Nurse-Otolaryngology (CORLN) CE

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All of our activities are approved by ANCC (LVN, RN, and CNS) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the National Certifying Board of Otorhinolaryngology and Head-Neck Nurses (NCBOHN)® content outlines. 246 authors and 8 editors have contributed to the development of the Nurse-Otolaryngology (CORLN) content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Nurse-Otolaryngology (CORLN) Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Adenoid Hypertrophy Adenoid hypertrophy is an obstructive condition due to enlarged adenoids. This can occur with or without an acute or chronic infection of the adenoids ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenoidectomy Adenoidectomy is a common surgical procedure primarily performed in children for infectious or obstructive reasons. This activity details the indicati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenoiditis Adenoiditis occurs when there is inflammation of the adenoid tissue resulting from infection, allergies, or irritation from stomach acid. Adenoiditis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenoviruses The adenoviruses are DNA viruses common in animals and humans, occurring frequently in both adults and children. There are more than 100 serologically ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ageusia Ageusia is a symptom reflecting various underline pathological conditions. It is a rare condition that is characterized by complete loss of the taste ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Airway Glottic Insufficiency Glottic insufficiency is characterized by incomplete closure of the vocal folds with phonation, which causes an increased risk of aspiration. Glottic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alendronate Alendronate is FDA-approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease presenting with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an IgE ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in the primary care setting. It is an amino-penicillin, created by adding an extra amino grou ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ankyloglossia Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a short lingual frenum that interferes with normal tongue movement. It is an uncommon congenital oral anom ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Anosmia Anosmia is the inability to perceive smell/odor. It can be temporary or permanent and acquired or congenital. There are many causes. Neurological caus ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anterior Epistaxis Nasal Pack Among the nasal emergencies, epistaxis is one of the most common chief complaints in patients presenting to the emergency department. Typically, anter ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Drug Toxicity Antiplatelet medications are primarily used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related events. Currently, there are fou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Asthma Medication in Children Asthma typically presents with a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, and is characterize ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antimicrobial medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacterial Pharyngitis Pharyngitis, more commonly described as sore throat, represents inflammation or irritation of the posterior oropharynx. While the majority of cases ar ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Tracheitis Bacterial tracheitis, also known as bacterial croup, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, or membranous croup, is a potentially lethal infection of the sub ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Vertigo is the perception of motion in the absence of motion, which may be described as a sensation of swaying, tilting, spinning, or feeling unbalanc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common sites of piercings are the ears, mouth ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Branchial Cleft Cyst Branchial cleft cysts, also known as branchial cleft anomalies, are congenital anomalies arising from the first through fourth pharyngeal pouches. The ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Bruxism Management Bruxism can be defined as the involuntary, unconscious, and excessive grinding of teeth. Bruxism may occur while awake, and it is then called wakeful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bullous Myringitis Bullous myringitis (BM) is a relatively common infectious condition characterized by bullae or vesicles on the tympanic membrane without affecting the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Caloric Testing Caloric testing is a useful clinical tool that can assess and quantify the functional status of the individual vestibular systems. The test utilizes t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerumen Impaction Removal Production of cerumen (earwax) is a normal and naturally occurring process. It protects the ear from infection and provides a barrier to insects and w ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Child Development The stages through which a child goes through from birth until he or she becomes an adult is child development. Children are first newborns, and durin ... Read the Article 4.5 85 Activity Info
