Nurse-Critical Care (CCRN) CE

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All of our activities are approved by ANCC (LVN, RN, and CNS) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the American Association of Critical Care Nurses® content outlines. 785 authors and 13 editors have contributed to the development of the Nurse-Critical Care (CCRN) content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Nurse-Critical Care (CCRN) Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine Toxicity This activity reviews the FDA-class 1 drug 3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA, ecstasy, or molly. The drug is known to promote a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
3-3-2 Rule The airway is one of the most critical elements of patient safety, and difficult intubations commonly cause morbidity and mortality. To decrease morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Abdominal Aorta Repair Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is performed because the mortality rates are as high as 78% following rupture. Open and endovascular surgery are the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition that requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or symp ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilati ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acalculous Cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis is a hypokinetic condition of gallbladder emptying. It often presents as an acute ailment (acute cholecystitis), but it can a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Activated Charcoal An oral suspension of activated charcoal should be considered in poisonings when gastrointestinal decontamination of an ingested toxin is indicated. A ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Hepatitis Acute hepatitis is a term used to describe a wide variety of conditions characterized by acute inflammation of the hepatic parenchyma or injury to hep ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury for fewer than twenty-six weeks duration with encephalopathy and impaired synthetic functi ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the U ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Acute Pneumothorax Evaluation and Treatment A pneumothorax is an accumulation of gas in the pleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the chest cavity), which can imp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Acute Renal Colic Acute renal colic is severe pain resulting from the presence of a stone in the urinary system. The stone can be present anywhere along the path betwee ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The d ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction An acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurs due to occlusion of one or more coronary arteries, causing transmural myocardial ischemia which in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Addison Disease Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, which can have devastating consequences if not promptly recognized and appropriately treated. Often th ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Addisonian Crisis An Addisonian crisis, or adrenal crisis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that results from an acute insufficiency of adrenal hormones (glu ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentration. It is a life- ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) frequently occur in our medical system, and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome tha ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Agitation Agitation is a nonspecific constellation of relatively unrelated behaviors that can be seen in various clinical situations, usually presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that, under normal circumstances, do not contain air. The term air leak sy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Airborne Precautions An airborne disorder is any disease that is caused by a microorganism that is transmitted through the air. There are many airborne diseases that are o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Airway Glottic Insufficiency Glottic insufficiency is characterized by incomplete closure of the vocal folds with phonation, which causes an increased risk of aspiration. Glottic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain the patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Albuterol Albuterol is used for the treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (acute or severe) in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. It also h ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Alcohol Sanitizer Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is critical to reducing colonization and infection, specifically among healthcare workers (HCW). This wil ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Alcohol Withdrawal Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually appear when an individual discontinues or reduces alcohol intake after a period of prolonged consumption. In most ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Alcoholic Hepatitis Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe syndrome related to alcoholic liver disease. It is characterized by rapid onset of jaundice, malaise, tender hepatomeg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a condition seen commonly in patients with alcohol use disorder or after a bout of heavy drinking. It is a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Alprazolam Alprazolam, known by various trade names, is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication in the United States. Alprazolam is frequently presc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Amikacin Amikacin is an antimicrobial with activity against more resistant gram-negative bacilli such as Acinetobacter baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used to manage and treat acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the conventional name amphotericin B and has been used fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Anasarca Anasarca is a serious condition in which there is a generalized accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space. This accumulation of fluid occurs whe ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Anemia Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying condition and can be subdivided into ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery strokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involves the superior and medial part of the parietal lo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Anterior Mediastinal Mass The most common anterior mediastinal masses in the adult population are thymoma, teratoma, thyroid goiter, and lymphoma. This activity describes the e ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Anterior Myocardial Infarction Anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common heart disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Advancement in diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction Anteroseptal myocardial infarctions are commonly caused by the rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the left anterior descending artery. D ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Toxicity Anticholinergic toxicity is commonly seen in the emergency department but is rarely fatal. According to the 2015 annual American Association of Poison ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antifungal Antibiotics Fungi are unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that exist in all environments worldwide. While most fungi do not play a significant role ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Antisialagogues Antisialagogues are medications often used to manage and treat patients with noisy breathing near the end of life. These medications are members of th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of hepari ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arterial Lines Arterial catheterization is a procedure that is common to the intensive care and the operating room settings. It involves placement of a catheter into ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Aspiration Risk Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized ba ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity Info
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Block Second-Degree A delay in conduction between the atria and ventricles results in an atrioventricular conduction block. This is indicated by a prolongation of the PR ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry Tachycardia Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia that results due to the presence of a re-ent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Avian Influenza Avian influenza is a deadly disease caused by infection from an influenza virus native to birds. While often not fatal in birds, it can carry a high m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacteremia Bacteremia, in the strictest sense, refers to viable bacteria in the blood. Asymptomatic bacteremia can occur in normal daily activities such as condu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics The term "bacteriostatic antibiotics" is used to describe medications whose mechanism of action stalls bacterial cellular activity without directly ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Barotrauma Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damag ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Battle Sign Battle sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide and shortly thereafter diazepam, benzodiazepines quickly became popular medications secondar ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines are especially important in the cessation of seizure activity, as 1% to 2% of emergency department visits annually in the United State ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Beta 2 Agonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of medications used in the frontline management and treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antimicrobials to prevent antimicrobial resistance by inhibiting serine ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization is a commonly performed procedure in all hospitals. It can be performed by external, urethral, and suprapubic techniques. It i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Blood Gas Temperature Correction Blood gas temperature correction is an important process to implement when assessing blood gas laboratory values. The laws of physics concerning gas s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Boerhaave Syndrome Boerhaave syndrome is also known as spontaneous esophageal rupture or effort rupture of the esophagus. Although vomiting is thought to be the most com ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Botulism Antitoxin Botulinum antitoxin, also known as botulism antitoxin, is comprised of antibodies or antibody antigen-binding fragments that block the neurotoxin prod ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bowel Ischemia Bowel ischemia can classify as small intestine ischemia, which is commonly known as mesenteric ischemia and large intestine ischemia, which generally ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Bowel Obstruction A bowel obstruction can either be a mechanical or functional obstruction of the small or large intestines. Obstruction frequently causes abdominal pai ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brain Death Criteria Brain death accounts for about 2% of deaths in the United States and is often caused by traumatic brain injury. Criteria of Brain death determination ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Brainstem Death The revised memorandum in 1979 correlated the brain stem death with death itself. This activity outlines current recommendations set for diagnosing br ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Brown Sequard Syndrome Brown-Séquard syndrome is a neurologic syndrome resulting from hemisection of the spinal cord. It manifests with weakness or paralysis and propriocept ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Burn Fluid Management In the United States, approximately 500,000 people seek care for burn injuries each year. For