure adequate growth and organ de ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Infection Control Infection control refers to the policy and procedures implemented to control and minimize the dissemination of infections in hospitals and other healt ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Influenza Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, including upper and lower respiratory passages. A wide spectrum of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Influenza Vaccine Influenza viruses belong to Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus family and classify into three distinct types based on their major antigenic differences; influ ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Inhaled Corticosteroids Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the FDA-indicated treatment of choice in preventing asthma exacerbation in patients with persistent asthma. Persiste ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Intellectual Disability Individuals with an intellectual disability have neurodevelopmental deficits characterized by limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive beh ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Intramuscular Injection This activity outlines and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving care for patients who undergo intramuscular injection. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron deficiency anemia is the most common cause of anemia worldwide, which results in microcytic and hypochromic red cells on the peripheral smear. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Iron Supplementation Iron is a medication used in the management and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. This activity illustrates the indications, action, and contraind ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Isotretinoin Isotretinoin is an oral prescription medication that affects sebaceous glands and is used to treat severe acne. The drug was approved by the US Food a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), a heterogeneous group of chronic arthritis, is the most common chronic rheumatological condition in children. The ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited medium vessel vasculitis that has a predilection for the coronary arteries. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Kernicterus Kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is bilirubin-induced neurological damage, which is most commonly seen in infants. It occurs when the unconju ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with pathologically high serum and urine concentrations of ketone bodies. Clinically relevant forms of ke ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the result of 2 or more X chromosomes in a phenotypic male. The clinical phenotype of KS was first described in males wit ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Lactose Intolerance Lactose intolerance is a clinical syndrome that manifests with characteristic signs and symptoms upon the consumption of food substances containing la ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Laryngotracheobronchitis Laryngotracheobronchitis, as the name implies, refers to inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Cases of laryngotracheobronchitis can be mo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Lead Toxicity Lead became a common occupational toxin with the birth of the Industrial Revolution, by the end of the 19-century childhood lead poisoning secondary t ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Learning Disability Learning disabilities (LDs) refer to a number of disorders that may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, comprehension, or the use of both ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Leukemia Leukemia is a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies that arise from dysfunctional proliferation of developing leukocytes. It is classified a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Long QT Syndrome The QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) represents the duration of the ventricular action potential, and this physiologically correlates with th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Low Carbohydrate Diet Low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets are a strategy for weight loss. Today, there continues to be an interest in low-carb approaches. While all low carbo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Marfan Syndrome One of the most common inherited disorders affecting connective tissue, Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant condition with a reported incid ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Measles Measles, also known as rubeola, is a preventable, highly contagious, acute febrile viral illness. It remains an important cause of global mortality an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Meckel Diverticulum Meckel diverticulum is a common congenital abnormality of the small intestine caused by incomplete obliteration of the vitelline (omphalomesenteric) d ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Meconium Aspiration Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is the neonatal respiratory distress that occurs in a newborn in the context of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MA ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Meconium Ileus Meconium Ileus (MI) is one of the earliest manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and presents in up to 20 percent of infants with CF. The inspissated ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Meningococcal Vaccine Meningococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This activity will describe how to deal with this disease as a serious ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Based on the antibiotic susceptibilities, Methicillin resistance in S. aureus is defined as an oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gre ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Milia Milia are benign and transient dermal cysts of keratine. These white appearing bumps are common, present in many different ways, and can develop in an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Minocycline Minocycline is a medication used in the management and treatment of both infectious and non-infectious conditions. It is in the tetracycline class of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is caused by the retrograde flow of blood from the left ventricle (LV) into the left atrium (LA) through the mitral valve (M ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
