Nurse-Neuroscience (CNRN) CE

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All of our activities are approved by ANCC (LVN, RN, and CNS) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the American Board of Neuroscience Nursing® content outlines. 448 authors and 10 editors have contributed to the development of the Nurse-Neuroscience (CNRN) content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Nurse-Neuroscience (CNRN) Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abnormal Spontaneous Electromyographic Activity The muscle is normally electrically silent outside the end-plate zone. Therefore, abnormal spontaneous activity is considered when there is the persis ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Abulia Abulia, also known as apathy, psychic akinesia, and athymia, refers to a lack of will, drive, or initiative for action, speech and thought, and is fel ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive growth hormone production from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tissue ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Activities of Daily Living Activities of daily living (ADLs) are essential and routine tasks that most young, healthy individuals can perform without assistance. The inability t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Headache Headache is a nearly universal complaint. Most headaches are benign, and the majority of patients can be safely treated and discharged with minimal wo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Adrenoleukodystrophy Adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal disorder resulting from abnormal metabolism of the very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). It is classified into di ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Ageusia Ageusia is a symptom reflecting various underline pathological conditions. It is a rare condition that is characterized by complete loss of the taste ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Agnosia Agnosia is a rare disorder whereby a patient is unable to recognize and identify objects, persons, or sounds using one or more of their senses despite ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Alexia Alexia is a rare condition in which reading comprehension is nonexistent or significantly limited due to brain injury, damage, or trauma. It can be as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Amaurosis Fugax The term amaurosis fugax is often used interchangeably to describe transient visual loss (TVL). However, it is employed widely in medicine to refer to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade is a common and successful strategy in treating several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anosmia Anosmia is the inability to perceive smell/odor. It can be temporary or permanent and acquired or congenital. There are many causes. Neurological caus ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anosognosia Anosognosia is a neurological condition in which the patient is unaware of their neurological deficit or psychiatric condition. It is associated with ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery strokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involves the superior and medial part of the parietal lo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Medications Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Aphasia Aphasia is an impairment of language caused by damage to the language area of the brain, primarily Broca and Wernicke areas. Injury to the brain can b ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Appropriate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Ordering Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic imaging technique useful for the detailed characterization of the soft tissues without ionizing radia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Argyll Robertson Pupil Argyll Robertson pupil describes the physical exam finding of bilaterally small pupils that do not constrict when exposed to bright light but do const ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Arteriovenous Malformation Of The Brain Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a developmental anomaly of the vascular system, consisting of tangles of poorly formed blood vessels in which t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal fistulas between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary bed. High arterial flow directly ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Aseptic Meningitis Aseptic meningitis is an umbrella term for all of the causes of inflammation of the brain meninges that have negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aspiration Risk Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized ba ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Astrocytoma Astrocytoma originates in astrocytes, which are a kind of glial cells in the cerebrum which are star-shaped. It is the most common glioma, usually aff ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia telangiectasia (Louis-Bar Syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by cutaneous telangiectasias, cerebellar atrophy with ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy Athetoid cerebral palsy, also known as dyskinetic cerebral palsy, is the second most common subtype of cerebral palsy. It is a non-progressive, perman ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of rapidly growing disabilities. They are characterized by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Axonotmesis This activity reviews the etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, physiology, and prognosis of peripheral nerve injury with a particular focus on axonotmesis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Baclofen Baclofen is used to treat muscle spasticity; it is FDA-approved for the management of reversible spasticity, particularly for the relief of flexor spa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Barbiturates Barbiturates are a group of sedative-hypnotic medications used for the treatment of seizure disorder, neonatal withdrawal, insomnia, preoperative anxi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Basilar Artery Infarct The basilar artery (BA) is formed over the surface of pons by two vertebral arteries to supply the critical areas of the brain and brainstem. Anatomic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Basilar Artery Thrombosis The basilar artery is formed by the convergence of the vertebral arteries at the junction of the pons and medulla. It provides oxygen-rich blood to th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Battle Sign Battle sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Benedikt Syndrome Benedikt syndrome is an eponymously named neurological condition secondary to specific damage in the midbrain that causes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines are especially important in the cessation of seizure activity, as 1% to 2% of emergency department visits annually in the United State ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Benztropine Benztropine is FDA approved as adjunctive therapy for all forms of parkinsonism. It is also used for drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and the prev ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Berry Aneurysm Berry (saccular) aneurysms are the most common type of intracranial