civilians, these injuries are typically sustained in hou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic drug. Originally, the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but was found ineffective for psychosis, but it had use ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Candida Auris Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is associated with nosocomial infections and is considered a serious global health threat. It has nu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cannabidiol (CBD) CBD is a medication used to manage and treat the seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. This activity describes the indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Capnography And Pulse Oximetry Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive measure of oxygen saturation. Capnography is a method of monitoring the concentration or partial pressure of carbon di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Embolism Laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing popularity in clinical practice. As part of laparoscopic surgeries, gas insufflation is usually adopted to ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis Carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis is a condition that develops when excessive CO2 is present in the bloodstream, leading to a depressed level of conscious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Carboxyhemoglobin Toxicity Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-irritating gas formed with the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels). It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Manifestations Of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Coronaviruses are a large family of single positive-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that can infect many animal species and humans. Human coronaviruse ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Adults Cardiopulmonary arrest is the cessation of adequate heart function and respiration and results in death without reversal. Often this condition is foun ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cardiorenal Syndrome Cardiorenal syndrome includes multiple subtypes based on underlying pathology and chronicity. Each subtype involves unique pathophysiology, and thus, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Care Of A Central Line Central venous catheters (CVC) are frequently used in critical care units, hemodialysis units, and oncology units for the administration of intravenou ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Care Of A Chest Tube There are variable practice patterns used to manage chest tubes. Care and management of the chest tube are subject to the direction of the responsible ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cataplexy Cataplexy, a physical feature of narcolepsy, is characterized by transient episodes of voluntary muscle weakness precipitated by intense emotion. Subj ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cauda Equina And Conus Medullaris Syndromes Cauda equina and conus medullaris syndromes have overlap in anatomy and clinical presentation. The cauda equina is a group of nerves and nerve roots s ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Central Line Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a procedure frequently required in acute or critical care resuscitation. Indications include patients with mul ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection not related to an infection at ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Line Management Central venous access is required for many hospitalized patients. Placement of central line catheters is done for many reasons, including inadequate p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Central Line Placement A central line is a large-bore central venous catheter that is typically placed using a sterile technique unless a patient is unstable, in which case ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Central Venous Access of The Subclavian Vein In the United States, more than 5 million central venous catheters are inserted every year in both hospitalized and surgical patients. Once an indicat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cerebellar Hematoma Cerebellar hemorrhage or hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage in which the bleeding is located in the posterior fossa or cerebellum. This con ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cheyne Stokes Respirations Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a type of breathing disorder characterized by cyclical episodes of apnea and hyperventilation. Although described in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chlordiazepoxide Chlordiazepoxide is a long-acting benzodiazepine and is an FDA approved medication for adults with mild-moderate to severe anxiety, preoperative anxie ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cholangitis Acute cholangitis, also known as ascending cholangitis, is a life-threatening condition that is caused by an ascending bacterial infection of the bili ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cholinergic Medications Cholinergic medications are a category of pharmaceutical agents that act upon the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter within ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cholinergic Toxicity Cholinergic toxicity is caused by substances that stimulate, enhance or mimic the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter of the ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cholinesterase Inhibitors Cholinesterase inhibitors function to decrease the breakdown of acetylcholine. They SEe use in the treatment of Alzheimer and dementia symptoms. This ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2.25 37 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.75 44 Activity Info
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder that leads to irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic parenchyma cau ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Chylothorax A chylothorax is the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space. This is most commonly seen following traumatic disruption of the thoracic duct and is ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cisatracurium Cisatracurium besylate is an intermediate-acting, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD). Cisatracurium has a benzylisoquinolinium struct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clonazepam Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug used for the acute management of panic disorder, epilepsy, and non-convulsive status epilepticus. It also has many ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Clostridium Perfringens Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus that is associated with acute gastrointestinal infection ranging in sever ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cocaine Toxicity Cocaine abuse is a major worldwide health problem. Patients with acute cocaine toxicity may require urgent treatment for tachycardia, dysrhythmia, hyp ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Coma Altered mental status is a catch-all term that includes a spectrum of patient behaviors ranging from confusion to deep unresponsiveness. Coma is at on ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Commotio Cordis Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is an important cause of sudden ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the body's requirements. It results from any disorder ... Read the Article 2.5 38 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of positive airway pressure that is used to deliver a set pressure to the airways that is maintai ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is one of the renal replacement methods that include intermittent hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cooling Techniques For Hyperthermia Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In sepsis, the immunologic reaction to the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Perforation Coronary artery perforation is a rare complication associated with a percutaneous coronary intervention. This activity highlights the risk factors, de ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Coronary Flow Effects of Arterial Spasm or Microembolization Two conditions that can lead to angina symptoms include coronary artery spasm and microembolization. Coronary artery spasm can cause partial or comple ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas of medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that are frequently used in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first choice for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.75 16 Activity Info
Curling Ulcer Stress ulcers are a well-known clinical entity described as stress-induced gastritis or gastropathy. The gastric and sometimes esophageal or duodenal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cyanocobalamin Cyanocobalamin is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiencies. This activity reviews the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Daptomycin Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic derived from the organism Streptomyces roseosporus. Daptomycin is used to treat various bacterial infect ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Death and Dying Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers e ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Decompression Sickness Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when dissolved gasses (usually nitrogen or helium, used in mixed gas diving) exit solution and form bubbles inside ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Deep Vein Thrombosis A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins, usually of the leg, but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mese ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Defibrillation Cardiac defibrillation is the act of administering a transthoracic electrical current to a person experiencing one of the two lethal ventricular dysrh ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dementia Dementia describes an overall decline in memory and other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. I ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Dengue Fever Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus and the leading cause of arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. It is also known as breakbone fever due to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dexmedetomidine The FDA-approved indications for dexmedetomidine are sedation of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin or AVP) ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Dialysis Catheter Dialysis catheters are artificial indwelling transcutaneous conduits used to access the intravascular space or intraperitoneal space for renal replace ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Diaphragm Eventration Diaphragm eventration is the permanent elevation of a hemidiaphragm and can be due to congenital or acquired causes. Diaphragm eventration can become ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Difficult Foley Catheterization Urinary catheterization is a common clinical intervention to ensure adequate urinary drainage when patients cannot void effectively. When a urinary ca ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used to manage and treat heart failure and certain arrhythmias, and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside class of drugs. T ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diltiazem Diltiazem is an oral and parenteral non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in many clinical scenarios as an antihypertensive, anti-ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dobutamine The FDA approveD dobutamine for short-term use in patients with decreased contractility due to heart failure or cardiac surgical procedures leading to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dopamine Dopamine is a peripheral vasostimulant used to treat low blood pressure, low heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Low infusion rates (0.5 to 2 micrograms/k ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used to manage and treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in the first-genera ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Duodenal Ulcer Duodenal ulcers occur when there is a disruption to the surface of the mucosa of the duodenum. These ulcers are part of peptic ulcer disease, which in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Dyspnea Dyspnea, commonly referred to as shortness of breath, is the subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing comprised of various sensations of varyin ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
