Pharmacy-Geriatric CE

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All of our activities are approved by ACPE (PharmD) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) ® content outlines. 712 authors and 17 editors have contributed to the development of the Pharmacy-Geriatric content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

Pharmacy-Geriatric Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
5 Alpha Reductase Inhibitors The 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride and dutasteride) are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hype ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Many diseases and conditions list pain as a component of their presentation; as a result, pain management is of great importance to both clinicians an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acinetobacter Acinetobacter is a gram-negative, nonmotile organism that is often found in soil and water and is known to colonize intravenous fluids. In general, Ac ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tis ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute Diverticulitis Acute diverticulitis is inflammation of a diverticulum, a sac-like protrusion from the colon wall, due to micro-perforation. Diverticulitis presents i ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Adalimumab Adalimumab is a fully human, high-affinity, recombinant anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha monoclonal antibody, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Albendazole Albendazole has FDA approval for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum resulting from the larval form of the dog ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol use disorder is very common in the United States. The cause of alcohol use disorder is not well understood, however, several factors are thou ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Alcoholic Liver Disease The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is hepatic steatosis, which involves the accumulation of small fat droplets under liver cells approaching t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Alendronate Alendronate is FDA-approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aliskiren Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor medication that is FDA approved to treat hypertension in adults and children six years and older. It may be used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Allopurinol Allopurinol is a urate-lowering medication that is FDA approved for the management of gout, prevention of tumor lysis syndrome, and prevention of recu ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Almotriptan Almotriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraines. It is in the triptan 5-HT class of drugs. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alogliptin Alogliptin was first approved by the FDA in January 2013 and is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used to manage and treat severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of 5-HT receptor a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Adrenergic Receptors The indication for the use of an alpha-receptor modifying medication depends on which receptor is the target: the alpha-1 receptor or the alpha-2 rece ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alpha Blockers Alpha-blockers are medications used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and pheochromocytom ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a group of antidiabetic drugs used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This activity outlines the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Amantadine Amantadine is an antiviral agent with mild antiparkinsonian activity. Amantadine was used in the early 2000s for Influenza A treatment. However, high ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amikacin Amikacin is an antimicrobial with activity against more resistant gram-negative bacilli such as Acinetobacter baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used to manage and treat acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aminophylline Aminophylline is FDA approved for the treatment of reversible airway obstruction due to asthma or other chronic lung diseases. This activity illustrat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amlodipine Amlodipine is an oral dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Compared to nifedipine and other medications in the dihydropyridine class, amlodipine h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amoxapine Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. Generally, it is reserved for ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the name conventional amphotericin B and has been used fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Analgesic Nephropathy Analgesic nephropathy is chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by chronic use of analgesics such as acetaminophen, aspirin, and NSAIDs as the pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Androgen Replacement Testosterone is FDA-approved as replacement therapy in men who have low testosterone levels and those with symptoms of hypogonadism. It is essential t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anemia Of Chronic Renal Disease Anemia of chronic renal disease, also known as anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a form of normocytic, normochromic, hypoproliferative anemia ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade has is a common and successful strategy in the treatment of several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart fa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Antacids Antacids are a group of drugs that have been on the market for many years. They were initially first-line defense against peptic ulcer disease; howeve ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Medications Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Toxicity Anticholinergic toxicity is commonly seen in the emergency department but is rarely fatal. According to the 2015 annual American Association of Poison ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anticoagulation Safety One class of drugs that has been implicated in serious adverse drugs reactions for many decades are the oral anticoagulants, especially warfarin. Ther ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Antiemetic Antimuscarinics Scopolamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of motion sickness and postoperative nausea/vomiting. It is in the antimuscarinic cla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiemetic Serotonin-5-HT3 Receptor Blockers Selective serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Drug Toxicity Antiplatelet medications are primarily used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related events. Currently, there are fou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Medications Over time, numerous antiplatelet agents have been developed with a multitude of indications. Antiplatelet medications divide into oral and parenteral ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antisialagogues Antisialagogues are medications often used in the management and treatment of patients with noisy breathing near the end of life. These medications ar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease Aortoiliac occlusive disease is defined by atherosclerotic blockage of the distal abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. Patients commonly present with c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of hepari ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Aseptic Meningitis Aseptic meningitis is an umbrella term for all of the causes of inflammation of the brain meninges that have negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aspergillus Fumigatus Aspergillus is a ubiquitous saprophyte in nature found in air, soil and organic matter. Humans normally inhale the spore form of the fungi. However, t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Asteatotic Eczema This activity outlines the evaluation and treatment of asteatotic eczema and reviews the role of the healthcare team in managing patients with this co ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Asthma Medications Asthma is a wide-reaching, chronic, inflammatory illness that impacts millions of people daily. It is frequently responsible for unscheduled healthcar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atenolol Atenolol is a second-generation beta-1-selective adrenergic antagonist indicated in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and acute myocardi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atorvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Dissociation Atrioventricular dissociation is a cardiac conduction defect where the atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. It can occur due to vari ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) is a macroreentrant tachycardia that needs an accessory pathway to bypass the conventional conductio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Autoimmune Hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis refers to a chronic and progressive inflammation of the liver from an unknown cause. Proposed mechanism for the development of au ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Azathioprine Azathioprine (AZA) is a medication used in the management and treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevention of kidney transplant r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Azilsartan Azilsartan is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin-receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacterial Diarrhea Diarrhea consists of the passage of watery and loose stools multiple times a day (usually more than 3), though specific definitions may vary when appl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics The term "bacteriostatic antibiotics" is used to describe medications whose mechanism of action stalls bacterial cellular activity without directly ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacteroides Fragilis The human colon possesses the largest population of bacteria in the body, and the majority of these organisms are anaerobes; of these, about 25 percen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bacteruria Bacteruria is the presence of bacteria in the urine and can be classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic. A patient with asymptomatic bacteruria is de ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition encountered in aging men and a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms. Histological pre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Benzocaine Benzocaine is a local anesthetic used in the management of pain control. It is in the ester local anesthetic class of medications. This activity descr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benztropine Benztropine is FDA approved as adjunctive therapy for all forms of parkinsonism. It is also used for drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and the prev ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta Lactam Antibiotics Beta-lactam antibiotics are used in the management and treatment of bacterial infections. This activity will highlight the mechanism of action, advers ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in the management and treatment of open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved for the treatment of postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by ne ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bisacodyl Bisacodyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic or functional constipation. This activity outlines the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bisoprolol Bisoprolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is in the selective beta-blocker clas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs that are widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bivalirudin Bivalirudin is a medication used in the management and treatment of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bleomycin Bleomycin has approval for adult use in the treatment of squamous cell cancer of head and neck regions, Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma. It i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bortezomib Bortezomib is FDA-approved for use in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. It is also FDA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bromocriptine Bromocriptine is a medication currently used in the management and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is an ergot alkaloid derivative in the d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bumetanide Bumetanide is FDA approved for the management of various edematous