aneurysm, representing 90% of cerebral aneurysms. Generally speaking, there is a b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Blindness The term blindness is a general term that can include those with low vision and legal blindness. Low vision is a term used to describe those whose vis ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Therapeutic uses include chronic migraine, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Broca Aphasia Broca’s aphasia is a non-fluent aphasia in which the output of spontaneous speech is markedly diminished and there is a loss of normal grammatical str ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bromocriptine Bromocriptine is a medication currently used in the management and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is an ergot alkaloid derivative in the d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Brown Sequard Syndrome Brown-Séquard syndrome is a neurologic syndrome resulting from hemisection of the spinal cord. It manifests with weakness or paralysis and propriocept ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Butterbur Butterbur (derived from the leaves of Petasites japonicus) is an herbal supplement that has been found to be effective in the prophylaxis of adult mig ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Caffeine Withdrawal Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Unlike other p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Caloric Testing Caloric testing is a useful clinical tool that can assess and quantify the functional status of the individual vestibular systems. The test utilizes t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cannabidiol (CBD) CBD is a medication used to manage and treat the seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. This activity describes the indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Carbidopa Carbidopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). It is in the decarboxylase inhibitor class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Carcinomatous Meningitis Carcinomatous meningitis is the dissemination of malignant cells from the primary tumor sites to leptomeningeal layers of the CNS. It occurs in the ad ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cardiac Syncope Syncope, a sudden, transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, is a phenomenon estimated to affect 30% to 40% of the population, and those numb ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardioembolic Stroke An estimated 26 million people suffer a stroke each year, making it a significant source of mortality and long-term disability. Up to two-thirds of st ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Stenosis The distinction between hemodynamic and embolic stroke in the setting of chronic internal carotid artery occlusion is important. Embolic symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Cataplexy Cataplexy, a physical feature of narcolepsy, is characterized by transient episodes of voluntary muscle weakness precipitated by intense emotion. Subj ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cauda Equina And Conus Medullaris Syndromes Cauda equina and conus medullaris syndromes have overlap in anatomy and clinical presentation. The cauda equina is a group of nerves and nerve roots s ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cavernous Sinus Aneurysm Cavernous sinus aneurysms are most common in the elderly population and often present with an indolent ophthalmoplegia. The morbidity of these aneurys ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Cord Syndrome Central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete cord injury and almost always occurs due to a traumatic injury. It results in motor defici ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebellar Dysfunction The cerebellum maintains our coordination and balance. Cerebellar dysfunction causes difficulty with coordination, imbalance, and gait disorders. Poss ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerebellar Hematoma Cerebellar hemorrhage or hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage in which the bleeding is located in the posterior fossa or cerebellum. This con ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral ischemia is a common mechanism of acute brain injury that results from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cerebral ischemia represents a medic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cervical Radiculopathy Neck pain is widespread and causes significant pain and disability. Workers with a history of neck pain account for up to 40% of work absenteeism. In ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Cervical Spondylosis Cervical spondylosis is a natural age-related disease process that is associated with degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc. It most com ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cervical Sprain The term "whiplash" injury was first coined by Harold Crowe in 1928 to define acceleration-deceleration injuries occurring to the cervical spine or ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Change In Mental Status Altered mental status is a common presentation. It is important to recognize the early signs of altered mental status, identify the underlying cause, ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Chiari I Malformation Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation, otherwise known as the Chiari 1 malformation, is the more common variant of the Chiari malformations, defined as a spect ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Child Development The stages through which a child goes through from birth until he or she becomes an adult is child development. Children are first newborns, and durin ... Read the Article 4.5 85 Activity Info
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine is a medication used to manage and treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and acute psychosis. It is in the category of typical antipsy ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cholinergic Medications Cholinergic medications are a category of pharmaceutical agents that act upon the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter within ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Chorea According to the Committee on Classification of the World Federation of Neurology, chorea is defined as "a state of excessive, spontaneous movements, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chorioretinitis Chorioretinitis is a type of uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It is a vision-threatening condition that is associated with many sys ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Headaches Chronic headaches occur for at least 15 days of a month for at least three months. There are a variety of causes and ways to manage this condition. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the United States affecting about one-third of the general population. According to the third edition of ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly popular in the scientific literature over the past few decades. However, the first ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cluster Headache Cluster headaches are the most common of the primary headache type known as trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. They are fairly rare, plaguing 0.1% of the ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