ECG T Wave Normally, the T wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG) is representative of ventricular repolarization. Changes in T wave morphology can be indicative of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Egophony In the era of technological advances, a thorough examination of the respiratory system retains its importance in diagnosing disorders of the respirato ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EKG Rhythm Successful ECG interpretation requires the utilization of the same stepwise method with each attempt. Like all aspects of electrocardiographic interpr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Electrical Alternans Electrical alternans is defined as alternating QRS amplitudes in any or all leads on an electrocardiogram (ECG) with no additional evident changes in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Electrical Burns Electrical injuries are when high-energy current travels through the body due to contact with an electrical source. Injuries occur due to either the f ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Electrical Right and Left Axis Deviation One of the key steps in interpreting an electrocardiogram (EKG) is determining the electrical axis of the heart. Being able to determine the electrica ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Electrocardiogram Electrocardiogram (abbreviated as EKG or ECG) represents a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Willem Einthoven first invented it in 1 ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Emphysema Pulmonary emphysema, a progressive lung disease, is a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Empyema Empyema is defined as a collection of pus in the pleural cavity, gram-positive, or culture from the pleural fluid. Empyema is usually associated with ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity Info
Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents despite new advantages in management and prophyla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Abscess An epidural abscess is an infection within the epidural space anywhere in the brain or spinal cord. Epidural abscesses occur as a result of infections ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural Catheter Epidural catheters are widely used in surgical, obstetric, and chronic pain settings as they serve as an excellent adjunct or alternative to general a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in various settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved for va ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Escitalopram Escitalopram is a medication used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. It is in the selectiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings, including urgent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Esophageal Varices Esophageal varices are dilated submucosal distal esophageal veins connecting the portal and systemic circulations. They form due to portal hypertensio ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Esophagitis Esophagitis refers to inflammation or injury to the esophageal mucosa. One of the most common causes is gastroesophageal reflux, which can lead to ero ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ethanol Toxicity Ethanol toxicity results from the ingestion of large amounts of ethanol, usually in the form of alcohol. It affects multiple organ systems in both the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely danger ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Etomidate Etomidate is an ultrashort-acting, non-barbiturate hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. It is administered only by intravenous route. Etomidate has ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Euthyroid Sick Syndrome Euthyroid sick syndrome is also known as nonthyroidal illness syndrome and refers to changes in thyroid function tests that were administered in the i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Extubation Extubation is the removal of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is the last step in liberating a patient from the mechanical ventilator. To discuss the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Facial Nerve Palsy Facial nerve palsies are a common and essential presentation specifically to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons but also in general medical practice ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fasciotomy A fasciotomy procedure is a procedure used to decompress acute compartment syndrome. Most commonly, acute compartment syndrome occurs in the leg and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Features, Evaluation, and Treatment of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the highly contagious infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), ... Read the Article 1.5 9 Activity Info
Feeding Jejunostomy Tube The feeding jejunostomy tube is a method of delivering feeds through jejunal access in the small bowel. It is used when there is a contraindication to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Feeding Tube Feeding tubes are tubes inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to provide a patient with enteral nutrition or for decompression. Tubes come in a var ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Femoral Vein Central Venous Access Venous access can be obtained through the cannulation of peripheral veins, such as the antecubital vein or saphenous vein, or central veins, such as t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fenoldopam Fenoldopam is used primarily for the lowering of blood pressure during episodes of severe hypertension. Fenoldopam has a unique mechanism of action co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fever In the Intensive Care Patient Fever in ICU is defined as a temperature of = 101 degrees F ( = 38.3 degrees C ). It can be either infectious or non-infectious in origin. Prompt eva ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
First Degree Heart Block First-degree atrioventricular (AV) block is a condition of abnormally slow conduction through the AV node. It is defined by ECG changes that include a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Flail Chest Flail chest is a traumatic condition of the thorax. It may occur when 3 or more ribs are broken in at least 2 places. It is considered a clinical diag ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Fluid Resuscitation The primary role of fluid resuscitation is to maintain organ perfusion (hemodynamics) and substrate (oxygen, electrolytes, among others) delivery thro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agents for benzodiazepine overdose a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fluoroscopy Nasogastric Feeding Tube Placement Fluoroscopic-guided nasogastric feeding tube placement is a safe and effective way of adequately placing a NET for enteric feeding purposes. The use ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is FDA-approved for major depressive disorder (age eight and older), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, binge eating d ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Foot Ulcer Foot ulceration is among the most common health issues, and its prevalence has increased recently. It is one of the major causes of amputations, parti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Forearm Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased tissue pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the contents ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gabapentin Gabapentin is an anticonvulsive medication that originally saw use as a muscle relaxer and anti-spasmodic medication, but later it was discovered it h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gastric Ulcer Gastric ulcers are a break in the mucosa of the stomach lining that penetrates through the muscularis mucosa and extends more than 5 mm in diameter. W ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding can fall into two broad categories: upper and lower sources of bleeding. The anatomic landmark that separates upper and lowe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Geriatric Care Special Needs Assessment Global life expectancy has been increasing, and so has the population of older patients. Due to multiple comorbidities, the geriatric population has s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Geriatric Head Injury Elderly patients with head trauma represent a large proportion of patients seeking medical attention. There are special considerations and challenges ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glargine Insulin Insulin glargine is used to manage and treat hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a long-acting insulin and is us ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used to manage and treat hypoglycemia as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, anaphylaxis refrac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Grief Reaction Grief is a natural and universal response to the loss of a loved one. The grief experience is not a state but a process. Most individuals recover adeq ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Grief Support Health professionals frequently deal with the loss of a patient in the emergency department and in intensive care units. These deaths are often due to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Haloperidol Haloperidol is a first-generation (typical) antipsychotic that is a commonly used drug worldwide. Haloperidol is used for positive symptoms of schizop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hantavirus Syndrome Hantavirus is a rare, life-threatening infection characterized by pulmonary edema, hypoxia, and hypotension. It typically results from exposure to mic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Heart Failure And Ejection Fraction Heart failure (HF) is a common and potentially fatal disease if left untreated. This article aims to describe the different types of heart failure. It ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Hemodialysis A dialysis is a form of renal replacement therapy. The kidney’s role of filtration of the blood is supplemented by artificial equipment for the remova ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may be further subdivided into intracerebral ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hepatic Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver secondary to chronic injury, leading to alteration of the normal lobular orga ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome observed in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This syndrome is characterized by a wide sp ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Hepatic Failure Acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by coagulopathy, elevated liver biochemistry, and hepatic encephalopathy withou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hepatitis The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver — hepatitis most commonly results from viruses. But drugs, alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases, i ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Hereditary Angioedema Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by either a lack of C1-inhibitor protein or dysfunctional C1-inhibitor protein. HA ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Heroin Toxicity Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is a very efficient prodrug and more potent than morphine. Many deaths are caused by heroin overdoses througho ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Type 2 This activity reviews the evaluation and management of herpes simplex type 2 and highlights the role of the primary care provider in managing patients ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