conditions secondary to cardiac failure, or hepatic or renal disease, including the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Buprenorphine Buprenorphine, a synthetic opioid, treats pain and opioid use syndrome. It was developed in the late 1960s. It is a synthetic analog of thebaine, whic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Calcitonin Salmon calcitonin (after this referred to as “calcitonin”) is an analog of human calcitonin used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Page ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcitriol Calcitriol is a hormonally-active, synthetic, vitamin D analog prescribed for the treatment of hypocalcemia, osteoporosis, and prevention of corticost ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Candesartan Candesartan is an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker. It is available as a pro-drug, candesartan cilexetil, which undergoes hydrolysis in the gastro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market. Dronabinol and nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Captopril Captopril is an FDA-approved medication used in the management of hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Carbamazepine is used in the management and treatment for epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and acute manic and mixed episodes in bipolar I disorder. In ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Carbidopa Carbidopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). It is in the decarboxylase inhibitor class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is a medication used in the management and treatment of glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, altitude sicknes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carcinoid Syndrome Carcinoid syndrome refers to a number of symptoms caused by the release of humoral factors such as polypeptides, prostaglandins, and biogenic amines. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardioembolic Stroke An estimated 26 million people suffer a stroke each year, making it a significant source of mortality and long-term disability. Up to two-thirds of st ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Carvedilol Carvedilol is a non-selective adrenergic blocker indicated for the chronic therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), hypertensi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cefepime Cefepime is a cephalosporin in the beta-lactam class of antibiotics used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Celecoxib The FDA recommends celecoxib and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), along with acetaminophen, as first-line analgesics for patients ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cephalexin Cephalexin is an FDA approved antibiotic. Cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin utilized in the treatment of urinary tract infections, respir ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a potential cause of hyponatremia in the setting of disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebral salt wasting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chloroquine Chloroquine is a medication used in the management and treatment of malaria and inflammatory diseases. It is in the sulfonamides class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, can cause pathologic ocular damage unless strict prescribing and screening ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and acute psychosis. It is in the category of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chlorthalidone Chlorthalidone is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the thiazide-like diuretics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cholestyramine Resin Cholestyramine is used for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia. The reduction in LDL cholesterol by the resin is dose-dependent. A dose of 8 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Cholinesterase Inhibitors Cholinesterase inhibitors function to decrease the breakdown of acetylcholine. They SEe use in the treatment of Alzheimer and dementia symptoms. This ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Liver Disease Chronic liver disease is a progressive deterioration of liver functions. Liver functions include the production of clotting factors and other proteins ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL1-positive, is classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm predominantly composed of proliferating granulocytes ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2.25 35 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.75 43 Activity Info
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Chronic Testicular Pain Chronic orchialgia is defined as 3 months of intermittent or constant testicular pain that is significantly bothersome to the patient. It is the cause ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cicatricial Pemphigoid Cicatricial pemphigoid is a rare, chronic autoimmune blistering disorder which can produce scarring. It can affect the skin, the mucous membranes, or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cilostazol Cilostazol is a quinolone derivative primarily used for the treatment of intermittent claudication due to peripheral vascular disease; this is the FDA ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cimetidine Cimetidine is a drug with the indication of peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and for dermatological conditions including warts, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cisplatin Cisplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. It is in the alkylating agent class of cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clavulanic Acid Clavulanic acid is a medication that can be used in conjunction with amoxicillin in the management and treatment of bacterial infections, specifically ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clobazam Clobazam was synthesized in the 1960s with a primary goal of providing greater efficacy with fewer benzodiazepine-related side effects. FDA indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clomipramine The only FDA approved use for clomipramine is for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in ages 10 and older. For the treatment of OCD, clomipr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clopidogrel Clopidogrel is FDA approved for the medical management of unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-segment ele ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Clozapine Clozapine is an FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is not the first-line drug of choice d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Codeine Codeine is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain. It is in the opioid class of medications. This activity outlines the ind ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Colon Diverticulitis Diverticulitis has increased in incidence over the past few decades and represents a significant healthcare burden in western countries. In the United ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 2.25 36 Activity Info
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Coronary Flow Effects of Arterial Spasm or Microembolization Two conditions that can lead to angina symptoms include coronary artery spasm and microembolization. Coronary artery spasm can cause partial or comple ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corticosteroid Adverse Effects Corticosteroids are hormone mediators produced by the cortex of adrenal glands that further categorize into glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and a ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Corticosteroid Induced Myopathy Corticosteroid induced myopathy is an iatrogenic myopathy caused by chronic high to moderate systemic corticosteroid use. This is a common condition w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas in medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
COX Inhibitors COX inhibitors are medications used in the management and treatment of chronic pain syndromes. They are in the anti-inflammatory class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR), also known as toxidermia, are skin manifestations resulting from systemic drug administration. These reaction ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cyclobenzaprine Cyclobenzaprine is FDA-approved as an adjunct to rest for the treatment of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Cyc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide is a medication primarily used in the management and treatment of neoplasms, including multiple myeloma, sarcoma, and breast cancer. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cytarabine Cytarabine is a medication used in the management and treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It belongs to the anthracycline group of medications. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dapsone Dapsone is indicated for a variety of conditions, both dermatologic and non-dermatologic. The FDA-approved indications are leprosy and dermatitis herp ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Daptomycin Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic derived from the organism Streptomyces roseosporus. Daptomycin is used for the treatment of various bact ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Deadly Single Dose Agents Although the basics of evaluating and treating most unknown ingestants are well known, many overdoses require very specific treatment if the patient i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Delusional Disorder A delusion is a fixed false belief based on an inaccurate interpretation of an external reality despite evidence to the contrary. The diagnosis of a d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Denosumab Denosumab is a bone anti-resorptive drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone-related disorders. FDA-approved indications include pre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or for ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Depressive Cognitive Disorders Depressive cognitive disorders, also called pseudodementia (a term founded by Kiloh in the year 1961), is defined as the cognitive and functional impa ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in developed countries, including the United States. It is consider ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Diazepam Diazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is FDA approved for the management of anxiety disorders, short-term relief of anxiety symptoms, spasticit ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Dietary Calcium Adequate calcium intake, from either direct food sources or calcium supplements, is essential for nutrition in patients of all ages. This article will ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Digitalis Toxicity Digoxin is a well-known cardiac glycoside and one of the oldest drugs used today in cardiovascular medicine. It has wide-ranging beneficial effects an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure and certain arrhythmias and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside cla ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diltiazem Diltiazem is an oral and parenteral non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in many clinical scenarios as an antihypertensive, anti-ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP IV) Inhibitors Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a group of antihyperglycemic medications used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Dipyridamole Dipyridamole is an antiplatelet agent used in secondary prophylaxis against stroke and as an adjunctive agent with warfarin post mechanical valve repl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Docusate Docusate is a medication used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the stool softener class of drugs. This activity reviews the i ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Dofetilide Clinical uses of dofetilide include maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation. Dofetilide is indicated in adults for the conversio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Donepezil Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor most commonly used for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Donepezil is FDA approved for ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dopamine Agonists Dopamine agonists are used in patients with Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists such as ropinirole, are the first-line treatment for restless legs sy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Doxazosin Doxazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, hypertension, ureteral stones, and PTSD associated