CNS Lymphoma Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is a rare entity and involves the central nervous system (CN ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cognitive Deficits Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It encompasses various ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Coma Altered mental status is a catch-all term that includes a spectrum of patient behaviors ranging from confusion to deep unresponsiveness. Coma is at on ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Complex Partial Seizure Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, refer to focal seizures that sta ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Conduction Aphasia Conduction aphasia is a rare form of aphasia in which both expression and comprehension remain intact, but the patient shows an isolated impairment in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CMD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder with multisystem involvement. It is a subtype of myotonic dystroph ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function inconsistent with patterns of kn ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Cortical Blindness Cortical blindness is an important cause of blindness due to damage to the occipital cortex. It is commonly associated with posterior circulation stro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Decerebrate And Decorticate Posturing Decorticate and decerebrate posturing are abnormal posturing responses typically to noxious stimuli. They involve stereotypical movements of the trunk ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Delusions Delusions can precipitate in isolation or as psychiatric sequelae of ongoing disease. Delusions must be appropriately identified and managed as they c ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dementia Dementia describes an overall decline in memory and other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. I ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Depressive Cognitive Disorders Depressive cognitive disorders, also called pseudodementia (a term founded by Kiloh in the year 1961), is defined as the cognitive and functional impa ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin or AVP) ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Diffuse Axonal Injury Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a type of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that results from a blunt injury to the brain. In the United States, traumatic b ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Diffuse Toxic Goiter Goiter is an anatomical enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can be related with thyroid dysfunction or have normal thyroid function. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dopamine Agonists Dopamine agonists are used in patients with Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists, such as ropinirole, are the first-line treatment for restless legs s ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Dyslexia Reading is a skill unique to humans and is crucial for living in the world today. Learning to read is one of the first teaching points of elementary s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dysphagia Dysphagia is defined as objective impairment or difficulty in swallowing, resulting in an abnormal delay in the transit of a liquid or solid bolus. Th ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Dystonia Dystonia is defined by involuntary maintained contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles yielding abnormal posturing, twisting and repetitive movem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dystonic Reactions An acute dystonic reaction is characterized by involuntary contractions of muscles of the extremities, face, neck, abdomen, pelvis, or larynx in eithe ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Electrical Status Epilepticus In Sleep Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES), a childhood-onset epileptic encephalopathy, is characterized by epilepsy, cognitive regression, and mar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Electroencephalogram An electroencephalogram (EEG) is an essential tool that studies the brain's electrical activity. Despite the development of more advanced imaging tech ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Embolic Stroke Embolic stroke is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity all over the world. To avoid the high morbidity and mortality associated wi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Encephalopathic EEG Patterns Electroencephalography (EEG) is useful in evaluating patients with acute and chronic encephalopathies. The primary role is in differentiating the cond ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity Info
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Abscess An epidural abscess is an infection within the epidural space anywhere in the brain or spinal cord. Epidural abscesses occur as a result of infections ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Ergotamine/Caffeine The combination of ergotamine and caffeine is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraines. It is in the ergot alkaloid class ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Essential Tremor Tremors are the most common movement disorder, and essential tremor is the most common neurologic cause of postural or action tremor. It usually prese ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Facial Nerve Palsy Facial nerve palsies are a common and essential presentation specifically to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons but also in general medical practice ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Febrile Seizure Febrile seizures are seizures that are caused by a sudden spike in body temperature with fevers greater than 38C or 100.4F, with no other underlying s ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Feeding Tube Feeding tubes are tubes inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to provide a patient with enteral nutrition or for decompression. Tubes come in a var ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Friedreich Ataxia Friedreich ataxia is an inherited disease affecting the nervous system, which produces progressive ataxia, weakness, and sensory deficits. It is inher ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Frontal Lobe Syndrome Frontal lobe syndrome, in general, refers to a clinical syndrome resulting from damage, and impaired function of the prefrontal cortex, which is a lar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Geriatric Head Injury Elderly patients with head trauma represent a large proportion of patients seeking medical attention. There are special considerations and challenges ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glatiramer Glatiramer is an immunomodulator used in the treatment and management of multiple sclerosis. Its mechanism is not clearly understood, but it appears t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gliomas Glioma is the most common form of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm that originates from glial cells. In the United States, there are six cases of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Haloperidol Haloperidol is a first-generation (typical) antipsychotic that is a commonly used drug worldwide. Haloperidol is used for positive symptoms of schizop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Hemianopsia Hemianopsia (hemianopia) is a clinical term used to describe the loss of one half of a vertical visual field. A careful history and physical examinati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemiplegic Migraine A hemiplegic migraine is a rare form of migraine in which the migraine headache attack is accompanied by unilateral weakness. Typically, migraine aura ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may be further subdivided into intracerebral ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