MMR Vaccine The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is a live-attenuated combined vaccine used in the prevention and, in specific patient populations, post-exposu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Mosquito Bites Mosquitoes are responsible for the majority of insect bites worldwide. They are present in all continents aside from Antarctica. Although mosquito bit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Mumps Mumps is a contagious viral illness and at one time was a very common childhood disease. With the implementation of widespread vaccination, the incide ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Muscular Dystrophy The term "muscular dystrophy" incorporates an assortment of hereditary disorders that lead to progressive, generalized disease of the muscle prompted ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defects are a spectrum of congenital anomalies that includes cranial defects and open or closed spinal dysraphism. Open spinal dysraphism ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Naloxone Over the past two decades, the rate of overdose from opiates has increased significantly. Opiate misuse is associated with enormous morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Nasal Foreign Body Nasal foreign bodies are commonly seen in the emergency department, mostly in the pediatric population but also in those with psychiatric illness or d ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nasogastric Tube Nasogastric tubes are part of the standard of care in treating intestinal obstruction and can also be used to provide nutritional support. They are mo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Neonatal Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is the most common metabolic disturbance occurring in the neonatal period. Screening at-risk infants and the management of low blood gluc ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Neonatal Jaundice Neonatal jaundice is yellowish discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva, and sclera due to elevated serum or plasma bilirubin in the newborn period. Neo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Neonatal Sepsis Neonatal sepsis refers to an infection involving bloodstream in newborn infants less than 28 days old. It continues to remain a leading cause of morbi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical syndrome defined by massive proteinuria (greater than 40 mg/m2 per hour) responsible for hypoalbuminemia (less t ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Neutrophilia Neutrophilia is defined as a higher neutrophil count in the blood than the normal reference range of absolute neutrophil count. Neutrophilia can be se ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Night Terrors Night terrors are a common sleep disorder in young children and describe a condition in which a child wakes up from sleep in a terrified state. For th ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Nocturnal Enuresis Enuresis refers to the involuntary loss of urine during sleep that occurs at least twice a week in children older than 5 years of age (or the developm ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Normal Saline Fluid therapy is a critical component of the clinical management of patients. It consists of colloid therapy as well as crystalloid therapy. The most ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Normal Versus Chronic Adaptations To Aerobic Exercise Normal versus chronic adaptations to aerobic exercises occur as a natural response to acute bouts of aerobic exercise and prolonged periods of trainin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Norovirus Noroviruses are nonenveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the Caliciviridae viral family. Norovirus is a common cause of ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
NPH Insulin NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) insulin is a medication used to treat and manage diabetes mellitus, which is a significant risk factor for coronary a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nursemaid Elbow Nursemaid's elbow, or "radial head subluxation" is a common injury in young children in which the radial head slips under the annular ligament resulti ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Obesity Obesity is the excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat or adipose tissue in the body that may impair health. Obesity has become an epidemic which ha ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves intrusive thoughts with or without compensatory actions to alleviate the stress brought on by these thoug ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by episodes of complete collapse of the airway or partial collapse with an associated decrease in oxyge ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Otitis Media With Effusion Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a condition in which there is fluid in the middle ear, but no signs of acute infection. As fluid builds up in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Overview On Ordering and Evaluation of Laboratory Tests The laboratory medicine service in a hospital is concerned with relevant investigations of patient’s presenting complaints and sometimes with detectio ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Oxygen Administration Oxygen administration may be initiated for a variety of reasons. Increased metabolic demand, maintenance of oxygenation while providing anesthesia, su ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Oxygen Saturation Oxygen saturation is an essential element of patient care. Oxygen is tightly regulated within the body because hypoxemia can lead to many acute advers ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pacemaker Pacemakers are adjustable artificial electrical pulse generators that can be temporary or permanent. They frequently emit a pulse lasting between 0.5 ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Pain Management Medications Analgesics are medications used in the management and treatment of pain. They include several classes of medications (acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Palliative Care The World Health Organization characterizes the field of palliative care as a form of specialized medical care which aims to optimize the quality of l ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Paramyxovirus The Paramyxoviridae is a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known to cause different types of infections in vertebrates. Examples of these infecti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parental Consent Physicians and medical researchers have a moral and legal obligation to obtain informed consent. Informed consent must include the patient being compe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parotitis Parotitis is caused by duct obstruction (such as sialolithiasis), infectious organisms (viruses or bacteria), or inflammatory conditions (such as Sjog ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Patient Restraint and Seclusion Patient restraint and seclusion is a controversial yet necessary aspect of medicine. Restraint encompasses both physical and chemical procedures. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pectus Carinatum Pectus carinatum is a structural deformity of the chest wall that affects nearly 1 in 1000 teens, and early identification allows for more noninvasive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Pediatric Asthma Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow obstruction resulting from edema, bronchospasm ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Pediatric Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles usually caused by an acute viral illness. It is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Dehydration The World Health Organization defines dehydration as a condition that results from excessive loss of body water. The most common causes of dehydration ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Pediatric Facial Trauma Pediatric facial trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma to the structures of the face in patients ages less than 18 years. This article primaril ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Fluid Management Dehydration occurs commonly in children and many times requires resuscitation. Fluid resuscitation is essential in the management of critically ill ch ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestion Children commonly swallow foreign bodies. Coins are the most commonly swallowed foreign body that comes to medical attention in the USA; in other coun ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Pediatric Functional Constipation Most individuals have bowel movements at regular intervals, and although the frequency varies from person to person, stools should pass without signif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis in the pediatric population is a very common condition that accounts for around 10 percent of pediatric deaths and is the second cause ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pediatric Head Trauma Blunt traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a disruption in the normal function of the brain caused by a mechanical impact to the head. TBI ranges from mild ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Hearing Loss Pediatric hearing loss is a broad category that covers a wide range of pathologies. Early detection and prompt management are essential, as the develo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an essential topic in pediatrics that is frequently overlooked, especially in the context of children with neurodevel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pediatric Pneumonia Globally, pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than the age of 5 years. Although the majority of deaths attribu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Tracheostomy Tracheostomy has been increasingly performed in children with complex medical conditions for the management of upper airway obstruction, prolonged ven ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by peripheral insulin resistance, leading to hyperglycemia. While once considered an ad ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pediculosis Pediculosis (louse infestation) affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide each year and has been reported in all countries and within all socio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Penicillin Allergy Penicillin (PCN) was discovered by Alexander Flemming in 1928 and became widely used in 1942 to treat various staphylococcal and streptococcal bacteri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perinatal Drug Abuse And Neonatal Drug Withdrawal Drug abuse and addiction have significantly increased over the last few decades; specifically, opioid abuse and dependence have increased to epidemic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral Line Placement Peripheral intravenous (IV) lines, catheters or cannulas are indwelling single-lumen plastic conduits that allow fluids, medications and other therapi ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Permethrin Permethrin is a medication used in the management and treatment of scabies and pediculosis. It is in the synthetic pyrethroid class of drugs. This act ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pertussis Pertussis, literally meaning “a violent cough,” and also known as whooping cough, or “the cough of 100 days,” was first described in the Paris epidemi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Petechiae Petechiae are pinpoint non-blanching spots that measure less than 2 mm in size and affect the skin and mucous membranes. Petechial rashes are common a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Phenylketonuria Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) most often caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (P ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Pica The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines pica as eating non-nutriti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pneumococcal Vaccine The advent of pneumococcal vaccines has proven to be a significant advancement in the treatment and prevention of a widespread and sometimes deadly di ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Polio Vaccine Poliomyelitis is a vaccine-preventable disease caused by the poliovirus. This virus is highly infectious, spreading from person to person mainly thro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Polymyxin Polymyxins are a class of medications used in the management and treatment of systemic infections caused by susceptible strains of multidrug-resistant ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that results from being exposed to real or threatened injury, death, and sexu ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Precocious Puberty Precocious puberty is an early onset of puberty and secondary sexual characteristics in children. It is a very challenging diagnosis as the differenti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prednisone Prednisone is a synthetic, anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid that derives from cortisone. It is biologically inert and converted to prednisolone in the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Prerenal Kidney Failure Prerenal AKI is an extensively researched topic, which requires prompt identification and early intervention to prevent long term sequelae. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Primary Amenorrhea Primary amenorrhea is defined as the failure to reach menarche. Evaluation should be undertaken if there are no secondary sex characteristics by 13 y ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Primary Lung Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from an infectious agent worldwide, causing even more deaths in HIV/AIDS patients. A third of the world's p ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used to manage and treat allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also has off-label u ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Protein Intolerance Protein intolerance is a disorder that is the result of an adverse effect of the ingestion of food proteins. It is caused by various mechanisms and is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pseudomembranous Colitis Pseudomembranous colitis, a severe inflammation of the inner lining of the large intestine, manifests as an antibiotic-associated colonic inflammatory ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic proliferative and inflammatory condition of the skin. It is characterized by erythematous plaques covered with silvery scales p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect is a rare congenital anomaly with poor prognostic outcomes. It is a serious anomaly affecting the dev ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickeni ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
