Nurse-Medical Surgical CE

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All of our activities are approved by ANCC (LVN, RN, and CNS) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the American Nurses Credentialing Center®; Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses®; and Medical-Surgical Nursing Certification Board® content outlines. 902 authors and 16 editors have contributed to the development of the Nurse-Medical Surgical content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Nurse-Medical Surgical Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition that requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or symp ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Abdominoperineal Resection Abdominoperineal resection is a procedure for low rectal cancers, resulting in a permanent colostomy after removing the distal colon, rectum, and anal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilati ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Above the Knee Amputations Above-the-knee amputations are performed in patients of all ages for a variety of reasons. The amputation is performed through the femur and allows pa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abrasion Abrasion is the superficial denudation of the epithelium due to scraping, impact, or pressure. While the management of abrasions is relatively simple, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect refer to the actions or inactions of an individual's caregiver or parent inflicting physical, sexual, or emotional harm on the indiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used to treat and manage hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease, heart failure, s ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Activities of Daily Living Activities of daily living (ADLs) are essential and routine tasks that most young, healthy individuals can perform without assistance. The inability t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Acute Anemia Acute anemia occurs when there is an abrupt drop in red blood cells, usually due to acute hemorrhage or hemolysis. This activity reviews the presentat ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchi. It is a common presentation in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and prim ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Chest Syndrome Acute chest syndrome occurs due to vaso-occlusion within the pulmonary vasculature of patients with sickle cell disease. This results in deoxygenation ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Hepatitis Acute hepatitis is a term used to describe a wide variety of conditions characterized by acute inflammation of the hepatic parenchyma or injury to hep ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury for fewer than twenty-six weeks duration with encephalopathy and impaired synthetic functi ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy of B or T lymphoblasts characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal, immature lymphocytes ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the U ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Renal Colic Acute renal colic is severe pain resulting from the presence of a stone in the urinary system. The stone can be present anywhere along the path betwee ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The d ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Acute Scrotum Pain Acute scrotum pain is an umbrella term that includes a wide variety of unique disease processes. Patients may describe the rapid onset of symptoms wit ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Acyclovir Acyclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is FDA approved to treat gen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Addison Disease Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, which can have devastating consequences if not promptly recognized and appropriately treated. Often th ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Addisonian Crisis An Addisonian crisis, or adrenal crisis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that results from an acute insufficiency of adrenal hormones (glu ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones necessary for normal body functioning; the deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentration. It is a life- ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) frequently occur in our medical system, and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome tha ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Agitation Agitation is a nonspecific constellation of relatively unrelated behaviors that can be seen in various clinical situations, usually presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Airborne Precautions An airborne disorder is any disease that is caused by a microorganism that is transmitted through the air. There are many airborne diseases that are o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Albuterol Albuterol is used for the treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (acute or severe) in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. It also h ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Alcohol Sanitizer Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is critical to reducing colonization and infection, specifically among healthcare workers (HCW). This wil ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol use disorder is very common in the United States. The cause of alcohol use disorder is not well understood; however, several factors are thou ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Alcohol Withdrawal Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually appear when an individual discontinues or reduces alcohol intake after a period of prolonged consumption. In most ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Alcoholic Liver Disease The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is hepatic steatosis, which involves the accumulation of small fat droplets under liver cells approaching t ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Allergic Contact Dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type 4 or delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) by an individual’s immune system to a small molecule (le ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Alprazolam Alprazolam, known by various trade names, is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication in the United States. Alprazolam is frequently presc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Amebic Colitis Amebic colitis results from invasive infection of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Losch first reported disease due to E. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders Amphetamines belong to a class of compounds called phenethylamines which induce catecholaminergic effects in the CNS and peripheral circulation. Recre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the conventional name amphotericin B and has been used fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Analgesic Nephropathy Analgesic nephropathy is chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by chronic use of analgesics such as acetaminophen, aspirin, and nonsteroidal ant ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Anasarca Anasarca is a serious condition in which there is a generalized accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space. This accumulation of fluid occurs whe ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Anemia Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying condition and can be subdivided into ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Anesthetic Management For Enhanced Recovery After Major Surgery (ERAS) Enhanced recovery after major surgery (ERAS) protocols are evidence-based, multimodal approaches used to facilitate recovery after major surgical proc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Angiodysplasia Angiodysplasia is an abnormal, tortuous, dilated small blood vessel in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the GI tract. It is the most common vascul ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most com ... Read the Article 2.25 37 Activity Info
Anoscopy Anoscopy is a bedside procedure that is inexpensive and can be performed quickly without bowel preparation or sedation. With this method, the examiner ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Myocardial Infarction Anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common heart disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Advancement in diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Medications Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antifungal Ergosterol Synthesis Inhibitors The ergosterol inhibitor class of medications ("conazoles") is used to manage and treat fungal infections. These drugs inhibit ergosterol in the cell ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Antitubercular Medications Antitubercular medications: rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are FDA approved to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Antitub ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anxiety Fear is an automatic neurophysiological state of alarm characterized by a fight or flight response to a cognitive appraisal of present or imminent dan ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Aortofemoral Bypass Aortofemoral bypass surgery has been used in the management of aortoiliac occlusive disease since the 1950s. Today, revascularization with endovascula ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of hepari ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Aspiration Risk Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized ba ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which there is a build up of plaques inside arteries. These plaques are principally composed of l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Block Second-Degree A delay in conduction between the atria and ventricles results in an atrioventricular conduction block. This is indicated by a prolongation of the PR ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacitracin Topical Bacitracin is a topical antibiotic ointment widely used by both medical professionals and the general public to treat minor skin injuries including cu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bacteremia Bacteremia, in the strictest sense, refers to viable bacteria in the blood. Asymptomatic bacteremia can occur in normal daily activities such as condu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bacteroides Fragilis The human colon possesses the largest population of bacteria in the body, and the majority of these organisms are anaerobes; of these, about 25 percen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Barbiturates Barbiturates are a group of sedative-hypnotic medications used for the treatment of seizure disorder, neonatal withdrawal, insomnia, preoperative anxi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Battle Sign Battle sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Below Knee Amputation A below the knee amputation (BKA) is a transtibial amputation that involves removing the foot, ankle joint, distal tibia, fibula, and corresponding so ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide and shortly thereafter diazepam, benzodiazepines quickly became popular medications secondar ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Beta 2 Agonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of medications used in the frontline management and treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antimicrobials to prevent antimicrobial resistance by inhibiting serine ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved to treat postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by neurogenic ato ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bisacodyl Bisacodyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic or functional constipation. This activity outlines the indications, actions, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bismuth Subsalicylate Bismuth subsalicylate is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of gastrointestinal discomfort and traveler's diarrhea. It is in th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in treating ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization is a commonly performed procedure in all hospitals. It can be performed by external, urethral, and suprapubic techniques. It i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bowel Adhesions Bowel adhesions are irregular bands of scar tissue that form between bowel loops, which are normally not bound together. The bands of tissue can devel ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bowel Ischemia Bowel ischemia can classify as small intestine ischemia, which is commonly known as mesenteric ischemia and large intestine ischemia, which generally ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Bowel Obstruction A bowel obstruction can either be a mechanical or functional obstruction of the small or large intestines. Obstruction frequently causes abdominal pai ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bowel Preparation Clinicians can use a range of methods to prepare the bowel for colonoscopy, the gold standard for imaging the mucosa of the colon to identify concerni ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic drug. Originally, the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but was found ineffective for psychosis, but it had use ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity Info