HIV-1 Encephalopathy And Aids Dementia Complex Neurocognitive deficits are the presenting complaint in 4 to 15 percent of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV-associated neurocogni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Homonymous Hemianopsia Homonymous hemianopsia (or hemianopia) is a field loss deficit in the same halves of the visual field of each eye, often resulting from cerebrovascula ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Huntington Disease Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative autosomal dominant disorder, is characterized by involuntary choreatic movements with cognitive and behav ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypnic Headache Hypnic headaches are a primary headache disorder that presents in the elderly population and usually wakes people up from sleep. It is not very common ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Hypoxic Brain Injury The brain consumes a significant amount of energy compared to its weight and size. The term "anoxia" refers to the complete lack of oxygen delivery to ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy A seizure can be defined as abnormal, hypersynchronous discharge of cortical neurons, and epilepsy defined as a propensity to have seizures. Idiopathi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Implantable Loop Recorder Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is an invaluable tool to assist in diagnosing certain cardiac conditions. There are a variety of ambulat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Intention Tremor An intention, rubral, cerebellar, or course tremor is defined as a rhythmic, oscillatory, and high amplitude tremor during a directed and purposeful m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intracerebral Hemorrhage This activity aims to outline the pathophysiology, risk factors, presentation diagnosis, and complications of intracerebral hemorrhages. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Intracranial Hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhage encompasses four broad types of hemorrhage: epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraparenc ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypotension Intracranial hypotension (ICH) is defined as a CSF pressure less than 60 mm H2O and generally causes a postural headache in patients with the conditio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring This activity outlines the current recommendations for ICP monitoring and reviews the role of current invasive and noninvasive methods of monitoring. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Lacunar Stroke Lacunar stroke is a common stroke with significant morbidity and mortality. Advancement in knowledge about modifying risk factors and early diagnosis ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Laminectomy Laminectomy is one of the most common procedures to decompress spinal canal in cases of narrowing secondary to a variety of conditions such as degener ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lateral Medullary Syndrome Lateral medullary syndrome results from a vascular event in the lateral part of the medulla oblongata. The arteries commonly involved in lateral medul ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Levetiracetam Levetiracetam is a novel antiepileptic drug used in the treatment of partial seizures, myoclonic seizures, and tonic-clonic seizures. In 2000, the FDA ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Levodopa (L-Dopa) Levodopa is the precursor to dopamine. Most commonly, clinicians use levodopa as a dopamine replacement agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Locked-in Syndrome Locked-in syndrome is a condition where a person experiences quadriplegia and bulbar palsy due to damage in the brainstem. Cognition and vertical eye ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lorazepam Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine medication commonly used as the sedative and anxiolytic of choice in the inpatient setting owing to its fast (1 to 3 min ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lumbar Puncture The lumbar puncture is a diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and certain neurological disorders. It is also ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common source of leg and back pain. It refers to a narrowing in the vertebra, in the areas of the central canal, lateral ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Radiculopathy Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints encountered in clinical practice. It is the leading cause of disability in the deve ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Toxicity D-lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD, is a prominent hallucinogenic drug that can produce profound, dose-dependent subjective effects in those ingesti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Major Depressive Disorder Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been ranked as the third cause of the burden of disease worldwide in 2008 by WHO, which has projected that this di ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Malar Rash Malar rash, also named a butterfly rash, is a common facial presentation of multiple disorders. It is characterized by an erythematous flat or raised ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Malaria Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito that leads to acute life-threatening disease and poses a significant global hea ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Marcus Gunn Pupil Marcus Gunn pupil is indicative of a defect in the afferent pathway of the light reflex. To avoid the high morbidity associated with this condition, i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Medial Medullary Syndrome Medial medullary syndrome is a form of stroke that affects the medial medulla of the brain. It is usually caused by atherothrombotic occlusion of para ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medication Overuse Induced Headache Medication overuse headache (MOH) is thought to occur when medications intended to relieve headaches are consumed too frequently. Causal agents are va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Medication-overuse Headache Medication-overuse headaches (MOH), also known as analgesic rebound headaches, drug-induced headaches, or medication-misuse headaches, are a common ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Melatonin Synthetic melatonin is a dietary supplement. The FDA does not regulate supplements. Therefore, melatonin is not officially FDA-approved for any indica ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Meniere Disease