nig ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin is an antibiotic derived from the Streptomyces peucetius bacterium. It has widespread use as a chemotherapeutic agent since the 1960s. Dox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is an acute or chronic liver injury secondary to drugs or herbal compounds. It is difficult to diagnose because the presen ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drug Induced Valvular Heart Disease Drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) is a condition involving changes in the morphology and functionality of valvular leaflets secondary to exp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Drug Interactions In Palliative Care Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a significant cause of adverse drug events (ADE) in palliative care. This activity will highlight the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Drug Metabolism Most drugs undergo chemical alteration by various bodily systems as a way to create compounds that are more easily excreted from the body. These chemi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Drug-Induced Lupus Erythematosus Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DIL) is an autoimmune phenomenon where the patient develops symptoms similar to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Duloxetine Duloxetine is a medication used in the management of major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), fibromyalgia, diabetic perip ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dyspnea in Palliative Care Dyspnea is a troubling symptom for many terminally-ill patients and their caregivers. It is common in many advanced diseases and is frequently experie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dysuria Dysuria is a symptom of pain and/or burning, stinging, or itching of the urethra or urethral meatus with urination. It is one of the most common sympt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
ECG T Wave Normally, the T wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG) is representative of ventricular repolarization. Changes in T wave morphology can be indicative of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Edoxaban Edoxaban is a medication used in the management and treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and non-valvular atrial fibril ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Empagliflozin Empagliflozin is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT-2) cl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Enalapril Enalapril is a medication used in the management of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. This ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Enalaprilat Enalaprilat injection is used in the management of hypertension when oral therapy is not practical. Enalaprilat is the active metabolite of the oral p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity Info
End-Stage Renal Disease More than 500,000 people in the United States live with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progre ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Enoxaparin Enoxaparin is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and was first approved for medical use in 1993 and is derived from heparin. It has approval for the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in a variety of settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved f ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Eplerenone Eplerenone is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, as well as hypertension. It is in the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Epoetin Alfa Epoetin alfa is a medication used in the management of anemia secondary to bone marrow failure. It is one of the erythropoiesis-stimulating class of d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Eptifibatide Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa class platelet inhibitor drug used to reduce ischemic cardiac events in specific patient populations. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erectile Dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a widespread condition in males over 40 years of age all over the world. It has a variety of causes and is often treatable. Le ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Erysipelas Erysipelas is a skin infection involving the dermis layer of the skin, but it may also extend to the superficial cutaneous lymphatics. It is character ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythromycin Erythromycin has traditionally; it has been used for various respiratory infections (i.e., community-acquired pneumonia, Legionnaires disease), prophy ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Esophageal Candidiasis The most prevalent cause of infectious esophagitis is esophageal candidiasis. Of patients that have infectious esophagitis, 88% are from Candida albic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Esophagitis Esophagitis refers to inflammation or injury to the esophageal mucosa. One of the most common causes is gastroesophageal reflux, which can lead to ero ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Essential Thrombocytosis Essential thrombocytosis is also known as essential thrombocythemia (ET) and was formerly known as hemorrhagic thrombocythemia and is one of the myelo ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Estrogen Therapy Estrogen therapy is a form of hormone replacement therapy that is often used in the management and treatment of menopausal symptoms, especially vasomo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Etanercept Etanercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of autoimmune conditions such as plaque psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic art ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ethacrynic Acid Ethacrynic acid is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic heart failure. It is in the loop diuretic class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ethambutol Ethambutol is a medication used in the management and treatment of tuberculosis. It is a bacteriostatic drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis. This a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Etoposide Etoposide is a medication used in the management and treatment of various cancers such as testicular, prostate, bladder, stomach, and lung cancer. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Exenatide Exenatide is FDA-indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when used as an adjunct to diet and exercise. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ezetimibe Ezetimibe is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypercholesterolemia. It is among a novel class of selective cholesterol-absorption ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Factitious Hypoglycemia Factitious hypoglycemia is the intentional attempt to induce low blood glucose levels and remains one of the diagnostic challenges that face endocrino ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Falls and Fall Prevention In The Elderly Falls account for one of the most common and serious issues contributing to a disability, especially among elderly individuals. Tinetti et al. in 1988 ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Famciclovir Famciclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of herpes and varicella-zoster infections. It is in the class of nucleoside analog an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Famotidine Famotidine decreases the production of stomach acid, and its pharmacologic activity is used in the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal conditio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Febuxostat Febuxostat is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. It is in a class of medications known as xanthine oxidase i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Felodipine Felodipine is a medication used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension. It is a member of the dihydropyridine class of calcium chan ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fenofibrate Fenofibrate is FDA approved to treat patients with hypertriglyceridemia, primary hypercholesterolemia, or mixed dyslipidemia. It reduces low-density l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fentanyl Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid, which, similar to morphine, produces analgesia but to a greater extent. This robust pharmacologic agent is typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fentanyl Transdermal Transdermal Fentanyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain and cancer pain. It is part of the opioid class of drugs. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Fexofenadine Fexofenadine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fibric Acid Antilipemic Agents Fibric acids are FDA indicated to treat patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia. They reduce low-density lipoprotein choleste ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. This activity illustrates the evaluation and management of fibro ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Finasteride Finasteride is an FDA-approved pharmacologic agent for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia (male pattern hair loss) i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Flecainide Flecainide is a class IC antiarrhythmic agent. This activity will highlight the mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, evidenced-based usage and toxic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fludrocortisone Fludrocortisone is a synthetic adrenal steroid with high mineralocorticoid activity that is a commonly used drug for adrenocortical insufficiency. Thi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agent for benzodiazepine overdose an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluorouracil 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a medication used for the treatment of various neoplasms. It is in the chemotherapy class of medications. This activity outli ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is FDA-approved for major depressive disorder (age eight and older), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, binge eating d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluphenazine Fluphenazine is a typical antipsychotic used for symptomatic management of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. There is a long-acting fluphenazi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluticasone Fluticasone is a medication used to manage and treat asthma, allergic rhinitis, emphysema, and atopic dermatitis. It is in the corticosteroid class of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluvastatin In adults, fluvastatin is indicated for hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia to decrease the amount of total cholesterol in the blood. Specific ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Folinic Acid Folinic acid is a medication used in the treatment of various cancers in combination with 5-FU. It is also commonly used as an antidote to folic acid ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Foscarnet Foscarnet is a medication used to manage and treat CMV, HSV, and VZV viral infections in AIDS and immunocompromised patients. It is in the antiviral c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fosinopril Fosinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Fosinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gabapentin Gabapentin is an anticonvulsive medication that originally saw use as a muscle relaxer and anti-spasmodic medication, but later it was discovered it h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Gastrointestinal Stromal Cancer Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are typically benign tumors that most commonly occur along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While only compris ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is an uncommon condition in the community that can be associated with significant morbidity, healthcare burden and could have poor outco ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil is an FDA approved fibric acid agent (fibrate) for the management of hypertriglyceridemia (particularly in type IV and V hyperlipidemia). ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized anxiety disorder is a mental health disorder that produces fear, worry, and a constant feeling of being overwhelmed. It is characterized b ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gentamicin Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of several gram-negative infections. This activity aims to review the indications, ac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ginkgo Biloba Ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements used in the world. This activity reviews the potential indications, action, and cont ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glargine Insulin Insulin glargine is used in the management and treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a long-acting in ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Glimepiride Glimepiride is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sulfonylurea class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glipizide Glipizide is a second-generation sulfonylurea that is FDA-approved for the treatment of adults with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is administered as an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoglycemia, as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists are a class of medications utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. This activity will highlight the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glucosamine Sulfate Glucosamine sulfate is an oral supplement used in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. This activity outlines the indications, hypothesized ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Glyburide Glyburide is a medication used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sulfonylurea class of drugs. This activity outlines the ind ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gonococcal Arthritis Gonococcal arthritis is arthritis that results from the bacteremic spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen. It comprises loca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Griseofulvin Griseofulvin is FDA approved for and the drug of choice in tinea capitis. Other indications include onychomycosis as well as superficial fungal infect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
