Nurse-Ophthalmology (CRNO)

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Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, in ...
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Rosacea

Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, papule ...
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Vitreous Hemorrhage

Vitreous hemorrhage is described as blood in the vitreous cavity. It can occur due to a myriad of causes. Its timely dia ...
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Subconjunctival Hemorrhage

Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common ocular complaint that most clinicians will see in their practice. This article is ...
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HIV Retinopathy

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which causes a multisystemic disease called acquired immune deficienc ...
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Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma

Acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ocular emergency that results from a rapid increase in intraocular pressure due to ou ...
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Nurse-Ophthalmology (CRNO) Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abducens Nerve Palsy The abducens nerve, also known as cranial nerve VI, is responsible for ipsilateral eye abduction. Visualizing the anatomy of the nerve allows for bett ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acetazolamide Acetazolamide is a diuretic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication that is used to treat several illnesses. FDA-approved indications include glau ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma Acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ocular emergency that results from a rapid increase in intraocular pressure due to outflow obstruction of aqueous h ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adie Syndrome Adie syndrome, also known as the Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonically dil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Allergic Conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis is encountered in up to 40 percent of the population, but only a small proportion of affected individuals seek medical help. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amaurosis Fugax The term amaurosis fugax is often used interchangeably to describe transient visual loss (TVL). However, it is employed widely in medicine to refer to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amsler Grid Wet age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of severe vision loss in the elderly population, both in the United States and worldwide. Earl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Medications Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Arcus Senilis Corneal arcus are white or gray incomplete rings that form around the cornea. They are usually clinically insignificant but may be associated with an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Argyll Robertson Pupil Argyll Robertson pupil describes the physical exam finding of bilaterally small pupils that do not constrict when exposed to bright light but do const ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Bacterial Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also informally known as "pink eye," makes up the majority of ophthalmologic disorders seen at primary care clinics. Patients present ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Blepharoconjunctivitis Blepharoconjunctivitis is an ocular condition involving the inflammation of the eyelid and conjunctiva. It is a common chronic condition that can lead ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blepharoplasty Ptosis Surgery Blepharoplasty is the general term for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids either for functional reasons, cosmetic reas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blindness The term blindness is a general term that can include those with low vision and legal blindness. Low vision is a term used to describe those whose vis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is a medication used in the management and treatment of glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, altitude sicknes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cataract A cataract is a disease of the eye in which the normally clear lens has opacified which obscures the passage of light. It is a gradually progressive d ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cataract Surgery Cataracts are the world’s leading cause of remediable blindness. While some cataracts, may be congenital, secondary to trauma, or drug-induced, most c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the sudden blockage of the central retinal artery, resulting in retinal hypoperfusion, rapidly progressive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disease and is a common loss of vision in older patients. There are two types ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cholinergic Medications Cholinergic medications are a category of pharmaceutical agents that act upon the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter within ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Chronic Closed Angle Glaucoma Chronic closed-angle glaucoma, also called chronic angle-closure glaucoma, is a condition that can be a cause of permanent vision loss if not diagnose ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Collagen Cross Linking For Keratoconus Keratoconus (KC) is one of the most prevalent corneal ectatic disorders characterized by progressive, non-inflammatory changes in stromal collagen str ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Conjunctival Concretions A conjunctival concretion is a benign entity characterized by single or multiple discrete yellowish-white deposits of varying size. They may be idiopa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva. It is the most common presentation of eye redness in both primary care and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Convergence Insufficiency Convergence insufficiency is a binocular vision disorder that results in symptoms such as eyestrain, headaches, and diplopia when looking at a near ta ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cornea Foreign Body Removal A corneal foreign body can be the cause of agonizing eye pain and loss of vision. This activity reviews the safe removal of a corneal foreign body and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corneal Abrasion A corneal abrasion (also called scratched eye or scratched cornea) is an eye injury that causes significant discomfort, photophobia, and erythema. Thi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Corneal Foreign Body Corneal foreign bodies account for the second most common form of ocular trauma, with corneal abrasions being number one. In general, major morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Corneal Injury Approximately 3 percent of all visits to the emergency department are due to eye trauma, with the vast majority of these presentations involving corne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corneal