Meniere disease is an inner ear disorder characterized by tinnitus, vertigo, and hearing loss. This is thought to occur due to the accumulation of end ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Meningocele Meningocele is one of the common congenital neural tube defects. Meningocele is the simplest form of open neural tube defects characterized by cystic ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone is an FDA-approved medication for the management and treatment of allergic conditions, arthritis, asthma exacerbations, long-term a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Midazolam Intravenous midazolam is used for the induction of anesthesia and also in the management of acute seizures. Because of its water-soluble nature, midaz ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common artery involved in acute stroke. It branches directly from the internal carotid artery and consist ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Migraine Headache Migraine is a genetically influenced complex disorder characterized by episodes of moderate-to-severe headache, most often unilateral and generally as ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Migraine Medications This activity will review treatments for acute migraine and migraine prophylaxis. It will highlight various classes of medications and their mechanism ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Migraine Prophylaxis Recurrent migraines can be functionally disabling and can impair quality of life. After the treatment of acute migraines, all migraine patients should ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Migraine with Aura Migraine is one of the common types of headache disorders affecting approximately 12% of the general population. Timely diagnosis is essential to avoi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Migraine-Associated Vertigo Patients often describe vertigo as the sensation of motion that occurs in the absence of motion or an altered sensation of motion that occurs with nor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Modafinil Modafinil is a non-amphetamine central nervous system (CNS) stimulant with wakefulness-promoting properties. It is used in the treatment of conditions ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, gliosis, an ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Muscle Contraction Tension Headache Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of primary headaches. It is also sometimes referred to as muscle contraction headache, stress head ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Myoclonus Myoclonus is defined as rapid, brief, jerky, or shock-like movements involving muscle or group of muscles. Among all hyperkinetic movement disorders, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Narcolepsy Narcolepsy is a disorder of rapid onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), frequent uncontrollable sl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Natalizumab Natalizumab is an FDA-approved, monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. The drug was originally appr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Neonatal Meningitis Bacterial meningitis during the neonatal period remains a highly devastating condition, with a morbidity rate of 20 to 60 percent. The nationwide mort ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neonatal Seizure Neonatal seizures are a commonly encountered neurologic condition in neonates. They are defined as the occurrence of sudden, paroxysmal, abnormal alte ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Nephrotoxic Medications Numerous drugs used to manage and treat multiple diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and other pathologies, are nephrotoxic. These agents are ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nerve Stimulation Chronic pain conditions, including low back pain, neck pain, and neuropathic pain states like chronic regional pain syndrome, causalgia, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Neurapraxia Neurapraxia is the mildest form of peripheral nerve injury commonly induced by focal demyelination or ischemia. In neurapraxia, the conduction of nerv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening syndrome associated with the use of dopamine-receptor antagonist medications or with rapid ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Neuropathy About 2.4 percent of the population is affected by peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence increases to 8 percent in older populations. Peripheral neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Neurosarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that results in the formation of granulomas which classically are non-caseating granulomas, that may be found throug ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neurosyphilis With the advent of antibiotics, neurosyphilis became a rare diagnosis. However, syphilis has recently made a resurgence because untreated neurosyphili ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Nimodipine Nimodipine is a second-generation 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It was initially invented for the management of systemic hypertension. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by episodes of complete collapse of the airway or partial collapse with an associated decrease in oxyge ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Occipital Neuralgia Occipital neuralgia (ON) is a painful condition affecting the posterior head in the distributions of the greater occipital nerve (GON), lesser occipit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Olecranon Bursa Aspiration In its normal state, the olecranon bursa is a small fluid-filled subcutaneous sac which overlies the olecranon process in the elbow. Olecranon bursa s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oligodendroglioma Oligodendroglioma (OG) is a type of diffusely infiltrating glioma and constitutes approximately 5% of primary intracranial tumors. They often involve ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Optic Neuritis This activity describes the evaluation and management of optic neuritis and details the role of the interprofessional team in managing patients with t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Orthostatic Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing from a sitting or supine position. Clinically, this is diagnosed b ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Parkinson Disease Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly presents in later life with generalized slowing of movements (bradykinesia) and at least ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Parkinsonism Parkinsonism is a motor syndrome that manifests as rigidity, tremors, and bradykinesia. Parkinsonism is caused by Parkinson's disease in about eighty ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Patient Restraint and Seclusion Patient restraint and seclusion is a controversial yet necessary aspect of medicine. Restraint encompasses both physical and chemical procedures. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pediatric Skull Fractures A child's skull is thinner and more pliable than an adult skull, thus providing less protection to the brain. Head trauma is a common cause of morbidi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy (PN) encompasses a broad range of clinical pathologies potentially presenting with peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Peripheral Line Placement Peripheral intravenous (IV) lines, catheters or cannulas are indwelling single-lumen plastic conduits that allow fluids, medications and other therapi ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Peripheral nerve stimulation is an emerging field in adjunctive analgesic therapies. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, and tec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral Vertigo Approximately 80 percent of vertigo is peripheral, whereas approximately 20 percent is central. Peripheral vertigo is most commonly due to a benign pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Phenobarbital Phenobarbital is included in a class of drugs called barbiturates. This drug can be used for anti-seizure management, treatment for status epilepticus ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Phenytoin Toxicity Phenytoin has become one of the most well-studied anticonvulsants. With an average monthly cost of $30, it has also become one of the most widely used ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pituitary Cancer Pituitary gland tumors are rarely cancerous and mostly benign. The pituitary tumors may be functioning with hormone production or non-functioning with ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pneumocephalus Pneumocephalus, also known as pneumatocele or intracranial aerocele, is defined as the presence of air in the intracranial space. Pneumocephalus can o ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pontine Infarction Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the world. Pontine strokes, in particular, are catastrophic. Clinical presentation o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Postdural Puncture Headache Postdural puncture headache is a potential complication of a lumbar puncture, with symptoms caused by traction on pain-sensitive structures from low c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Postherpetic Neuralgia Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common long-term complication of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. This reactivation of the dormant ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Postictal Seizure State The postictal state is a period that begins when a seizure subsides and ends when the patient returns to baseline. It typically lasts between 5 and 30 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Postpartum Headache Headaches are a frequent presenting complaint that disproportionally affects women of childbearing age. The incidence of headaches increases in the pu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Post-Traumatic Headache Post-traumatic headaches (PTHA) is a common sequela of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may progress to chronic and possibly debilitating conditions. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Posttraumatic Syringomyelia Posttraumatic syringomyelia refers to the development of a cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord several months or years after a kn ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postural Instability Postural instability is the inability to maintain equilibrium under dynamic and static conditions such as preparation of movements, perturbations, and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pramipexole Pramipexole is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinsonism and restless leg syndrome. It is in the anti-parkinsonian class of dr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Prednisone Prednisone is a synthetic, anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid that derives from cortisone. It is biologically inert and converted to prednisolone in the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Prevention of Inappropriate Self-Extraction of Foley Catheters Prevention of painful, traumatic Foley catheter removals and early identification of catheter mal-positioning can minimize pain, urinary tract infecti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Procedural Sedation Procedural sedation permits the safe performance of procedures that a patient cannot tolerate in the fully conscious state. Through this activity, th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prochlorperazine Prochlorperazine is a first-generation antipsychotic. FDA indications include schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and other conditions presenting with sym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Pseudoseizures, psychogenic seizures, and hysterical seizures are older terms used to describe events that clinically resemble epileptic seizures but ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Psychosis Psychosis is a loose description of an amalgamation of psychological symptoms resulting in a loss of contact with reality. It is thought that although ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Radial Nerve Entrapment Radial nerve entrapment is an uncommon diagnosis that is prone to under-recognition. Compression or entrapment can occur at any location within the co ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Ranchos Los Amigos The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), also known as the Ranchos Scale, is a widely accepted medical scale used to describe the cognitive and behavioral ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia in which affected individuals act out their dreams while in the REM stage of sleep. U ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rivastigmine Rivastigmine is a medication used in the management and treatment of neurodegenerative disease, specifically dementia in Alzheimer patients and Parkin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rolandic Epilepsy Seizure Benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), also called benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) or benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Romberg Test This Romberg test illustrates a diagnostic, non-technical, physical test that identifies a specific neurologic impairment. The purpose of this evaluat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ropinirole Ropinirole is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless leg syndrome. It is a dopamine agonist (D2). The d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Saccular Aneurysm Most cerebral aneurysms are asymptomatic and small, and they are found incidentally during brain imaging or during an autopsy. A ruptured aneurysm is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Saturday Night Palsy Saturday night palsy refers to a compressive neuropathy of the radial nerve that occurs from prolonged, direct pressure onto the upper medial arm or a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and disturbances in thought, perception, and behavior. Traditionally ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Seizure A seizure represents the uncontrolled, abnormal electrical activity of the brain that may cause changes in the level of consciousness, behavior, memor ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Toxicity Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed antidepressants. Other clinical indications for SSRI use include anxiety disor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Selegiline