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cannabidiol (CBD) CBD is a medication used to manage and treat the seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. This activity describes the indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis Carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis is a condition that develops when excessive CO2 is present in the bloodstream, leading to a depressed level of conscious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbuncle A carbuncle is an infection of the hair follicle(s) that extends into the surrounding skin and deep underlying subcutaneous tissue. They typically pre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Manifestations Of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Coronaviruses are a large family of single positive-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that can infect many animal species and humans. Human coronaviruse ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cardiovascular Disease The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and its blood vessels. A wide array of problems can arise within the cardiovascular system, a few of w ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Care Of A Central Line Central venous catheters (CVC) are frequently used in critical care units, hemodialysis units, and oncology units for the administration of intravenou ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Care Of A Chest Tube There are variable practice patterns used to manage chest tubes. Care and management of the chest tube are subject to the direction of the responsible ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Central Line Management Central venous access is required for many hospitalized patients. Placement of central line catheters is done for many reasons, including inadequate p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cerebellar Hematoma Cerebellar hemorrhage or hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage in which the bleeding is located in the posterior fossa or cerebellum. This con ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Primary prevention and screening are by far the most effective modalities for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cervical Discogenic Syndrome Cervical discogenic pain syndrome is a common source of neck pain. The presentation can vary and may be caused by degenerative changes in the interver ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cervical Sprain The term "whiplash" injury was first coined by Harold Crowe in 1928 to define acceleration-deceleration injuries occurring to the cervical spine or ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cetuximab Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with the following FDA-approved indications: colorectal cancer, metastatic, KRAS wil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Change In Mental Status Altered mental status is a common presentation. It is important to recognize the early signs of altered mental status, identify the underlying cause, ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cholangitis Acute cholangitis, also known as ascending cholangitis, is a life-threatening condition that is caused by an ascending bacterial infection of the bili ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Anemia Anemia, like a fever, is not a diagnosis but a presentation of an underlying disease. Multiple diseases can present as anemia due to various mechanism ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is defined as a productive cough of more than 3 months occurring wit ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chronic Diarrhea Chronic diarrhea is defined as loose/watery stools, which occur three or more times within 24 hours and lasts for 4 or more weeks. This activity outli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Emphysema Pulmonary emphysema is a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is defined as a pathological, permanent dilatation of distal airways (resp ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Headaches Chronic headaches occur for at least 15 days of a month for at least three months. There are a variety of causes and ways to manage this condition. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Inflammation Chronic inflammation is also referred to as slow, long-term inflammation lasting several months to years. Generally, the extent and effects of chronic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Iron Deficiency Chronic iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world and a significant common cause of anemia worldwide. It is mainly caused by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Liver Disease Chronic liver disease is a progressive deterioration of liver functions. Liver functions include the production of clotting factors and other proteins ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by monoclonal B cell proliferation. It is the most common adult l ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2.25 37 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.75 44 Activity Info
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder that leads to irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic parenchyma cau ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Clear Liquid Diet A clear liquid diet is a specific dietary plan that only includes liquids that are fully transparent at room temperature. Some items that may be allow ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Clinical Frailty Scale Frailty is a multidimensional geriatric syndrome, which is characterized by an increased vulnerability to various external stressors into a serious he ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clonazepam Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug used for the acute management of panic disorder, epilepsy, and non-convulsive status epilepticus. It also has many ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug tha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clopidogrel Clopidogrel is FDA approved for the medical management of unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-segment ele ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Cocaine Toxicity Cocaine abuse is a major worldwide health problem. Patients with acute cocaine toxicity may require urgent treatment for tachycardia, dysrhythmia, hyp ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cognitive Deficits Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It encompasses various ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Colon Cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common diagnosis and second deadliest malignancy for both sexes combined. The incidence of new cases and mor ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Colostomy Care Colostomy care, as the name suggests, is an all-encompassing term referring to colostomy management, from its creation to peristomal skin management, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Coma Altered mental status is a catch-all term that includes a spectrum of patient behaviors ranging from confusion to deep unresponsiveness. Coma is at on ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Condyloma Acuminata Condyloma acuminata is a manifestation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The condition is characterized by skin-colored, fleshy papules in the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body's requirements. It results from any disorder ... Read the Article 2.5 38 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Constipation Functional constipation is a prevalent condition in childhood, about 29.6% worldwide. In the United States, represents 3% to 5% of pediatric visits an ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Contact Dermatitis Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory eczematous skin disease. It is caused by chemicals or metal ions that exert toxic effects without inducing a T-c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Contact Urticaria Contact urticaria is a transient wheal and flare response on exposure to specific agents, especially in the work environment. Contact urticaria falls ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease is a common heart condition that involves atherosclerotic plaque formation in the vessel lumen. This leads to impairment in bl ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Prevention In the United States, cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. According to the AHA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coronary CT Angiography Chest pain is often the herald of cardiovascular disease and is one of the most common diagnostic challenges encountered by practicing clinicians. Car ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas of medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
COX Inhibitors COX inhibitors are medications used in the management and treatment of chronic pain syndromes. They are in the anti-inflammatory class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cribiform Plate Fractures A fracture of the cribriform plate is a potentially serious injury that can be easily overlooked. When present, it is indicative of severe head or fac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that are frequently used in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first choice for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.75 16 Activity Info
Cushing Disease Cushing disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by the anterior pituitary, leading t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cyanocobalamin Cyanocobalamin is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiencies. This activity reviews the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cyclobenzaprine Cyclobenzaprine is FDA-approved as an adjunct to rest for the treatment of muscle spasms associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Cy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 2.75 44 Activity Info
Cystitis Cystitis refers to infection of the lower urinary tract, or more specifically the urinary bladder. It may be broadly categorized as either uncomplicat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cystoscopy Cystourethroscopy is one of the most common procedures performed by a urologic surgeon. It allows for direct visualization of the urethra, urethral sp ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dantrolene Dantrolene sodium is a postsynaptic muscle relaxant with multiple indications in the fields of anesthesiology and neurology. While there are many indi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Deep Vein Thrombosis A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins, usually of the leg, but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mese ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation or presence of a thrombus in the deep veins. DVT occurs mostly in the lower extremities and to a lesser ex ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Delusional Disorder A delusion is a fixed false belief based on an inaccurate interpretation of an external reality despite evidence to the contrary. The diagnosis of a d ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dementia Dementia describes an overall decline in memory and other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. I ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Dengue Fever Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus and the leading cause of arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. It is also known as breakbone fever due to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
DeWinter Pattern Acute coronary syndromes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis has a central role, as to allow a timely reperfusion strategy. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin or AVP) ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Diabetes Intraoperative Management According to Center for Disease Control data, the incidence of diabetes mellitus in the United States in 2015 was 30.3 million and predicted to increa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in developed countries, including the United States. It is consider ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Diabetic Perioperative Management With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus; an increasing number of people with diabetes undergo surgery each year. This activity highlights the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Difficult Foley Catheterization Urinary catheterization is a common clinical intervention to ensure adequate urinary drainage when patients cannot void effectively. When a urinary ca ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diffuse Toxic Goiter Goiter is an anatomical enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can be related with thyroid dysfunction or have normal thyroid function. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used to manage and treat heart failure and certain arrhythmias, and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside class of drugs. T ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Toxicity Diphenhydramine is most often used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, allergic rhinitis, mild to severe allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Disability Evaluation Impairment and disability are a concern for people around the globe. Injury, illness, or disease that inhibits an individual from participating in the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Disopyramide Disopyramide is a medication used to treat heart rhythm abnormalities, which can be life-threatening, such as ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Domestic Violence Family and domestic violence is a common problem in the United States, affecting an estimated 10 million people every year; as many as one in four wom ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin is an antibiotic derived from the Streptomyces peucetius bacterium. It has widespread use as a chemotherapeutic agent since the 1960s. Dox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used to manage and treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in the first-genera ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drug Induced Esophagitis Drugs can be damaging to the esophageal wall by having a direct toxic effect on the esophageal mucosa. They may produce a caustic effect by creating a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dumping Syndrome Dumping syndrome can occur after a variety of gastric procedures and occurs due to the rapid movement of hyperosmolar chyme from the stomach into the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Duodenal Ulcer Duodenal ulcers occur when there is a disruption to the surface of the mucosa of the duodenum. These ulcers are part of peptic ulcer disease, which in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Dwarfism Dwarfism is the medical terminology for short-stature. It is defined as height-vertex below two standard deviations (-2SD) or in the third percentile ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dysphagia Dysphagia is defined as objective impairment or difficulty in swallowing, resulting in an abnormal delay in the transit of a liquid or solid bolus. Th ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Dyspnea Dyspnea, commonly referred to as shortness of breath, is the subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing comprised of various sensations of varyin ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Dysuria Dysuria is a symptom of pain and/or burning, stinging, or itching of the urethra or urethral meatus with urination. It is a very common urinary sympto ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ear Irrigation The American Academy of Otolaryngology defines cerumen impaction as "an accumulation of cerumen that is associated with symptoms, prevents the necessa ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
