NP-Women's Health Care CE

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All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the National Certification Corporation (NCC®) WHNP-BC® content outlines. 639 authors and 21 editors have contributed to the development of the NP-Women's Health Care content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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NP-Women's Health Care Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abdominal Hysterectomy This activity describes the current status of abdominal hysterectomy, which represents the most common gynecologic surgical procedure performed in the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Abortion Abortion is one of the common procedures performed among women. In the US, in 2014, one in 5 pregnancies ended in abortion, and one in 4 women is esti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Abortion Complications Roughly one million abortions are performed each year in the United States alone. The total abortion-related complication rate is estimated to be abou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used to treat and manage hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease, heart failure, s ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Antiretroviral Therapy Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a significant health problem worldwide. Advances in treatment have made this disease not only manageable but ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Active Tuberculosis Active tuberculosis is a condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection; typically in the lungs, although many systems can be involved ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Acute Mastitis Mastitis can be broken down into lactational and non-lactational causes. While non-lactational causes of mastitis are less common, lactational mastiti ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Acyclovir Acyclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is FDA approved to treat gen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adenomyosis Adenomyosis is a gynecologic condition characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue within the uterine myometrium. Presenting signs and symptoms vary, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) frequently occur in our medical system, and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome tha ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Alendronate Alendronate is FDA-approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used to manage and treat severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of 5-HT receptor a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Thalassemia Hemoglobin H disease (alpha-thalassemia) can be found in patients that live in areas with a high incidence of malaria. Symptoms at presentation, such ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation during the reproductive years of a woman's life. Physiological states of amenorrhea are seen, mos ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is the aspiration of amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity and is the most common invasive fetal testing procedure. It is usually perf ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amniotic Band Syndrome Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises various congenital anomalies, which include disruption, deformation, and malformations of organs that were inte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amniotic Fluid Embolism Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare entity, but one which has very high mortality and morbidity rates. This article will explain the clinical pres ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Anabolic Steroid Toxicity Anabolic steroids such as testosterone are produced naturally and enhance protein synthesis at the cellular level. There are also synthetic analogs av ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a common etiology of sexual developmental disorders and results in varying phenotypes. These disorders of and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anembryonic Pregnancy A blighted ovum, also known as an anembryonic pregnancy, occurs when a fertilized egg implants and a gestational (embryonic) sac forms and grows, but ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Anovulatory Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction causes irregular and often heavy menses. This condition, if left untreated, can have a signific ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antepartum Care Antepartum care comprises a significant percentage of health maintenance visits in the United States. Also referred to as prenatal care, antepartum ma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiemetic Neurokinin-1 Receptor Blockers Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a new class of antiemetic drugs that possess unique anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiemetic properties ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
APGAR Score In 1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at Columbia University, developed the Apgar score. Serendipitously, APGAR is also a useful mnemonic t ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Arnold Chiari Malformation Arnold-Chiari or Chiari malformations describe a group of deformities of the posterior fossa and hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and m ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Asherman Syndrome Asherman syndrome (intrauterine adhesions or intrauterine synechiae) occurs when scar tissue forms inside the uterus and/or the cervix. These adhesion ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the properly collected urine of a patient that has no signs or symptoms of a urinary tract inf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrophic Vaginitis Atrophic vaginitis is an inflammatory process that occurs in clients experiencing vaginal atrophy. Vaginal atrophy develops secondary to a lack of est ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a pathology finding, usually found incidentally on biopsy of the breast. ADH is associated with an increased risk ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a category of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities described by the Bethesda system ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Autoimmune Hepatitis and Pregnancy Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disorder