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Giant Cell Tumor (Osteoclastoma)

Editor: Orlando De Jesus Updated: 1/31/2024 11:07:24 PM


Giant cell tumor (GCT) is one of the most common benign bone tumors, predominantly occurring in young adults aged 20 to 40 with a high recurrence rate and the potential for aggressive behavior.[1] Typically found at the metaphyseal or epiphyseal regions of the tibia or femur, GCT, despite its predominantly benign nature, exhibits a highly unpredictable spectrum of disease behavior. Local aggressiveness varies from focal symptoms arising from bony or cortical destruction and surrounding soft tissue expansion to the rare occurrence of metastasis. Instances of GCT within the axial skeleton pose a heightened risk of severe local complications and are often deemed unresectable.[2]

Under the microscope, the biopsied tissue reveals multinucleated giant cells comprising 3 distinct cell types: 

  1. Giant cell tumor stromal cells originating from osteoblasts
  2. Mononuclear histiocytic cells
  3. Multinucleated giant cells belonging to an osteoclast-monocyte lineage [3] 

The giant cells carry out the primary task of tumor bone resorption within the tumor. The spindle-like stromal cells are pivotal in recruiting monocytes and facilitating their fusion into giant cells. The stromal cells also improve the resorptive capabilities of the giant cells, contributing to the overall bone resorption mechanism.


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The precise etiology of GCT is not fully understood, and there is ongoing debate about whether it represents a true neoplasm or a reactive condition. Notably, a 20q11 amplification is seen in 54% of GCTs, and 20% of cases exhibit over-expression of p53. Centrosome amplification and boosted telomerase activity, coupled with the prevention of telomere shortening, provide evidence supporting a neoplastic origin.[4][5][6]


GCTs represent 4% to 10% of all primary bone tumors and 15% to 20% of benign bone tumors [7], with a preference for affecting young adults. Approximately half of these tumors occur in individuals during their third and fourth decades of life, with rarity observed in those older than 50. There is a female-to-male ratio between 1.3 and 1.5 to 1, and the incidence is higher among Asian populations than in Western populations. Among the reported cases, 44% are situated around the knee joint, 10% in the distal radius, 6% in the proximal humerus, and 13% in the hands and feet.[7] The spine and skull are rarely affected. In the axial skeleton, the ala of the sacrum is the most common location, and when the spine is involved, the vertebral body is the most commonly affected. The mandible and maxilla are preferred in the head, while in the hand, GCTs frequently occur in the phalanges.

Although benign, GCTs exhibit locally aggressive behavior and have the potential to metastasize. Around 1% to 5% of cases show metastasis, with a notable positive correlation between the occurrence of metastases and local aggressiveness and recurrence.[8] The lungs are the most common site for metastases.[9] Varying degrees of local aggressiveness, ranging from simple cortical breakthrough to extension into surrounding soft tissues and articular structures, can cause severe and debilitating local complications. The risk of recurrence is approximately 35%.[10]

The tumor typically occurs sporadically before the age of 20, with less than 5% of cases presenting in skeletally immature patients.[11] A higher incidence of vertebral GCT and multicentricity is noted in patients with skeletal immaturity. Although less common, multifocal lesions exhibit more aggressiveness than solitary lesions.[12] In individuals with Paget disease, there is an elevated occurrence of GCT, with a preference for flat bones like the skull and pelvis.[13]


The pathogenesis of GCT appears to be significantly influenced by the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B [NF-kB] ligand (RANKL). Under normal physiologic conditions, osteoclast formation requires interaction with cells of the osteoblastic lineage, which may depend upon cell-cell contact and the interaction of RANKL with its receptor RANK.[14] Monocytes express high levels of this receptor, while various cell types, including stromal cells and lymphocytes, express RANKL. Different coregulatory molecules also participate in osteoclast formation, including monocyte-colony-stimulating factor, vitamin D, parathyroid and parathyroid hormone-related protein, and prostaglandins.[15]

