Nurse-Oncology (OCN) CE

Stay on top of your practice by subscribing to the StatPearls Unlimited CE program. Gain access to 318 PubMed indexed activities in Nurse-Oncology (OCN). Your subscription also gives you unlimited access to all 6,234 PubMed indexed CE activities in our library.

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All of our activities are approved by ANCC (LVN, RN, and CNS) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation® content outlines. 385 authors and 10 editors have contributed to the development of the Nurse-Oncology (OCN) content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Nurse-Oncology (OCN) Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
A Review Of Hereditary Colorectal Cancers Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Many cases of colorectal cancer are associated with lifestyle factors such as obe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy of B or T lymphoblasts characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal, immature lymphocytes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia among the adult population and accounts for about 80% of all cases. It is characterized by cl ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the U ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Adult T Cell Leukemia Adult T- cell leukemia (ATL) is a rare and aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type -1 (HTLV-1) infectio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Adverse Effects Of Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy causes DNA break and subsequent cell death. This affects the cancer cells more severely than the normal cells. However, with the growing ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) frequently occur in our medical system, and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome tha ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Afatinib Afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a widely used medication for non-small cell lung carcinoma. This activity educates health care providers on ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Allopurinol Allopurinol is a urate-lowering medication that is FDA approved for managing gout, prevention of tumor lysis syndrome, and prevention of recurrent cal ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Alopecia The term alopecia means hair loss regardless of the cause. It is not exclusive to the scalp; it can be anywhere in the body. Many therapies are availa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Anemia Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying condition and can be subdivided into ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Anorexia and Cachexia Cachexia is a significant loss of muscle and adipose tissue. It occurs in patients with advanced cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Antiemetic Neurokinin-1 Receptor Blockers Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a new class of antiemetic drugs that possess unique anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiemetic properties ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiemetic Serotonin-5-HT3 Receptor Blockers Selective serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Antifungal Antibiotics Fungi are unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that exist in all environments worldwide. While most fungi do not play a significant role ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Antipsychotic Medications First-generation antipsychotics are dopamine receptor antagonists (DRA) and are known as typical antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotics are ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Aprepitant Aprepitant is a medication used in the management and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and postoperative nausea and vomiti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia telangiectasia (Louis-Bar Syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by cutaneous telangiectasias, cerebellar atrophy with ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Atypical Mole A dysplastic nevus is a transition between benign moles and melanoma and is characterized by junctional melanocytic skin lesions showing dysplastic or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Axillary Lymphadenectomy Axillary lymphadenectomy is a procedure performed most commonly for breast cancer lymph node metastasis, and this activity focuses on breast cancer sp ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Barrett Esophagus Barrett esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium into metaplastic columnar ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Bevacizumab Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and is used for the treatment of several differen ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is any neoplasm that arises from the urinary bladder. It is the most common urinary tract neoplasm, with urothelial carcinoma (UC) bein ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bleomycin Bleomycin has approval for adult use in the treatment of squamous cell cancer of head and neck regions, Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma. It i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bone Metastasis The skeleton is the third most common site of metastatic disease after lung and liver. Most bone metastases originate from the breast, prostate or lun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bortezomib Bortezomib is FDA-approved for use in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. It is also FDA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brachytherapy Brachytherapy is a procedure to treat and manage cancers. It acts by placing sources containing radioactive isotopes that emit radiation for a specifi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
BRCA 1 and 2 Breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes whose mutations significantly increase the likelihood of developing particular types of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Conservation Therapy Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in the world. The rapid growth of breast conservation therapy has significantl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Surgery Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. with constantly evolving treatment guidelines. The treatment of breast cancer often invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Breast Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast represents neoplastic lesions, typically localized to the breast ducts with no evidence of invasion into ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Breast Lymphatics Breast cancer is the most commonly seen cancer diagnosis in women worldwide. Lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Breast Nipple Discharge Nipple discharge is fluid that leaks from one or both nipples of non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding women. Nipple discharge can at times be a complex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bromocriptine