Selegiline, a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, is FDA-approved as an adjunct treatment in the management of patients with Parkinson disease and as a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Sensory Neuropathy Sensory neuropathy is a common condition that is often a direct complication of another comorbidity. It can be debilitating under certain circumstance ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition precipitated by the use of serotonergic drugs. It may be a consequence of therapeutic m ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Simple Partial Seizure A seizure is an episodic, excessive, and disorderly neuronal activity in the brain. These have traditionally been classified into partial and generali ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sleep Deprivation Sleep loss from various causes is very common and often missed by physicians as a treatable health problem. There are strong associations with serious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been in use for decades as an integral method of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for spinal, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Spatial Neglect Spatial Neglect is a neuropsychological condition that occurs mainly due to damage to the right cerebral hemisphere after the right middle cerebral ar ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Compression Spinal cord compression can result from a myriad of both atraumatic and traumatic causes. The spinal column is vulnerable to a variety of compressive ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition, which often results in severe morbidity and permanent disability. It occurs when the axons of ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Ischemia Spinal cord ischemia and infarction occur less frequently than cerebral infarction but result in significant mortality, disability, and reduced qualit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Stimulation In the middle of the spectrum of increasingly invasive pain treatment modalities lies spinal cord stimulation (SCS), also referred to as dorsal column ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Spinal Metastasis Spinal metastases are the most common tumors of the spine. These are more commonly found as bone metastasis and may present with symptoms of spinal ca ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Spinal Shock Spinal shock is a result of severe spinal cord injury. It usually requires high-impact, direct trauma that leads to spinal cord injury and spinal shoc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Stenosis Spinal stenosis is a condition characterized by the compression of the nerve roots by a number of pathologic factors, leading to symptoms such as pain ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis is a condition that occurs when one vertebral body slips with respect to the adjacent vertebral body causing radicular or mechanical ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Stroke Prevention There is a significant overlap between the risk factors accounting for cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular events. The INTERHEART study looked a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Stroke-Like Conditions Approximately one-third of patients initially diagnosed with a stroke are ultimately diagnosed with a non-ischemic stroke mimic. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Subacute Combined Degeneration of the Spinal Cord Subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord is a neurological complication of vitamin B12 deficiency. It is characterized by degeneration of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a devastating complication of the measles virus. Although it is a rare complication and the measles viru ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are life-threatening and result from the accumulation of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater. The incidence of subarach ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Subdural Empyema Intracranial subdural empyema is a loculated collection of pus in the subdural space between the dura mater and the arachnoid. It is a serious conditi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Subdural Hematoma A subdural hematoma, as its name implies, forms because of an abnormal collection of blood under the dura mater. This is one of the intracranial injur ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Subfalcine Herniation Herniation occurs when brain tissue is displaced across a structure within the cranium. Subfalcine herniation is the most common form of brain herniat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sumatriptan Sumatriptan is FDA approved as an abortive treatment for migraine attacks with or without aura in adults. Acute treatment of cluster headache episodes ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.75 45 Activity Info
Syringomyelia Syringomyelia is a neurologic condition caused by the presence of a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord parenchyma or central canal. It typical ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tardive Dyskinesia Tardive dyskinesia is a syndrome that includes a group of iatrogenic movement disorders caused by the blockade of dopamine receptors. The movement dis ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tardive Dystonia Tardive dystonia (TD) is one of the extrapyramidal syndromes caused by the use of dopaminergic receptor antagonists. If not recognized promptly and ap ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Temporal Seizure Temporal lobe epilepsy is the commonest seizure disorder and affects approximately fifty million people worldwide. The primary objective of this activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Thalamic Pain Syndrome Thalamic pain syndrome is a chronic and disability neuropathic pain disorder seen following a cerebrovascular accident of the thalamus. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) manifests when pressures in the thoracic outlet increase to the point of impinging vessels or nerves. TOS presents in a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Thunderclap Headache The term ’thunderclap headache’ (TCH) was founded by Day and Raskin in the year 1986. They discovered it in a patient suffering from an unruptured cer ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Thymoma Thymomas and thymic carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the thymus within the anterior mediastinum. The presence of histologic heterogen ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tilt Table While there are multiple causes of syncope, many of these are neurally mediated. Some neurally mediated causes of syncope include vasovagal syncope, c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tissue Plasminogen Activator Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is classified as a serine protease (enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins). It is thus one of the essential ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Tizanidine Tizanidine is a myotonolytic agent FDA-approved for the management of spasticity, which may be caused by multiple sclerosis, an acquired brain injury, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Todd Paresis Todd paresis, also known as Todd paralysis or Todd palsy, is a common syndrome associated