Several studies identified a high expression of RANKL by stromal cells within GCTs.[15][16] These stromal cells also secrete factors that can regulate or prevent osteoclastogenesis, including osteoprotegerin, serving as a natural negative regulator of RANKLE that obstructs osteoclast and osteoblast interactions and functions as a natural negative regulator of RANKL.[17] The expression of RANKL by the osteoblast-like mononuclear stromal cells stimulates the recruitment of the osteoclastic cells from a normal monocytic pre-osteoclast cell. The osteoclastic giant cells then actively absorb host bone via a cathepsin K and matrix metalloproteinase 13-mediated process, which would account for the osteolysis associated with these tumors.[18]

Mutations in the H3F3A gene, found in over 90% of GCT, are implicated in driving tumorigenesis. These mutations are restricted to the stromal cell population and are absent in osteoclasts or their precursors.[19] Neoplastic stromal cells likely possess an immature osteoblast phenotype, expressing markers such as RANKL and other indicators of the early osteoblast lineage within their transcriptional repertoire.[20] The activation of stromal cells has been hypothesized to occur not from inherent genetic changes but rather from the local release of red cells and plasma proteins into the matrix induced by hemorrhage. Maintaining the stromal cells' immature state may involve unknown reciprocal signals from giant cells. RANKL has been identified as a primary molecular target for therapeutic interventions.[14]

Furthermore, investigations into PD-L1 levels among patients with GCT have revealed higher local recurrence rates in individuals expressing PD-L1.[21] There is speculation that PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibitors may benefit patients experiencing recurrent GCT following denosumab therapy.[22][23]


Upon gross inspection, these lesions exhibit characteristic features such as chocolate brown, soft and spongy texture, and fragility.[24] Yellow-to-orange discoloration from the hemosiderin can also be present. Commonly, cystic blood-filled cavities within the tumor may be observed.[1] Examination typically reveals a variable degree of cortical expansion and disruption while the periosteum remains intact.[25] 

Histologically, these lesions appear cellular, featuring a distinctive composition of multinucleated giant cells and a background network of mononuclear stromal cells.[20] The mononuclear cells can exhibit a variety of shapes, including plump, oval, or spindle-shaped, and may display prominent mitotic activity, although cellular atypia is uncommon. The multinucleate giant cells have numerous centrally located nuclei, unlike the peripherally located nuclei of Langerhans-type giant cells observed in atypical infections. The nuclei of these giant cells are compact and oval, containing prominent nucleoli. Giant cells are distributed throughout the lesion, and the concentration of multinucleated giant cells can vary from tumor to tumor. While some tumors feature numerous multinucleated giant cells, others have limited giant cells settled in whirls of spindle-shaped stromal cells. In approximately 5% of cases, giant cells invade small perforating vessels.

In benign bone GCTs, 3 distinct cell types are identified:[26] 

  • Type I cells: Resembling interstitial fibroblasts; these cells produce collagen and exhibit proliferative capabilities. This cell likely constitutes the tumor component of GCT and shares features with mesenchymal stem cells. Their characteristics suggest a potential early differentiation into osteoblasts.[27] 
  • Type II cells: Also interstitial, these cells resemble the monocyte/macrophage family and could potentially be recruited from the peripheral bloodstream.[1] Type II cells serve as precursors to the multinucleated giant cells within the tumor.
  • Type III cells: Represented by multinucleated giant cells, these cells share many characteristics with osteoclasts and display similar morphologies.[15] Type III cells possess enzymes for bone resorption, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and type II carbonic anhydrase.[28][29] 

Type II and type III cells exhibit significant activity for insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2, while this activity is notably absent in type I cells. This observation implies that insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 play a crucial role in the development and regulation of GCTs.[1] 

Genetically, 80% of individuals with GCTs of the bone exhibit the cytogenetic abnormality of telomeric associations (tas), with half of the cells in the tumor showing the tas abnormality.[30] The RANK pathway is often implicated in the pathogenesis of GCT, representing a crucial signaling pathway in bone remodeling. This pathway plays a critical role in the differentiation of precursors into multinucleated osteoclasts and the activation of osteoclasts, leading to bone resorption.[31] H3F3A gene mutations are reported in around 69% to 100% of GCTs. Recently, a case of GCT of the bone was found to have an H3F3B gene mutation.[32] Yakoub et al reported 2 cases of giant cell-poor GCT of the bone, diagnosed by the presence of H3.3 G34W monoclonal antibody in the mononuclear cells through immunohistochemistry.[33]

History and Physical

The presentation of GCTs can vary, and common findings include the following: 