ECG T Wave Normally, the T wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG) is representative of ventricular repolarization. Changes in T wave morphology can be indicative of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
EKG Rhythm Successful ECG interpretation requires the utilization of the same stepwise method with each attempt. Like all aspects of electrocardiographic interpr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Electrical Alternans Electrical alternans is defined as alternating QRS amplitudes in any or all leads on an electrocardiogram (ECG) with no additional evident changes in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Electrical Injuries Electrical injuries are a complex form of trauma that is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. The severity of the injuries depends upon ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Electrocardiogram Electrocardiogram (abbreviated as EKG or ECG) represents a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Willem Einthoven first invented it in 1 ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity Info
End-Stage Renal Disease More than 500,000 people in the United States live with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progre ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Enflurane Enflurane is a medication used in the induction and maintenance of general anesthetics. It is in the inhaled anesthetics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Enoxaparin Enoxaparin is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and was first approved for medical use in 1993 and is derived from heparin. It has approval for the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Enteric Feedings Enteral nutrition is nutrition delivered using the gut. This can refer to oral, gastric, or postpyloric feeds. There are many indications requiring a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Epidermal inclusion cysts are the most common cutaneous cysts and can occur anywhere on the body. These cysts typically present as fluctuant nodules u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Eplerenone Eplerenone is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and hypertension. It is in the aldoste ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Escharotomy Burns commonly present acutely. They can be due to many modalities, including thermal, chemical, electrical, or radiation. Often, burns result in supe ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings, including urgent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure used to visualize the oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Estradiol Estradiol is a medication used to manage and treat postmenopausal symptoms and for women who have had hysterectomies. Estradiol is the most potent est ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Excited Delirium Delirium is understood as a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that is characterized by disturbances in consciousness, orientation, memory, thought, pe ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Exophthalmos Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Extrapyramidal Symptoms Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), commonly referred to as drug-induced movement disorders are among the most common adverse drug effects patients exp ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Facial Nerve Palsy Facial nerve palsies are a common and essential presentation specifically to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons but also in general medical practice ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Falls and Fall Prevention In The Elderly Falls account for one of the most common and serious issues contributing to a disability, especially among elderly individuals. Tinetti et al. in 1988 ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Fascial Dehiscence Fascial dehiscence is a significant complication of abdominal surgery, particularly cases done in an emergent setting. Associated bowel obstructions a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fasciotomy A fasciotomy procedure is a procedure used to decompress acute compartment syndrome. Most commonly, acute compartment syndrome occurs in the leg and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Febuxostat Febuxostat is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. It is in a class of medications known as xanthine oxidase i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Feeding Jejunostomy Tube The feeding jejunostomy tube is a method of delivering feeds through jejunal access in the small bowel. It is used when there is a contraindication to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Feeding Tube Feeding tubes are tubes inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to provide a patient with enteral nutrition or for decompression. Tubes come in a var ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Female Urinary Retention Urinary retention, or the inability to voluntarily void urine, is one of the most prevalent presenting urologic complaints in the emergency department ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femoral Vein Central Venous Access Venous access can be obtained through the cannulation of peripheral veins, such as the antecubital vein or saphenous vein, or central veins, such as t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femur Immobilization The need to immobilize the femur is primarily due to fractures and dislocations. Each of these injuries dictates a specific immobilization and stabili ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fentanyl Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid, which, similar to morphine, produces analgesia but to a greater extent. This robust pharmacologic agent is typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fever In the Intensive Care Patient Fever in ICU is defined as a temperature of = 101 degrees F ( = 38.3 degrees C ). It can be either infectious or non-infectious in origin. Prompt eva ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
First Degree Burn First-degree burns are superficial burns involving the epidermal layer of skin. The skin is the largest organ of the human body, with its weight compr ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
First Degree Heart Block First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is a condition of abnormally slow conduction through the AV node. It is defined by ECG changes that include a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Fluid Resuscitation The primary role of fluid resuscitation is to maintain organ perfusion (hemodynamics) and substrate (oxygen, electrolytes, among others) delivery thro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agents for benzodiazepine overdose a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fluoroscopy Discography Assessment, Protocols, and Interpretation This activity reviews lumbar provocative discography and highlights the role of the interventionalist and healthcare team in interpreting and using th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Folinic Acid Folinic acid is a medication used in the treatment of various cancers in combination with 5-FU. It is also commonly used as an antidote to folic acid ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Foreign Body Airway Obstruction According to the National Safety Council’s statistics, foreign-body airway obstruction (FBAO) is the fourth leading cause of unintentional death, resu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Foscarnet Foscarnet is a medication used to manage and treat CMV, HSV, and VZV viral infections in AIDS and immunocompromised patients. It is in the antiviral c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) Fresh frozen plasma is indicated for the deficiency of coagulation factors with abnormal coagulation tests in the presence of active bleeding. Fresh f ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Frostbite Frostbite, also known as freezing cold injury is tissue damage that occurs due to cold exposure, occurring at temperatures below zero degrees celsius. ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Furosemide Furosemide is a loop diuretic that has been in use for decades. However, clinicians must be aware of updates related to the indications and administra ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Gadolinium Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast agents are pharmaceuticals that increase the information content of diagnostic images. They serve to improve the sensitivity and specificity ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Gangrene Gangrene is tissue damage secondary to infection, ischemia, or both. It is a relatively uncommon condition, and early recognition is essential. Gangre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Gas Gangrene Gas gangrene is a highly lethal infection of soft tissue, caused by Clostridium species, with Clostridium perfringens being the most common. This is s ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Gentamicin Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of several gram-negative infections. This activity aims to review the indications, ac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Glargine Insulin Insulin glargine is used to manage and treat hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a long-acting insulin and is us ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glimepiride Glimepiride is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sulfonylurea class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used to manage and treat hypoglycemia as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, anaphylaxis refrac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Goiter Patients with goiter commonly present to outpatient facilities with a variety of complaints. Goiter encompasses many different causes and morbidities, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Grief Reaction Grief is a natural and universal response to the loss of a loved one. The grief experience is not a state but a process. Most individuals recover adeq ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Grief Support Health professionals frequently deal with the loss of a patient in the emergency department and in intensive care units. These deaths are often due to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Gynecomastia Gynecomastia is an increase in male breast volume. This condition most often occurs during times of hormonal change such as at birth, during adolescen ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hand Nerve Compression Syndromes Nerve compression syndrome is a common complaint in the general population. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe. This activity w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heat Illness The disorders of hyperthermia, also known as heat-related injury or illness, exist on a continuum, which is marked by dysregulation of the body’s ther ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hematuria Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria can be gross or microscopic; gross hematuria is visible blood in urine whereas microscopic ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hemodialysis A dialysis is a form of renal replacement therapy. The kidney’s role of filtration of the blood is supplemented by artificial equipment for the remova ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may be further subdivided into intracerebral ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Hemorrhoidectomy Hemorrhoidal disease is a common disorder requiring surgical intervention in approximately 10% of cases. The overall prevalence is unknown because asy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hepatic Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver secondary to chronic injury, leading to alteration of the normal lobular orga ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome observed in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This syndrome is characterized by a wide sp ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Hepatic Failure Acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by coagulopathy, elevated liver biochemistry, and hepatic encephalopathy withou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hepatitis The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver — hepatitis most commonly results from viruses. But drugs, alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases, i ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Hepatitis A The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Picornaviridae. It replicates primarily within h ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B infection is a serious global healthcare problem. Often transmitted via body fluids like blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, the hepatit ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Type 2 This activity reviews the evaluation and management of herpes simplex type 2 and highlights the role of the primary care provider in managing patients ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