with weakness or paralysis in part or all of the body after ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Topiramate Topiramate is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy and migraine. It is in the second-generation anti-epileptic drugs class of ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Total Parenteral Nutrition Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment. It is in the nutrition class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Tourette Syndrome And Other Tic Disorders Tourette syndrome, also referred to as Tourette disorder, is a common neurodevelopmental disorder affecting up to 1 percent of the population. It is c ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, known by its acronym TENS, is a modality that uses electric current to activate nerves in order to decrea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Transient Global Amnesia Transient global amnesia (TGA) is acute onset anterograde amnesia that is temporary and usually occurs in middle-aged and older individuals. It is oft ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Transient Ischemic Attack A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a medical emergency. It is defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction due to focal brain, spinal co ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Transient Loss Of Vision Transient loss of vision instills apprehension in the minds of patients and providers. Patients commonly worry about the potential for permanent loss ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Trauma Neurological Exam The neurological examination in the setting of trauma is a systematic evaluation of important clinical signs that provide evidence to help determine f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal neuralgia is one of the most painful neurological condition and is often described as 'lightning bolt' stuck on the face or a stabbing sens ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Trigeminal Neuropathy Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is the most common neuropathic pain involving the craniofacial region. It is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Trihexyphenidyl Trihexyphenidyl works as an anticholinergic and is used for the treatment of tremors, spasms, stiffness, and weak muscle control seen in patients with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Triptans Triptans are a class of medications used in the treatment of migraines. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindications for tript ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity Info
Uhthoff Phenomenon Uhthoff phenomenon, also known as Uhthoff sign or Uhthoff syndrome, is a transient worsening of neurological function lasting less than 24 hours that ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Uncal Herniation Uncal herniation occurs when rising intracranial pressure causes portions of the brain to move from one intracranial compartment to another. It is a l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Unconscious Patient Unconsciousness is generally caused by a temporary or permanent impairment of either the reticular activating system in the brainstem, both cerebral h ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vagal Maneuver Vagal maneuvers are techniques used to increase vagal parasympathetic tone in an attempt to diagnose and treat various arrhythmias. They are often uti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Valproate Toxicity Valproate is a commonly prescribed anticonvulsant used in the treatment of seizure and bipolar disorders. Valproate has also been utilized for the tre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Valproic Acid Valproic acid is an anticonvulsive and mood stabilizer medication. It is extensively used in the adult population to treat convulsions, migraines, and ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Vasovagal Episode A vasovagal episode or vasovagal syncope is the most common form of reflex syncope. Reflex syncope describes any form of syncopal episode caused by a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ventriculostomy Ventriculostomy is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. patients treated with this procedure need long-term follow-up and careful adjustme ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Vertebral Artery Dissection Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare cause of stroke in the general population, but one of the more common causes of stroke in patients younger ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vertebral Artery Injury Injuries to the vertebral artery may either be traumatic or spontaneous. Traumatic injuries are most frequently due to blunt injury to the head and ne ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vertebral Compression Fractures Vertebral compression fractures of the spinal column occur secondary to an axial/compressive load with resultant biomechanical failure of the bone, re ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vertebrobasilar Stroke Vertebrobasilar strokes are interruptions of blood flow to the posterior circulation. While these types of strokes are relatively uncommon, they are a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vertigo Vertigo is a common presenting complaint in primary care and emergency departments. It is a symptom of vestibular dysfunction and has been described a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Viral Encephalitis Viral encephalitis is inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by a virus. It is the most common type of encephalitis and often coexists with viral ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Viral Meningitis Viral meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges caused by a virus. It is most common in young children but is seen across all age groups. This ac ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Pyridoxine is a vitamin and a medication used to treat vitamin B6 deficiency and the management of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. It is also us ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Vitamin B6 Toxicity This activity describes the toxicity associated with vitamin B6 at higher doses. It explains in detail the pathophysiology and toxicokinetics of vitam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Weber Syndrome Weber syndrome is a midbrain stroke characterized by crossed hemiplegia along with oculomotor nerve deficits. This activity reviews the etiology and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute neurological condition characterized by a clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. This disease i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition caused by a deficiency of thiamine or vitamin B1. Patients classically present with a clinical triad of oph ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Wilson Disease Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by abnormal copper accumulation in the body particularly ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Zolpidem Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine receptor modulator primarily used in the FDA-approved short-term treatment of insomnia aimed at patients with difficu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info

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