usually characterized by circulating autoantibodies and elevated serum globulin le ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a condition caused by an overgrowth of normal vaginal flora. Most commonly, this presents clinically with increased vaginal dis ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bartholin Gland Cyst A Bartholin gland cyst is usually a unilateral, asymptomatic blockage of the Bartholin gland that may be incidentally discovered during a pelvic exam ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Benign Breast Calcifications Benign breast calcifications are common. If benign breast calcifications are not appropriately identified, unnecessary intervention and use of finite ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Beta Thalassemia Thalassemias are a common cause of microcytic anemia and are due to impaired synthesis of the globin protein component of hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bicornuate Uterus A bicornuate uterus is a uterine malformation that is produced due to impairment in the fusion of Mullerian ducts. The bicornuate uterus is a rare ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Biofeedback Biofeedback is a technique to augment the normal sensory feedback and allow better control of body functions that are usually considered involuntary. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bishop Score In 1964, Edward Bishop set forth criteria for elective induction of labor which included parity, gestational age, fetal presentation, obstetric histor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in treating ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Black Cohosh Black Cohosh, or Cimicifuga racemosa, is a perennial dicot of the Buttercup family native to the Eastern half of the United States and Canada. It is a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Body Fluid Exposures Health care workers have serious concerns about exposure to bodily fluids. Accidental exposures to bodily fluids present a wide variety of issues to h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Boutonneuse Fever Boutonneuse fever is a disease caused by the rickettsia genus and is of the spotted fever group classification. This disease classically causes fever, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bowenoid Papulosis Bowenoid papulosis is an uncommon sexually transmitted condition that occurs in both males and females. It is characterized by multiple well-demarcate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brachytherapy Brachytherapy is a procedure to treat and manage cancers. It acts by placing sources containing radioactive isotopes that emit radiation for a specifi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
BRCA 1 and 2 Breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes whose mutations significantly increase the likelihood of developing particular types of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Breast Abscess Breast abscesses are a common problem, especially in lactating women. Most breast abscesses are benign. However, when a non-lactating patient presents ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Breast Biopsy With improved screening and diagnostic techniques, the incidence and prevalence of breast cancer are rising worldwide. In 2018 alone, there were 2.2 m ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Conservation Therapy Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in the world. The rapid growth of breast conservation therapy has significantl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Breast Examination Techniques The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many levels and across many specialties. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Breast Implant Rupture Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure designed to enhance the size of the patient's breasts, using implants (saline or silicone) or fat transfer ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Breast Implants Breast implants are used for breast augmentation in aesthetic as well as oncoplastic surgery. The various types of implants over the years have had di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Over the past several years, magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an increasingly important modality for screening for and diagnosing b ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Breast Nipple Discharge Nipple discharge is fluid that leaks from one or both nipples of non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding women. Nipple discharge can at times be a complex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Self Examination Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among female populations and is responsible for the second-highest number of cancer-related deaths in A ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Ultrasound Breast ultrasound is performed due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer amongst women globally. Ultrasound is typically used as an adjunct to m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breech Presentation Breech presentation refers to the fetus in the longitudinal lie with the buttocks or lower extremity entering the pelvis first. The three types of bre ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Brexanolone Brexanolone is a medication used in the treatment of postpartum depression in adult women. It is in the GABA-A modulator class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic. Originally the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but found not to be effective for psychosis, but it had anxio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cancer Breast Screening In women, breast cancer is number one in incidence and mortality when compared to all cancers. It is the most common non-skin cancer and second deadli ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cardiac Disease In Pregnancy Many cardiac diseases during pregnancy are under investigation, and many others which are still not understood require further inquiry. Some of these ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carney Complex Carney complex (CNC) is a rare genetic disorder associated with one of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Carney complex affects multip ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Caroli Disease Caroli disease is a rare inherited disorder involving segmental dilatation of large, intrahepatic