High Flow Nasal Cannula Supplemental oxygen therapy is one of the more commonly prescribed interventions used by clinicians when caring for hypoxic patients acutely. This sup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hirsutism Hirsutism is the growth of excessive male-pattern hair in women after puberty. It affects facial and body areas dependent on androgens, namely mustach ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
HIV Disease Current Practice The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an enveloped retrovirus that contains 2 copies of a single-stranded RNA genome. It causes the acquired immun ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
HIV Encephalitis HIV encephalitis is a complication of HIV infection, which presents with neurocognitive dysfunction of varying severity. Almost half of HIV-infected p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Home Oxygen Therapy For patients with chronic pulmonary or cardiac diseases, there is often a need for oxygen therapy to continue after discharge from hospitalization. Pr ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hospital Acquired Infections Hospital-acquired infections (healthcare-associated infections) are nosocomially acquired infections that are not present or incubating at the time of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the need for insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase is an enzyme useful in facilitating the management of injectable medications. This activity reviews the indications, action, adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydrocodone Hydrocodone is a schedule II semi-synthetic opioid medication used to treat pain. Hydrocodone is also an antitussive indicated for cough in adults. In ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydronephrosis And Hydroureter Hydronephrosis and hydroureter result from obstruction of urine flow in the urinary system at the renal pelvis and ureter level, respectively. This is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Cardiovascular Effects Both the high-pressure environment as well as the hyperoxygenation that is associated with hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) have numerous consequen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Treatment of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury The ischemia-reperfusion inflammatory reaction can occur with any injury that involves the ischemic interruption of vascular flow. This includes many ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hypercarbia Hypercarbia is defined by an increase in carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic end-product of normal metabolism, with incre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels within the body. It is a very com ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypernatremia The human body maintains sodium and water homeostasis by concentrating the urine secondary to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and increased f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Coma Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) is a clinical condition that arises from a complication of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes accounts for a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Hypertonic Fluids Clinicians use hypertonic fluids to increase intravascular fluid volume. Hypertonic saline can be utilized in the treatment of hyponatremia. Hypertoni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is not encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be life-thre ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hypokalemia One of the most common electrolyte disturbances seen in clinical practice is hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is more prevalent than hyperkalemia, and most ca ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypomagnesemia Magnesium is an important electrolyte. It is a key part of many reactions that occur in the human body, affecting cellular function, nerve conduction, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypoparathyroidism Parathyroid hormone deficiency, also called hypoparathyroidism, results in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased neuromuscular irritability. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypotension Hypotension is a decrease in systemic blood pressure below accepted low values. While there is not an accepted standard hypotensive value, pressures l ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Hypovolemia Hypovolemia refers to a state of low extracellular fluid volume, generally secondary to combined sodium and water loss. All living organisms must main ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hypoxia Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at the tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ibuprofen Ibuprofen is a medication used to manage and treat inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid disorders, mild to moderate pain, fever, dysmenorrhea, and osteoa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy A seizure can be defined as abnormal, hypersynchronous discharge of cortical neurons, and epilepsy defined as a propensity to have seizures. Idiopathi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ileal Conduit Urinary diversion involves the re-routing of urinary drainage to the outside of the body - either as a temporary or permanent solution. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ileostomy An ileostomy is a procedure in which the lumen of the ileum, part of the small bowel, is brought through the abdominal wall via a surgically-created o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ileus Ileus refers to the intolerance of oral intake due to inhibition of the gastrointestinal propulsion without signs of mechanical obstruction. The diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Imipramine Imipramine is a medication used in the treatment of depression and anxiety. It is a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated or inappropriate immunologic responses occurring in response to an antigen or allergen. Type I, II and III ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Impaired Wound Healing Wounds of all shapes and sizes have plagued patients and created a significant burden on their caretakers. It has long been noticed that some patient ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Incision and Drainage Incision and drainage (I and D) is a widely used procedure in various care settings including emergency departments and outpatient clinics. It is the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Incisional Hernia Incisional hernias are a common complication of laparotomy incisions and a major healthcare burden. The management of incisional hernias are challengi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infection Control Infection control refers to the policy and procedures implemented to control and minimize the dissemination of infections in hospitals and other healt ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Influenza Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, including upper and lower respiratory passages. A wide spectrum of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Insulin Insulin is a medication used in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus type-1 and sometimes diabetes mellitus type-2, both of which are sig ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intestinal Perforation Intestinal perforation, defined as a loss of continuity of the bowel wall, is a potentially devastating complication that may result from a variety of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Intestinal Stoma An intestinal stoma is one of the most common surgical procedures, in which exteriorization of either small bowel or large bowel through the anterior ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intracerebral Hemorrhage This activity aims to outline the pathophysiology, risk factors, presentation diagnosis, and complications of intracerebral hemorrhages. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Intracranial Hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhage encompasses four broad types of hemorrhage: epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraparenc ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Intramuscular Injection This activity outlines and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving care for patients who undergo intramuscular injection. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intraosseous Vascular Access Obtaining vascular access is often difficult and delays patient care in the prehospital and hospital setting. Intraosseous (IO) access is a fast and r ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intrathecal Morphine Morphine is an opioid administered for acute and chronic pain conditions. The advantage of intrathecal (IT) morphine over intravenous (IV), oral (PO), ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intubation Endotracheal Tube Medications Mastering the skill of endotracheal intubation to secure an airway plays a critical role in many settings such as pre-hospital environments, emergency ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Iron Iron is a mineral essential to the human body. It is administered for the treatment of iron deficiency. It is available in many formulations that belo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron deficiency anemia is the most common cause of anemia worldwide, which results in microcytic and hypochromic red cells on the peripheral smear. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Iron Dextran Iron dextran is an injectable medication used in the management of iron deficiency anemia, particularly in patients who are unable to tolerate iron by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Iron Supplementation Iron is a medication used in the management and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. This activity illustrates the indications, action, and contraind ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Isosorbide Isosorbide is a medication used to treat and prevent angina pectoris in patients with coronary heart disease. It is in the nitrate class of drugs. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Jarisch Herxheimer Reaction Jarisch Herxheimer reaction (JHR) is a transient clinical phenomenon that occurs in patients infected by spirochetes who undergo antibiotic treatment. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with pathologically high serum and urine concentrations of ketone bodies. Clinically relevant forms of ke ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Ketorolac Ketorolac is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute moderate to severe pain. It is in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug clas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lactulose Lactulose is used in preventing and treating clinical portal-systemic encephalopathy. Its chief mechanism of action is by decreasing the intestinal pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Laminectomy Laminectomy is one of the most common procedures to decompress spinal canal in cases of narrowing secondary to a variety of conditions such as degener ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used for the removal of a diseased gallbladder. Since the early 1990s, this te ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Failure Left heart failure occurs when there is dysfunction of the left ventricle, resulting insufficient delivery of blood to vital organs. Left ventricular ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Levothyroxine Oral levothyroxine is primarily indicated for the treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism. Primary hypothyroidism is when the pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lidocaine Toxicity Lidocaine is a local anesthetic drug that produces transient loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function when the drug is injected or applied in pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative, intracellular, gram-positive rod that is responsible for causing the infection listeriosis. Listeria causes s ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Liver Biopsy Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of several liver disorders. With refinement in techniques, it has emerged as a safe, useful to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lower Extremity Amputation Approximately 150000 patients per year undergo a lower extremity amputation in the United States. The most common causes leading to amputation are dia ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs within the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to the anus. Any bleed ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lumbar Puncture The lumbar puncture is a diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and certain neurological disorders. It is also ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Radiculopathy Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints encountered in clinical practice. It is the leading cause of disability in the deve ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Lung Biopsy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing tissue specimens via a puncture through the chest wall into the lung (percutaneous lung lesi ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy refers to the swelling of lymph nodes which can be secondary to bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, autoimmune disease, and malign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymphocytosis Lymphocytosis, defined by an increase in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) to more than 4000 lymphocytes/microL in adult patients, is a common hematolog ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymphoma Lymphoma comprises heterogeneous malignancies that arise from the clonal proliferation of lymphocytes. It represents approximately 5% of malignancies. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Macrocytic Anemia Macrocytic anemia refers to macrocytosis (mean corpuscular volume (MCV) greater than 100 fL) in the setting of anemia (hemoglobin less than 12 g/dL or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium sulfate is a medication used to manage and treat multiple clinical conditions and holds several on and off-label uses. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Male Urinary Retention Urinary retention is the inability to void urine voluntarily. It is a common problem around the world and can occur acutely or chronically. Acute rete ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Malingering Malingering is falsification or profound exaggeration of illness (physical or mental) to gain external benefits such as avoiding work or responsibilit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Mastectomy A mastectomy is a surgical procedure involving removal of all or part of the breast. The term originates from the Greek word mastos, meaning woman's b ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. Symptomatic severe AS has a high mortality rate if left untreated. Surgical ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Meckel Diverticulum Meckel diverticulum is a common congenital abnormality of the small intestine caused by incomplete obliteration of the vitelline (omphalomesenteric) d ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Medical Error A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of medical care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. Among the problems that commo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medical Error Reduction and Prevention This activity provides an in-depth description of the significance of medical error in the practice of medicine. It also highlights a number of impor ... Read the Article 2.25 28 Activity Info