  • Pain: The most prevalent symptom, often due to mechanical insufficiency resulting from bone destruction.
  • Swelling and deformity: Associated with more extensive lesions.
  • A soft tissue mass or bump: Occasional and results from cortical destruction and tumor progression outside the bone, typically found close to the joint. A limited range of motion at the joint area is expected.
  • Joint effusion and synovitis: Possible manifestations
  • Pathological fractures: Approximately 12% of patients present with fractures at diagnosis.[34][35] The pathologic fracture incidence at presentation is 11% to 37%, indicating a potentially more aggressive disease with a higher risk of local recurrence and metastatic spread.[29][36]
  • Epiphyseal location: Found in 90% of tumors, often extending to the articular subchondral bone or abutting the cartilage. It rarely invades the joint or its capsule. In skeletally immature patients, lesions are likely found in the metaphysis.[37][38] Only 1.2% of GCT involved metaphysis or diaphysis without epiphyseal involvement.
  • Common locations: Descending order of occurrence includes the distal femur, proximal tibia, distal radius, and sacrum.[39] Half of all GCTs arise around the knee region. Other sites include the proximal femur, fibular head, and proximal humerus. Pelvic bone involvement is relatively rare.[40]
  • Multicentricity: The simultaneous occurrence of GCT in different sites occurs but is exceedingly rare.[41][42] Most commonly, GCT is a solitary lesion. Multicentric involvement (<1%) is clinically aggressive and tends to affect the small bones of the hands and feet, showing differences from solitary lesions. Patients with multicentric lesions are generally younger than those with lesions elsewhere.


The evaluation for GCT involves a combination of laboratory and imaging studies, followed by a biopsy for a definitive diagnosis. Below is a detailed discussion.

Blood Investigations

Routine blood investigations are conducted as part of the preoperative workup. Specifically, serum acid phosphatase should be assessed, as it is known to be increased in patients with GCT and can correlate with treatment response. This is especially useful in cases of local recurrence. In a retrospective study, Hayashida et al reported that tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b levels were found to be raised in younger patients and those with fewer pathological secondary changes. Interestingly, these levels do not necessarily correlate with tumor volume.[43]

Imaging Modalities

Radiograph examination typically reveals a characteristic radiolucent geographic appearance with a narrow transition zone at the lesion margin (see Image. Lytic Lesion). Unlike many benign lesions, GCT lacks a prominent sclerotic rim at the lesion margin. Calcification of the matrix, periosteal reaction, and new bone formation are typically absent.[20] The lesion is eccentrically located in the epiphyseal portion and tends to extend up to a centimeter into the subchondral bone.

Imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can confirm the typical subchondral location of GCTs within the bone and assess the extent of a soft tissue mass, either beyond the bone cortex or through the adjacent joint.[44][45] Functional positron emission tomography (PET) and bone scans are other modern imaging modalities that can determine the extent of disease involvement.

CT scans provide a more accurate assessment of cortical thinning, penetration, and bone mineralization than plain radiographs. The neocortex formation and tumor density can be visualized, helping distinguish primary osteosarcoma. A chest CT scan is recommended in patients with locally recurrent disease to assess for metastatic spread. 

MRI is a crucial tool for assessing the integrity of the surrounding soft tissues, neurovascular structures, and the extent of subchondral extension into adjacent joints. GCT lesions typically present with homogeneous signal intensity, appearing as well-circumscribed lesions on MRI. On T1-weighted images, these lesions exhibit low signal intensity, while on T2-weighted images, intermediate signal intensity is observed. The typical features include an expansile hypervascular mass with cystic changes, displaying heterogeneous low to intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and intermediate to high intensity on T2-weighted images.[24][25] Notably, areas of low signal intensity on both T1 and T2-weighted images are attributed to the accumulation of significant amounts of hemosiderin.[20] MRI helps assess the soft tissue mass and cystic components within the tumor. For the evaluation of residual or recurrent GCT, fat-suppression fluid-sensitive sequences in MRI are useful.[23]