bile ducts which appear as cysts on imaging and hist ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Castor Oil Castor oil is a vegetable oil made from Ricinus communis, a plant common in the Eastern areas of the world. Castor oil is most well known for its laxa ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cavum Septum Pellucidum The septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius, is a thin, triangular double membrane separati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime(CTX) is a medication used to manage and treat cervicitis/urethritis and pneumonia. Cefotaxime (CTX) is a beta-lactam antibiotic classified ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which includes thrombosis of the cerebral veins and the dural sinuses, is a rare disorder that can lead to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Primary prevention and screening are by far the most effective modalities for ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cervical Cerclage Cervical cerclage is performed as an attempt to prolong pregnancy in certain women who are at higher risk of preterm delivery. Cerclage placement may ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Dysplasia The Pap smear is responsible for decreasing the incidence of and mortality rates from cervical cancer. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a collection of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Ectropion Cervical ectropion is a benign gynecological condition and is regarded as a normal variant that frequently occurs in women of the reproductive age gro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Epidural Injection Cervical epidural corticosteroids can provide significant benefits in patients experiencing chronic neck pain secondary to cervical radiculopathy. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Incompetence Cervical insufficiency is the inability of the cervix to retain fetus, in the absence of uterine contractions or labor (painless cervical dilatation), ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Cervical cancer incidence and mortality have decreased due primarily to screening programs using the pap smear. As more outcome data has become availa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Intraepithelial Squamous Cell Lesion This article reviews the anatomy, natural history, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, compl ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cervicitis Cervicitis is the inflammation of the ectocervix, which can be infectious or non-infectious. Due to the association of serious complications like infe ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cesarean Section This activity reviews the cesarean section, and it highlights ways in which an interprofessional care team can impact the health of women and their ne ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Cetirizine Cetirizine is a medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. This activity reviews th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chediak Higashi Syndrome Chediak Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by easy bruising, oculocutaneous albinism and recurrent pyogen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chiari II Malformation Chiari II malformation is a relatively common congenital malformation of the posterior fossa and the spine characterized by beaked midbrain, downward ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Child Sexual Abuse And Neglect Sexual abuse of children is the involvement of children or adolescents in sexual activities that he or she does not fully comprehend and can include e ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Chloroprocaine Chloroprocaine is an ester class local anesthetic and is indicated for neuraxial anesthesia (caudal, epidural, and spinal) and peripheral nerve blocks ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis or gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small organ located just ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chorioamnionitis Chorioamnionitis is an infection that can occur before labor, during labor, or after delivery. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Chorioamnionitis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Choriocarcinoma Choriocarcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic type of trophoblastic disease. The 2 major types of choriocarcinoma are gestational and non-gestation ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chorionic Villus Sampling Chorionic villus sampling is a prenatal diagnostic test performed between 10 and 13 weeks gestation. This activity reviews the indications, risks, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Clindamycin Clindamycin is a medication used for the treatment of numerous infections, including but not limited to septicemia, intra-abdominal infections, lower ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clotrimazole Clotrimazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the imidazole class of drugs. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Colposcopy Colposcopy is a procedure in which a lighted, magnifying instrument called a colposcope is used to examine the cervix, vagina, and vulva. It is a diag ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Condyloma Acuminata Condyloma acuminata is a manifestation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The condition is characterized by skin-colored, fleshy papules in the ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Conization Of Cervix Conization of the cervix or cold knife cone (CKC) is a surgical procedure used to diagnose and treat cervical dysplasia or very early cervical cancer. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Conjoined Twins Conjoined twins refers to twins that are physically fused in utero and consequently at birth. This type of pregnancy is a complicated phenomenon that ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Corpus Callosum Agenesis The corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure containing 200 million axons, connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. Agenesis of the c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cowden Disease Cowden disease, also known as Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant genodermatosis and is a member of the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Cultural Competence in the Care of LGBTQ Patients The lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender or queer/questioning (LGBTQ) community consists of a cross cultural broad range of community members and inclu ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.75 16 Activity Info