Medication Dispensing Errors And Prevention Close to 6,800 prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States. To further complicate a practitioner' ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Medication Routes of Administration A medication administration route is often classified by the location at which the drug is applied, such as oral or intravenous. The choice of routes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Meningococcal Meningitis Meningitis is an infection/inflammation of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges. Meningococcal meningitis is the ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Meperidine Meperidine is in the class of phenylpiperidine as a hydrochloride salt synthetic form of the opioid. Meperidine is used for the treatment of moderate ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Metabolic Acidosis Acid-base disorders are disturbances in the homeostasis of hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma. Any process that increases the serum hydrogen ion ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is an accumulation of several disorders, which together raise the risk of an individual developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Meteorism Meteorism, also known as tympanites, is characterized by the accumulation of gas in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Gas may cause the sensation of bl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Metoclopramide Metoclopramide has been approved by the FDA specifically to treat nausea and vomiting in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or diabetic gas ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Metoprolol Metoprolol is FDA-approved to treat angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation/flutter, and hypertension. Off-label uses includ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Metronidazole Metronidazole is one of the mainstay drugs for the treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections, protozoal infections, and microaerophilic bacterial in ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia Microcytic, hypochromic anemia, as the name suggests, is the type of anemia in which the circulating RBCs are smaller than the usual size of RBCs (mic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common artery involved in acute stroke. It branches directly from the internal carotid artery and consist ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Migratory Thrombophlebitis Migratory thrombophlebitis or thrombophlebitis migrans is an inflammatory reaction of the vein accompanied by a thrombus. It is characterized by the i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a separate class from other antidepressants, treating different forms of depression and other nervous system ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries of 2.5 mm diameter or more. This activity helps i ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Munchausen Syndrome Factitious disorder imposed on self, formerly known as Munchausen syndrome, is a psychiatric disorder in which a person assumes the role of a sick pat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mural Thrombi Mural thrombi are thrombi that attach to the wall of a blood vessel and cardiac chamber. Mural thrombus occurrence in a normal or minimally atheroscle ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Myelophthisic Anemia Myelophthisic anemia is categorized under the normocytic type of anemia. Myelophthisic anemia is anemia characterized by the presence of immature eryt ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Myoglobinuria Myoglobinuria is the presence of an excess amount of myoglobin in the urine. It is mostly caused by muscle breakdown, releasing a high amount of myogl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myxedema Myxedema coma is a rare fatal condition resulting from long-standing hypothyroidism with loss of the adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis. Hypot ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Nail Clubbing Clubbing of the nails is soft tissue swelling of the terminal phalanx resulting in flattening of the angle that exists between the nail bed and the na ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Nasogastric Tube Nasogastric tubes are part of the standard of care in treating intestinal obstruction and can also be used to provide nutritional support. They are mo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Nebivolol Nebivolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis is the term employed for kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, and they are crystal concretions formed typically in the kidney. ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Nephrotoxic Medications Numerous drugs used to manage and treat multiple diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and other pathologies, are nephrotoxic. These agents are ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neurogenic Bladder The micturition process is usually controlled by the central nervous system, which coordinates the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system acti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Agent Toxicity The use of these neuroleptic agents has become more widespread. Knowledge of the toxicity and adverse effects associated with their use is becoming pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents The widespread use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) was a significant milestone in the development of anesthesia. Before the introduction of N ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neurosyphilis With the advent of antibiotics, neurosyphilis became a rare diagnosis. However, syphilis has recently made a resurgence because untreated neurosyphili ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neutrophilia Neutrophilia is defined as a higher neutrophil count in the blood than the normal reference range of absolute neutrophil count. Neutrophilia can be se ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nitrates Nitrates are useful in the management and treatment of angina. They are a group of medications that cause vasodilation by donating nitric oxide. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin is a vasodilatory drug used primarily to provide relief from anginal chest pain. It is currently FDA approved for the acute relief of an ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nosocomial Infections This article provides a review of the critical features of nosocomial infections. It provides an overall discussion on the significance of healthcare- ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Nosocomial Pneumonia Nosocomial pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after hospital admission and not incuba ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
NPH Insulin NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) insulin is a medication used to treat and manage diabetes mellitus, which is a significant risk factor for coronary a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nursing Home Acquired Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the lower respiratory tract, involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi, and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Pneum ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Obesity Surgery Pre-Op Assessment And Preparation Weight loss surgery is an efficacious treatment for patients with obesity; however, patients undergoing these procedures should have a thorough preope ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves intrusive thoughts with or without compensatory actions to alleviate the stress brought on by these thoug ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by episodes of complete collapse of the airway or partial collapse with an associated decrease in oxyge ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Olmesartan Olmesartan is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This activity revi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Omeprazole Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor used in the management and treatment of several conditions, including peptic ulcer disease, gastrointestinal ref ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Open Cholecystectomy Gallbladder removal, also known as cholecystectomy, is one of the most common procedures in the United States, with more than 1.2 million cholecystect ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Opioid Antagonists Opioid receptor antagonists block one or more of the opioid receptors in the central or peripheral nervous system. Opioid receptors are specific trans ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Opioid Withdrawal Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a life-threatening condition resulting from opioid dependence. Opioids are a group of drugs used to manage severe pain a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Oral Candidiasis This activity illustrates the evaluation and treatment of oral candidiasis. It highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and tre ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Orthostatic Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing from a sitting or supine position. Clinically, this is diagnosed b ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Standards Bloodborne pathogens are infectious microorganisms in human blood that can lead to serious disease. Health care workers and support staff are at incre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a serious infection of the bone that can be either acute or chronic. It is an inflammatory process involving the bone and its structu ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Osteopenia Osteopenia describes a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) below normal reference values, yet not low enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for os ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is defined as low bone mineral density caused by altered bone microstructure, ultimately predisposing patients to low-impact, fragility f ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Oxygen Administration Oxygen administration may be initiated for a variety of reasons. Increased metabolic demand, maintenance of oxygenation while providing anesthesia, su ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Pamidronate Pamidronate is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate or severe hypercalcemia of malignancy, moderate to severe Paget disease o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pantoprazole Pantoprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) widely used in hospitals and outpatient settings. Pantoprazole has approval from the Food and Drug Admin ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Paracentesis Paracentesis is a procedure performed to obtain a small sample of or drain ascitic fluid for both diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This activity de ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Parahiatal Hernia Parahiatal hernia is a rare type of diaphragmatic hernia. Its rarity could either be due to one or a combination of the following three factors; confu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parasympathomimetic Medications Parasympathomimetics are a class of medications that activate the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking or modifying the effects of acetylcholin ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Parental Consent Physicians and medical researchers have a moral and legal obligation to obtain informed consent. Informed consent must include the patient being compe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parkland Formula Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation plays a fundamental role in the management of severe burn patients. The Parkland formula is the most widely u ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Parotitis Parotitis is caused by duct obstruction (such as sialolithiasis), infectious organisms (viruses or bacteria), or inflammatory conditions (such as Sjog ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes an irregularly irregular heart rhythm. AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia characterized by disorganized, rapid ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia Atrial tachycardia is a form of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) usually seen in patients with structural heart abnormalities but also seen in patie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Patient Restraint and Seclusion Patient restraint and seclusion is a controversial yet necessary aspect of medicine. Restraint encompasses both physical and chemical procedures. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Patient Rights And Ethics Patient rights are a subset of human rights. Whereas the concept of human rights refers to minimum standards for the ways persons can expect to be tre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Peak Flow Rate Measurement Peak expiratory flow measurement (peak flow) is a simple measure of the maximal flow rate that can be achieved during forceful expiration following fu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Pediculosis Pediculosis (louse infestation) affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide each year and has been reported in all countries and within all socio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as an inflammation of the upper genital tract due to an infection in women. The disease affects the uteru ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Pentamidine Pentamidine is a medication used in the management and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. It is in the anti-infe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic ulcer disease is characterized by discontinuation in the inner lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract because of gastric acid secretion or p ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Percutaneous Central Catheter The ability to obtain venous access in the inpatient and outpatient setting is one of the most fundamental, yet, crucial components for a large number ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Percutaneous Nephrostomy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing the renal collecting system via a puncture through the lumbar region of the back (percutaneo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pericarditis Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac and is the most common pathologic process involving the pericardium. Temporally, it may be further ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Perinephric Abscess A perinephric abscess is usually a complication of urologic infection which results from fat necrosis. Before the era of antibiotics, perinephric absc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common yet under-recognized problem that increases mortality, morbidity, and increases the cost of hospit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral Arterial Disease Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a circulatory problem causing a reduced blood flow through the arteries. This typically reduces blood flow to the ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Peripheral Edema Peripheral edema is a very common finding in daily medical practice both in outpatient and inpatient settings. It can vary from benign condition to se ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Peripheral Line Placement Peripheral intravenous (IV) lines, catheters or cannulas are indwelling single-lumen plastic conduits that allow fluids, medications and other therapi ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Peripheral Nerve Blocks Recent advances in surgical techniques and the development of a greater number of minimally invasive procedures have led to an increase in outpatient ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Peripheral Vascular Bypass Peripheral vascular bypass (PVB) refers to surgical revision of blood flow to restore perfusion distal to an occluded or otherwise disrupted arterial ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Peritoneal Dialysis Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is used by less than 7 percent of dialysis patients in the United States. In Canada, more than 50 percent of dialysis patient ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pernicious Anemia Pernicious anemia (PA) is megaloblastic anemia resulting from a deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12), which in turn is caused by a lack of intrinsic ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Personality Disorder Personality disorders are pervasive, maladaptive, and chronic patterns of behavior, cognition, and mood. Persons who have personality disorders experi ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Petechiae Petechiae are pinpoint non-blanching spots that measure less than 2 mm in size and affect the skin and mucous membranes. Petechial rashes are common a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pharmacological Cardioversion Cardioversion is the process of converting an abnormal and potentially dangerous heart rhythm into a normal sinus rhythm. The normal heart rate comes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Phrenic Nerve Injury The phrenic nerve is among the most important nerves in the body due to its role in respiration. The phrenic nerve provides the primary motor supply t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Phytonadione (Vitamin K1) Phytonadione (vitamin K1) is a medication used to treat and manage vitamin K deficiency, which is a significant risk factor for intracranial hemorrhag ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pleural Effusion Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in between the parietal and visceral pleura, called the pleural cavity. It can occur by itself or can be ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pleurisy Pleurisy is a symptom characterized by localized chest pain caused by a disease-causing inflammation of the pleura. Pleurisy can be caused by a primar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Plummer Vinson Syndrome Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is a rare condition characterized by the classic triad of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia, and esophageal webbing. Plu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunoc ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity Info
Pneumonia In An Immunocompromised Patient Pneumonia is a common clinical condition. It results from an infectious inflammatory process that involves the lung parenchyma and results in the impa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pneumonia Pathology Pneumonia is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes caused by a variety of organisms that result in infection of the lung parenchyma. Classificatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Polyethylene Glycol Polyethylene glycol is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the laxative class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Post Infarct Ventricular Septal Rupture The most severe potential complications of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involve tearing or rupture of acutely infarcted myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Postdural Puncture Headache Postdural puncture headache is a potential complication of a lumbar puncture, with symptoms caused by traction on pain-sensitive structures from low c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Post-op Urinary Retention Postoperative urinary retention is the inability to urinate after a surgical procedure despite having a full bladder. It is a relatively common compli ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Postoperative Fever Postoperative fever is defined as a temperature higher than 38 C (or greater than 100.4 F) on two consecutive postoperative days or higher than 39 C ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postoperative Ileus Postoperative ileus is a prolonged absence of bowel function after surgical procedures, usually abdominal surgery. It is a common postoperative compli ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postoperative Pain Control Postoperative pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients who undergo surgical procedures. Control of postoperative pain plays an essential r ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Postoperative Wound Infection Postoperative wound infection is a common problem. The process of wound infection is complex and involves an interplay between several biological path ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Potassium Potassium is an essential mineral constituent of the human body and is the chief cation found within the intracellular fluid of all cells. The chief i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Potassium Chloride Potassium chloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypokalemia. It is in the electrolyte supplement class of medications. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prediabetes Prediabetes is a precursor before the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Adults with prediabetes often may show no signs or symptoms of diabetes but will ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Prehypertension High or elevated blood pressure continues to be a prevalent condition that represents a major global health burden. Hypertension and prehypertension e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Premature Ventricular Contraction During a premature ventricular contraction (PVC), the heartbeat is initiated by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node. Given that a PVC occurs b ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is administering antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infections. The ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Prerenal Kidney Failure Prerenal AKI is an extensively researched topic, which requires prompt identification and early intervention to prevent long term sequelae. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pressure Injury Pressure injuries are formed when pressure causes localized damage to underlying skin and soft tissue. These skin and soft tissue injuries remain a si ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Prevention of Inappropriate Self-Extraction of Foley Catheters Prevention of painful, traumatic Foley catheter removals and early identification of catheter mal-positioning can minimize pain, urinary tract infecti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used to manage and treat allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also has off-label u ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Propofol Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic used for procedural sedation, during monitored anesthesia care, or as an induction agent for general anesthesia. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Propranolol Propranolol can be used to ameliorate the sympathetic response in angina, tachyarrhythmias, prevention of acute ischemic attacks, migraine prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pseudohyponatremia Pseudohyponatremia is an uncommon laboratory artifact finding that can lead to severe morbidity and mortality if not recognized promptly. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Psychosis Psychosis is a loose description of an amalgamation of psychological symptoms resulting in a loss of contact with reality. It is thought that although ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Pulmonic Regurgitation Pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is most commonly seen secondary to various etiologies causing pulmonary hypertension. It also appears in post valvotomy pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Pulseless ventricular tachycardia is a serious condition with high mortality and morbidity that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pure Red Cell Aplasia Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare disorder that designates anemia secondary to failure of erythropoiesis. It is characterized by normocytic, norm ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickeni ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Radioactive Iodine Therapy Radioactive iodine therapy is used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism. This activity describes the indications, actions, and contraind ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Raloxifene Raloxifene is a medication used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis and the risk reduction of invasive breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Osteop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rectal Bleeding Rectal bleeding, or hematochezia, is a frequently encountered problem in the outpatient setting. It can herald a pathology in the proximal lower gastr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rectal Prolapse Rectal prolapse refers specifically to prolapse of some or all of the rectal mucosa through the external anal sphincter. In pediatric populations aged ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are a common cause of vocal cord paresis and resulting in voice changes or hoarseness. The etiology, history, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Refeeding Syndrome Increased nutrition following a prolonged period of starvation can result in refeeding syndrome. Refeeding syndrome commonly occurs in populations at ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Reflux Esophagitis Esophageal reflux is considered the most common disease encountered by gastroenterologists, and it contributes to a large proportion of cases treated ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Regular Insulin Regular insulin is a medication used in the management of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia of a variety of etiologies. It is in the short-acting in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Renal Failure The term renal failure denotes inability of the kidneys to perform excretory function leading to retention of nitrogenous waste products from the bloo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory acidosis typically occurs due to failure of ventilation and accumulation of carbon dioxide. The primary disturbance is an elevated arteria ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Respiratory Failure Respiratory failure happens when the respiratory system fails to maintain gas exchange and is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to blood gas ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Rheumatic Heart Disease Rheumatic heart disease is a systemic immune condition that occurs as a complication of rheumatic fever. This occurs after a beta-hemolytic streptococ ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Rhino-orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis Rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis is an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales and has high morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Rib Fracture When enough force is placed on the rib, the rib will fracture. Most isolated rib fractures can be managed expectantly. However, certain patterns of ri ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Risk Factors For Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality among adults in the United States. While common, it is preventable. CAD and its ri ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rotator Cuff Injury Rotator cuff pathology is a commonly encountered condition, and the natural history suggests tears increase with increasing age. This activity will di ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Rotavirus Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the world. Studies estimate that approximately 200,000 people die annually from infection. ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Roux-en-y gastric bypass is a restrictive-malabsorptive operation performed for weight loss in individuals with a BMI of 40 or greater, or in those BM ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Safe And Effective Administration Of Vaccines And Epinephrine Autoinjection Safe and effective administration of vaccines and epinephrine autoinjection is performed on various populations to reduce rates of varying life-threat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Salicylates Toxicity Salicylate toxicity is a medical emergency. Intentional ingestion or accidental overdose can cause severe metabolic derangements, making treatment dif ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) Salicylates have been available since the early 1900s. This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, methods of administration, importa ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Scabies Scabies is a contagious skin condition caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei which burrows into the skin and causes severe itching. Scabies is transmit ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Scopolamine Scopolamine is a medication used to manage and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness. It is in the anticholinergic class ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Seizure A seizure represents the uncontrolled, abnormal electrical activity of the brain that may cause changes in the level of consciousness, behavior, memor ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Toxicity Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed antidepressants. Other clinical indications for SSRI use include anxiety disor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sensory and Perceptual Alterations Sensory-perceptual alteration can be defined as when there is a change in the pattern of sensory stimuli, followed by an abnormal response to such sti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Septic Arthritis Septic arthritis is inflammation of the joints secondary to an infectious etiology such as bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, viral, or other pathogens ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognoses. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome A new and rapidly progressive respiratory syndrome termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified by the World Health Organization (WH ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sexual Assault Clothing Collection and Documentation Medical management should be the first and top priority in caring for sexual assault victims. After the patient is clinically stable, proper assault p ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually transmitted infections are disease processes from close physical contact between males and females by transmission through sexual contact. Se ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Shock Shock is a life-threatening manifestation of circulatory failure. Circulatory shock leads to cellular and tissue hypoxia resulting in cellular death ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Short Term Memory Impairment Short-term memory (STM), also referred to as short-term storage, or primary or active memory indicates different systems of memory involved in the ret ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder of the globin chains that causes hemolysis and chronic organ damage. This activity reviews the pathophysio ... Read the Article 2 21 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Crisis Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders affecting about 1 in 500 African American children and 1 in 36,000 Hispanic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Silver Sulfadiazine Silver sulfadiazine is a medication used in the prevention, management, and treatment of burn wound infections. It is a heavy metal topical agent with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sinus Tachycardia Sinus tachycardia is a regular cardiac rhythm in which the heart beats faster than normal. While it is common to have tachycardia as a physiological r ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Sinusitis One of the most common reasons for clinical visits in the United States is sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis. It is also one of the top reasons ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Skin Antiseptics Antiseptics are chemical agents applied to the skin to reduce the microbial count and reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are def ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is generally classified as nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or melanoma. This act ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sleep Apnea Syndrome Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a condition in which there is a dynamic collapse of upper airway tissues during sleep. This may result in recurren ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Sleep Deprivation Sleep loss from various causes is very common and often missed by physicians as a treatable health problem. There are strong associations with serious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Small Bowel Obstruction Small bowel obstruction is a common surgical emergency due to mechanical blockage of the bowel. Though it can be caused by many pathologic processes, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth In contrast to the large intestine, the concentration of the bacteria in the small intestine rarely exceeds 1000 organisms/mL. Gastric acid secretion ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Smoking Tobacco smoking is a practice of burning tobacco with the smoke inhaled to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Around 23 percent of the world ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple disease pathologies. It is a general chemical compound by classifi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Anesthesia The development of regional anesthesia started with the isolation of local anesthetics, the first being cocaine (the only naturally occurring local an ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition, which often results in severe morbidity and permanent disability. It occurs when the axons of ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Spinal Shock Spinal shock is a result of severe spinal cord injury. It usually requires high-impact, direct trauma that leads to spinal cord injury and spinal shoc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spironolactone Spironolactone is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure with some indications aside from cardiovascular ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Splenectomy Splenectomy is mainly performed for hematological disorders along with traumatic injuries. Splenectomy can be performed via the open traditional lapar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Splenic Rupture The spleen is an encapsulated hematopoietic organ that lies within the posterior aspect of the left upper quadrant in the peritoneal cavity. It has pr ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Spontaneous Pneumothorax Spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal condition of the lung characterized by the collection of gas in the pleural space between the lungs and the ch ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Status Asthmaticus One of the most common causes of emergency room visits in the United States is status asthmaticus, an acute, emergent episode of bronchial asthma that ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Sterile Technique The purpose of creating a sterile field is to reduce the number of microbes present to as few as possible. The sterile field is used in many situation ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Stevens Johnson Syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute, rare, and potentially fatal skin reactions involving loss of skin and, in some case ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Streptococcus Pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive, lancet-shaped bacterium and a cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumococcal infections are present ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Streptococcus Pyogenes Streptococcus pyogenes is a major human-specific bacterial pathogen that causes a wide array of manifestations ranging from mild localized infections ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Stress Incontinence Stress urinary incontinence is the sudden, involuntary loss of urine secondary to increased intraabdominal pressure that is affecting the patient’s qu ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Stroke Anticoagulation Anticoagulation is a class of medications used in the management and prevention of stroke. This activity outlines the role, indications, action, and c ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Subclavian Artery Trauma Although subclavian artery trauma is rare, this injury can result in devastating outcomes for the trauma patient. Management of subclavian artery trau ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Subclinical Hypothyroidism Subclinical hypothyroidism characteristically presents with normal thyroxine (T4) levels and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The in ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Subconjunctival Hemorrhage Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common ocular complaint that most clinicians will see in their practice. This article is to describe its causes and it ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Suction Drains Surgical drains are catheters placed near the surgical wound to remove blood, pus, or other fluid and prevent it from accumulating in the body. They a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Suicide Risk Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States, but it can often be prevented with appropriate intervention. This activity re ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Suicide Screening and Prevention Suicide is a major public health problem not only in the United States but also in many western nations. In the United States, it is the 10th leading ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Superficial Thrombophlebitis Superficial thrombophlebitis, increasingly known as superficial venous thrombosis, is no longer considered a benign entity. It is often associated wit ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Surgical Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning refers to the collective measures that are used for clearing the airway of a patient. It involves suctioning, clearing secretions, a ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Swallowing Study The videofluoroscopic swallow study is an important initial diagnostic study for dysphagia as it helps to see the relative structural motion of the up ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sympathomimetic Toxicity Stimulants have been abused for hundreds, if not thousands, of years because they can increase a person's ability to maintain focus and work for longe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Syncope And Related Paroxysmal Spells Paroxysmal spells are non-epileptic events that may mimic epileptic seizures but are not associated with rhythmic discharges of cortical neurons typic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.75 45 Activity Info
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Systolic Hypertension Isolated systolic hypertension is the predominant form of hypertension in the elderly population. Traditionally it has been defined as systolic blood ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
T Tube A T-tube is a T-shaped tube placed in the common bile duct following procedures involving the duct, such as after choledochotomy. T-tubes can also be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tachypnea Tachypnea is defined as a breathing rate that is higher than the normal breathing rate. This condition is seen in both the physiologic state as well a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Temporal Arteritis Temporal arteritis (TA), also called giant cell arteritis (GCA) or cranial arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of medium and large-sized ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Tenosynovitis Tenosynovitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the tendon sheath has a wide variety of causes and treatment considerations. Infectious forms of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Terazosin Terazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and essential hypertension. Terazosin is a long-acting, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Testicular Torsion Scrotal complaints are relatively common both in primary care and in the emergency department and comprise at least 0.5 percent of all emergency depar ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Tetracycline Tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, tigecycline) are a class of medication used to manage and treat various bacterial infections. T ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