Bone scans aid in staging multicentric disease, although findings, typically revealing a decrease in the radiotracer uptake in the tumor's center, lack specificity for GCTs. Aneurysmal bone cysts exhibit a similar appearance. Limited data exist regarding fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET for newly diagnosed GCT. GCT shows the accumulation of the FDG tracer, distinguishing it from many benign bone tumors, presumably due to the active metabolism of osteoclast-like giant cells.[26][27] However, the advantages of FDG PET evaluation compared to conventional imaging with CT, MRI, or a bone scan remain unclear. Changes in FDG uptake over time correlate with the tumor's metabolism and angiogenic activity.[28] Additionally, the response to denosumab therapy can be assessed using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron avidity.[23]

Biopsy and Immunohistochemistry

Biopsy samples undergo immunohistochemistry, and identifying the H3.3-G34W mutation is sensitive and specific for diagnosing GCT, helping differentiate it from other giant cell-rich tumors.[46][47] Furthermore, detecting this mutation provides valuable insights into the molecular characteristics of GCT, informing potential therapeutic approaches and prognostic considerations for patients.

Treatment / Management

The management of GCT involves a multidisciplinary approach, combining surgical, medical, and sometimes radiation therapies. The specific approach depends on factors such as the tumor's location, size, aggressiveness, and whether it is primary or recurrent.

Surgical Resection

The standard care for treating GCT often involves a tailored approach considering the benign nature of most GCTs, their proximity to joints in young adults, and the goal of preserving bone anatomy. Many authors advocate for an intralesional approach rather than resection to maintain bone integrity.[48][49][50](B3)

While wide resection has been associated with a decreased risk of local recurrence, potentially raising the recurrence-free survival rate from 84% to 100%,[29][51][52] this approach comes with higher rates of surgical complications. It may lead to functional impairment, necessitating reconstruction.[53][54][55] The decision between intralesional curettage and wide resection is often made based on the tumor's location, size, aggressiveness, and the patient's overall health and preferences.(B2)

Resection may be the preferred option in benign tumors, particularly when bone salvageability through intralesional methods would cause a severe compromise in mechanical characteristics. This applies particularly to the "expendable bones," such as the lower ulnar and upper fibular end, where excision may be the treatment of choice.

In primary and recurrent cases, especially when the tumor involves the end of a long bone and causes significant dysfunction of the joint surface, reconstruction becomes necessary. Several options are available for these cases, including mega prosthetic joint replacement, biologic reconstruction with an autograft, arthrodesis with internal/external fixation, microvascular fibula reconstruction, Ilizarov method of bone regeneration, and osteoarticular allograft.[1][56](B3)

In the past, GCTs were often treated with amputations, wide resections, or reconstructions. However, considering that GCTs are benign yet locally aggressive tumors, a local intralesional surgical approach is deemed appropriate in most cases. Treatment options include curettage, curettage and bone grafting, curettage with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) insertion, and primary resection. Radiation therapy and embolization of the feeding vessels are used for pelvic and sacral tumors that are not amenable to surgery.[57]

Radiotherapy is recommended for spinal, sacral, or aggressive tumors when complete excision or curettage is impractical for any functional or medical reasons. Intralesional curettage and bone grafting are considered the limb-sparing treatment of choice, associated with acceptable functional and oncologic outcomes. However, a simple curettage with or without a bone graft presents a 27% and 55% recurrence rate. Many surgeons replace bone graft packing with PMMA packing due to its high recurrence rate.

Wide en-bloc resection is another option that offers the lowest recurrence rate and can be used in expendable bones. For instance, wide resection without reconstruction is often performed in the proximal fibula. In cases of GCT in the distal radius, resection and reconstruction with an allograft or an autograft are commonly undertaken.

Adjuvant Treatments

Adjuvant treatments, such as liquid nitrogen, phenol, or HO with argon beam coagulation, demonstrate excellent recurrence-free survival, especially when paired with intralesional curettage. The effectiveness of treating GCTs hinges more on the aggressiveness of the intralesional curettage than on the specific adjuvant used. The tumor location, associated fractures, extensions to the soft tissue, and an understanding of the resection's functional consequences influence tumor removal's adequacy.