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Cutaneous Endometriosis Cutaneous endometriosis can be divided into primary and secondary lesions. They comprise less than 1% of the total cases of endometriosis. However, wi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 2.75 43 Activity Info
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cystocele Bladder prolapse (cystocele) is a chronic condition during which a bladder herniates to the anterior vaginal wall. Due to the condition's progressive ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Danon Disease Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant genetic disorder that manifests with the clinical triad of cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathy, and intellectu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Deep Vein Thrombosis A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins, usually of the leg, but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mese ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Delayed Puberty Delayed puberty not infrequently occurs in the pediatric population and a common reason for referral to a pediatric endocrinologist. While it is usual ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Delivery, Face And Brow Presentation Face and brow presentation is a malpresentation during labor when the presenting part is either the face or, in the case of brow presentation, it is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dermatographism Dermatographism, also known as dermographism urticaria, or urticaria factitia, is an urticarial eruption upon pressure or trauma to the skin. The lite ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dermatoses of Pregnancy Skin changes during pregnancy may be physiological. However, some dermatoses are specific to pregnancy, while others are altered by pregnancy. These c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dextroamphetamine-Amphetamine Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine belongs to a class of drugs known as central nervous system stimulants. The Drug Enforcement Administration/Food and Dru ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Diabetic Embryopathy Maternal diabetes has several adverse effects on embryogenesis and fetal development and causes multiple congenital anomalies, and secondary medical c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dietary Calcium Adequate calcium intake, from either direct food sources or calcium supplements, is essential for nutrition in patients of all ages. This article will ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diffuse Toxic Goiter Goiter is an anatomical enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can be related with thyroid dysfunction or have normal thyroid function. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Domestic Violence Family and domestic violence is a common problem in the United States, affecting an estimated 10 million people every year; as many as one in four wom ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has sustained a niche for measuring bone mineral density since its approval by the Food and Drug Administratio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dysmenorrhea Dysmenorrhea can be classified as primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a lower abdominal pain happening during the menstrual cy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dyspareunia Dyspareunia is defined by genital pain that can be experienced before, during, or after intercourse. It is debatable whether this condition can be cla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dysuria Dysuria is a symptom of pain and/or burning, stinging, or itching of the urethra or urethral meatus with urination. It is a very common urinary sympto ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Ectopic Pregnancy, Ultrasound Ectopic pregnancy is a diagnosis that is quite challenging to make. It has been estimated that 40% of ectopic pregnancies go undiagnosed on initial pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
EMS Prehospital Deliveries There are approximately 3.9 million deliveries in the United States every year. Fortunately, most of these deliveries are appropriately anticipated an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Endometrial Ablation Endometrial ablation is a minimally invasive gynecologic surgical procedure designed to alleviate abnormal uterine bleeding in women who have met the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Endometrial Biopsy Endometrial biopsy is a simple and effective office-based procedure that samples the endometrium to allow for direct histological evaluation. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Endometrial Cancer Uterine endometrial cancer is the most prevalent gynecologic malignancy in American women and a major cause of both morbidity and mortality. Over 60,0 ... Read the Article 2 19 Activity Info
Endometrial Hyperplasia Endometrial hyperplasia is a common disorder due to exposure to exogenous or endogenous estrogen along with a relative deficiency of progesterone. It ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Endometrial Polyp Endometrial polyps refer to overgrowths of endometrial glands and stroma within the uterine cavity. Endometrial polyps vary in size from few millimete ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Endometrioma Endometriomas are cystic lesions that stem from the disease process of endometriosis. Endometriomas are most commonly found in the ovaries. They are f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Endometriosis Endometriosis is a chronic estrogen-dependent chronic condition characterized by the ectopic implantation of functional tissue lining the uterus (endo ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Endometritis Endometritis is inflammation of the uterine lining. It can affect all layers of the uterus. The uterus is typically aseptic. However, the travel of mi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Enterobius Vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis, also called pinworm, is one of the most common helminth infections in the world, with most cases occurring in children. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Blood Patch An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a procedure in which a small volume of autologous blood is injected into a patient's epidural space to stop a leak of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Morphine Epidural morphine is a medication used for analgesia, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, or as a sole technique for surgical anesthesia. Morphine wa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is also known as alloimmune HDFN or erythroblastosis fetalis. It is caused by the destruction of neo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Estradiol Estradiol is a medication used to manage and treat postmenopausal symptoms and for women who have had hysterectomies. Estradiol is the most potent est ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Estrogen Estrogen is a steroid hormone associated with the female reproductive organs and is responsible for the development of female sexual characteristics. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Estrogen Therapy Estrogen therapy is a form of hormone replacement therapy that is often used to manage and treat menopausal symptoms, especially vasomotor symptoms an ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
External Cephalic Version About 25 percent of fetuses will be in breech presentation at 28 weeks, though this decreases to roughly 3 to 4 percent at term. Most infants who are ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
External Hemorrhoid Hemorrhoid disease is a common pathology that can yield symptoms ranging from minimal discomfort or inconvenience to excruciating pain and significant ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Factor XIII Deficiency Factor XIII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that is challenging to recognize clinically. The lab tests such as the prothrombin time, INR, and a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fatty Liver In Pregnancy Acute fatty liver in pregnancy (AFLP) is an obstetric emergency and carries high morbidity and mortality, including death in the mother and her fetus. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Female Athlete Triad Female athletes often complain of low energy availability, which is defined as energy from oral nutrition less energy used for exercise. As such, low ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Female Infertility Infertility is a medical condition that can cause psychological, physical, mental, spiritual, and medical detriments to the patient. The unique qualit ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Female Urinary Retention Urinary retention, or the inability to voluntarily void urine, is one of the most prevalent presenting urologic complaints in the emergency department ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fetal Growth Restriction Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is most often defined as an estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age by prenatal ultras ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fetal Movement Fetal movements felt by pregnant women are a sign that the fetus is growing in size and strength. The mother is usually the first to feel these moveme ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fexofenadine Fexofenadine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic breast disease is the most common benign type of breast disease, diagnosed in millions of women worldwide. Certain hormonal factors underp ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. This activity illustrates the evaluation and management of fibro ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Fine Needle Aspiration Of Breast Masses Fine needle aspiration of breast masses is a type of biopsy performed using a small needle to obtain samples of tissue and fluid from solid or cystic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome is inflammation of the liver capsule with adhesion formation resulting in right upper quadrant pain. It is an uncommon, chro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluconazole Fluconazole is a member of the triazole family, one of the most widely used antifungal agents. It is an FDA-approved drug to treat vaginal candidiasis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluticasone Fluticasone is a medication used to manage and treat asthma, allergic rhinitis, emphysema, and atopic dermatitis. It is in the corticosteroid class of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Folic Acid Folic acid has FDA-approval for the treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias due to folic deficiency. Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Folic Acid Deficiency Folate is an essential water-soluble vitamin, naturally present in food, especially in fruits, green leafy vegetables, and liver. Folic acid is the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Forceps Delivery The use of forceps in infant delivery has fallen out of favor among obstetricians in the past three decades. Forceps deliveries now make up about only ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fulvestrant Fulvestrant is used in the management and treatment of advanced breast cancer. It is a selective estrogen receptor degrader. This activity outlines th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gardnerella Gardnerella vaginalis is an anaerobic bacterium that is the causative agent in bacterial vaginosis (BV). This bacteria normally is part of the vaginal ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare and extreme form of psoriasis characterized by the presence of sterile pustules. The incidence peaks between ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Genital Warts Genital warts (condyloma acuminatum) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. These are spread by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gestational Age Assessment Gestational age is a key piece of data used by healthcare providers to determine when to perform various screening tests and assessments of the fetus ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Gestational Diabetes The definition of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM can c ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Gestational Sac Evaluation The gestational sac is the first structure seen in pregnancy by ultrasound as early as 4.5 to 5 weeks of gestational age, but it is only 97.6% specifi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of tumors defined by abnormal trophoblastic proliferation. Trophoblast