H2 Blockers H2 receptor blockers, or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), are a class of gastric acid-suppressing agents frequently used in various gastric conditions ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Haloperidol Haloperidol is a first-generation (typical) antipsychotic that is a commonly used drug worldwide. Haloperidol is used for positive symptoms of schizop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hepatic Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver secondary to chronic injury, leading to alteration of the normal lobular orga ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Keratitis Herpes simplex virus can cause infection in the eye. Recurrent infection of the cornea due to this virus causes herpes simplex keratitis. It can easil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hot Flashes Hot flashes are sudden-onset, spontaneous, and episodic sensations of warmth usually felt on the chest, neck, and face immediately followed by an outb ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hydrochlorothiazide Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide-type diuretic which has been used clinically for more than half a century. The drug has been widely used to t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hydromorphone Hydromorphone is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate to severe acute pain as well as severe chronic pain. It is in the opioi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hydroxyurea Toxicity Hydroxyurea is an antineoplastic agent used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation in the treatment of resistant leuke ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hymenoptera Stings The Hymenoptera order includes over 150,000 different species of flying and non-flying insects. Some species within this order have modified oviposito ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hyperhidrosis Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating due to over-stimulation of cholinergic receptors on eccrine glands. This pathologic disorder is char ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels within the body. It is a very com ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Coma Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) is a clinical condition that arises from a complication of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes accounts for a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypertensive Emergency A hypertensive emergency is an acute, marked elevation in blood pressure that is associated with signs of target-organ damage. These can include pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypoaldosteronism Hypoaldosteronism is a clinical condition characterized by a deficiency of aldosterone or its impaired action at the tissue level. The disorder may re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypokalemia One of the most common electrolyte disturbances seen in clinical practice is hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is more prevalent than hyperkalemia, and most ca ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypotension Hypotension is a decrease in systemic blood pressure below accepted low values. While there is not an accepted standard hypotensive value, pressures l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
ICU Delirium Delirium is defined by DSM-5 criteria as an impairment in attention and awareness that develops over a relatively short time interval that is associat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Imatinib Imatinib is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other malignancies ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Imiquimod Imiquimod is a medication used in the management and treatment of anogenital warts, superficial basal cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. It is in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Indinavir Indinavir is an alpha-amino acid amide protease inhibitor used as a treatment therapy for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, which can lea ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Indomethacin Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug with broad applications. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Influenza Vaccine Influenza viruses belong to Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus family and classify into three distinct types based on their major antigenic differences; influ ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Insulin Insulin is a medication used in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus type-1 and sometimes diabetes mellitus type-2, both of which are a s ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Interferon Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune dise ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a pooled antibody and a biological agent used in the management of various immunodeficiency states and a plethora ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Iontophoresis Analgesic Medications Analgesic iontophoresis is the administration of analgesic medications via iontophoresis used in the management and treatment of pain. The technique m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ipratropium Ipratropium maintenance therapy has well-established benefits for treatment of chronic obstructive lung disease. Mortality in chronic obstructive lung ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Irinotecan Irinotecan is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of solid tumors. It is in the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor class of drug ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Iron Supplementation Iron is a medication used in the management and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. This activity illustrates the indications, action, and contraind ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Isosorbide Isosorbide is a medication used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris in patients with coronary heart disease. It is in the nitrate class ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ivabradine Ivabradine is FDA-approved in the United States for use in patients with symptoms due to stable heart failure and an ejection fraction of 35% or less ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ketamine In Acute and Chronic Pain Management Acute and chronic pain remain important health problems both in the United States and worldwide. With the rise in the prevalence of many chronic degen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ketamine Toxicity Ketamine is a structural analog of the dissociative anesthetic and recreational drug phencyclidine (PCP). Similar to phencyclidine, ketamine causes an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ketorolac Ketorolac is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute moderate to severe pain. It is in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug clas ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Klebsiella Pneumonia In 1882, Carl Friedlander first described Klebsiella pneumoniae as an encapsulated bacillus after isolating the bacterium from the lungs of those who ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Labetalol Due to their negative inotropic and chronotropic actions, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists are typically indicated in individuals with chronic car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lamotrigine Lamotrigine can be used to treat the following partial seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, bipolar I disorder maintenance and Lennox- ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Latanoprost Latanoprost is an eye drop formulation for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle gla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Late Onset Depression In the older population, one of the serious health concerns that are associated with comorbidity, impaired functioning, excessive use of health care ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Laxatives Constipation is a common diagnosis that requires proper evaluation and appropriate treatment. The approach to a patient with chronic constipation incl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Left Atrial Enlargement Left atrial enlargement (LAE) is an anatomic variation of the left atria and is a result of increased left atrial pressure for a prolonged period. Lef ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Leucovorin Leucovorin is a medication used in the treatment of methotrexate toxicity and chemotherapy regimens. Leucovorin is a folate analog. This activity revi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Leukocytosis Leukocytosis has a variety of etiologies with which clinicians of all backgrounds should be familiar. This activity outlines the evaluation of leukocy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Leuprolide Leuprolide is a medication used in the management and treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, precocious puberty, and other sex ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Levodopa (L-Dopa) Levodopa is the precursor to dopamine. Most commonly, clinicians use levodopa as a dopamine replacement agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Levofloxacin Levofloxacin is FDA-approved for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, acute bacterial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Levothyroxine Oral levothyroxine is primarily indicated for the treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism. Primary hypothyroidism is when the pro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lidocaine Toxicity Lidocaine is a local anesthetic drug that produces transient loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function when the drug is injected or applied in pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Linezolid Linezolid is a synthetic oxazolidinone antimicrobial drug. It is indicated for gram-positive infections and approved for the treatment of bacterial pn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lipid Lowering Drug Therapy Patients at an increased risk of having a cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or uns ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lisinopril Lisinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Lisinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative, intracellular, gram-positive rod that is responsible for causing the infection listeriosis. Listeria causes s ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Loop Diuretics Loop diuretics are medications used in the management and treatment of fluid overload conditions such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Lorazepam Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine medication commonly used as the sedative and anxiolytic of choice in the inpatient setting owing to its fast (1 to 3 min ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Losartan Losartan is FDA approved for the treatment of several medical conditions, which include the following: hypertension, diabetic nephropathy. ARBs are kn ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Lovastatin Lovastatin is a lipid-lowering medication part of the statin drug class used in the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease, hypercholester ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium sulfate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple clinical conditions and holds several on and off label uses. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Male Urinary Retention Urinary retention is the inability to void urine voluntarily. It is a common problem around the world and can occur acutely or chronically. Acute rete ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