Bromocriptine is a medication currently used in the management and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is an ergot alkaloid derivative in the d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Busulfan Busulfan is a medication used in the management and treatment of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation specifically for patients wi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cachexia Cachexia is a complicated metabolic syndrome related to underlying illness and characterized by muscle mass loss with or without fat mass loss that is ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Calcitonin Salmon calcitonin (after this referred to as “calcitonin”) is an analog of human calcitonin used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget disease o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cancer Breast Screening In women, breast cancer is number one in incidence and mortality when compared to all cancers. It is the most common non-skin cancer and second deadli ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Cancer-associated Thrombosis Cancer-associated thrombosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients. It commonly occurs in patients with clinical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market. Dronabinol and nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carcinoid Syndrome Carcinoid syndrome refers to a number of symptoms caused by the release of humoral factors such as polypeptides, prostaglandins, and biogenic amines. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Carcinomatous Meningitis Carcinomatous meningitis is the dissemination of malignant cells from the primary tumor sites to leptomeningeal layers of the CNS. It occurs in the ad ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Celiac Plexus Block First described as a method of providing surgical anesthesia to the upper abdomen, the celiac plexus block (CPB) has been utilized in practice for nea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection not related to an infection at ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Line Management Central venous access is required for many hospitalized patients. Placement of central line catheters is done for many reasons, including inadequate p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Central Nervous System Lymphoma Lymphoma of the central nervous system, both primary and secondary, represents a rare subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. According to the World Health Or ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Primary prevention and screening are by far the most effective modalities for ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cervical Clear Cell Carcinoma The management of clear cell carcinoma of the cervix is complex, and new approaches have been recently introduced. To achieve optimal outcomes, the ba ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Intraepithelial Squamous Cell Lesion This article reviews the anatomy, natural history, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, compl ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cetuximab Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with the following FDA-approved indications: colorectal cancer, metastatic, KRAS wil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chemotherapy Acral Erythema Acral erythema is also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia, hand-foot syndrome (HFS), or Burgdorf reacti ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are recombinant receptors for antigens which redirect the specificity and function of T lymphocytes and/or other imm ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Choriocarcinoma Choriocarcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic type of trophoblastic disease. The 2 major types of choriocarcinoma are gestational and non-gestation ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by monoclonal B cell proliferation. It is the most common adult l ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL1-positive, is classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm predominantly composed of proliferating granulocytes ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Cisplatin Cisplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. It is in the alkylating agent class of cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Colon Cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common diagnosis and second deadliest malignancy for both sexes combined. The incidence of new cases and mor ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Colon Polyps Colon polyps are protrusions occurring in the colon lumen most commonly sporadic or as part of other syndromes. Polyps are classified as diminutive if ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Colonoscopy A colonoscopy is a vital tool utilized in modern medicine today. Its versatility and utility make it a vital life-saving procedure, both in the short ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colostomy Care Colostomy care, as the name suggests, is an all-encompassing term referring to colostomy management, from its creation to peristomal skin management, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Constipation Functional constipation is a prevalent condition in childhood, about 29.6% worldwide. In the United States, represents 3% to 5% of pediatric visits an ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cordotomy Cordotomy is the name of a surgical procedure aimed at destroying the pain-conducting tracts of the spinal cord. The cordotomy to be effective at decr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cryptorchidism Cryptorchidism is the absence of at least one testicle from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect involving the male genitalia. About 3% of ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cutaneous Melanoacanthoma Cutaneous melanoacanthoma is a rare benign epithelial lesion that typically presents as a solitary black plaque or nodule, usually on either the head ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide is a medication primarily used in the management and treatment of neoplasms, including multiple myeloma, sarcoma, and breast cancer. ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cytarabine Cytarabine is a medication used in the management and treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It belongs to the anthracycline group of medications. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Daunorubicin Daunorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic mainly used to treat various types of cancers, especially leukemias. It can be used to treat both acute an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Death and Dying Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers e ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation or presence of a thrombus in the deep veins. DVT occurs mostly in the lower extremities and to a lesser ex ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Desmoid Tumor Desmoid tumors , also known as aggressive fibromatosis, are mesenchymal neoplasms that are considered to be locally invasive but do not metastasize. D ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dexamethasone Dexamethasone has a wide variety of uses in the medical field. As a treatment, dexamethasone has been useful in the treatment of acute exacerbation of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dexrazoxane Dexrazoxane is a medication used in the management and treatment of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and extravasation injuries. It is in the clas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disparity In Early Detection Of Breast Cancer Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Although significant advancements in early detection and treatments have reduced the overall ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Docetaxel Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent used in the management of multiple metastatic and non-resectable tumor types. It is a newer agent from the taxane ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin is an antibiotic derived from the Streptomyces peucetius bacterium. It has widespread use as a chemotherapeutic agent since the 1960s. Dox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dysphagia Dysphagia is defined as objective impairment or difficulty in swallowing, resulting in an abnormal delay in the transit of a liquid or solid bolus. Th ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity Info
Endometrial Cancer Uterine endometrial cancer is the most prevalent gynecologic malignancy in American women and a major cause of both morbidity and mortality. Over 60,0 ... Read the Article 2 19 Activity Info
Erlotinib Erlotinib is a medication used to manage and treat some types of non-small cell lung cancer and advanced pancreatic cancer. It is in the tyrosine kina ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a deadly malignancy with a very low survival, even with treatment. In the United States, esophageal cancers represent the fifth m ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Estrogen Estrogen is a steroid hormone associated with the female reproductive organs and is responsible for the development of female sexual characteristics. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or familial polyposis coli (FPC) is an autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome with varying degrees of penetrance. ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Febrile Neutropenia Neutropenic fever is defined as a single oral temperature greater than or equal to 101 F, or a temperature greater than or equal to 100.4 F for at lea ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Fentanyl Transdermal Transdermal fentanyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain and cancer pain. It is part of the opioid class of drugs. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Filgrastim Filgrastim is a medication used to manage and treat neutropenia in patients with myelosuppression from chemotherapy or radiation, which increases the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fine Needle Aspiration Of Breast Masses Fine needle aspiration of breast masses is a type of biopsy performed using a small needle to obtain samples of tissue and fluid from solid or cystic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluorouracil 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a medication used for the treatment of various neoplasms. It is in the chemotherapy class of medications. This activity outli ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Flutamide Flutamide is used in the management and treatment of androgen-dependent tumors like prostate cancer and conditions associated with hyperandrogenism li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Follicular Lymphoma Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and accounts for up 30% of all lymphomas. FL is a generally lazy ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Gastric Cancer Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The only potentially curative tre ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Gastric Lymphoma Gastric lymphoma is a rare malignancy that comprises less than 5 % of all neoplasms in the stomach. However, the incidence in the united states is ris ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glioblastoma Multiforme Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary brain malignancy with a poor prognosis. No specific risk factors are identified. Diagnosis is by imaging li ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Gliomas Glioma is the most common form of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm that originates from glial cells. In the United States, there are six cases of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Graft Versus Host Disease Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs due to the presence of immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the graft attacking the immunodeficient recipient tiss ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Granulosa Theca Cell Cancer Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian neoplasms derived from the sex cords/ovarian mesenchyme with an indolent course and long natural history. Unlik ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Grief Reaction Grief is a natural and universal response to the loss of a loved one. The grief experience is not a state but a process. Most individuals recover adeq ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Grief Support Health professionals frequently deal with the loss of a patient in the emergency department and in intensive care units. These deaths are often due to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Haloperidol Haloperidol is a first-generation (typical) antipsychotic that is a commonly used drug worldwide. Haloperidol is used for positive symptoms of schizop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hashimoto Thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which thyroid cel ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Bone marrow transplant, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HPSCT) involves the administration of healthy hematopoietic stem cells to pa ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hepatic Cystadenoma Hepatic cystic lesions were once thought to be relatively uncommon; however, they are being diagnosed more frequently with the continued advancement a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hepatoblastoma Hepatoblastomas are the most common primary malignant liver tumor in pediatric patients, and most often occur within the first 2 years of life. The hi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary tumor of the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes more than 90% of the primary tumor of the liver. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Herpes Virus Type 8 The Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), also called Kaposi sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), belongs to the family of DNA viruses Herpeseviridae. It causes Kaposi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