cells produce human chorioni ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) involves both benign and malignant entities that include hydatidiform mole (complete and partial), choriocarci ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ginseng There are many described uses for ginseng. Due to its antioxidative and potential neuromodulating effects, it has become a popular supplement in neuro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gonococcal Arthritis Gonococcal arthritis is arthritis that results from the bacteremic spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen. It comprises loca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Granuloma Inguinale Donovanosis, also known as granuloma inguinale, is a bacterial infection of the genital region caused by Klebsiella granulomatis. It is chronic and pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a gram-positive bacteria that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. It is known to cause both early o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gynecologic Examination The gynecological exam traditionally includes an examination of the external and internal genitalia. Under some conditions, it may be necessary to per ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hashimoto Thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which thyroid cel ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
HELLP Syndrome The syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, otherwise referred to as HELLP syndrome, has historically been classified as a co ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hemochromatosis Hemochromatosis is a disorder that causes excess iron deposition and, in turn, multiple organ dysfunction. Organs affected by hemochromatosis include ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Hemoglobin C Disease Hemoglobin C is a common hemoglobin variant that has a single amino acid substitution (lysine substituted for the glutamate) in the sixth position of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemolytic Diseases Of The Newborn Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is a red blood cell mismatch between mothers and their fetus that can cause significant morbidity and morta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hepatitis The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver — hepatitis most commonly results from viruses. But drugs, alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases, i ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Hepatitis A The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Picornaviridae. It replicates primarily within h ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hepatitis E Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is classified in the genus Orthohepevirus of the Hepeviridae family and is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the w ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Herald Patch A herald patch is an erythematous, 2 to 10 centimeter, round to oval scaly patch or plaque with a depressed center and raised border that frequently p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Neonatorum Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in the neonatal period continue to be troublesome for practitioners. In the 1970s, the drug vidarabine was intro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hidradenitis Suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also called acne inversus, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with lesions including deep-seated nodules and absc ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) encompasses the entities previously termed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2, CIN3, moderate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hirsutism Hirsutism is the growth of excessive male-pattern hair in women after puberty. It affects facial and body areas dependent on androgens, namely mustach ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
HIV In Pregnancy Several thousand HIV positive pregnant women give birth in the US annually. With proper management, these women can achieve viral suppression to undet ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
HIV Prophylaxis HIV prophylaxis is divided into two categories: post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PEP is the administration of anti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hormone Replacement Therapy Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is supplementing women with hormones that are lost during the menopausal transition. To relieve the symptoms associa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) is a vaccine used in the management and prevention of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Human Papillomavirus The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded, circular DNA virus that is responsible for causing multiple epithelial lesions and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Human Trafficking Human trafficking is a pressing public health concern which transcends all races, social classes, demographics, and gender. No population is exempt fr ... Read the Article 2 22 Activity Info
Hydatidiform Mole A hydatiform mole (also known as a molar pregnancy) is a gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which originates from the placenta and can metastasi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hydranencephaly Hydranencephaly is a rare congenital abnormality in which the cerebral hemispheres are absent with the basal ganglia, brainstem and meninges preserved ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydrops Fetalis Hydrops fetalis, also known as fetal hydrops, is not a disease but rather a symptom of an underlying health problem that affects the fetus. If left un ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypercortisolism Hypercortisolism refers to the clinical state resulting from excess tissue exposure to cortisol and/or other glucocorticoids. When such exposure is su ... Read the Article 1.5 9 Activity Info