Ulcer A corneal ulcer is a defect in the surface epithelium of the cornea that involves the underlying stroma. It is common in contact lens wearers and pres ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Crigler Technique For Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction leading to epiphora is a common condition that may be seen in up to 20% of infants. The management ranges fro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Diabetic Macular Edema The retina is a thin layer of tissue in the posterior segment of the eye near the optic nerve. It contains a layer of photoreceptor cells, and receive ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of visual loss in adults of working age group in the western population. It is the most common microvascular ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diplopia Diplopia refers to seeing two images and is due either to ocular misalignment in which case it disappears when either eye is occluded or to an optical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diseases of the Eyelashes Eyelashes are important anatomical structures that protect the eye by stopping the particulate matter from getting to the eye and also by diverting wa ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Diving Mask Squeeze Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask during descent, resulting in damage ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dry Eye Syndrome Dry eyes affect a significant number of people but treatment remains unsatisfactory. The cause of this condition may be anatomical or systemic. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ectropion Ectropion is an outward turning of the eyelid margin. This typically occurs on the lower eyelids. When the globe is not protected properly, the eye ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Entropion Entropion is an inversion or inward turning of the eyelid margin. This can result in trichiasis, where the eyelashes are directed posteriorly toward t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Epinastine Epinastine is a medication used in the treatment and management of allergic conjunctivitis. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in a variety of settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved f ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Epiphora Epiphora is a common presentation to the general ophthalmologist. Causes of epiphora may be caused by secretory problems or problems with the excretor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Episcleritis Episcleritis is an acute unilateral or bilateral inflammation of the episclera, the thin layer of tissue between the conjunctiva and sclera. The episc ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Evaluation Of Visual Acuity Visual acuity is an often overlooked aspect of an emergency or outpatient department visit but can be vital to making a diagnosis. In reality, there a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Exophthalmos Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Eyelid Papilloma The term papilloma refers to a group of various benign epithelial proliferations that can affect the eyelid skin. These lesions are not necessarily as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluorescein Fluorescein is a diagnostic contrast agent particularly used in various ophthalmic procedures, such as checking for any corneal or vessel abnormalitie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fungal Keratitis Fungal keratitis is an important eye infection, especially in outdoor workers. In most cases, eye trauma, corticosteroid use, or contact lens usage ar ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition of increased intraocular pressure in the eye that may progress to a loss of vision. This results in a characteristic optic ner ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC), also known as gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum when it occurs in neonates, is an infection that is transmitted by cont ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hemianopsia Hemianopsia (hemianopia) is a clinical term used to describe the loss of one half of a vertical visual field. A careful history and physical examinati ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hemolacria Hemolacria or bloody epiphora is the presence of blood in tears. Multiple disorders can cause hemolacria. This activity reviews the evaluation and man ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Keratitis Herpes simplex virus can cause infection in the eye. Recurrent infection of the cornea due to this virus causes herpes simplex keratitis. It can easil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs due to the reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus. It is a variation of herpes zoster that can cause a va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
HIV Retinopathy Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which causes a multisystemic disease called acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ocular mani ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia The visual field test maps the vision in each individual eye by measuring the entire scope of vision when vision is focused on a central point. A visu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hordeolum A hordeolum is an acute, common bacterial infection of the eyelid. Patients with this condition often present to their primary care provider with pain ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil) a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperopia Hyperopia is a very common refractive condition of childhood and adults. Proper assessment and treatment can prevent multiple complications in the fut ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypertensive Retinopathy Poorly controlled hypertension (HTN) affects several systems such as the cardiovascular, renal, cerebrovascular, and retina. The damage to these syste ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyphema Hyphema is the accumulation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the anterior chamber of the eye. By definition, blood must be grossly visible, either on dire ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is an ocular movement disorder caused by a lesion of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. It is characterized by impaired ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Kayser-Fleischer Ring Kayser–Fleischer (KF) rings are a common ophthalmologic finding in patients with Wilson disease. Initially thought to be due to the accumulation of si ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Latanoprost Latanoprost is an eye drop formulation for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle gla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Leukocoria Leukocoria means ‘white pupil’ or ‘cat’s eye pupil’. Leukocoria is an abnormal pupillary reflex more clearly seen on mydriasis or photography. It is o ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Macular Degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the most common cause of blindness prevalent in developed