MALToma The neoplastic proliferation of B cells in the marginal zone of lymphoid tissue gives rise to marginal zone B cell lymphomas. Mucosa-associated lympho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Management of Antithrombotics Around Gastrointestinal Procedures Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are used to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients at high risk. However, when these patients need ga ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
MAO Inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO Inhibitors) are medications used in the management and treatment of depression, among other neurological and psychia ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Meclizine Meclizine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness caused by motion sickness and vertigo. Meclizine bel ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medication Dispensing Errors And Prevention Close to 6,800 prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States. To further complicate a practitioner' ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Megestrol Megestrol is a medication used in the management and treatment of significant, inexplicable weight loss in HIV/AIDS patients and anorexia or cachexia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Melanosis Coli First described by Andral and Cruveilhier in 1830, Melanosis coli is a condition associated with the deposition of lipofuscin (not melanin as the name ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Memantine Memantine is an antagonist of the NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate)-receptor subtype of glutamate receptor. It is used to slow the neurotoxicity thought to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Meperidine Meperidine is in the class of phenylpiperidine as a hydrochloride salt synthetic form of the opioid. Meperidine is used for the treatment of moderate ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mesna Mesna is a medication used in the management and treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with chemotherapy. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Metformin Metformin, FDA-approved in 1994, is an antidiabetic agent used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin comes in both immediate-release and extended-rel ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Methimazole Methimazole has effects in the production of thyroid hormone and is useful in treating conditions related to thyroid hormone, especially thyrotoxicosi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methocarbamol Methocarbamol is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute musculoskeletal pain. It is in the skeletal muscle relaxant class of medic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methotrexate Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite most commonly used in chemotherapy and immunosuppressant in auto-immune diseases. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Methyldopa Methyldopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the centrally acting anti-hypertensive class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone is an FDA-approved medication for the management and treatment of allergic conditions, arthritis, asthma exacerbations, long-term a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Metoclopramide Metoclopramide has been approved by the FDA specifically to treat nausea and vomiting in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or diabetic gas ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Metolazone Metolazone is a cardiovascular agent, specifically a quinazoline diuretic related to the thiazide class. It is available in a generic formulation in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mexiletine Mexiletine is largely used to suppress ventricular arrhythmias but also has a role in peripheral neuropathy and chronic pain, although the use for eit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Microalbuminuria The current definition of microalbuminuria (MA) is an amount of urinary albumin that is greater than the normal value, but also lower than what is det ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Midazolam Intravenous midazolam is used for the induction of anesthesia and also in the management of acute seizures. Because of its water-soluble nature, midaz ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common artery involved in acute stroke. It branches directly from the internal carotid artery and consist ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Migraine Medications This activity will review treatments for acute migraines and migraine prophylaxis. It will highlight various classes of medications and their mechanis ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Milk Thistle Herbal products have become increasingly popular, especially among those with chronic disease. Milk thistle has been used for hundreds of years by her ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Milk-Alkali Syndrome Milk-alkali syndrome is characterized by a triad of elevated levels of calcium, metabolic alkalosis, and acute kidney injury that commonly occurs as a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Minocycline Minocycline is a medication used in the management and treatment of both infectious and non-infectious conditions. It is in the tetracycline class of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mirabegron Mirabegron is a medication used in the management of overactive bladder. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medications. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Misoprostol Misoprostol has four primary effects: cytoprotection of the gastrointestinal mucosa, uterotonic, diarrhea, and abdominal pain (diarrhea and abdominal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mitomycin Mitomycin is a medication used in the treatment of anal carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, breast carcinoma, head and neck malignancies, and some other gas ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Motion Sickness Motion sickness is a common and complex syndrome that occurs in response to either real or perceived motion. Its presentation can be diverse and may i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mucolytic Medications Mucolytics are drugs used in the management of mucus hypersecretion and its sequelae like recurrent infections in patients of COPD, cystic fibrosis, a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Muscarinic Agonists Muscarinic agonists are parasympathomimetic drugs and are indicated for ileus, urinary retention, glaucoma, Alzheimer disease, and other symptoms. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Muscarinic Antagonists The muscarinic antagonist is a class medication used in the management and treatment of numerous different conditions, including COPD and organophosph ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myxedema Myxedema coma is a rare fatal condition as a result of long-standing hypothyroidism with loss of the adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis. Hypot ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
N Acetylcysteine N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the mainstay of therapy for acetaminophen toxicity. NAC has FDA approval for the treatment of potentially hepatotoxic doses ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nadolol Nadolol is a medication used in the treatment of angina and hypertension, which are significant risk factors for the development of coronary artery di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Naproxen Naproxen is FDA-approved for the treatment of acute gout, ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, osteoarthriti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Natalizumab Natalizumab is an FDA-approved, monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. The drug was originally appr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Nebivolol Nebivolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neostigmine Neostigmine is water-soluble, an ionized compound that reversibly inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Its FDA indication is for the reversal of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nephrotoxic Medications Numerous drugs used in the management and treatment of multiple diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and other pathologies, are nephrotoxic. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nerve Agents Nerve agents represent a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in toxicology and emergency medicine. Patients affected by nerve agents pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Agent Toxicity The use of these neuroleptic agents has become more widespread. Knowledge of the toxicity and adverse effects associated with their use is becoming pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nevirapine Nevirapine is a drug used in the management and treatment of HIV. It is in the NNRTI class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, act ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Niacin The uses of niacin are yet to be fully comprehended and embraced. This activity assists in improving knowledge of the benefits niacin has to offer, no ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Niacin Toxicity Niacin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperlipidemia. It is in the vitamin supplement class of drugs. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nicotinic Acid Deficiency Dietary deficiency of niacin results in pellagra. It is characterized by dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, and eventually death if not treated by giving ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nifedipine Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker in the dihydropyridine subclass. It is primarily used as an antihypertensive and as an anti-anginal medication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nimodipine Nimodipine is a second-generation 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It was initially invented for the management of systemic hypertension. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nitrates Nitrates are useful in the management and treatment of angina. They are a group of medications that cause vasodilation by donating nitric oxide. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nitric Oxide Nitric oxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn ( ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin is a vasodilatory drug used primarily to provide relief from anginal chest pain. It is currently FDA approved for the acute relief of a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nocardiosis Nocardiosis is an infectious disease caused by Nocardia that classically manifests as an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts. Pulmonary ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nocturnal Cough A cough is an essential protective and defensive reflex that the body uses to remove mucus, noxious substances, and irritants from the larynx, trachea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung cancer is a diagnosis that has become a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer includes the subsets of adenocarcinom ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms originating from the lymphoid tissues, mainly the lymph nodes. These tumors may result due to c ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDs are a class of medications used to treat pain, fever, and other inflammatory processes. This activity describes the indications, mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Toxicity As a class, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, commonly abbreviated as NSAIDs, are chemically varied, yet share similar therapeutic and adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Norepinephrine Untreated hypotension can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Norepinephrine is a first-line agent for hypotension that does not respon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Normocalcemic Hyperparathyroidism Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (nHPT) is a condition characterized by normal serum calcium in the face of elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). It ca ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