High Altitude Cerebral Edema High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and potentially fatal condition associated with high altitude illness that is often thought of as a la ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis High anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) is a type of metabolic acidosis. Differentiation of acidosis into a particular subtype, whether high anion g ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
High Flow Nasal Cannula Supplemental oxygen therapy is one of the more commonly prescribed interventions used by clinicians when caring for hypoxic patients acutely. This sup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
High-Output Cardiac Failure High-output cardiac failure is a less common form of heart failure, and although it may sound contradictory at first, in the simplest form, it is stil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
HIV Encephalitis HIV encephalitis is a complication of HIV infection, which presents with neurocognitive dysfunction of varying severity. Almost half of HIV-infected p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hospital Acquired Infections Hospital-acquired infections (healthcare-associated infections) are nosocomially acquired infections that are not present or incubating at the time of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the need for insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Human Trafficking Human trafficking is a pressing public health concern which transcends all races, social classes, demographics, and gender. No population is exempt fr ... Read the Article 2 22 Activity Info
Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase is an enzyme useful in facilitating the management of injectable medications. This activity reviews the indications, action, adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydromorphone Hydromorphone is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate to severe acute pain as well as severe chronic pain. It is in the opioi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hymenoptera Stings The Hymenoptera order includes over 150,000 different species of flying and non-flying insects. Some species within this order have modified oviposito ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hypercapnea Hypercapnia is the increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic product of the many cellular pr ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hypercarbia Hypercarbia is defined by an increase in carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic end-product of normal metabolism, with incre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Hypermagnesemia Magnesium is an essential element for the life of plants as it is part of chlorophyll. Moreover, it is abundant in animal tissues, where it is fundame ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypernatremia The human body maintains sodium and water homeostasis by concentrating the urine secondary to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and increased f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Coma Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) is a clinical condition that arises from a complication of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes accounts for a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hypertensive Emergency A hypertensive emergency is an acute, marked elevation in blood pressure that is associated with signs of target-organ damage. These can include pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hypertonic Fluids Clinicians use hypertonic fluids to increase intravascular fluid volume. Hypertonic saline can be utilized in the treatment of hyponatremia. Hypertoni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a mutation in sarcomere protein genes which effect contraction of the hea ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity Info
Hypoalbuminemia Hypoalbuminaemia is one of the most prevalent disorders in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Hypoalbuminaemia may be a result of decreased pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hypoaldosteronism Hypoaldosteronism is a clinical condition characterized by a deficiency of aldosterone or its impaired action at the tissue level. The disorder may re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is not encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be life-thre ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypoparathyroidism Parathyroid hormone deficiency, also called hypoparathyroidism, results in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased neuromuscular irritability. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypophosphatemia Given its widespread role in nearly every molecular, cellular function, aberrations in serum phosphate levels can be highly impactful. Hypophosphatemi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Hypovolemia Hypovolemia refers to a state of low extracellular fluid volume, generally secondary to combined sodium and water loss. All living organisms must main ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hypoxia Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at the tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ibutilide Ibutilide is indicated for the conversion of acute atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm (NSR). Off-label uses of ibutilide in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
ICU Delirium Delirium is defined by DSM-5 criteria as an impairment in attention and awareness that develops over a relatively short time interval that is associat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy A seizure can be defined as abnormal, hypersynchronous discharge of cortical neurons, and epilepsy defined as a propensity to have seizures. Idiopathi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ileostomy An ileostomy is a procedure in which the lumen of the ileum, part of the small bowel, is brought through the abdominal wall via a surgically-created o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ileus Ileus refers to the intolerance of oral intake due to inhibition of the gastrointestinal propulsion without signs of mechanical obstruction. The diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Imipramine Imipramine is a medication used in the treatment of depression and anxiety. It is a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is defined as a low platelet count, usually, less than 100,000 in the presence of a generalized petechial rash, ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Implantable Loop Recorder Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is an invaluable tool to assist in diagnosing certain cardiac conditions. There are a variety of ambulat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure t ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Infectious Endocarditis Infectious endocarditis refers to the colonization of cardiac valve endocardium by virulent microorganisms. It is a rare condition that can lead to r ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Inferior Myocardial Infarction Without timely treatment, coronary artery occlusion results in decreased perfusion to the myocardium, resulting in myocardial ischemia followed by my ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Innominate Artery Injury Innominate artery injuries can present either by penetrating or blunt force. A provider must make a quick decision on treatment to avoid the feared mo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Insulin Insulin is a medication used in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus type-1 and sometimes diabetes mellitus type-2, both of which are sig ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Internal Jugular Vein Central Venous Access If an ultrasound machine is not immediately available and central venous access via the right jugular vein is required, a simple three-finger techniqu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Internal jugular vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus develops in the lumen of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Hereditary and acquired risk factors ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Intestinal Trauma Intestinal injury is common in both blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Due to the potentially life-threatening nature of these injuries, provider ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Intracranial Hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhage encompasses four broad types of hemorrhage: epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraparenc ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring This activity outlines the current recommendations for ICP monitoring and reviews the role of current invasive and noninvasive methods of monitoring. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intraosseous Vascular Access Obtaining vascular access is often difficult and delays patient care in the prehospital and hospital setting. Intraosseous (IO) access is a fast and r ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intrathecal Morphine Morphine is an opioid administered for acute and chronic pain conditions. The advantage of intrathecal (IT) morphine over intravenous (IV), oral (PO), ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intubation Endotracheal Tube Medications Mastering the skill of endotracheal intubation to secure an airway plays a critical role in many settings such as pre-hospital environments, emergency ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Iron Dextran Iron dextran is an injectable medication used in the management of iron deficiency anemia, particularly in patients who are unable to tolerate iron by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Isoflurane Isoflurane is a volatile anesthetic approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Like mo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Isoproterenol Isoproterenol is a beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist indicated primarily for bradydysrhythmias. The administration and subsequent post-adm ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
ITP-Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune pathology characterized by a low platelet count, purpura, and hemorrhagic episodes caused by an ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Jugular Venous Distention The jugular venous examination is a vital component of the cardiovascular exam. This activity outlines the identification and assessment of jugular ve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Junctional Rhythm The sinoatrial node is the natural cardiac pacemaker located in the upper right atrium. The atrioventricular node is a separate cardiac pacemaker loca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with pathologically high serum and urine concentrations of ketone bodies. Clinically relevant forms of ke ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Klebsiella Pneumonia In 1882, Carl Friedlander first described Klebsiella pneumoniae as an encapsulated bacillus after isolating the bacterium from the lungs of those who ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Labetalol Due to their negative inotropic and chronotropic actions, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists are typically indicated in individuals with chronic car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lactic Acidosis Lactic acid is produced in physiologically normal processes, and as a common finding in disease states. When increased production is comorbid with dec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lactulose Lactulose is used in preventing and treating clinical portal-systemic encephalopathy. Its chief mechanism of action is by decreasing the intestinal pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lateral Wall Myocardial Infarction Isolated lateral wall myocardial infarction (LMI), similar to other acute myocardial infarctions (MI), is caused by acute atherosclerotic plaque ruptu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Assist Devices Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of inpatient admissions. The Framingham study in 1993 described the risk factors for heart failure and showed u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Failure Left heart failure occurs when there is dysfunction of the left ventricle, resulting insufficient delivery of blood to vital organs. Left ventricular ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Loop Diuretics Loop diuretics are medications used in the management and treatment of fluid overload conditions such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Loperamide Loperamide is a medication used in the treatment of diarrhea. It classifies as an anti-diarrheal agent. The use of loperamide in high doses has been a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs within the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to the anus. Any bleed ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lung Abscess A lung abscess is a microbial infection of the lung that results in necrosis of the pulmonary parenchyma. Depending on the duration, it can be classif ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Lung Biopsy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing tissue specimens via a puncture through the chest wall into the lung (percutaneous lung lesi ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Lung Cancer Lung cancer or bronchogenic carcinoma refers to tumors originating in the lung parenchyma or within bronchi. It is one of the leading causes of cancer ... Read the Article 2.25 30 Activity Info