countries, particularly in people older than 60 y ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Marcus Gunn Pupil Marcus Gunn pupil is indicative of a defect in the afferent pathway of the light reflex. To avoid the high morbidity associated with this condition, i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Medication Dispensing Errors And Prevention Close to 6,800 prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States. To further complicate a practitioner' ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone is an FDA-approved medication for the management and treatment of allergic conditions, arthritis, asthma exacerbations, long-term a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Microsporidium Microsporidia are an unusually large group of unique, eukaryotic, obligate, intracellular parasites that biologists have studied for more than 150 yea ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Mucormycosis Mucormycosis results from a variety of fungi that may be typically innocuous environmental fungi and primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Multifocal Electroretinogram The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) is a more recent advancement in electroretinographic testing, which enables a rapid assessment of retinal fun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nasal Fracture Reduction Nasal bony fractures are the most common type of facial bone fractures, representing 40 to 50 percent of cases. Nasal fractures are commonly associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) or dacryostenosis is the most common disorder of the lacrimal system, and approximately 6 to 20 percent of newbor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neonatal Conjunctivitis Neonatal eye discharge is usually due to congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction or either chemical or infectious conjunctivitis. Neonatal conjunctiv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ocular Burns Ocular burns are true medical emergencies that can lead to devastating vision impairment. In a patient presenting with a possible ocular burn, immedia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ocular Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is an inflammation of the contents of the orbit posterior to the orbital septum. The inflammation occurs secondary to an infection ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ocular Ischemic Syndrome The ophthalmic artery is the first intradural branch of the carotid artery; thus, its function reflects the activity in ocular microcirculation and ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Open Angle Glaucoma Open-angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible multifactorial optic neuropathy that is characterized by an open angle of the anterior ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Ophthalmia Neonatorum Ophthalmia neonatorum is a type of conjunctivitis that takes place in the neonatal period. This condition is commonly transmitted during vaginal deliv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Optic Atrophy Optic atrophy is the hallmark of damage to the visual pathway. It appears as a pale disc on fundus examination. This clinical appearance is not a dise ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Optic Ischemia The optic nerve may be damaged by ischemia anywhere along its path, starting from its origin. It is mainly divided into anterior and posterior. A port ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Orbital Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is defined as a serious infection that involves the muscle and fat located within the orbit. It is also sometimes referred to as po ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Papilledema Papilledema is a disease entity that refers to the swelling of the optic disc due to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). This term should be distin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Periorbital Cellulitis Periorbital cellulitis is sometimes called preseptal cellulitis. It is is a skin and soft tissue infection around the eye that is anterior to the orbi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Photorefractive Keratectomy Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is a laser refractive procedure used to ablate the corneal stroma to correct refractive errors. Though not performed ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Physostigmine Physostigmine is a medication most commonly used in the management and treatment of antimuscarinic toxicity as well as glaucoma. This article will hig ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pilocarpine Pilocarpine is a medication used in the management and treatment of xerostomia and glaucoma. It is a muscarinic receptor agonist. This activity descri ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pinguecula Pinguecula is a benign, common degeneration of the conjunctiva. It appears as grey white-yellow mass on the bulbar conjunctiva. It presents in people ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Posterior Vitreous Detachment Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is the separation of the posterior vitreous cortex and the internal limiting membrane of the retina and is the mos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Presbyopia Presbyopia is a condition which every individual is bound to face around their forties. This activity talks about the pathophysiology, evaluation, and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ptosis Ptosis is known as the drooping of the upper eyelid, and the patient usually presents with the complaint of the defect in vision and cosmesis. It can ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pupillary Light Reflex Eyes allow visualization of the world by receiving and processing the energy of light as it enters the eye. This light interacts with the structures a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ranibizumab Ranibizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, macular edema following retinal vein ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Retinal Detachment Retinal detachments constitute a serious ocular condition and can lead to permanent vision loss. When the retina, the neurosensory layer, detaches fro ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Retinal Dystrophies Retinal dystrophies (RD) are a group of degenerative disorders of the retina with clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Common presentations include col ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Retinal Hemorrhage Retinal hemorrhages are a common clinical manifestation in patients visiting an eye clinic. Retinal hemorrhages give a clue to an underlying systemic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Retinitis Pigmentosa The term Retinitis Pigmentosa encompasses a group of hereditary retinopathies which result in progressive vision loss. This activity will cover the un ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Retinopathy Retinopathy refers to pathological alterations to the retina resulting from a variety of causes, including environmental conditions and genetic factor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Retinopathy Of Prematurity Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease of retinal vascular and capillary proliferation affecting premature infants undergoing oxygen therapy. S ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Rosacea Rosacea is a common chronic inflammatory disease that presents with recurrent flushing, erythema, telangiectasia, papules, or pustules on nose, chin, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Roth Spots White-centered retinal hemorrhages, also known as Roth spots, are retinal hemorrhages that can be seen in a variety of medical conditions. Roth spots ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Scleritis Scleritis is a severe ocular inflammatory condition affecting the outer covering of the eye. Scleritis has high association with systemic disease. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Scopolamine Scopolamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness. It is in the anticho ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Sjogren Syndrome Primary Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder commonly presenting with dryness involving the eyes and mouth due to inflammation and resul ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Skin Antiseptics Antiseptics are chemical agents applied to the skin to reduce the microbial count and reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are def ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sterile Technique The purpose of creating a sterile field is to reduce the number of microbes present to as few as possible. The sterile field is used in many situation ... Read the Article 0.75 0 Activity Info
Steroid Induced Glaucoma Steroids are one of the most commonly prescribed drugs, used mainly in the treatment of various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Although they ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Strabismus Strabismus is a common childhood disorder that causes deviation or squinting of eyes. If untreated it can affect the vision permanently and can have a ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Stye Stye, or hordeolum, is an acute, painful infection of the eye which involves the upper or lower eyelid. Patients present with a pustule with erythema ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Subconjunctival Hemorrhage Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common ocular complaint that most clinicians will see in their practice. This article is to describe its causes and it ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.75 45 Activity Info
Tay-Sachs Disease Tay Sachs disease is a rare autosomal recessive progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Patients usually exhibit a severe clinical course with death i ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Temporal Arteritis Temporal arteritis (TA), also called giant cell arteritis (GCA) or cranial arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of medium and large-sized ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Timolol Timolol is a medication used in the treatment and management of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tonometry Tonometry is a common procedure employed by health care professionals to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) using a calibrated instrument. Instruments ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC) is likely the most common cause of infectious retinochoroiditis worldwide. One-quarter of patients with a history o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. Although many people are infected worldwide, the disea ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Trachoma Trachoma is a bacterial infection of the eyes caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. The infection causes roughening and scarring of the inner surface of th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tropicamide Tropicamide is a safe drug used for pupillary dilation prior to a comprehensive eye exam or ocular procedure. Dilation is also necessary for specific ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Uveitis Uveitis is a disease process that involves inflammation of the eye. There are multiple different causes of uveitis. These include infections, inflamma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Viral Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also known as "pink eye", is inflammation of the conjunctiva. The three most common causes of conjunctivitis are viral, allergic, and ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Visual Acuity A visual acuity test is only one part of a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. The goal of the visual acuity test is to determine the visual cla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin A Deficiency Vitamin A is a lipid-soluble compound with several biologic actions to aid in vision and cellular differentiation. The prevalence of vitamin A deficie ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Vitrectomy Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) is a surgical technique originally introduced by Robert Machemer. The pars plana approach to the vitreous cavity allows ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitreous Floaters Vitreous floaters can often be the presenting symptom of a retinal tear or detachment. Early recognition of floaters can help prevent vision loss or b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitreous Hemorrhage Vitreous hemorrhage is described as blood in the vitreous cavity. It can occur due to a myriad of causes. Its timely diagnosis and management can cons ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
White Dot Syndromes The white dot syndromes constitute a group of inflammatory chorioretinopathies in which the common defining clinical feature is the presence of multip ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Williams Syndrome WS is a rare genetic disorder that presents with congenital heart disease, distinctive facial features (elfin-like faces), hypercalcemia, neurodevelop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Wilson Disease Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by abnormal copper accumulation in the body particularly ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Xanthelasma Palpebrarum Xanthelasma palpebrarum is a condition in which soft, yellow papules or plaques filled with cholesterol form over the medial canthus of the upper lid. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Xerophthalmia Xerophthalmia is the leading cause of preventable blindness and childhood blindness. Health education focusing on proper nutrition has the potential t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info

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Nurse-Ophthalmology (CRNO)

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Nurse-Ophthalmology (CRNO) activity. In this online self-assessment activity, read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 147 activities in Nurse-Ophthalmology (CRNO) for 165 total CE hours.


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