NPH Insulin NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) insulin is a medication used in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus, which is a significant risk factor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nursing Home Acquired Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the lower respiratory tract, involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi, and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Pneum ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Obstructive Uropathy Obstructive uropathy is a hindrance to normal urinary flow that can be caused by a variety of structural and functional etiologies. This is a common a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Octreotide Octreotide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acromegaly and thyrotrophinomas. It is in the somatostatin analog class of drugs. T ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ocular Neuropathic Pain Ocular neuropathic pain is a diagnosis of exclusion which refers to the heightened perception of pain in response to normally non-painful stimuli. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ofloxacin Ofloxacin is a medication in the fluoroquinolone class used in the treatment of multiple gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Olanzapine Olanzapine is a second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic medication. The FDA has approved this medication for schizophrenia if the patient is over t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ondansetron Ondansetron is one of the medications most commonly used for empiric treatment. Ondansetron has extreme utility as an antiemetic drug, and it is effec ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Opioid Opioids are medications used in the management and treatment of pain, cough, or diarrhea. This activity outlines the indications, actions, and contrai ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Opioid Antagonists Opioid receptor antagonists block one or more of the opioid receptors in the central or peripheral nervous system. Opioid receptors are specific trans ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Opioid Induced Constipation Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) accounts for between 40 and sixty percent of patients without cancer receiving opioids. Laxatives must be started at ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Opioid Use Disorder Opioid use disorder has a significant impact on the quality of life. It is an epidemic in the United States. The persistent use of opioids should be d ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Oral transmucosal fentanyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of breakthrough pain. It is in the class of short-acting synthetic opi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Orthostatic Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing from a sitting or supine position. Clinically, this is diagnosed b ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Osteopenia Osteopenia describes a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) below normal reference values, yet not low enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for os ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is defined as low bone mineral density caused by altered bone microstructure ultimately predisposing patients to low-impact, fragility fr ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Osteoporosis In Females Osteoporosis is commonly encountered in older women with no underlying risk factors. This activity provides an overall basic and specialist knowledge ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Osteoporosis In Males Osteoporosis is a silent disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone microarchitecture leading to fragility and increa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oxaliplatin Oxaliplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. It is in the platinum-based chemotherapeutic class o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oxazepam Oxazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, management of anxiety disorders, and tension. This activity w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oxybutynin Oxybutynin is an anticholinergic medication that is indicated in patients with overactive bladder or symptoms of detrusor overactivity, including urin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Oxycodone Oxycodone is a potent opioid which can be useful when used judiciously for pain. However, it can cause physical dependence and addiction. The immediat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pain Management Medications Analgesics are medications used in the management and treatment of pain. They include several classes of medications (acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Palliative Care The World Health Organization characterizes the field of palliative care as a form of specialized medical care which aims to optimize the quality of l ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Pamidronate Pamidronate is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate or severe hypercalcemia of malignancy, moderate to severe Paget disease o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pancuronium Pancuronium bromide is a long-acting, bis-quaternary aminosteroid, non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD), which was first synthesized i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Panic Disorder Panic disorder is fairly common in the general population. Among all anxiety disorders, it has the highest number of medical visits and serves as a ve ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pantoprazole Pantoprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) widely used in hospitals and outpatient settings. Pantoprazole has approval from the Food and Drug Admin ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Parasympathomimetic Medications Parasympathomimetics are a class of medications that activate the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking or modifying the effects of acetylcholin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parkinson Disease Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly presents in later life with generalized slowing of movements (bradykinesia) and at least ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Parkinsonism Parkinsonism is a motor syndrome that manifests as rigidity, tremors, and bradykinesia. Parkinsonism is caused by Parkinson disease in about eighty pe ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Parotitis Parotitis is caused by duct obstruction (such as sialolithiasis), infectious organisms (viruses or bacteria), or inflammatory conditions (such as Sjog ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Paroxetine Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is used to treat several diseases, including major depressive disorder, obsessive-co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
PCSK9 Inhibitors Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by extremely high levels of total and LDL-cholesterol, premature vascular disease, and tendon xanthomas ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
PDE5 Inhibitor The discovery of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5 inhibitors) for causing the erection of the penis was accidental, noticed as a side effect while ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pegfilgrastim Pegfilgrastim is a pegylated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor that is FDA-approved to decrease the risk of patients developing febrile neutropeni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pentoxifylline Pentoxifylline is a drug used in the management of peripheral vascular disease. It is a xanthine derivative. This activity outlines the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy (PN) encompasses a broad range of clinical pathologies potentially presenting with peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Patien ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pernicious Anemia Pernicious anemia (PA) is megaloblastic anemia resulting from a deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12), which in turn is caused by a lack of intrinsic ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Pharmacologic Therapy For Obesity Obesity is a metabolic disease represented by excessive adipose tissue. Its classification is based on the body mass index (BMI), which is a relations ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pharmacological Cardioversion Cardioversion is the process of converting an abnormal and potentially dangerous heart rhythm into a normal sinus rhythm. The normal heart rate comes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Phenelzine The FDA-approved indications for phenelzine include the management of treatment-resistant depression, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Phe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are class medications used in the management and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), erectile dysfu ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Physostigmine Physostigmine is a medication most commonly used in the management and treatment of antimuscarinic toxicity as well as glaucoma. This article will hig ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pilocarpine Pilocarpine is a medication used in the management and treatment of xerostomia and glaucoma. It is a muscarinic receptor agonist. This activity descri ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pimavanserin Pimavanserin is a medication used in the treatment and management of the hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson disease psychosis. It ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pioglitazone Pioglitazone is a drug used in the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM-2). It belongs to the class of medications called thiazoli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pitavastatin Pitavastatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia. It is in the statin class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Plaque Psoriasis Psoriasis is the most prevalent immune-mediated inflammatory disease. It involves skin and in some cases, joints, and can be associated with abnormali ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunoc ... Read the Article 2.25 35 Activity Info
Polyarticular Arthritis Clinicians frequently encounter patients with a complaint of "all my joints hurt." In reality, many of these patients have either transient self-limi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Polyethylene Glycol Polyethylene glycol is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the laxative class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Polygenic Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia causes atherosclerotic vascular disease leading to the development of coronary artery disease, transient ischemic attack, stroke, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Polypharmacy The term polypharmacy refers to the use of 5 or more medications, based on a review of current data. Aging places individuals at risk of multi-morbidi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy Portosystemic or hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a neuropsychiatric syndrome due to a portosystemic shunt. The causative factor is increased ammo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Posterior Myocardial Ischemia Posterior myocardial infarction (PMI) accounts for a substantial number of cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, true PMI is often under-re ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postherpetic Neuralgia Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common long-term complication of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. This reactivation of the dormant ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Potassium Chloride Potassium chloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypokalemia. It is in the electrolyte supplement class of medications. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Potassium Iodide Potassium Iodide (KI) has effects in the production of thyroid hormone and is useful in treating conditions related to thyroid hormone, especially sev ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Prasugrel Prasugrel is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous intervention. Prasugrel is a thienop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pravastatin Pravastatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. It falls und ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prazosin Prazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, PTSD associated nightmares, and Raynaud p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is administering antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infections. The ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Primary Osteoarthritis Primary osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis that affects adults and the elderly. All providers, but especially primary care physicians ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Procainamide Procainamide is a medication used in the management and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias, atrial flutter/fibrillatio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Procaine Procaine is a medication used for analgesia before a procedural intervention. It is in the local anesthetics class of drugs. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prochlorperazine Prochlorperazine is a first-generation antipsychotic. FDA indications include schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and other conditions presenting with sym ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Propranolol Propranolol can be used to ameliorate the sympathetic response in angina, tachyarrhythmias, prevention of acute ischemic attacks, migraine prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Prostaglandin E1 Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a medication used in the management of erectile dysfunction as well as ductus arteriosus in neonates. It is a smooth muscle ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Prostate Abscess A prostate abscess is a complication resulting from the acute infectious process of the prostate. This activity outlines the pathogenesis and evaluati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) comes from the process of ion-exchange chromatography from the cryoprecipitate supernatant of large plasma pools ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI) Proton pump inhibitors represent a class of medications used to treat a wide variety of pathologies related to the stomach's acid production. This act ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Protriptyline Protriptyline hydrochloride is a tricyclic antidepressant used to improve mood in people with depression. It is also useful in treating anxiety. It is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Psychosis Psychosis is a loose description of an amalgamation of psychological symptoms resulting in a loss of contact with reality. It is thought that although ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Pulseless Electrical Activity Pulseless electrical activity (PEA), also known as electromechanical dissociation, is a clinical condition characterized by unresponsiveness and impal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Pulseless ventricular tachycardia is a serious condition with high mortality and morbidity that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
QT Prolonging Drugs The heart has an electrical system that allows it to contract in a rhythm. A key aspect of this electrical system is depolarization and repolarization ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Quinapril Quinapril is a medication utilized in the management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease. This activity rev ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Quinidine Quinidine is one of the oldest known antiarrhythmics; an interprofessional approach is necessary when using this drug, including specialties such as c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Quinolones Quinolones are a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics used in the management and treatment of many different bacterial infections. This activity review ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Radiation Proctitis Radiation proctitis refers to injury or damage of the rectum secondary to radiation therapy. It is postulated that almost half of all patients with pe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ramipril Ramipril is an ACE-inhibitor which is used for several indications. These include hypertension, prevention of heart failure progression post-myocardia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ranibizumab Ranibizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration, macular edema following retinal vein ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ranitidine Ranitidine is FDA-approved for both adults and children aged 1 month to 16 years. Ranitidine, over-the-counter for self-care use without a prescriptio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Red Man Syndrome Red man syndrome (RMS) is an anaphylactoid reaction caused by the rapid infusion of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. RMS consists of a pruritic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Reflux Esophagitis Esophageal reflux is considered the most common disease encountered by the gastroenterologists, and it contributes to a large proportion of cases trea ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Regular Insulin Regular insulin is a medication used in the management of Diabetes Mellitus and hyperglycemia of a variety of etiologies. It is in the short-acting in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Renal Calculi Renal calculi are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. They occur in one in 11 people at some ti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Repaglinide Repaglinide is a medication used in the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus Type 2. It is in the antihyperglycemic class of drugs. This acti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Reserpine Reserpine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Restless Leg Syndrome Restless leg syndrome, or Willis-Ekbom Disease, is a common chronic movement disorder in which patients have an irresistible urge to move their legs. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors Reverse transcriptase inhibitors are medications used in the management and treatment of HIV. It is in the antiretroviral class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ritonavir Ritonavir is a protease inhibitor used for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. It is seldom employed for its own antiviral activity but instead serves as a boo ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Rivaroxaban Rivaroxaban is used for treatment and management venous thromboembolism as a postoperative thromboprophylaxis for patients undergoing orthopedic surge ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rivastigmine Rivastigmine is a medication used in the management and treatment of neurodegenerative disease, specifically dementia in Alzheimer patients and Parkin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ropinirole Ropinirole is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless leg syndrome. It is a dopamine agonist (D2). The d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rosiglitazone Rosiglitazone is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the thiazolidinediones class of medications. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rosuvastatin Rosuvastatin is a statin medication used as a lipid-lowering agent. The FDA-approved indications are homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, hyperli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) Salicylates have been available since the early 1900s. This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, methods of administration, importa ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in organs. This condition mostly af ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Scopolamine Scopolamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness. It is in the anticho ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Seborrheic Dermatitis Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous skin disease that is most prevalent in infancy and middle age, and it usually presents differently in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Secondary Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a bone disorder which is characterized by a decrease in bone strength, resulting from reduced bone mineral density, microarchitectural ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Selective Beta-1-Blockers The cardio-selective beta-1-blockers include atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, and nebivolol. FDA approved uses of bet ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of medications that are most commonly prescribed for the treatment of depression. They are ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Selegiline Selegiline, a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, is FDA-approved as an adjunct treatment in the management of patients with Parkinson disease and as a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Selenium Selenium is a trace metal supplement used in the management and treatment of selenium deficiency. This activity reviews the indications, contraindicat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sertraline Sertraline is a medication used to manage and treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress di ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sevoflurane Sevoflurane is a halogenated inhalational anesthetic that is FDA approved for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adults and pediat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Short Term Insomnia Sleep is becoming an increasingly precious commodity as more and more people are reporting issues with sleep in our busy society. Issues with sleep ha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Sildenafil Sildenafil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is in the phosphodiest ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Simvastatin Simvastatin is an oral HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of lovastatin, the first FDA-app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sinus Tachycardia Sinus tachycardia is a regular cardiac rhythm in which the heart beats faster than normal. While it is common to have tachycardia as a physiological r ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Sjogren Syndrome Primary Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder commonly presenting with dryness involving the eyes and mouth due to inflammation and resul ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple disease pathologies. It is a general chemical compound by classifi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperkalemia. This activity outlines and reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Opioids In Anesthetic Practice Spinal opioids for use in anesthesia offers several advantages to systemic pain management. This occurs mainly through the mechanism of action when pl ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Spironolactone Spironolactone is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure with some indications aside from cardiovascular ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Stable Angina Angina affects 10 million people in the United States. Providers must be able to differentiate between stable angina and other causes of chest pain to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Staphylococcal Pneumonia Staphylococcal pneumonia is a disease process that requires prompt diagnosis, as sequelae can lead to complications such as severe necrotizing pneumon ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Staphylococcus Aureus Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacteria that cause a wide variety of clinical diseases. Infections caused by this pathogen are common both i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Statin Medications Statin medications are used in the management and treatment of hypocholesteremia. They are known to be inhibitors of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA red ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Streptococcal Meningitis Streptococcal meningitis is an acute, purulent inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord caused by bacteria from the Strepto ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Streptokinase Streptokinase can be useful in the management and treatment of acute ST-segment myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Streptomycin Streptomycin is the first discovered aminoglycoside antibiotic, originally isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces griseus. It is now primarily used