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chronic Cough Cough is a natural defense mechanism that allows clearance of bronchial tree secretions and the elimination of inhaled foreign particles. It is a comm ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Sinusitis Chronic sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus or nasal passages occurring for more than 12 weeks at a time. It may present as chronic sinusitis wi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Suppurative Otitis Chronic suppurative otitis media continues to be an important disease in the pediatric population and a significant cause of hearing problems leading ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cleft Lip Repair Cleft lip repair is a surgical procedure that may be approached with a wide array of different techniques. The ultimate goal of cleft lip repair is to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cochlear Implants A Cochlear Implant (CI) is a medical device that uses electricity to stimulate the spiral ganglion cells of the auditory nerve to restore sensorineura ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Conductive Hearing Loss Conductive hearing loss encompasses a wide range of pathologies that affect patients of all ages. It can be the result of a defect anywhere from the e ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Developmental Stages of Social Emotional Development In Children To apply knowledge regarding human growth and development, healthcare professionals need to be aware of 2 areas: (1) milestone competencies, for examp ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a toxin-mediated infection caused by Corynebacterium species, primarily Corynebacterium diphtheria. It causes skin and mucosal infection ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Disk Battery Ingestion Disk batteries (or button batteries) are found in many consumer electronics. The last few decades have seen an increase in demand for compact electron ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dix Hallpike Maneuver Vertigo can be challenging to evaluate and treat. It can arise from a slew of vastly different pathophysiologies, with acuity ranging from minimally c ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ear Foreign Body Removal The management of foreign bodies located in the external auditory canal can be nuanced, and for some medical professionals, may be intimidating if not ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ear Irrigation The American Academy of Otolaryngology defines cerumen impaction as "an accumulation of cerumen that is associated with symptoms, prevents the necessa ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Ear Microtia Microtia is a congenital ear deformity in which the external ear is malformed and underdeveloped. In more severe cases, it is usually associated with ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Ear Nerve Block Patients frequently present to the emergency department with a variety of external ear complaints ranging from traumatic injuries (lacerations and avu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Epistaxis Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency room or primary care. There are ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epley Maneuver Patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo often present with recurrent symptoms of dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, or vomiting. The follo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Epstein Barr Virus Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus in which over 90% of the population worldwide has been infected. EBV infection can range from asymptomatic t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Esophagial Foreign Body Most patients who present for evaluation of a foreign body in the esophagus do so after accidental ingestion of a known object, and the patient has mi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is the failure of the Eustachian tube in maintaining pressure equalization or mucociliary transport. This is categor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Flexible Nasopharyngoscopy Flexible nasopharyngoscopy (also called fiberoptic nasendoscopy/flexible nasolaryngoscopy/flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy) is an essentia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Frey Syndrome Frey syndrome usually occurs with auriculotemporal nerve injury secondary to surgical intervention or trauma in the parotid region. Prevention of this ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Functional Voice Disorders Functional voice disorders are caused by insufficient or improper use of vocal mechanisms without any anatomic and neurological abnormalities. The mos ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gentamicin Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of several gram-negative infections. This activity aims to review the indications, ac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Geographic Tongue Geographic tongue is a benign chronic relapsing recurring inflammatory condition of the oral cavity of unknown etiology. This activity reviews the eva ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glottic Stenosis Glottic stenosis describes a narrowing of the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and glottic opening, otherwise known as the glottis. Gl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Guttate Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that presents as well-defined, scaly, erythematous plaques, and occasionally, sterile pustules. Guttate ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Halitosis Halitosis is a term coined from the merger of the Latin halitus (breath) and Greek osis (pathological process) to describe a condition that meant an u ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hashimoto Thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which thyroid cel ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hearing Loss The management of hearing loss is challenging and complex. To achieve good outcomes, the goals and objectives of hearing loss management must be defin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Herpangina Herpangina is a viral infection that is manifested clinically as an acute febrile illness with small ulcerative or vesicular lesions in the posterior ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Herpetic Gingivostomatitis Herpetic gingivostomatitis is a manifestation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and is characterized by high-grade fever and painful oral lesions ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperacusis Hyperacusis is a rare hearing disorder characterized by a decreased tolerance to sound where patients report excessive loudness or pain, often leading ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Indomethacin Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug with broad applications. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Influenza Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, including upper and lower respiratory passages. A wide spectrum of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Intratympanic Steroid Injection Intratympanic steroid injection is used to treat cochleovestibular symptoms of inner ear disease, such as Meniere's disease or idiopathic sudden senso ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma is an interesting soft tissue tumor occurring in several distinct populations with a variety of presentations and courses. In its most ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Laryngeal Cancer Laryngeal cancers represent one-third of head and neck cancers and may be a significant source of morbidity and mortality. They are most often diagnos ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Ludwig Angina Ludwig's angina is life-threatening cellulitis of the soft tissue involving the floor of the mouth and neck. It involves three compartments of the flo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymphoma Lymphoma comprises heterogeneous malignancies that arise from the clonal proliferation of lymphocytes. It represents approximately 5% of malignancies. ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Malignant Otitis Externa Malignant otitis media is a serious infection of the ear canal and temporal bone. It can lead to severe complications if not treated urgently. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland tumors are a rare group of complex, heterogenous histologies that are located in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gla ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Mandible Fracture Mandible is one of the most commonly fractured facial bone and is frequently seen in the emergency department. This activity reviews the anatomy of th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Marfan Syndrome One of the most common inherited disorders affecting connective tissue, Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant condition with a reported incid ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Mastoiditis Mastoiditis is a common complication of acute otitis media. This activity reviews the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Meniere Disease Meniere disease is an inner ear disorder characterized by tinnitus, vertigo, and hearing loss. This is thought to occur due to the accumulation of end ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Middle Ear Barotrauma Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEBT) remain the two most common complications of SCUBA diving, commercial diving, and cl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Middle Ear Cholesteatoma There are two major types of middle ear cholesteatomas, congenital and acquired. Congenital cholesteatomas are derived from remnants of epithelium tha ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Nasal Foreign Body Nasal foreign bodies are commonly seen in the emergency department, mostly in the pediatric population but also in those with psychiatric illness or d ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nasal Polyps Nasal polyps are a ubiquitous diagnosis that can manifest in a variety of diseases, the most common being chronic rhinosinusitis. Although benign, nas ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Nasal Septal Fracture Nasal bone and septal fractures are the most commonly fractured bone in the facial skeleton. These injuries can affect not only the cosmetic appearanc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nasal Septal Hematoma The nose is the most commonly injured facial structure. Most nasal injuries do not require immediate intervention, but trauma is resulting in septal h ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Cancer The nasopharynx is a small, tubular structure above the soft palate that connects the nose to the oropharynx. Cancers that arise from this area are us ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC, Lymphoepithelioma) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neck Cancer Resection and Dissection Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The single most important factor affecting prognosis for squamous cell carcinoma is th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Neck Trauma The management of neck trauma can be challenging and sometimes overwhelming, as this anatomical region contains many vital structures. These structure ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Needlestick Needlestick injuries are frequent occurrences in healthcare settings and can lead to serious complications. While the introduction of universal precau ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Nifedipine Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker in the dihydropyridine subclass. It is primarily used as an antihypertensive and as an anti-anginal medication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by episodes of complete collapse of the airway or partial collapse with an associated decrease in oxyge ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Oral Candidiasis This activity illustrates the evaluation and treatment of oral candidiasis. It highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and tre ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Oral Leukoplakia Oral leukoplakia is a white patch or plaque that develops in the oral cavity. The condition is potentially malignant and is strongly associated with t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Oral Mucosa Cancer Oral mucosal cancer is cancer that arises from the lining (mucosa) of the oral cavity. The main risk factors are smoking and alcohol consumption. The ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Oral Mucositis Oral mucositis is a debilitating condition, and it presents as erythema, edema, and ulceration of the oral mucosa with subsequent pain and restriction ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Orbital Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is defined as a serious infection that involves the muscle and fat located within the orbit. It is also sometimes referred to as po ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, commonly known as throat cancer or tonsil cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer that refers to the cancer o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Otalgia Otalgia is ear pain and breaks down into two categories of primary otalgia and secondary otalgia. Primary otalgia