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Hyperemesis gravidarum refers to intractable vomiting during pregnancy, leading to weight loss and volume depletion, resulting in ketonuria and/or ket ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hyperkeratosis Of The Nipple And Areola Hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola is an uncommon, benign skin condition characterized by a warty thickening and pigmentation of the nipple, areo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypertension In Pregnancy Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including chronic hypertension with or without superimposed pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, gestational hypertension, pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism In Pregnancy Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon condition that complicates approximately 0.1% to 0.4% of pregnancies. The condition is marked by increased levels of ci ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Hypothalamic Dysfunction The hypothalamus is the central command center for hormonal regulation, and its effects are primarily carried out by the hormones released from the hy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypotonic Labor Hypotonic labor is a dysfunction in the propulsive power of the uterus that presents as an abnormal labor pattern resulting in prolonged or protracted ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hysterosalpingogram Hysterosalpingogram is an imaging procedure performed to assess the causes of infertility in females. Hysterosalpingogram utilizes radiopaque dye inje ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hysteroscopy Hysteroscopy is performed using endoscopy to access the uterine cavity. It allows for minimally invasive diagnosis and surgical management of endocerv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Imiquimod Imiquimod is a medication used to manage and treat anogenital warts, superficial basal cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. It is in the immune mod ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Imperforate Hymen When the hymen, a thin membrane of stratified squamous epithelium circumscribing the vaginal introitus, does not spontaneously rupture during neonatal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
In Vitro Fertilization In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most common form of assisted reproductive technology and is used in the management of patients with difficulty und ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Incomplete Abortions An incomplete abortion is the partial loss of the products of conception within the first 20 weeks. Incomplete abortion usually presents with moderate ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Induction of Labor There are indications for late preterm, early term, late term, and post-term inductions depending on a patient's obstetrical and medical history. Obst ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS) is caused by physical invasion or compression by a pathological process or by thrombosis within the vein itself. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Inflammatory Breast Cancer Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare subtype of locally advanced breast cancer according to the TNM breast cancer staging system. Despite its lo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Influenza Vaccine Influenza viruses belong to Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus family and classify into three distinct types based on their major antigenic differences; influ ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is identified as an impaired biologic response to insulin stimulation of target tissues, primarily the liver, muscle, and adipose t ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intestinal Fistula A fistula is an abnormal communication between two epithelial surfaces. An intestinal fistula is a fistula that connects the intestine to an adjacent ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Intraductal Papilloma Intraductal papilloma is a benign tumor found within breast ducts. The abnormal proliferation of ductal epithelial cells causes tumor growth. A solita ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intrauterine Device Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are one of the most effective forms of contraception available today with rates of failure similar to various forms of ste ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Intrauterine Fetal Demise Stillbirth has many causes: intrapartum complications, hypertension, diabetes, infection, congenital and genetic abnormalities, placental dysfunction, ... Read the Article 1.5 6 Activity Info
Inverted Nipple An inverted nipple is a condition with a prevalence of 10%-20% in the general population. Though not life-threatening, it is psychologically and physi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation has been proven to be a risk factor for malignancy in the future. Evidence from studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. IBS, in the absence of any other causative disease, is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Isotretinoin Isotretinoin is an oral prescription medication that affects sebaceous glands and is used to treat severe acne. The drug was approved by the US Food a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Jacobs Syndrome Jacob's syndrome is a rare genetic abnormality in which a male receives an extra Y chromosome from his father. While many patients go undiagnosed due ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Krukenberg Tumor Krukenburg tumor is a metastatic malignancy of the ovary characterized by mucin-rich signet-ring adenocarcinoma that primarily arises from a gastroint ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Labial Adhesions Labial adhesion is the fusion of the labia minora or majora, and it is mostly located near the clitoris. It also may be known as synechia vulvae or la ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Laxatives Constipation is a common diagnosis that requires proper evaluation and appropriate treatment. The approach to a patient with chronic constipation incl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Leech Bite Leeches are hermaphroditic parasites of phylum Annelida and class Hirudinea. There are over 600 species of leeches. A minority of these are sanguinivo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Leiomyoma Leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are a group of benign smooth muscle tumors commonly present in premenopausal women. These tumors are of monoclonal ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Leopold Maneuvers The Leopold maneuvers are used to palpate the gravid uterus systematically. This method of abdominal palpation is of low cost, easy to perform, and no ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Leukocytosis