Differentiating between the terms nociception and pain is worthwhile. Nociception refers to the detection of noxious stimuli by nociceptors, followed by transduction and transmission of the sensory nervous information from the periphery to the brain. In comparison, pain refers to the product of higher brain center processing; it entails the actual unpleasant emotional and sensory experience generated from nervous signals. Reports of pain are thus not merely a direct output of nociception, they involve interaction with numerous inputs (attention, affective dimensions, autonomic variables, immune variables and more), and may be considered more accurately from the perspective of a neuromatrix.
When thermal, mechanical, or chemical stimuli reach a noxious intensity suggestive of injury, they become detected by nociceptors, which are a subpopulation of peripheral nerve fibers found in the skin, joints, viscera, bone, and muscle.
The damaged tissue releases and produces numerous factors which in turn activate nerve endings. These factors include globulin, protein kinases, arachidonic acid, histamine, nerve growth factor (NGF), substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), among others. These factors stimulate transducer channels, with transient receptor potential (TRP) channels being the primary example. TRP channels function similarly to voltage-gated potassium channel or nucleotide-gated channels and thus help to initiate receptor potentials, consequently inducing an action potential in the nerve fibers.
The two major classes of nociceptors include medium diameter myelinated (A-delta) afferents which convey an acute, well-localized fast pain and small diameter unmyelinated “C” fibers that convey a poorly localized, slow pain.
Based on electrophysiological studies, A-delta nociceptors may be further subdivided into Type I and Type II A-delta classes. Type I A-delta nociceptors function to respond to mechanical and chemical stimuli but generally detect heat only at higher thresholds (over 50 degrees C). By contrast, Type II A-delta nociceptors have a much greater sensitivity to heat but possess a very high mechanical threshold. Thus, in situations of direct mechanical stimuli (e.g., pinprick), Type I A-delta nociceptors are provoked first, whereas, in instances of acute noxious heat, the activity of Type II A-delta nociceptors are likely first triggered.
Similar to the A-delta nociceptors, most unmyelinated C fibers are polymodal and thus respond to both mechanical and thermal noxious stimuli. Silent nociceptors also fall under this class of nociceptors. These afferents respond more sensitively to chemical stimuli (e.g., capsaicin and histamine) but are mechanically unresponsive unless preceded by tissue injury.
Due to the clear limitations of obtaining a direct measure of pain in fetuses, elucidating the timeline of the development of pain perception relies on secondary measures. During fetal development, nociception processes (the sensory receptors and spinal cord synapses) develop sooner than the thalamocortical pathway needed to produce a conscious perception of pain. Free nerve endings begin development at roughly seven weeks gestation, during a period where the laminar structure of the thalamus or cortex has yet to mature. Histological studies of human fetuses suggest that thalamic projections into the cortical plate typically develop around 23 to 30 week’s gestation age. The typical hormonal stress responses to pain are observed in fetuses around 18 weeks gestation, while brain hemodynamic responses and behavioral reactions to nociceptive stimuli coincide by 26 weeks gestation. These observations support the general estimate that experience of pain takes place around 26 weeks gestation.
While this article has noted that nociceptors are present in the viscera, skin, joints, bone, and muscle, an important consideration is that there are no nociceptors found in the CNS; this is the rationale for why awake craniotomy is possible, and not painful for the patient.
It is also necessary to appreciate that the specific sensory modalities leading to nociception differ depending on the type of tissue:
Nociceptive signal transduction to the brain is what elicits the perception of pain. The complex biopsychosocial phenomenon of pain occurs in the cortical and subcortical regions, such as the thalamus, amygdala, hypothalamus, periaqueductal grey, basal ganglia and areas of the cerebral cortex. While in typical situations, nociception does typically precede perception of pain, there are clinical circumstances in which these interfaces do not overlap. Nociception can occur without subsequent awareness of pain, and pain can be present without a measurable underlying noxious stimulus. For instance, the former may be observable following severe trauma when victims are remarkably pain-free despite massive injury; the latter may be observable with individuals suffering from functional pain syndromes who report substantial pain without signs of physical damage.
The neural mechanisms for pain and nociception serve an adaptive function in minimizing tissue damage from the environment. It is important to note that there are several operational categories of pain behavior. Withdrawal as a simple reflex action most commonly associates with acute pain of injury; spinal reflexes elicit these actions upon nociceptor activation. However, more complex behaviors are also intimately related to neural pain pathways. For instance, arm movements elicited in anticipation of an aversive stimulus to the eyes require the integration of reflex actions with higher-order spatial, sensory, and temporal information.
Through the actions of numerous inflammatory mediators (as described earlier in this article), an “inflammatory soup” is secreted at the site of injury to stimulate nociceptor activation. Afferent nociceptors from the periphery transmit noxious signals to projection neurons located in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Cells in the dorsal horn are in layers of physiologically distinct sections called laminae. Based on the type of synapse in the laminae formed by the nociceptive fiber, a subset of these projection neurons will relay information to the somatosensory cortex via the thalamus, which provides information regarding the spatial features and intensity of the painful stimulus.