is pain coming directly from the ea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Otitis Externa Otitis externa (OE) is an inflammation, infectious or non-infectious, of the external auditory canal. In some cases, inflammation can extend to the ou ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Parotid Cancer Salivary gland tumors are characterized by diverse histological appearances and variable biological behavior. The distinction between tumor types can ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Parotitis Parotitis is caused by duct obstruction (such as sialolithiasis), infectious organisms (viruses or bacteria), or inflammatory conditions (such as Sjog ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pediatric Hearing Loss Pediatric hearing loss is a broad category that covers a wide range of pathologies. Early detection and prompt management are essential, as the develo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an essential topic in pediatrics that is frequently overlooked, especially in the context of children with neurodevel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pediatric Tracheostomy Tracheostomy has been increasingly performed in children with complex medical conditions for the management of upper airway obstruction, prolonged ven ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Periodontal Disease Periodontal diseases are disease processes involving the periodontium, a term used to describe the supportive apparatus surrounding a tooth, which inc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Peripheral Vertigo Approximately 80 percent of vertigo is peripheral, whereas approximately 20 percent is central. Peripheral vertigo is most commonly due to a benign pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Peritonsillar Abscess Peritonsillar abscesses are localized collections of pus in peritonsillar space between the tonsillar capsule and superior constrictor muscle. Since t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oropharynx. In most cases, it is caused by an infection, either bacterial or viral. Oth ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Phrenic Nerve Injury The phrenic nerve is among the most important nerves in the body due to its role in respiration. The phrenic nerve provides the primary motor supply t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Presbycusis Presbycusis refers to bilateral age-related hearing loss. In literal terms, presbycusis means 'old hearing' or 'elder hearing. It is the most common c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Propylthiouracil (PTU) Propylthiouracil is an anti-thyroid drug used in the management of Graves disease and hyperthyroidism. This activity will highlight the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pulsatile Tinnitus Pulsatile tinnitus is a relatively rare type of tinnitus with a complex differential diagnosis. Practitioners need to know the proper workup for such ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Radical Neck Dissection Head and neck cancers most commonly metastasize to the cervical nodal basins. As a result, removal of the cervical lymph nodes is the standard of care ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are a common cause of vocal cord paresis and resulting in voice changes or hoarseness. The etiology, history, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Retropharyngeal Abscess Retropharyngeal abscesses are uncommon but potentially life-threatening diagnosis. They can occur at any age, although are most commonly found in chil ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Rhinitis Medicamentosa Rhinitis medicamentosa (RM), also known as; rebound congestion is inflammation of the nasal mucosa caused by the overuse of topical nasal decongestant ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rhinoplasty Rhinoplasty is one of the most popular surgeries worldwide. In the United States alone, more than 200.000 were performed in 2018, rendering it the thi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Rinne Test The Rinne test differentiates sound transmission via air conduction from sound transmission via bone conduction. It can serve as a quick screen for co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Romberg Test This Romberg test illustrates a diagnostic, non-technical, physical test that identifies a specific neurologic impairment. The purpose of this evaluat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Rubeola (Measles) This activity reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of measles to further understand its epidemiological situation. This will hopefully lead to ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) Salicylates have been available since the early 1900s. This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, methods of administration, importa ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Sensorineural Hearing Loss This activity reviews the evaluation and management of sensorineural hearing loss, looking in detail at how otolaryngologists and audiologists investi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sensory and Perceptual Alterations Sensory-perceptual alteration can be defined as when there is a change in the pattern of sensory stimuli, followed by an abnormal response to such sti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Septal Perforation Nasal septal perforation is a full-thickness defect of the nasal septum. Bilateral mucoperichondrial leaflets and a structural middle layer comprise t ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Sialolithiasis Sialolithiasis is the most frequent cause of salivary gland swelling and primarily affects the major salivary glands, which include the parotid glands ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sinus Squeeze Sinus squeeze, also known as barosinusitis or aerosinusitis, is irritation of the mucosal lining in the sinuses as a result of the failure to equalize ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sinusitis One of the most common reasons for clinical visits in the United States is sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis. It is also one of the top reasons ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Sjogren Syndrome Primary Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder commonly presenting with dryness involving the eyes and mouth due to inflammation and resul ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Sterile Technique The purpose of creating a sterile field is to reduce the number of microbes present to as few as possible. The sterile field is used in many situation ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Streptococcal Pharyngitis Group A streptococcus is a Gram-positive, non-motile bacteria that is the most common etiology for acute pharyngitis accounting for 5 to 15 percent of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Stridor Stridor is an abnormal, high-pitched respiratory sound that can be assessed during breathing. It is typically produced by the irregular flow of air in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subglottic Stenosis Subglottic stenosis can be defined as the narrowing of the upper airway, which lies between the vocal folds and the lower border of the cricoid cartil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Swallowing Study The videofluoroscopic swallow study is an important initial diagnostic study for dysphagia as it helps to see the relative structural motion of the up ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tensor Tympani Syndrome Tensor tympani syndrome, also known as the tensor tympani myoclonus, is a rare form of objective pulsatile tinnitus, which includes tensor tympani-ass ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common congenital cervical anomaly. They can form anywhere along the thyroid's route of migration between the ton ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Thyroid Adenoma Thyroid adenoma is a benign lesion of the thyroid gland. There are two types of thyroid adenomas, follicular and papillary. Thyroid adenoma usually pr ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thyroid Lymphoma Thyroid lymphoma is classified as primary and secondary thyroid lymphoma. Primary thyroid lymphoma affects the thyroid gland first, followed by spread ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Thyroid Nodule Although more than 90 percent of identified thyroid nodules are clinically insignificant benign lesions, in 4 to 6.5 percent of cases, these nodules a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thyroidectomy This activity describes indications and techniques of thyroidectomy and reviews the role of the healthcare team in evaluating and treating patients wh ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Tinnitus Tinnitus is classicaly described as the presence of high pitched ringing or buzzing that is usually only audible to the affected individual. Most tinn ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tongue Cancer Tongue cancer is one of the most common sites of head and neck malignancy. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and, more recently, human papilloma virus infect ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, a tonsillectomy is a “surgical procedure performed with or without adenoide ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Torticollis Torticollis is a common diagnosis, and estimates are that 90 percent of individuals will exhibit at least one episode of torticollis throughout their ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Total Laryngectomy The primary goal for the treatment of laryngeal cancer is the control of the disease. Preservation of speech, swallowing functions, and avoidance of t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tracheal Resection Tracheal resection is performed when tracheal stenosis is unresponsive to conservative management, such as balloon dilation and scar excision. Trachea ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Tracheostomy A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this art ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Triamcinolone Triamcinolone is a medication used in the management and treatment of various conditions such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis (e.g., poison i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tympanic Membrane Perforations Tympanic membrane perforation is when there is a tear in the tympanic membrane leading to a connection between the external auditory canal and the mid ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tympanoplasty Tympanoplasty is the surgical procedure performed to repair a perforated tympanic membrane, with/ without reconstruction of the ossicles, with the aim ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Unilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Unilateral vocal cord paralysis (UVCP) presents with dysphonia, shortness of breath and swallowing difficulty. It occurs secondary to damage to the re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis Vocal fold immobility is a broad term that can be used to describe the abnormal movement of the true vocal folds. It can be unilateral, where only one ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Universal Precautions Universal precautions were introduced by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1985, mostly in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Upper respiratory tract infections can be defined as self-limited irritation and swelling of the upper airways with associated cough and no signs of p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Vasomotor Rhinitis Vasomotor rhinitis affects millions of Americans and costs billions of dollars annually in healthcare costs. Vasomotor rhinitis is the most common for ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vertigo Vertigo is a common presenting complaint in primary care and emergency departments. It is a symptom of vestibular dysfunction and has been described a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vestibular Neuronitis Vestibular neuritis is thought to be the result of inflammation of the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve and classically presents with ve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Weber Test The Weber test is a useful, quick, and simple screening test for evaluating hearing loss. The test can detect unilateral conductive and sensorineural ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info

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