The Importance Of Cultural Competence in Pain and Palliative Care Managing pain is often a challenge for health professionals. This is compounded when the patient in pain is dying. Living in an ethnically and cultura ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Theophylline Theophylline is a medication used to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a second-line drug. It is a bronchodilator. This activi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Therapeutic Communication Therapeutic communication is an invaluable approach to interactions with patients that is applicable across multiple disciplines. This activity revie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Therapeutic Uses Of Diuretic Agents Diuretics are a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous and other non-edematous disease conditions. Diuretics are a class of drug ... Read the Article 1.75 14 Activity Info
Thermal Burns Thermal burns are skin injuries caused by excessive heat, typically from contact with hot surfaces, hot liquids, steam, or flame. Most burns are minor ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thiazide Diuretics Thiazide diuretics are an FDA-approved class of drugs that inhibit the reabsorption of 3% to 5% of luminal sodium in the distal convoluted tubule of t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Third Generation Cephalosporins Third-generation cephalosporins are medications used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. They are encompasse ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Thromboembolic Event Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease is the most feared complication of hospitalizations and is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortalit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thyroid Storm Thyroid storm, also known as thyrotoxic crisis, is an acute, life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism that presents with multi-system involvem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thyroidectomy This activity describes indications and techniques of thyroidectomy and reviews the role of the healthcare team in evaluating and treating patients wh ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thyroiditis This activity reviews the different types of thyroiditis, their presentation, evaluation, diagnosis and treatment and highlights the role of the inter ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Thyrotoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical state associated with excess thyroid hormone activity, usually due to inappropriately high-circulating thyroid hormones ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Tibia Fractures Overview Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and are seen in 4 percent of the senior population. This activity reviews the evaluatio ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Tissue and Organ Donation Tissue/organ donation is a complex and multidisciplinary process that begins with the meticulous procedure of determining death. This is followed by a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tissue Plasminogen Activator Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is classified as a serine protease (enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins). It is thus one of the essential ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Tobramycin Tobramycin is an antibiotic used in the management and treatment of systemic and ocular infections. It is a type of aminoglycoside. This activity desc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tonsillitis Tonsillitis, or inflammation of the tonsils, is a common disease and makes up approximately 1.3% of outpatient visits. It is predominantly the result ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Topical, Local, and Regional Anesthesia and Anesthetics Nerve impulse transmission occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels on the neuronal membrane open, allowing a massive influx of sodium. This causes m ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Total Parenteral Nutrition Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment. It is in the nutrition class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Toxic Exposure Hazardous Materials Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) are chemical or radioactive substances that can harm an individual and the environment upon exposure, resulting in differ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tracheal Intubation Medications Endotracheal intubation is indicated in many clinical settings, such as impending respiratory failure and when protecting the patient airway. The foll ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Tracheal Rapid Sequence Intubation Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is a technique that is used when rapid control of the airway is needed as a precaution for patients that may have a 'f ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Trauma Care Principles Trauma care principles outline fundamental concepts that providers should know when treating various injuries in a trauma setting. The content will fo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tuberculosis Tuberculosis (TB) is a human disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It mainly affects the lungs, making pulmonary disease the most common prese ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Tumor Lysis Syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome is the most common oncologic emergency. This condition is prevalent in both adult and pediatric oncology patients undergoing chem ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Ultrasound Guided Intravenous Access At least 150 to 200 million peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters are placed each year in the United States, and up to 80 percent of patients receive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ultrasound Intravascular Access Ultrasound (US) guidance for intravenous (IV) access has been well documented for more than 20 years and is now routine in many settings for non-emerg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is a condition defined as elevated serum or plasma bilirubin (unconjugated) levels above the reference range of the la ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Unconscious Patient Unconsciousness is generally caused by a temporary or permanent impairment of either the reticular activating system in the brainstem, both cerebral h ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis Vocal fold immobility is a broad term that can be used to describe the abnormal movement of the true vocal folds. It can be unilateral, where only one ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Universal Precautions Universal precautions were introduced by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1985, mostly in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Unstable Angina Unstable angina is chest discomfort or pain caused by an insufficient flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. It is part of the acute coronary syndrome ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common problem that is estimated to occur in 80 to 150 out of 100,000 people each year. Estimated mortalit ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Urinary Diversions And Neobladders The urinary bladder is designed both to facilitate low-pressure filling and to efficiently expel urine using coordinated contractions. As the bladder ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Vaccine (Vaccination) Immunization successfully uses immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or spec ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Vagal Maneuver Vagal maneuvers are techniques used to increase vagal parasympathetic tone in an attempt to diagnose and treat various arrhythmias. They are often uti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Valsalva Maneuver The Valsalva maneuver is forced expiration against a closed glottis. It mimics many normal and in some cases routine activities, such as straining dur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vancomycin Vancomycin is a medication used in the treatment of serious Gram-positive bacterial infections. It is in the cell wall synthesis inhibitor class of an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vancomycin Flushing Syndrome Vancomycin flushing syndrome (VFS) was previously known as red man syndrome (RMS) is an anaphylactoid reaction caused by the rapid infusion of the gly ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Antimicrobial resistance is becoming an increasingly common clinical dilemma for medical providers. In particular, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vasculitis Vasculitis is a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterized by inflammation if vessels. They share common links of clinical, laboratory, and path ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vasodilators Vasodilators are useful in the management of hypertension, angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and more. This activity reviews the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vasovagal Episode A vasovagal episode or vasovagal syncope is the most common form of reflex syncope. Reflex syncope describes any form of syncopal episode caused by a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Venous Insufficiency Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common condition that typically involves lower extremity edema, trophic skin changes, and discomfort secondary ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ventricular Fibrillation Arrhythmias originating from the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system are grouped under ventricular arrhythmia (VA). This includes a subset o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia is characterized as a wide complex tachyarrhythmia. It is classified by duration as non-sustained or sustained. Non-sustained ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Ventriculostomy Ventriculostomy is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. patients treated with this procedure need long-term follow-up and careful adjustme ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or Prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Viral Arthritis Acute-onset polyarticular arthritis is the most common presentation of viral arthritis. The most commonly implicated viruses are parvovirus, the alpha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) represent a group of severe systemic febrile illnesses caused by four families of viruses - Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Viral Meningitis Viral meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges caused by a virus. It is most common in young children but is seen across all age groups. This ac ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential vitamin and medication used to manage and treat pernicious anemia, ileal resection, treatment of spinal cord m ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Vitamin B6 Toxicity This activity describes the toxicity associated with vitamin B6 at higher doses. It explains in detail the pathophysiology and toxicokinetics of vitam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin used by the body for normal bone development and maintenance by increasing the absorption of calcium, magnesium, an ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Warfarin Warfarin is a medication used in the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and thromboembolic events. It is in the anticoagulant class of dru ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Warfarin Drug Interactions Warfarin has FDA approval for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its complications, such as a pulmonary embolus. It is also indica ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute neurological condition characterized by a clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. This disease i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
West Nile Virus The West Nile virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA arbovirus that can cause disease in humans. These range from the asymptomatic infected patien ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Wheezing Wheezing is the symptomatic manifestation of any disease process that causes airway obstruction. Wheezing is commonly experienced by people who have a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wilson Disease Wilson disease (hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by abnormal copper accumulation in the body particularly ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Wound Debridement Wound debridement is based on the premise that debridement will promote reepithelialization. Wound debridement has been utilized for more than a decad ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Wound Dressings Wounds can be present over different anatomical parts of the body. However, the basic principles of choosing a wound dressing remain the same. Choosin ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Wound Foreign Body Removal Soft tissue foreign bodies or wounds associated with foreign bodies result from blunt/abrasive trauma or penetrating trauma. Patients may present earl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wound Irrigation Wounds and lacerations are common complaints. Each year in the United States, roughly 12.2 million patients are seen in emergency departments for woun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wound Pressure Injury Management Pressure injuries have been given various names over the last several years, including pressure ulcers, decubitus ulcers, or bed sores. Pressure injur ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Wrist Sprain A wrist sprain is a common injury, particularly in work and athletic environments. An acute wrist sprain is an injury to a ligament often due to an ac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info

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