Macrolides Macrolides are a class of drugs used in the management and treatment of various bacterial infections. This activity reviews the mechanism of action, i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium sulfate is a medication used to manage and treat multiple clinical conditions and holds several on and off-label uses. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malabsorption Syndromes This activity is a brief overview of malabsorption symptoms as they pertain to fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin, mineral, and trace elements digest ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Malignancy-Related Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic abnormality seen in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Depending on the serum calcium levels, hypercalcemia i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Malignant Hypertension Malignant hypertension is a term that has been used to describe patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) and multiple complications with poor progno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Marasmus Marasmus is a manifestation of severe dietary malnutrition which occurs as a result of a calorie deficiency. Marasmus is associated with a better prog ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Medical Error A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of medical care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. Among the problems that commo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medical Error Reduction and Prevention This activity provides an in-depth description of the significance of medical error in the practice of medicine. It also highlights a number of impor ... Read the Article 2.25 28 Activity Info
Medical Ethics Familiarity with ethical principles on a basic level is necessary to practice medicine. However, most healthcare providers are unable to explain how o ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Medication Dispensing Errors And Prevention Close to 6,800 prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States. To further complicate a practitioner' ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Medication Routes of Administration A medication administration route is often classified by the location at which the drug is applied, such as oral or intravenous. The choice of routes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Metabolic Acidosis Acid-base disorders are disturbances in the homeostasis of hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma. Any process that increases the serum hydrogen ion ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Meteorism Meteorism, also known as tympanites, is characterized by the accumulation of gas in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Gas may cause the sensation of bl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Based on the antibiotic susceptibilities, Methicillin resistance in S. aureus is defined as an oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gre ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is caused by the retrograde flow of blood from the left ventricle (LV) into the left atrium (LA) through the mitral valve (M ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a supraventricular tachycardia resulting in a rapid, irregular atrial rhythm that is caused by multiple ectopic ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries of 2.5 mm diameter or more. This activity helps i ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Mural Thrombi Mural thrombi are thrombi that attach to the wall of a blood vessel and cardiac chamber. Mural thrombus occurrence in a normal or minimally atheroscle ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Muscarinic Agonists Muscarinic agonists are parasympathomimetic drugs and are indicated for ileus, urinary retention, glaucoma, Alzheimer disease, and other symptoms. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as "heart attack," is caused by decreased or complete cessation of blood flow to a portion of the myoca ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Myoglobinuria Myoglobinuria is the presence of an excess amount of myoglobin in the urine. It is mostly caused by muscle breakdown, releasing a high amount of myogl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myxedema Myxedema coma is a rare fatal condition resulting from long-standing hypothyroidism with loss of the adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis. Hypot ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Naloxone Over the past two decades, the rate of overdose from opiates has increased significantly. Opiate misuse is associated with enormous morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Nasogastric Tube Nasogastric tubes are part of the standard of care in treating intestinal obstruction and can also be used to provide nutritional support. They are mo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Airway A nasopharyngeal airway device (NPA) is a hollow plastic or soft rubber tubes that a healthcare provider can utilize to assist with patient oxygenatio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nebivolol Nebivolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Needlestick Needlestick injuries are frequent occurrences in healthcare settings and can lead to serious complications. While the introduction of universal precau ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Neonatal Seizure Neonatal seizures are a commonly encountered neurologic condition in neonates. They are defined as the occurrence of sudden, paroxysmal, abnormal alte ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Nephrotoxic Medications Numerous drugs used to manage and treat multiple diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and other pathologies, are nephrotoxic. These agents are ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical condition arises as acute respiratory distress taking place in conjunction with severe neurological dam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neurogenic Shock Neurogenic shock is a devastating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that can manifest as hypotension, bradyarrhythmia, and temperature dysregula ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Agent Toxicity The use of these neuroleptic agents has become more widespread. Knowledge of the toxicity and adverse effects associated with their use is becoming pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening syndrome associated with the use of dopamine-receptor antagonist medications or with rapid ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents The widespread use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) was a significant milestone in the development of anesthesia. Before the introduction of N ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neutropenia Neutrophils play an essential role in immune defenses because they ingest, kill, and digest invading microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria. Fai ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neutrophilia Neutrophilia is defined as a higher neutrophil count in the blood than the normal reference range of absolute neutrophil count. Neutrophilia can be se ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nimodipine Nimodipine is a second-generation 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It was initially invented for the management of systemic hypertension. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nitric Oxide Nitric oxide is a medication used to manage and treat hypoxic respiratory failure or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). It is in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin is a vasodilatory drug used primarily to provide relief from anginal chest pain. It is currently FDA approved for the acute relief of an ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Toxicity As a class, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, commonly abbreviated as NSAIDs, are chemically varied, yet share similar therapeutic and adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Norepinephrine Untreated hypotension can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Norepinephrine is a first-line agent for hypotension that does not respon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nosocomial Infections This article provides a review of the critical features of nosocomial infections. It provides an overall discussion on the significance of healthcare- ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Nosocomial Pneumonia Nosocomial pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after hospital admission and not incuba ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Nursing Home Acquired Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the lower respiratory tract, involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi, and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Pneum ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Opioid Antagonists Opioid receptor antagonists block one or more of the opioid receptors in the central or peripheral nervous system. Opioid receptors are specific trans ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Opioid Equivalency Opioids are often prescribed for cancer-related pain and moderate-to-severe chronic pain, especially pain that is inadequately controlled with non-opi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Opioid Withdrawal Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a life-threatening condition resulting from opioid dependence. Opioids are a group of drugs used to manage severe pain a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Organophosphate Toxicity Most patients exposed to organophosphates come into contact with insecticides. The first organophosphate insecticide was created in the mid-1800s but ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Oropharyngeal Airway Acute respiratory failure is caused by a wide range of etiologies. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest and ultimately death is likely in the absenc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Orthostatic Syncope Orthostatic syncope is transient loss of consciousness due to reduced blood flow to the cerebrum that can be associated with symptoms like dizziness, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oxygen Administration Oxygen administration may be initiated for a variety of reasons. Increased metabolic demand, maintenance of oxygenation while providing anesthesia, su ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pancreatectomy Pancreatectomy is a term for surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas. There is a multitude of surgical techniques for both benign and malignan ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Papillary Muscle Rupture Papillary muscle rupture is a rare and potentially fatal complication that typically follows a myocardial infarction or occurs secondary to infective ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Paracentesis Paracentesis is a procedure performed to obtain a small sample of or drain ascitic fluid for both diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This activity de ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Parahiatal Hernia Parahiatal hernia is a rare type of diaphragmatic hernia. Its rarity could either be due to one or a combination of the following three factors; confu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parkland Formula Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation plays a fundamental role in the management of severe burn patients. The Parkland formula is the most widely u ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes an irregularly irregular heart rhythm. AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia characterized by disorganized, rapid ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia Atrial tachycardia is a form of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) usually seen in patients with structural heart abnormalities but also seen in patie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Patient Restraint and Seclusion Patient restraint and seclusion is a controversial yet necessary aspect of medicine. Restraint encompasses both physical and chemical procedures. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Peak Flow Rate Measurement Peak expiratory flow measurement (peak flow) is a simple measure of the maximal flow rate that can be achieved during forceful expiration following fu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Fluid Management Dehydration occurs commonly in children and many times requires resuscitation. Fluid resuscitation is essential in the management of critically ill ch ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pediatric Post Resuscitation Management Mortality rates after pediatric cardiac arrest remain high after initial resuscitation and a return of spontaneous circulation. Several factors must b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pelvic Fracture A pelvic fracture involves damage to the hip bones, sacrum, or coccyx - the bony structures forming the pelvic ring. Due to the inherent structural an ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Penetrating abdominal trauma is most commonly caused by stabbing or gunshot wound. The most commonly injured regions are the small bowel, large bowel, ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pentamidine Pentamidine is a medication used in the management and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. It is in the anti-infe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Percutaneous Central Catheter The ability to obtain venous access in the inpatient and outpatient setting is one of the most fundamental, yet, crucial components for a large number ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical, invasive procedure wi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive procedure to open b ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pericarditis Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac and is the most common pathologic process involving the pericardium. Temporally, it may be further ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Perinephric Abscess A perinephric abscess is usually a complication of urologic infection which results from fat necrosis. Before the era of antibiotics, perinephric absc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral Line Placement Peripheral intravenous (IV) lines, catheters or cannulas are indwelling single-lumen plastic conduits that allow fluids, medications and other therapi ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Peripheral Vascular Bypass Peripheral vascular bypass (PVB) refers to surgical revision of blood flow to restore perfusion distal to an occluded or otherwise disrupted arterial ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Permissive Hypotension Permissive hypotension is the act of maintaining a blood pressure lower than physiologic levels in a patient that has suffered from hemorrhagic blood ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pharmacological Cardioversion Cardioversion is the process of converting an abnormal and potentially dangerous heart rhythm into a normal sinus rhythm. The normal heart rate comes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Phenol Toxicity Phenol is a historical disinfectant with continued use in industry, laboratories, and some health care settings. Phenol is a protoplasmic poison that ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Phrenic Nerve Injury The phrenic nerve is among the most important nerves in the body due to its role in respiration. The phrenic nerve provides the primary motor supply t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Platelet Transfusion Platelet transfusion is a lifesaving procedure that is carried out to prevent bleeding or stop ongoing bleeding in patients with low platelet count or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pleurisy Pleurisy is a symptom characterized by localized chest pain caused by a disease-causing inflammation of the pleura. Pleurisy can be caused by a primar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pneumocephalus Pneumocephalus, also known as pneumatocele or intracranial aerocele, is defined as the presence of air in the intracranial space. Pneumocephalus can o ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunoc ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity Info
Pneumonia In An Immunocompromised Patient Pneumonia is a common clinical condition. It results from an infectious inflammatory process that involves the lung parenchyma and results in the impa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pneumonia Pathology Pneumonia is an umbrella term for a group of syndromes caused by a variety of organisms that result in infection of the lung parenchyma. Classificatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Positive Pressure Ventilation Positive pressure ventilation describes the process of either using a mask or, more commonly, a ventilator to deliver breaths and to decrease the work ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Post Infarct Ventricular Septal Rupture The most severe potential complications of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involve tearing or rupture of acutely infarcted myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Post Intensive Care Syndrome As intensive care unit (ICU) mortality rates have fallen in recent decades, there is increasing recognition that ICU survivors often face debilitating ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Postdural Puncture Headache Postdural puncture headache is a potential complication of a lumbar puncture, with symptoms caused by traction on pain-sensitive structures from low c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Posterior Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of chest pain that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Posterior wall myocardial infarction occur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurologic disorder in which a person presents with visual disturbance, seizure, headaches, a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Postoperative Fever Postoperative fever is defined as a temperature higher than 38 C (or greater than 100.4 F) on two consecutive postoperative days or higher than 39 C ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Potassium Potassium is an essential mineral constituent of the human body and is the chief cation found within the intracellular fluid of all cells. The chief i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Potassium Chloride Potassium chloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypokalemia. It is in the electrolyte supplement class of medications. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prasugrel Prasugrel is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous intervention. Prasugrel is a thienop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Precordial Thump Precordial thump is a potentially life-saving procedure for patients with witnessed, monitored, unstable ventricular tachycardia when a defibrillator ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Premature Ventricular Contraction During a premature ventricular contraction (PVC), the heartbeat is initiated by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node. Given that a PVC occurs b ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is administering antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infections. The ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Prerenal Kidney Failure Prerenal AKI is an extensively researched topic, which requires prompt identification and early intervention to prevent long term sequelae. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pressure Injury Pressure injuries are formed when pressure causes localized damage to underlying skin and soft tissue. These skin and soft tissue injuries remain a si ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Pressure Support Ventilation management is an ever-growing and changing environment in which medical professionals, through positive patient outcomes can determine the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pressure Support Ventilation Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a common ventilator setting for both invasive and non-invasive ventilation. Healthcare workers involved in the c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Primary Hyperaldosteronism Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is an underdiagnosed cause of hypertension. The classic presentation of PA includes hypertension and hypokalemia. Howe ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used to manage and treat allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also has off-label u ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Proteus Mirabilis Infections Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative facultative anaerobe with swarming motility and an ability to self-elongate and secrete a polysaccharide which al ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is frequently used to assess left ventricular filling, represent left atrial pressure, and assess mitral val ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Pulmonary Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders with the common feature of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Patients ofte ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pulmonary Infarction Pulmonary infarction (PI) is usually a complication of another primary disease state, most commonly a pulmonary embolism (PE). The broad differential ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pulmonary Sleeve Resection Pulmonary sleeve resection is a type of complex lung resection and reconstruction surgery typically performed for patients with locally advanced lung ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pulmonic Regurgitation Pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is most commonly seen secondary to various etiologies causing pulmonary hypertension. It also appears in post valvotomy pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pulseless Electrical Activity Pulseless electrical activity (PEA), also known as electromechanical dissociation, is a clinical condition characterized by unresponsiveness and impal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Pulseless ventricular tachycardia is a serious condition with high mortality and morbidity that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulsus Paradoxus Pulsus paradoxus refers to a systolic pressure drop greater than 10mmHg during inspiration. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Radial Artery Cannulation Arterial lines placement is for real-time monitoring of blood pressures and arterial blood sampling in critically ill patients or those undergoing com ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Refeeding Syndrome Increased nutrition following a prolonged period of starvation can result in refeeding syndrome. Refeeding syndrome commonly occurs in populations at ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Reflux Esophagitis Esophageal reflux is considered the most common disease encountered by gastroenterologists, and it contributes to a large proportion of cases treated ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Refractory Shock Refractory shock is a potentially fatal manifestation of cardiovascular failure with inadequate response to vasopressors characterized by poor tissue ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Regular Insulin Regular insulin is a medication used in the management of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia of a variety of etiologies. It is in the short-acting in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Renal Failure The term renal failure denotes inability of the kidneys to perform excretory function leading to retention of nitrogenous waste products from the bloo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory acidosis typically occurs due to failure of ventilation and accumulation of carbon dioxide. The primary disturbance is an elevated arteria ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common condition which is caused by pulmonary and extra-pulmonary pathologies, and it carries high rat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Respiratory Failure Respiratory failure happens when the respiratory system fails to maintain gas exchange and is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to blood gas ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is characterized by diastolic dysfunction of a non-dilated ventricle. Multiple types of restrictive cardiomyopathies ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Right Heart Failure Heart failure is a condition in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body. Right heart failure is most commo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Ringer's Lactate Ringer's lactate solution, or lactated Ringer's solution, is a type of isotonic, crystalloid fluid further classified as a balanced or buffered soluti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Salicylates Toxicity Salicylate toxicity is a medical emergency. Intentional ingestion or accidental overdose can cause severe metabolic derangements, making treatment dif ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Saphenous Vein Cutdown The establishment of venous access is essential to the treatment and resuscitation of both the medically and traumatically ill patient. Adequate venou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Scopolamine Scopolamine is a medication used to manage and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness. It is in the anticholinergic class ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Secondary Pulmonary Hypertension In healthy individuals, the pulmonary circulation is a low-resistance, low-pressure system that allows deoxygenated blood in the right side of the hea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Seizure A seizure represents the uncontrolled, abnormal electrical activity of the brain that may cause changes in the level of consciousness, behavior, memor ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Toxicity Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed antidepressants. Other clinical indications for SSRI use include anxiety disor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube In 1950 Robert W. Sengstaken and Arthur H. Blakemore recognized that the introduction of blood banks and the ability to provide patients with large qu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Septic Emboli Septic embolism is an obstruction of a blood vessel, typically by an infected thrombus that has traveled through the bloodstream from a distant infect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognoses. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition precipitated by the use of serotonergic drugs. It may be a consequence of therapeutic m ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Sexual assault evidence collection is the process of collecting specimens and documenting injuries of sexual assault victims to be used in the court o ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Shock Shock is a life-threatening manifestation of circulatory failure. Circulatory shock leads to cellular and tissue hypoxia resulting in cellular death ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sinus Bradycardia Sinus bradycardia is a cardiac rhythm with appropriate cardiac muscular depolarization initiating from the sinus node and a rate of fewer than 60 beat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sinus Node Dysfunction Sinus node dysfunction is a disease that is characterized by the inability of the sinoatrial node of producing an adequate heart rate that meets the p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sinus Tachycardia Sinus tachycardia is a regular cardiac rhythm in which the heart beats faster than normal. While it is common to have tachycardia as a physiological r ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Sleep Apnea Syndrome Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a condition in which there is a dynamic collapse of upper airway tissues during sleep. This may result in recurren ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple disease pathologies. It is a general chemical compound by classifi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Compression Spinal cord compression can result from a myriad of both atraumatic and traumatic causes. The spinal column is vulnerable to a variety of compressive ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition, which often results in severe morbidity and permanent disability. It occurs when the axons of ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Spinal Shock Spinal shock is a result of severe spinal cord injury. It usually requires high-impact, direct trauma that leads to spinal cord injury and spinal shoc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spirometry Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches to test pulmonary function. It measures the volume of exhaled air vs. time. This activity highl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Splenectomy Splenectomy is mainly performed for hematological disorders along with traumatic injuries. Splenectomy can be performed via the open traditional lapar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Splenic Rupture The spleen is an encapsulated hematopoietic organ that lies within the posterior aspect of the left upper quadrant in the peritoneal cavity. It has pr ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Splenic Trauma Traumatic injuries of the spleen can be either blunt or penetrating. The management of splenic trauma has become largely non-operative, as non-operati ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Squamous Cell Lung Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, also known as squamous cell lung cancer, is a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Squamous cell lun ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Status Asthmaticus One of the most common causes of emergency room visits in the United States is status asthmaticus, an acute, emergent episode of bronchial asthma that ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Sterile Technique The purpose of creating a sterile field is to reduce the number of microbes present to as few as possible. The sterile field is used in many situation ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Stevens Johnson Syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute, rare, and potentially fatal skin reactions involving loss of skin and, in some case ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Streptococcal Meningitis Streptococcal meningitis is an acute, purulent inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord caused by bacteria from the Strepto ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Streptokinase Streptokinase can be useful in the management and treatment of acute ST-segment myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Stress-Induced Gastritis Gastric acid production is necessary for the body to digest food and break down nutritional components into absorbable amino acids, carbohydrates, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Stroke Anticoagulation Anticoagulation is a class of medications used in the management and prevention of stroke. This activity outlines the role, indications, action, and c ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are life-threatening and result from the accumulation of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater. The incidence of subarach ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Subcutaneous Emphysema Subcutaneous emphysema is the de novo generation or infiltration of air underneath the dermal layers of skin. The development of subcutaneous air may ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Succinylcholine Chloride Succinylcholine chloride is a short-acting depolarizing neuromuscular blockade approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sucralfate Sucralfate is a medication used to treat duodenal ulcers, epithelial wounds, chemotherapy-induced mucositis, radiation proctitis, ulcers in Behcet dis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Suction Drains Surgical drains are catheters placed near the surgical wound to remove blood, pus, or other fluid and prevent it from accumulating in the body. They a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sudden Cardiac Death Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is death due to a cardiovascular cause that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms. A sudden cardiac arrest occurs ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Supraglottic Airway Obstruction Supraglottic obstruction is a medical or surgical emergency. It can result in increased work of breathing and respiratory distress and can progress to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Surgical Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning refers to the collective measures that are used for clearing the airway of a patient. It involves suctioning, clearing secretions, a ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Sympathomimetics Sympathomimetic drugs form a classification of medication used to manage and treat cardiovascular pathology, hypersensitivity, COPD, and glaucoma. Thi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Synchronized Electrical Cardioversion When tachycardic rhythms fail to respond to pharmacologic treatment or present with or deteriorate into unstable manifestations, synchronized cardiove ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) is a type of volume control mode of ventilation. With this mode, the ventilator will deliver a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Syncope Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous recovery. While there are numerous classification schemes used ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an exaggerated defense response of the body to a noxious stressor (infection, trauma, surgery, acute ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Systolic Hypertension Isolated systolic hypertension is the predominant form of hypertension in the elderly population. Traditionally it has been defined as systolic blood ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tachypnea Tachypnea is defined as a breathing rate that is higher than the normal breathing rate. This condition is seen in both the physiologic state as well a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Termination of Life Support Termination of life support is an important intervention that every physician needs to be aware of, as any patient who has reached an ‘end-of-life’ st ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Theophylline Toxicity Around the world, theophylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) is primarily used as a bronchodilator for patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Therapeutic Communication Therapeutic communication is an invaluable approach to interactions with patients that is applicable across multiple disciplines. This activity revie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Thermal Burns Thermal burns are skin injuries