Novel adjuvant therapies for GCTs include topical or systemic bisphosphonates like zoledronate or pamidronate. Bisphosphonates induce apoptosis and limit the tumor progression by targeting the osteoclast-like giant cells.[58][59] A clinical trial comparing zoledronic acid and denosumab reported no significant difference in the clinical and radiological outcomes. However, there was a higher risk of local recurrence with denosumab, though not statistically significant.[23] Recently, bisphosphonate mixed bone cement has been reported as an adjuvant for GCT, as it directly targets neoplastic mononuclear stromal cells after curettage.[60][61](B3)

Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody, is widely used to treat unresectable GCTs of bone in adults and skeletally-matured adolescents. It acts by specifically binding to RANKL. In addition to its primary use, denosumab has been utilized preoperatively to reduce the tumor size, diminish the tumor's blood supply, and facilitate joint preservation procedures in periarticular locations. However, consensus is lacking regarding the optimal dose and duration of denosumab for adjuvant treatment or in cases of inoperable tumors. Reports suggest increased chances of local recurrence and severe complications with long-term denosumab use, as it targets multinuclear giant cells without affecting neoplastic mononuclear stromal cells.[62] 

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved denosumab for use in unresectable and metastatic GCT and in cases where surgical management would harm the patient.[23] Initially, neoadjuvant denosumab use was described for 12 months. However, due to the risk of increased local recurrence attributed to denosumab's promotion of new bone formation, which limits the identification of tumor margins, a short course of neoadjuvant denosumab has been studied. Comparative analyses indicate no significant difference in clinical or radiological outcome and the histopathological response between patients receiving a short course or long-term denosumab as a neoadjuvant therapy.[63](B3)

Sunitinib, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor β-antagonist, has recently been reported for use with denosumab. This combination therapy aims to decrease stromal cell viability. Notably, its application was associated with completely eradicating giant and stromal cells in an adolescent patient with GCT.[64]

Cyclolinopeptide, a novel molecule extracted from linseed, has emerged as a potential new drug for GCTs. This compound possesses cytoprotective and immunosuppressive properties and demonstrates inhibitory effects on RANKL-signaling and osteoclastic differentiation.[65] Exploring cyclolinopeptide introduces a promising avenue for novel therapeutic interventions in GCT, offering an alternative approach to managing the disease. While further research and clinical studies are needed to assess the safety and efficacy of these newer novel agents, no recognized effective chemotherapeutic agent is currently available to manage GCTS.

Differential Diagnosis

Based on the radiographic findings, the differential diagnoses for GCTs include:

  • Lytic metastatic lesion (particularly a vascular metastasis from thyroid or renal cell carcinoma)
  • Primary bone tumor
  • Brown tumor of hyperparathyroidism
  • Nonossifying fibroma
  • Aneurysmal bone cyst
  • Fibrous metaphyseal defects
  • Osteoblastoma
  • Chondroblastoma
  • Malignant fibrous histiocytoma
  • Telangiectatic osteosarcoma.[45][66]

Notably, mutations within the H3F3A gene can distinguish GCT from other entities, as they are identified in up to 96% of cases.[67][68] However, a mutation in H3F3A does not entirely exclude malignancy in other osteoclast-rich tumors, like chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, or nonossifying fibroma.[53][55] Specifically, chondroblastomas have a high frequency of mutations in histone 3.3 genes.[69]


Various classifications of GCTs have been proposed based on histology and clinical and radiographic appearance, although their clinical utility can be limited. The Campanacci grading system, however, provides a helpful framework:

  • Grade I: Intraosseous lesions with well-marginated borders and an intact cortex.
  • Grade II: More extensive intraosseous lesions associated with a thin cortex without loss of cortical continuity.
    • IIA: Without pathological fracture.
    • IIB: With pathological fracture.
  • Grade III: Extraosseous lesions that extend into soft tissue.


Recurrence occurring after 3 years has been considered exceptional in the literature,[51] with the local recurrence rate for GCTs ranging from 20% to 50%, averaging 33%.[41][70] Modern curettage techniques have contributed to an improvement in the GCT local control rate. Total serum acid phosphatase is suggested as a tumor marker to monitor the response to GCT treatment. While an increase in tumor grade from I to III may not necessarily reflect the biological aggressiveness of the tumor, there is an observed increase in the recurrence rate in grade III lesions. A true spontaneous transformation to malignancy has been reported in very few cases.[71] 