QT Prolonging Drugs The heart has an electrical system that allows it to contract in a rhythm. A key aspect of this electrical system is depolarization and repolarization ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Relaxation Techniques Relaxation techniques are therapeutic exercises designed to assist individuals by decreasing tension and anxiety. Relaxation therapy has been a part o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Renal Failure The term renal failure denotes inability of the kidneys to perform excretory function leading to retention of nitrogenous waste products from the bloo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common condition which is caused by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary pathologies, and it carries high rat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection The human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common viruses to infect children worldwide and increasingly is recognized as an import ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Reye Syndrome Reye syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal pediatric illness defined as acute noninflammatory encephalopathy with fatty liver failure. Australian p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Rh Incompatibility Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility refers to the discordant pairing of maternal and fetal Rh type. It is associated with the development of maternal Rh sensi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rheumatic Heart Disease Rheumatic heart disease is a systemic immune condition that occurs as a complication of rheumatic fever. This occurs after a beta-hemolytic streptococ ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Rickets Rickets is a condition characterized by a defect in mineralization of the epiphyseal plates. Rickets could be inherited or acquired. The acquired rick ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Rotavirus Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the world. Studies estimate that approximately 200,000 people die annually from infection. ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rubella Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in children and non-immune young adults. In pregnant women, rubella infection can produce a cons ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rubella Vaccine The rubella vaccine is a vaccine that aims to prevent rubella. Rubella, also known as German measles, is an acute, self-limiting, contagious viral inf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rubeola (Measles) This activity reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of measles to further understand its epidemiological situation. This will hopefully lead to ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Safe And Effective Administration Of Vaccines And Epinephrine Autoinjection Safe and effective administration of vaccines and epinephrine autoinjection is performed on various populations to reduce rates of varying life-threat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) Salicylates have been available since the early 1900s. This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, methods of administration, importa ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Salmonella Salmonellae are motile gram-negative bacilli that infect or colonize humans, causing a number of clinical infections with different clinical features ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in organs. This condition mostly af ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Scabies Scabies is a contagious skin condition caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei which burrows into the skin and causes severe itching. Scabies is transmit ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Scalp Catheterization Peripheral venous access is a key need for resuscitating patients of all ages. An ideal site for venous catheterization is one that is easy to access ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Scalp Vein Catheterization This activity describes the procedure for scalp vein catheterization, outlining the indications, contraindications, method for the procedure, and pote ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Scarlet Fever Scarlet fever is a blanching, papular rash, commonly described as a sandpaper rash. It is usually associated with Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Seat Belt Injuries Although seatbelts have prevented numerous deaths by reducing head injuries, they can cause damage via the transmission of force upon impact associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Seborrheic Dermatitis Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous skin disease that is most prevalent in infancy and middle age, and it usually presents differently in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Seizure A seizure represents the uncontrolled, abnormal electrical activity of the brain that may cause changes in the level of consciousness, behavior, memor ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Sexual Assault Clothing Collection and Documentation Medical management should be the first and top priority in caring for sexual assault victims. After the patient is clinically stable, proper assault p ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Shock Shock is a life-threatening manifestation of circulatory failure. Circulatory shock leads to cellular and tissue hypoxia resulting in cellular death ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder of the globin chains that causes hemolysis and chronic organ damage. This activity reviews the pathophysio ... Read the Article 2 21 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Crisis Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders affecting about 1 in 500 African American children and 1 in 36,000 Hispanic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Disease Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a multisystem disorder and the most common genetic disease in the United States, affecting 1 in 500 African Americans. Ab ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Smoking Tobacco smoking is a practice of burning tobacco with the smoke inhaled to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Around 23 percent of the world ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Somnambulism Somnambulism, also known as sleepwalking, includes undesirable actions such as walking, that occur during abrupt but limited arousals from non-rapid e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Spontaneous Pneumothorax Spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal condition of the lung characterized by the collection of gas in the pleural space between the lungs and the ch ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Spoon Nails This activity outlines the evaluation and management of koilonychia and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating, treating and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Status Asthmaticus One of the most common causes of emergency room visits in the United States is status asthmaticus, an acute, emergent episode of bronchial asthma that ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Stevens Johnson Syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute, rare, and potentially fatal skin reactions involving loss of skin and, in some case ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Strabismus Strabismus is a common childhood disorder that causes deviation or squinting of eyes. If untreated it can affect the vision permanently and can have a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Streptococcal Pharyngitis Group A streptococcus is a Gram-positive, non-motile bacteria that is the most common etiology for acute pharyngitis accounting for 5 to 15 percent of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Streptococcus Group A Group A streptococci are ubiquitous bacteria encountered on a daily basis, which have the potential to cause a wide range of infections in humans. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Streptococcus Pyogenes Streptococcus pyogenes is a major human-specific bacterial pathogen that causes a wide array of manifestations ranging from mild localized infections ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Stridor Stridor is an abnormal, high-pitched respiratory sound that can be assessed during breathing. It is typically produced by the irregular flow of air in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the abrupt and unexplained death of an infant less than 1-year old. Despite a thorough investigation (a careful ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Suicide Risk Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States, but it can often be prevented with appropriate intervention. This activity re ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Sunscreens And Photoprotection Photoprotection is indicated for the reduction of ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin damage and skin cancers. Photoprotection includes sunscreens ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.75 45 Activity Info