a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Stroke Anticoagulation Anticoagulation is a class of medications used in the management and prevention of stroke. This activity outlines the role, indications, action, and c ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Stroke Prevention There is a significant overlap between the risk factors accounting for cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular events. The INTERHEART study looked a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardial surfaces of the heart, which includes 1 or more heart valves. The incidence of infectiv ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Sucralfate Sucralfate is a medication used in the treatment of duodenal ulcers, epithelial wounds, chemotherapy-induced mucositis, radiation proctitis, ulcers in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sulfonylureas Sulfonylureas represent a class of medications utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This activity outlines the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in a variety of settings. It should be noted that evidence suggests that patients with estro ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Terazosin Terazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as essential hypertension. Terazosin is a long- ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Terbinafine Terbinafine is an antifungal medication that works through the inhibition of squalene epoxidase. It has activity against most dermatophytes, and it ha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) THC or Tetrahydrocannabinol is the major psychoactive component and one of the 113 cannabinoids recognized in cannabis. A synthetic formulation of THC ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Thalidomide Thalidomide is a medication used in the management and treatment of advanced leprosy and multiple myeloma as well as various other solid and hematolog ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Theophylline Theophylline is a medication used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a second-line drug. It is a bronchodilator. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Therapeutic Uses Of Diuretic Agents Diuretics are a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous and other non-edematous disease conditions. Diuretics are a class of drug ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Thiazide Diuretics Thiazide diuretics are an FDA-approved class of drugs that inhibit the reabsorption of 3% to 5% of luminal sodium in the distal convoluted tubule of t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Thiazolidinediones Thiazolidinediones are medications used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These medications may be acting as a nuclear tran ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Thioridazine Similar to other first-generation or typical antipsychotics, thioridazine is a medication used to treat schizophrenia. Other indications for use inclu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Third Generation Cephalosporins Third-generation cephalosporins are medications used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. They are in the bet ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Thromboembolic Event Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease is the most feared complication of hospitalizations and is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortalit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Timolol Timolol is a medication used in the treatment and management of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tiotropium Tiotropium maintenance therapy has well-established benefits for the treatment of chronic obstructive lung disease. Mortality in chronic obstructive l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tissue Plasminogen Activator Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is classified as a serine protease (enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins). It is thus one of the essential ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Tizanidine Tizanidine is a myotonolytic agent FDA-approved for the management of spasticity, which may be caused by multiple sclerosis, an acquired brain injury, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Tobramycin Tobramycin is an antibiotic used in the management and treatment of systemic and ocular infections. It is a type of aminoglycoside. This activity desc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tolcapone Tolcapone is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson disease. It is in the catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor class of dru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome Tolosa Hunt syndrome (THS), also known as painful ophthalmoplegia, recurrent ophthalmoplegia, or ophthalmoplegia syndrome, is described as severe and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tolterodine Tolterodine is a medication used in the management and treatment of overactive bladder. It is in the antimuscarinic class of medications. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Torsemide Torsemide is a loop diuretic extensively used in the management of heart failure, renal disease, and cirrhosis. Torsemide acts on electrolyte channels ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Toxic Megacolon Toxic megacolon is a rare, but potentially deadly complication of colonic inflammation. It is defined as a nonobstructive dilation of the colon, which ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tracheal Intubation Medications Endotracheal intubation is indicated in many clinical settings, such as impending respiratory failure and when protecting the patient airway. The foll ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tramadol Tramadol is an FDA approved medication for pain relief. It has specific indications for moderate to severe pain. It is considered a class IV drug by t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Transient Ischemic Attack A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a medical emergency. It is defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction due to focal brain, spinal co ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Treprostinil Treprostinil is a medication used in the management and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). This activity outlines and reviews the indi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Triamterene Triamterene is a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous states. It is in the potassium-sparing diuretics class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tricyclic Antidepressants Tricyclic antidepressants are a class of medications used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder. This activity reviews the indi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Tropicamide Tropicamide is a safe drug used for pupillary dilation prior to a comprehensive eye exam or ocular procedure. Dilation is also necessary for specific ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tubulointerstitial Nephritis Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is a group of immune-mediated inflammatory disease that involves the interstitium and tubules. Inflammation of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Urge Incontinence Urge incontinence is a type of urinary incontinence in adults, which involves sudden compelling urges to void and results in involuntary leakage of ur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Urinary Incontinence Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine. This condition is prevalent in elderly adults, impacting both health and quality of life, bu ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Vaccine (Vaccination) Immunization is a successful use of immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Valproate Toxicity Valproate is a commonly prescribed anticonvulsant used in the treatment of seizure and bipolar disorders. Valproate has also been utilized for the tre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Valproic Acid Valproic acid is an anticonvulsive and mood stabilizer medication. It is extensively used in the adult population for the treatment of convulsions, mi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Varenicline Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the human population and poses as one of the most modifiable risk factors towards preventing ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Varicella Zoster Chickenpox or varicella is a contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus is responsible for chickenpox (usually primary i ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Vemurafenib Vemurafenib is FDA-approved for metastatic and unrespectable melanoma with V600 mutation, and Erdheim- Chester disease (non-Langerhans histiocytic dis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia is characterized as a wide complex tachyarrhythmia. It is classified by duration as non-sustained or sustained. Non-sustained ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or Prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Vincristine Vincristine belongs to a group of drugs known as the vinca alkaloids. Vinca alkaloids are organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Violent Patients Violence in healthcare is a worldwide and critical issue. In 2017, the Bureau of Labor and Statistics reported that healthcare workers are five times ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Vismodegib Initially approved in 2012, vismodegib is the first FDA-approved pharmacologic agent that targets the Hedgehog signaling pathway (sonic hedgehog, SHH) ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency Thiamine, or vitamin B1, was the first vitamin identified to be identified. It functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through decarboxyla ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential vitamin and medication used in the management and treatment of pernicious anemia, ileal resection, treatment o ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Vitamin B3 Niacin is a medication used in the management and treatment of pellagra and hyperlipidemia. It is part of the B complex vitamins. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Vitamin B6 Toxicity This activity describes the toxicity associated with vitamin B6 at higher doses. It explains in detail the pathophysiology and toxicokinetics of vitam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Vitamin C is a water-soluble vitamin, antioxidant, and essential co-factor for collagen biosynthesis, carnitine and catecholamine metabolism, and diet ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin C Deficiency Vitamin C deficiency, also known as scurvy, is a disease primarily associated with socioeconomic status and access to food. Signs and symptoms are oft ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Vitamin E Toxicity Vitamin E toxicity can cause major bleeding events. These can be serious, including the potential for intracranial hemorrhage. To avoid the morbidity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin K Vitamin K is a medication used in the management and treatment of bleeding due to the coagulation disorder caused by warfarin and vitamin K deficiency ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Warfarin Warfarin is a medication used in the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and thromboembolic events. It is in the anticoagulant class of dru ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Warfarin Drug Interactions Warfarin has FDA approval for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its complications, such as a pulmonary embolus. It is also indica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Zaleplon Insomnia is a highly prevalent disorder in the US and worldwide. Insomnia is defined as the presence of long sleep latency, frequent nocturnal awakeni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ziconotide Ziconotide is a newer, intrathecal analgesic medication used for the treatment of chronic pain. Its FDA indication is for the treatment of chronic sev ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Zinc Zinc is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the mineral and supplemental class of drugs. This activity outlines th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ziprasidone Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and acute agitation in schizophrenic patients. Because it antagon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Zolpidem Zolpidem is a non-benzodiazepine receptor modulator primarily used in the FDA approved short-term treatment of insomnia aimed at patients with difficu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info

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