High-Output Cardiac Failure High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the simplest form, it is stil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
HIV Prophylaxis HIV prophylaxis is divided into two categories: post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PEP is the administration of anti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hodgkin Lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare monoclonal lymphoid neoplasm characterized by the following four features: HL usually presents in young adults, common ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase is an enzyme useful in facilitating the management of injectable medications. This activity reviews the indications, action, adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydrocodone Hydrocodone is a schedule II semi-synthetic opioid medication used to treat pain. Hydrocodone is also an antitussive indicated for cough in adults. In ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydroxyurea Toxicity Hydroxyurea is an antineoplastic agent used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation in the treatment of resistant leuke ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia is a common disorder that affects patients of all ages and genders. The most common manifestation of hyperuricemia is gout, which can be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ifosfamide Ifosfamide is a cytotoxic medication used in the management and treatment of various cancers such as lymphomas, sarcomas, and lung cancers. It is in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ileus Ileus refers to the intolerance of oral intake due to inhibition of the gastrointestinal propulsion without signs of mechanical obstruction. The diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Imatinib Imatinib is a medication used to manage and treat chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other malignancies. It is in the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is used to upregulate or downregulate the immune system to achieve a therapeutic effect in immunological mediated disorders, including i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS) is caused by physical invasion or compression by a pathological process or by thrombosis within the vein itself. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Inflammatory Breast Cancer Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare subtype of locally advanced breast cancer according to the TNM breast cancer staging system. Despite its lo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Interferon Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune dise ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Irinotecan Irinotecan is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of solid tumors. It is in the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor class of drug ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma is an interesting soft tissue tumor occurring in several distinct populations with a variety of presentations and courses. In its most ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Kidney Transplantation Kidney transplantation is performed to prolong and improve the lives of those with end-stage renal disease. Open and laparoscopic surgery are the two ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Laryngeal Cancer Laryngeal cancers represent one-third of head and neck cancers and may be a significant source of morbidity and mortality. They are most often diagnos ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Leucovorin Leucovorin is a medication used in the treatment of methotrexate toxicity and chemotherapy regimens. Leucovorin is a folate analog. This activity revi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Leukemia Leukemia is a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies that arise from dysfunctional proliferation of developing leukocytes. It is classified a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Leuprolide Leuprolide is a medication used in the management and treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, precocious puberty, and other sex ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Leydig Cell Cancer Although testicular cancers are relatively rare, accounting for only 1% to 2% of worldwide male cancer diagnoses, it is the most common malignancy in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Liver Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of primary liver cancer in the United States with three-quarters of primary and secondary liver cance ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Liver Imaging Liver lesions have a broad spectrum of pathologies ranging from benign liver lesions such as hemangiomas to malignant lesions such as primary hepatoce ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Liver Metastasis The presence of hepatic metastases increases the morbidity and mortality of patients with another site of a primary tumor disease. The majority of pub ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Lobular Breast Carcinoma Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second most common histologic form of breast cancer, representing 5% to 15% of all invasive breast cancers. It is co ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Localized Prostate Cancer The natural history of prostate cancer has been extensively studied in patients treated conservatively. Most localized prostate cancer represents an i ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Lung Adenocarcinoma Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common primary lung cancer seen in the United States. It falls under the umbrella of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lung Biopsy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing tissue specimens via a puncture through the chest wall into the lung (percutaneous lung lesi ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Lung Cancer Lung cancer or bronchogenic carcinoma refers to tumors originating in the lung parenchyma or within bronchi. It is one of the leading causes of cancer ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Lung Cancer Screening Worldwide lung cancer has the highest rate of mortality and is the leading cause of cancer deaths. The incidence of lung cancer is approximately equal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lung Metastasis The lung is one of the most common sites of cancer metastasis. This activity will provide an overview of the common cancers that metastasize to the lu ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Lymph Node Dissection Lymph node dissection is a surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are dissected, and a sample of tissue is checked for the presence of cancer und ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy refers to the swelling of lymph nodes which can be secondary to bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, autoimmune disease, and malign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymphedema Lymphedema is a chronic disease marked by the increased collection of lymphatic fluid in the body, causing swelling, which can lead to skin and tissue ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lymphocyte Depleted Hodgkin Lymphoma Lymphocyte-depleted classic Hodgkin lymphoma is the rarest subtype of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 1% to 1.5% of classic Hodgkin lymphoma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lymphoma Lymphoma comprises heterogeneous malignancies that arise from the clonal proliferation of lymphocytes. It represents approximately 5% of malignancies. ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, also known as Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, is a low-grade B cell lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by small lym ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lynch Syndrome Most colorectal cancers occur sporadically; however, inherited cancer syndromes or inherited mutations cause approximately 5 to 10 percent of cases. T ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lytic Bone Lesions Bone tumors are mostly benign. The most important determinants in imaging of bone tumors are morphology on plain radiograph (well-defined lytic, ill-d ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Macrocytosis Macrocytosis refers to the finding of enlarged red blood cells (RBCs). The measurement of RBC size is reported in the complete blood count (CBC) as me ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Male Breast Cancer Although breast cancer is typically synonymous as a disease that commonly occurs in women, it does occur in men as well. This is because although mini ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Male Infertility Infertility is usually defined as the inability of a couple to conceive even after one year of unprotected, frequent sexual intercourse. The male is s ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Malignancy-Related Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic abnormality seen in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Depending on the serum calcium levels, hypercalcemia i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Malignant Effusion Pleural effusion is a frequent complication of advanced malignancy with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the managem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malignant Melanoma A melanoma is a tumor produced by the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest; consequently, melanomas, ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Malignant Mesothelioma Malignant mesothelioma is a rare growth of mesothelial cells strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Mesothelial cells form the lining layers of t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland tumors are a rare group of complex, heterogenous histologies that are located in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gla ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
MALToma The neoplastic proliferation of B cells in the marginal zone of lymphoid tissue gives rise to marginal zone B cell lymphomas. Mucosa-associated lympho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mammography Aside from skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and represents 14% of all new cancers in the United States. Breast cancer ris ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Medical Cannabis Use In Oncology Medicinal marijuana is a medication currently undergoing research for its use in the management and treatment of several oncology-related symptoms. Su ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medullary Breast Carcinoma Medullary carcinoma is a rare and distinct subgroup of breast carcinomas. Despite its highly malignant characteristics, medullary breast carcinoma car ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Medulloblastoma While leukemias are the most common type of malignancy affecting the pediatric population, brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in this popul ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Meigs Syndrome Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian tumor present along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1% of ovarian tumors c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Menopause Menopause is a routine, non-pathologic condition involving the permanent cessation of menses for at least 12 months. Menopause occurs in all menstruat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mercaptopurine Mercaptopurine is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is in the class of medications known as purine ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mesna Mesna is a medication used in the management and treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with chemotherapy. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Methotrexate Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite most commonly used in chemotherapy and immunosuppressant in auto-immune diseases. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Mucinous Breast Carcinoma Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a relatively rare subtype of breast cancer accounting for about 2% of all breast carcinomas. According to the late ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mucosa-associated Lymphoma Tissue Mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma is non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity reviews the etiolog ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell proliferative disorder characterized by the abnormal increase of monoclonal paraprotein leading to evide ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells have self-renewal capability and give rise to either myeloid or the lymphoid lineage which further differentiates ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Cancer The nasopharynx is a small, tubular structure above the soft palate that connects the nose to the oropharynx. Cancers that arise from this area are us ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC, Lymphoepithelioma) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis is the term employed for kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, and they are crystal concretions formed typically in the kidney. ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequently-occurring extracranial childhood tumor. It is classified as an embryonal neuroendocrine tumor, originating f ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Neurolytic Blocks A neurolytic block is the targeted destruction of a nerve or nerve plexus. Frequently, the term neuroablation is used to also describe the physical in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neuropathy About 2.4 percent of the population is affected by peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence increases to 8 percent in older populations. Peripheral neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Neutropenia Neutrophils play an essential role in immune defenses because they ingest, kill, and digest invading microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria. Fai ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung cancer is a diagnosis that has become a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer includes the subsets of adenocarcinom ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms originating from the lymphoid tissues, mainly the lymph nodes. These tumors may result due to c ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Nosocomial Infections This article provides a review of the critical features of nosocomial infections. It provides an overall discussion on the significance of healthcare- ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Ocular Melanoma Ocular melanoma is diagnosed from ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, and fine-needle aspir ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Oligodendroglioma Oligodendroglioma (OG) is a type of diffusely infiltrating glioma and constitutes approximately 5% of primary intracranial tumors. They often involve ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Ondansetron Ondansetron is one of the medications most commonly used for empiric treatment. Ondansetron has extreme utility as an antiemetic drug, and it is effec ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Opioid Opioids are medications used in the management and treatment of pain, cough, or diarrhea. This activity outlines the indications, actions, and contrai ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Opioid Equivalency Opioids are often prescribed for cancer-related pain and moderate-to-severe chronic pain, especially pain that is inadequately controlled with non-opi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Opioid Induced Constipation Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) accounts for between 40 and sixty percent of patients without cancer receiving opioids. Laxatives must be started at ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Opioid Overdose One very common reason why patients seek medical care is for pain. Today, there are many ways to relieve pain, and one of them is with the use of opia ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Oral Candidiasis This activity illustrates the evaluation and treatment of oral candidiasis. It highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and tre ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Oral Cutaneous Fistula Oral cutaneous fistula (OCF) is an infrequent condition in which there is a pathologic communication between the oral cavity and the skin. Chronic den ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oral Leukoplakia Oral leukoplakia is a white patch or plaque that develops in the oral cavity. The condition is potentially malignant and is strongly associated with t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Oral Mucosa Cancer Oral mucosal cancer is cancer that arises from the lining (mucosa) of the oral cavity. The main risk factors are smoking and alcohol consumption. The ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Oral Mucositis Oral mucositis is a debilitating condition, and it presents as erythema, edema, and ulceration of the oral mucosa with subsequent pain and restriction ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, commonly known as throat cancer or tonsil cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer that refers to the cancer o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica Osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC) is a skeletal disorder caused by an overproduction of parathyroid hormone from the overactive parathyroid glands. Ostei ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), consists of the presence of digital clubbing, increased periosteal activity of the tubular bones, arthralgias, an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Osteomalacia Vitamin D deficiency accounts for the most common nutritional deficiency among children and adults. Osteomalacia describes a disorder of “bone softeni ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is a malignant osseous neoplasm. It is the most common primary bone cancer of childhood. Less frequently, it occurs in adults where it re ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in women of developed nations. They should be diagnosed early for better chan ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Oxaliplatin Oxaliplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. It is in the platinum-based chemotherapeutic class o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Paclitaxel Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent used as therapy for several types of cancer. It has a long list of both approved and off-label malignancies for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Pain Management Medications Analgesics are medications used in the management and treatment of pain. They include several classes of medications (acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Palliation Radiation Therapy Of The Spinal Cord Radiation therapy is frequently used in medicine as both a curative and palliative treatment modality. When cancer metastasizes to the spine, patients ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Palliative Care The World Health Organization characterizes the field of palliative care as a form of specialized medical care which aims to optimize the quality of l ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Palliative Sedation In Patients With Terminal Illness Palliative sedation is indicated when there is intractable distress in patients who are terminally ill or dying. It is a palliative practice geared to ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pamidronate Pamidronate is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate or severe hypercalcemia of malignancy, moderate to severe Paget disease o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer refers to the carcinoma arising from the pancreatic duct cells, pancreatic ductal carcinoma. It is the fourth leading cause of cance ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma Pancreatic serous cystadenomas are mostly benign lesions. Their incidence has increased recently due to the improvements in imaging techniques nowaday ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Papillary Fibroelastoma Papillary fibroelastomas are one of the most common types of primary cardiac tumors. They are increasingly recognized as the spatial resolution of ima ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an epithelial malignancy showing evidence of follicular cell differentiation and a set of distinctive nuclear fea ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Paraganglioma Paragangliomas are benign tumors, and a small percentage may become malignant and metastasize; hence, early identification leading to complete surgica ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Paraneoplastic Syndromes Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders with complex systemic clinical manifestations due to underlying malignancy. In paraneoplastic syndromes, t ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Parathyroid Cancer Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare, malignant neoplasm originating from the parathyroid gland. The clinical presentation can mimic primary parathyroid ad ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parotid Cancer Salivary gland tumors are characterized by diverse histological appearances and variable biological behavior. The distinction between tumor types can ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Patient Rights And Ethics Patient rights are a subset of human rights. Whereas the concept of human rights refers to minimum standards for the ways persons can expect to be tre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Pectoralis Nerve Block The pectoral nerve (Pecs) block I and II are a novel technique to block the pectoral nerves, intercostal nerves 3 to 6, intercostobrachial nerves, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pegfilgrastim Pegfilgrastim is a pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor that is FDA-approved to decrease the risk of patients developing febrile neutropeni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Penile Cancer Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy, but when diagnosed is psychologically devastating to the patient and can pose a difficult challenge to the tr ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is a hereditary syndrome characterized by gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis, mucocutaneous pigmented macules, and predispos ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary adenomas are tumors of the anterior pituitary. Most pituitary tumors are slow-growing and benign. They are classified based on size or cell ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Plasmapheresis Plasmapheresis is a therapeutic intervention that involves extracorporeal removal, return, or exchange of blood plasma or components. The underlying m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Portal Vein Obstruction Portal vein obstruction most commonly results from thrombosis or, to a lesser extent, from malignancy. It also occurs as a complication of several met ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Post Transplantation Cancer Cancer is one of the three major causes of death after an organ transplant. Cardiovascular disease and infection are the other two reasons for death a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postherpetic Neuralgia Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common long-term complication of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. This reactivation of the dormant ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) is recommended for patients with more advanced breast cancer and/or certain high-risk pathologic features. In ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Premalignant Fibroepithelial Tumor Of Pinkus In 1953, Dr. Herman Pinkus first described the fibroepithelial tumor of Pinkus (FEP) as a pre-malignant epithelial tumor. Although there has been some ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Primary Bone Cancer Primary bone cancers are rare malignant tumors originating in bone and derived from primitive mesenchymal cells. They are frequently aggressive tumors ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Prochlorperazine Prochlorperazine is a first-generation antipsychotic. FDA indications include schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and other conditions presenting with sym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used to manage and treat allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also has off-label u ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Propylthiouracil (PTU) Propylthiouracil is an anti-thyroid drug used in the management of Graves disease and hyperthyroidism. This activity will highlight the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Prostate Cancer Worldwide, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in men. In 2012, this amounted to 1,1 ... Read the Article 2.25 23 Activity Info
Radiation Enteritis Radiation enteritis is damage to the small and/or large intestines secondary to radiation. Different terms like radiation colitis, radiation enteropat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Radiation Esophagitis Radiation esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagus due to radiation. Radiation esophagitis is typically an adverse effect that develops in individ ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy For Early Stage Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. In the United States, it is the most common cancer (excluding skin cancer) a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy For Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer In the United States, lung cancers comprise about 14 percent of all new cancers, and lung cancer is the number one cancer killer in both men and women ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy Induced Skin Ulcer Management of acute or chronic skin injuries due to ionizing radiation is a complex challenge with injuries ranging from acute redness to chronic woun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rectal Cancer Colon and rectal cancers together are the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States and the second deadliest. Rectal cancer has distin ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Rectal Exam The rectal exam is an oft-overlooked part of the physical exam. For those practitioners who understand how to interpret it, a lot of information can i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Renal Cancer Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the kidney and constitutes over 90 percent of all renal malignancies. RCC may be spor ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Renal Lymphoma Renal involvement in lymphoma is commonly in the presence of widespread nodal or extranodal lymphoma. This is classified as secondary renal lymphoma ( ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. Patients management is best in consultation with an experienced ophthal ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rhabdomyosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a primitive pediatric malignant soft tissue sarcoma of skeletal muscle phenotype that originates from a primitive mesenchyma ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Sarcoma Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a group neoplasms that can affect individuals at the extremes of age and can originate from any location throughout the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Seminoma Seminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor that involves most commonly the testicle or less frequently the mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, or other ext ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Septal Perforation Nasal septal perforation is a full-thickness defect of the nasal septum. Bilateral mucoperichondrial leaflets and a structural middle layer comprise t ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognoses. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Short Term Memory Impairment Short-term memory (STM), also referred to as short-term storage, or primary or active memory indicates different systems of memory involved in the ret ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is generally classified as nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or melanoma. This act ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sleep Deprivation Sleep loss from various causes is very common and often missed by physicians as a treatable health problem. There are strong associations with serious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in the United States. It is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women, accounting for ap ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Solid and Papillary Epithelial Neoplasm Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic neoplasms are rare pancreatic tumors accounting for 1% to 2% of exocrine pancreatic lesions. Recent surveys report a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Spinal Metastasis Spinal metastases are the most common tumors of the spine. These are more commonly found as bone metastasis and may present with symptoms of spinal ca ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Squamous Cell Lung Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, also known as squamous cell lung cancer, is a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Squamous cell lun ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer, is caused by the cumulative exposure of skin to UV light. This condition has prec ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Stages of Dying Medical professionals will work with dying patients in all disciplines, and the process is a difficult one as care shifts from eliminating or mitigati ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in a variety of settings. It should be noted that evidence suggests that patients with estro ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Testicle Cancer Testicular cancer is one of the most common malignancies in men aged 15 to 45 years. Etiology is multifactorial, comprising various genetic and enviro ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Testicular Seminoma Testicular seminomas are cancers that can usually be managed with surgical resection, although radiation is added for advanced-stage disease. Stage 1 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) THC or Tetrahydrocannabinol is the major psychoactive component and one of the 113 cannabinoids recognized in cannabis. A synthetic formulation of THC ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Therapeutic Communication Therapeutic communication is an invaluable approach to interactions with patients that is applicable across multiple disciplines. This activity revie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thoracentesis Thoracentesis is a procedure that is performed to remove fluid from the thoracic cavity. This can be done for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Thymoma Thymomas and thymic carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the thymus within the anterior mediastinum. The presence of histologic heterogen ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Thyroid Lymphoma Thyroid lymphoma is classified as primary and secondary thyroid lymphoma. Primary thyroid lymphoma affects the thyroid gland first, followed by spread ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Thyroid Nodule Although more than 90 percent of identified thyroid nodules are clinically insignificant benign lesions, in 4 to 6.5 percent of cases, these nodules a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Tongue Cancer Tongue cancer is one of the most common sites of head and neck malignancy. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and, more recently, human papilloma virus infect ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Tonsil Cancer Tonsil cancer is the most common form of oropharyngeal malignancy, and its incidence is sharply rising due to the increasing prevalence of human papil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Total Parenteral Nutrition Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment. It is in the nutrition class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Trastuzumab Trastuzumab is a biologic antineoplastic agent that, at the time of its FDA approval in 1998, was among the first available targeted chemotherapies. I ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tumor Lysis Syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome is the most common oncologic emergency. This condition is prevalent in both adult and pediatric oncology patients undergoing chem ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Types of Arteriovenous Fistulas Nearly half a million people require hemodialysis, and each year approximately 100,000 new cases of end-stage renal disease are diagnosed. Consequentl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ulcerative Colitis Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the colon which results in diffuse friability and superficial erosions on the colonic wa ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Uterine Cancer Uterine cancer arising from the innermost layer of the uterus, the endometrium, is called endometrial carcinoma. Endometrial carcinoma is the most com ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is an uncommon gynecologic malignancy. The diagnosis of primary vaginal cancer is rare because most of these lesions will be metastatic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vein Obstruction Venous obstruction is partial or complete occlusion of the lumen of a vein. It can lead to decreased venous flow and increased blood pooling. Venous s ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Vincristine Vincristine belongs to a group of drugs known as the vinca alkaloids. Vinca alkaloids are organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Vulva Cancer Vulvar cancer represents 0.3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type and is usually diagnosed a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Wilms Tumor Wilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, is the most common pediatric renal cancer, the most common pediatric abdominal cancer, and the fourth most common pedi ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Xeroderma Pigmentosum Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis that results due to mutations in nucleotide excision repair. The condition is chara ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Xerostomia Xerostomia is defined as "a subjective feeling of oral dryness." These symptoms might present as dry mouth, difficulty swallowing, or dry oral mucosa/ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info

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