caused by excessive heat, typically from contact with hot surfaces, hot liquids, steam, or flame. Most burns are minor ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Third Generation Cephalosporins Third-generation cephalosporins are medications used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. They are encompasse ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block An atrioventricular block is a loss of the regular function of the cardiac electroconductive pathways linking the sinoatrial node (SA node) and the ve ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Thoracentesis Thoracentesis is a procedure that is performed to remove fluid from the thoracic cavity. This can be done for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Thromboembolic Event Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease is the most feared complication of hospitalizations and is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortalit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thrombolytic Therapy Thrombolytics or fibrinolytics are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of dissolving intravascular clots. They are in the plas ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thyroid Storm Thyroid storm, also known as thyrotoxic crisis, is an acute, life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism that presents with multi-system involvem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thyroidectomy This activity describes indications and techniques of thyroidectomy and reviews the role of the healthcare team in evaluating and treating patients wh ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thyrotoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical state associated with excess thyroid hormone activity, usually due to inappropriately high-circulating thyroid hormones ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Tibia Fractures Overview Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and are seen in 4 percent of the senior population. This activity reviews the evaluatio ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Tissue Plasminogen Activator Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is classified as a serine protease (enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins). It is thus one of the essential ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Tobramycin Tobramycin is an antibiotic used in the management and treatment of systemic and ocular infections. It is a type of aminoglycoside. This activity desc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Total Parenteral Nutrition Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment. It is in the nutrition class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Tracheal Bronchus The tracheal bronchus is a congenital anomaly defined as abnormal bronchus arising anywhere from the cricoid cartilage to the carina. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tracheal Rapid Sequence Intubation Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is a technique that is used when rapid control of the airway is needed as a precaution for patients that may have a 'f ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tracheo Innominate Artery Fistula Tracheoinnominate fistulas (TIFs) are life-threatening complications most frequently described as occurring after tracheostomy. They are associated wi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tracheomalacia Tracheomalacia is a condition that is characterized by excessive collapsibility of the trachea. Depending on the severity of the disease, patients’ sy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tracheostomy A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this art ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Trauma Assessment Trauma is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United States, trauma is the leading cause of death in young adults and accounts for ten percen ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Trauma Care Principles Trauma care principles outline fundamental concepts that providers should know when treating various injuries in a trauma setting. The content will fo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Trauma Neurological Exam The neurological examination in the setting of trauma is a systematic evaluation of important clinical signs that provide evidence to help determine f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Tricuspid Regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitation, also called tricuspid insufficiency, is a relatively common condition that can result from structural abnormalities of any pa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ultrasound Guided Intravenous Access At least 150 to 200 million peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters are placed each year in the United States, and up to 80 percent of patients receive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ultrasound Intravascular Access Ultrasound (US) guidance for intravenous (IV) access has been well documented for more than 20 years and is now routine in many settings for non-emerg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Unconscious Patient Unconsciousness is generally caused by a temporary or permanent impairment of either the reticular activating system in the brainstem, both cerebral h ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Unstable Angina Unstable angina is chest discomfort or pain caused by an insufficient flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. It is part of the acute coronary syndrome ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Vagal Maneuver Vagal maneuvers are techniques used to increase vagal parasympathetic tone in an attempt to diagnose and treat various arrhythmias. They are often uti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaginal Bleeding Vaginal bleeding is a common complaint with a broad differential diagnosis. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of vaginal bleeding an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vancomycin Vancomycin is a medication used in the treatment of serious Gram-positive bacterial infections. It is in the cell wall synthesis inhibitor class of an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vancomycin Flushing Syndrome Vancomycin flushing syndrome (VFS) was previously known as red man syndrome (RMS) is an anaphylactoid reaction caused by the rapid infusion of the gly ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Antimicrobial resistance is becoming an increasingly common clinical dilemma for medical providers. In particular, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vascular Tunneled Central Catheter Access In contrast to non-tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), subcutaneously tunneled CVCs travel under the skin, away from the point of venous entry, ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Vasculitis Vasculitis is a heterogeneous group of pathologies characterized by inflammation if vessels. They share common links of clinical, laboratory, and path ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vein Obstruction Venous obstruction is partial or complete occlusion of the lumen of a vein. It can lead to decreased venous flow and increased blood pooling. Venous s ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Venous Gas Embolism A venous gas embolism is an abnormal collection of gas that forms a bubble in the systemic venous circulation, which can act as an embolus and affect ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ventilator Complications Mechanical ventilation is an essential medical intervention in the context of critical illness. However, this intervention is associated with the risk ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ventilator Management Invasive mechanical ventilation is an intervention that is frequently used in acutely ill patients requiring either respiratory support or airway prot ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Ventilator Safety Often changes to mechanical ventilator settings are performed by health care providers that have limited training in specific functions of the ventila ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ventilator Weaning Mechanical ventilation is an established supportive treatment for patients with various forms of respiratory failure. Despite the widespread use and c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs in patients that have been on mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours. It presents with clinical si ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) Ventilator-induced lung injury is the acute lung injury inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation during treatment and has the potential to ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ventricular Fibrillation Arrhythmias originating from the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system are grouped under ventricular arrhythmia (VA). This includes a subset o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia is characterized as a wide complex tachyarrhythmia. It is classified by duration as non-sustained or sustained. Non-sustained ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Ventriculitis Ventriculitis is the inflammation of the ependymal lining of the cerebral ventricles, usually secondary to infection (for example meningitis, device-r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ventriculostomy Ventriculostomy is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. patients treated with this procedure need long-term follow-up and careful adjustme ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or Prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Viral Encephalitis Viral encephalitis is inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by a virus. It is the most common type of encephalitis and often coexists with viral ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) represent a group of severe systemic febrile illnesses caused by four families of viruses - Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Viral Meningitis Viral meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges caused by a virus. It is most common in young children but is seen across all age groups. This ac ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency Thiamine, or vitamin B1, was the first vitamin identified to be identified. It functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through decarboxyla ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vitamin B6 Toxicity This activity describes the toxicity associated with vitamin B6 at higher doses. It explains in detail the pathophysiology and toxicokinetics of vitam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Warfarin Drug Interactions Warfarin has FDA approval for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its complications, such as a pulmonary embolus. It is also indica ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Water Toxicity Water toxicity can occur due to numerous etiologies but it is challenging to diagnose as it presents with vague symptoms of altered mental status, dis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute neurological condition characterized by a clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. This disease i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
West Nile Virus The West Nile virus is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA arbovirus that can cause disease in humans. These range from the asymptomatic infected patien ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Wheezing Wheezing is the symptomatic manifestation of any disease process that causes airway obstruction. Wheezing is commonly experienced by people who have a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wound Irrigation Wounds and lacerations are common complaints. Each year in the United States, roughly 12.2 million patients are seen in emergency departments for woun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wound Pressure Injury Management Pressure injuries have been given various names over the last several years, including pressure ulcers, decubitus ulcers, or bed sores. Pressure injur ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info

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