Pulmonary metastases account for about 16% to 25% of relapsed GCT cases, although they are seen in only 1% to 6% of primary cases. Treatment for pulmonary metastases involves wide resection, often combined with interferon alfa, chemotherapy, and radiation. In cases where complete surgical excision is not possible, adjuvant treatments, like radiation or chemotherapy, are generally recommended. For unresectable metastases, a combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is implemented. Lung metastases can have poor outcomes.[72][73][74] 

Metastases of bone GCT are relatively rare, occurring in approximately 3% of cases, but the behavior of pulmonary metastasis is unpredictable.[75][76][77] Younger patients with local recurrence, Enneking stage-III disease, or axial involvement are at an increased risk.[68] Histologically, metastatic lesions resemble primary lesions. The mean interval between the onset of the tumor and the detection of pulmonary metastasis is approximately 18 to 24 months.[68] Complete excision of the metastases has shown success with good long-term survival, although those with comorbidities may eventually succumb to the metastases.[1]

In cases where a primary bone sarcoma is suspected within prominent areas of giant cell reaction and hemorrhage in a newly discovered GCT that was initially missed, it is essential to consider the possibility of malignancy rather than assuming a malignant transformation.[78] Malignant transformations in GCT can result in osteosarcoma, malignant histiocytoma, or fibrosarcoma. The occurrence of malignant transformation may be identified several years after the initial surgery, with a range of 4 to 40 years from the initial surgery.[79]

Overall, GCTs have a favorable prognosis. Pulmonary metastases can contribute to death in 16% to 25%. When a true malignant transformation occurs within a GCT, the prognosis is comparatively worse than that for a benign GCT. Nonetheless, it tends to be somewhat better than the prognosis for other high-grade sarcomas.


Giant cell tumors of the bone can be complicated by the following:

  • Tumor recurrence
  • Osteoarthritis of the knee joint
  • Stress fracture
  • Limited movement
  • Pulmonary metastasis
  • Local and deep infections
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Joint degeneration
  • Hardware failure

Deterrence and Patient Education

As the exact cause of GCTs, like most other tumors, remains unclear, preventive measures for their occurrence are unknown. However, educating patients about the potential presentations of local invasion or metastasis is crucial, enabling them to seek medical advice early in the process. Early detection often leads to better outcomes. Additionally, educating patients about surgical treatment options is of utmost importance, empowering them to make informed decisions that can significantly impact the overall outcomes. Patient awareness and involvement are vital in managing GCT and optimizing the treatment journey.

Pearls and Other Issues

A few key facts to remember about GCT include the following:

  • Bone GCT is a benign but locally aggressive primary bone tumor.
  • Mutation in the H3F3A gene is a specific marker for diagnosing GCT.[80]
  • Local control involves tumor removal with curettage therapies chosen for acceptable long-term outcomes and functional consequences.
  • Post-treatment monitoring includes serial chest and site radiographs and serial physical examinations.
  • Relapses may manifest as new swelling or pain.
  • Tumor recurrence can occur many years after initial involvement and treatment.
  • Recommended practice includes at least a 5-year close follow-up.
  • Intensified surveillance, preferably with CT, is advised for pulmonary metastasis detection in patients with a local recurrence of bone GCT, particularly in the first 3 years after diagnosis.

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Patients diagnosed with GCT benefit significantly from a collaborative and inter-professional healthcare team. In the initial stages, primary care providers or emergency physicians are often patients' first point of contact. Chiropractors may also be crucial in identifying GCT through radiographs and should promptly refer patients to the appropriate specialist. After identifying bone tumors on plain x-rays, orthopedic surgeons become pivotal in further evaluation and management. Radiologists provide interpretations of imaging studies to aid in the diagnostic process. The specialized care of orthopedic oncologists becomes essential for appropriate surgical interventions. Nursing professionals are integral throughout the care continuum, assisting in preoperative, surgical, and postoperative care. Additionally, rehabilitation specialists, such as occupational or physical therapists, contribute significantly to the patient's recovery, facilitating a prompt return to their daily activities. This collaborative approach ensures optimal care and aims to achieve the best possible outcomes for patients dealing with GCT.


(Click Image to Enlarge)
<p>Lytic Lesion

Lytic Lesion. The radiograph of the right knee, featuring anteroposterior and lateral views, reveals a lytic lesion in the medial condyle of the right proximal tibia. These findings are indicative of a potential giant cell tumor.

Contributed by VT



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