Given the distinction between pain and nociception, it is also essential to consider various neural pathways involved in the affective, cortical component of the pain experience. This process is facilitated by projection neurons which engage the cingulate and insular cortices through connections with the parabrachial nucleus of the brainstem as well as with the amygdala and is considered as the ascending pathway which initiates the conscious perception of pain. The ascending information may also prompt neurons of the rostral ventral medulla and midbrain periaqueductal gray to engage descending feedback systems that regulate the output from the spinal cord, and thus modulate pain sensation. This occurs via the release of hormones and chemicals (e.g., endogenous opioids, GABA, glycine) that can have analgesic properties to limit pain sensation. Conversely, substances such as substance P, glutamate, and aspartate may act on the spinal cord to excite the perception of pain.
Local stimulation of A-delta and A-beta also serves to modulate transmission of pain information via excitation of interneurons. These interneurons serve an inhibitory effect on dorsal horn projection neurons which signal to the anterolateral system. This is the primary mechanism behind rubbing a wound in an effort to dull the sharp pain.
There are a number of psychological processes behind pain perception. Attentional orienting to the painful sensation and its source can serve to heighten the painful experience. For instance, patients with somatic preoccupation and hypochondriasis are found to over-attend to bodily sensations, amplifying them as pain. Similarly, other factors such as cognitive appraisal of the meaning of the sensation, the emotional and psychophysiological reactions, expectations, and coping skills can all serve as feedback to influence pain perception.
The complex, multi-faceted and subjective nature of pain makes it rather challenging to measure clinically. Over the past few decades, a number of validated measures have undergone development in an effort to assist research on the mechanisms of pain and outcomes of measurement. For acute pain, relevant in the management of surgical procedures or acute mental illness, the visual analogue scale (VAS) and numeric rating scale (NRS) are most frequently used to assess the intensity of pain. For chronic pain, multidimensional tools such as the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) have been developed.
Currently, the tools as mentioned above are used mainly in the research setting, though new experimental measures of pain, for instance, neuroimaging as an objective measurement, are being proposed.
The characteristics of a patient’s pain offer indications regarding its pathogenesis. A brief explanation of classes of pain is thus useful clinically to assist in the management of pain as a symptom and possible diagnosis of the underlying condition.
|||Raffaeli W,Arnaudo E, Pain as a disease: an overview. Journal of pain research. 2017; [PubMed PMID: 28860855]|
|||Loeser JD,Melzack R, Pain: an overview. Lancet (London, England). 1999 May 8; [PubMed PMID: 10334273]|
|||Basbaum AI,Bautista DM,Scherrer G,Julius D, Cellular and molecular mechanisms of pain. Cell. 2009 Oct 16; [PubMed PMID: 19837031]|
|||Venkatachalam K,Montell C, TRP channels. Annual review of biochemistry. 2007; [PubMed PMID: 17579562]|
|||Besson JM, The neurobiology of pain. Lancet (London, England). 1999 May 8; [PubMed PMID: 10334274]|
|||Lee SJ,Ralston HJ,Drey EA,Partridge JC,Rosen MA, Fetal pain: a systematic multidisciplinary review of the evidence. JAMA. 2005 Aug 24; [PubMed PMID: 16118385]|
|||Glover V,Fisk NM, Fetal pain: implications for research and practice. British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 1999 Sep; [PubMed PMID: 10492096]|
|||Anand KJ,Hickey PR, Pain and its effects in the human neonate and fetus. The New England journal of medicine. 1987 Nov 19; [PubMed PMID: 3317037]|
|||Garland EL, Pain processing in the human nervous system: a selective review of nociceptive and biobehavioral pathways. Primary care. 2012 Sep; [PubMed PMID: 22958566]|
|||Morrison I,Perini I,Dunham J, Facets and mechanisms of adaptive pain behavior: predictive regulation and action. Frontiers in human neuroscience. 2013 Nov 28; [PubMed PMID: 24348358]|
|||Cooke DF,Graziano MS, Defensive movements evoked by air puff in monkeys. Journal of neurophysiology. 2003 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 12801896]|
|||Braz J,Solorzano C,Wang X,Basbaum AI, Transmitting pain and itch messages: a contemporary view of the spinal cord circuits that generate gate control. Neuron. 2014 May 7; [PubMed PMID: 24811377]|
|||Hansen GR,Streltzer J, The psychology of pain. Emergency medicine clinics of North America. 2005 May; [PubMed PMID: 15829386]|
|||Younger J,McCue R,Mackey S, Pain outcomes: a brief review of instruments and techniques. Current pain and headache reports. 2009 Feb; [PubMed PMID: 19126370]|
|||Farrar JT,Berlin JA,Strom BL, Clinically important changes in acute pain outcome measures: a validation study. Journal of pain and symptom management. 2003 May; [PubMed PMID: 12727037]|
|||Sikandar S,Dickenson AH, Visceral pain: the ins and outs, the ups and downs. Current opinion in supportive and palliative care. 2012 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 22246042]|
|||Campbell JN,Meyer RA, Mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Neuron. 2006 Oct 5; [PubMed PMID: 17015228]|
|||Arendt-Nielsen L,Svensson P, Referred muscle pain: basic and clinical findings. The Clinical journal of pain. 2001 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 11289083]|