Temper Tantrums Although temper tantrums are a normal part of development in toddlers, they can be distressing for caregivers and families. This activity describes ch ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Testicular Torsion Scrotal complaints are relatively common both in primary care and in the emergency department and comprise at least 0.5 percent of all emergency depar ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Tetanus Prophylaxis This activity reviews and outlines the role of tetanus prophylaxis. It will outline the basics of immunization and prophylaxis and will discuss types ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tetanus Toxoid The tetanus toxoid is a vaccine used in the management and treatment of tetanus. It is in the vaccine class of medications. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Tetracycline Tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, tigecycline) are a class of medication used to manage and treat various bacterial infections. T ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Thalassemia Thalassemia is a heterogeneous group of blood disorders affecting the hemoglobin genes and resulting in ineffective erythropoiesis. The decreased prod ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Theophylline Theophylline is a medication used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a second-line drug. It is a bronchodilator. This activi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Therapeutic Communication Therapeutic communication is an invaluable approach to interactions with patients that is applicable across multiple disciplines. This activity revie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Therapeutic Uses Of Diuretic Agents Diuretics are a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous and other non-edematous disease conditions. Diuretics are a class of drug ... Read the Article 1.75 14 Activity Info
Thoracentesis Thoracentesis is a procedure that is performed to remove fluid from the thoracic cavity. This can be done for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Thumb Sucking Thumb sucking is a behavior that can be grouped under a list of habits known as non–nutritive sucking habits. Within this group, we can also find the ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Tinea Corporis Tinea corporis is a superficial fungal skin infection of the body caused by dermatophytes. Tinea corporis can be found worldwide. It is specifically ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tinea Pedis Tinea pedis, also known as athlete's foot or foot ringworm is an infection of the feet affecting soles, interdigital clefts of toes, and nails with a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, a tonsillectomy is a “surgical procedure performed with or without adenoide ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tonsillitis Tonsillitis, or inflammation of the tonsils, is a common disease and makes up approximately 1.3% of outpatient visits. It is predominantly the result ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Torticollis Torticollis is a common diagnosis, and estimates are that 90 percent of individuals will exhibit at least one episode of torticollis throughout their ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan responsible for trichomoniasis, one of the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were introduced in the late 1950s for the treatment of depression. With the advent of selective serotonin reuptake in ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, also known as co-trimoxazole and can be abbreviated in the following ways: SXT, TMP-SMX, TMP-SMZ, or TMP-Sulfa. It is a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Trisomy 13 Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal aneuploidy characterized by meiotic nondisjunction. The phenotypic holoprosencephaly and midline fusion aberrancies are re ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is a human disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly affects the lungs, making pulmonary disease the most common prese ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Ultrasound Guided Intravenous Access At least 150 to 200 million peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters are placed each year in the United States, and up to 80 percent of patients receive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Vaccine (Vaccination) Immunization successfully uses immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or spec ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Vaginal Bleeding Vaginal bleeding is a common complaint with a broad differential diagnosis. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of vaginal bleeding an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) is an acute febrile rash illness that was very common in children in the United States before the universal vaccin ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Varicella Zoster Chickenpox or varicella is a contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus is responsible for chickenpox (usually primary i ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Vitamin A Toxicity Vitamin A toxicity can due to either topical or oral vitamin A administration. Oral vitamin A toxicity can be acute, due to the ingestion of a large a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin used by the body for normal bone development and maintenance by increasing the absorption of calcium, magnesium, an ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Wheezing Wheezing is the symptomatic manifestation of any disease process that causes airway obstruction. Wheezing is commonly experienced by people who have a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wilms Tumor Wilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, is the most common pediatric renal cancer, the most common pediatric abdominal cancer, and the fourth most common pedi ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Wound Irrigation Wounds and lacerations are common complaints. Each year in the United States, roughly 12.2 million patients are seen in emergency departments for woun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Zika Virus Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family and the genus Flavivirus. In the majority of people, infection by the Zika virus is mild and s ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info

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