Leukocytosis has a variety of etiologies with which clinicians of all backgrounds should be familiar. This activity outlines the evaluation of leukocy ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Leuprolide Leuprolide is a medication used in the management and treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, precocious puberty, and other sex ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Levonorgestrel Levonorgestrel, also known as the morning-after pill, is a first-line oral emergency contraceptive pill with approval from the World Health Organizati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Levothyroxine Oral levothyroxine is primarily indicated for the treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism. Primary hypothyroidism is when the pro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lichen Planus Erosive Form Erosive lichen planus (ELP) is a variant of lichen planus which involves chronic and painful ulceration of the skin and mucosal surfaces. ELP is thoug ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lichen Sclerosus Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon autoimmune condition characterized by skin atrophy and hypopigmentation. It mostly affects the genital skin and occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Liddle Syndrome Resistant hypertension is a condition in which blood pressure continues to be greater than 140/90 mm Hg despite compliance with a regimen of 3 antihyp ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Liver Disease In Pregnancy Managing liver disease during pregnancy is quite challenging and requires a multispecialty approach. Physiological and anatomical changes during pregn ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lobular Breast Carcinoma Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second most common histologic form of breast cancer, representing 5% to 15% of all invasive breast cancers. It is co ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practices. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Losartan Losartan is FDA approved for the treatment of several medical conditions, which include the following: hypertension, diabetic nephropathy. ARBs are kn ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Lovastatin Lovastatin is a lipid-lowering medication part of the statin drug class used to treat and prevent coronary heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, and ad ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Lymphogranuloma venereum is an ulcerative sexually transmitted infection of the genital area caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmittable by ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lymphoscintigraphy Lymphoscintigraphy is a powerful diagnostic imaging tool that can be obtained with little risk of adverse events. This activity reviews the applicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Macrosomia Macrosomia is commonly encountered during obstetric practice. It is associated with a higher likelihood of obstetric as well as neonatal complications ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Malaria Prophylaxis Malaria is an infection caused by Plasmodium species endemic to most parts of Africa, South America, East Asia, and parts of Europe and the Middle Eas ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mammary Duct Ectasia Mammary duct ectasia is a benign non-proliferative breast disease. It affects the large duct system. The exact cause is still unknown, but it may be c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mammary Paget Disease Paget's disease of the breast is an uncommon manifestation of underlying breast cancer in postmenopausal female patients. Underlying breast lesion is ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Mammography Aside from skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and represents 14% of all new cancers in the United States. Breast cancer ris ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mammoscintigraphy Breast cancer is increasing in incidence and is one of the leading types of cancer. Once thought to be mostly a disease of elderly females, there is a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Marijuana And Maternal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Outcomes Drug abuse and drug dependency are major public health problems. Marijuana is the most commonly abused drug among all genders and age groups. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mastalgia Mastalgia refers to a common breast pain that a female suffers from during her lifetime. Approximately two-thirds of women develop this pain during t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mastodynia Mastodynia or breast pain, also called mastalgia can occur both in women and men, but it presents more commonly in women. While most patients do not r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medroxyprogesterone This article highlights medroxyprogesterone as it is used as contraception to prevent pregnancy. This activity discusses the mechanism of action, adve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Megaloblastic Anemia Megaloblastic anemia (MA) encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by the presence in the bone marrow of large red blood cell precur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Meigs Syndrome Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian tumor present along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1% of ovarian tumors c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Melasma Melasma is a common skin problem caused by brown to gray-brown patches on the face. Most people get it on their cheeks, chin, nose bridge, forehead, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Melatonin Synthetic melatonin is a dietary supplement. The FDA does not regulate supplements. Therefore, melatonin is not officially FDA-approved for any indica ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Mendelson Syndrome In Curtis Lester Mendelson’s original 1946 description of his namesake syndrome, chemical pneumonitis was described in young and healthy obstetrical p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Meningococcal Vaccine Meningococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This activity will describe how to deal with this disease as a serious ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Menopause Menopause is a routine, non-pathologic condition involving the permanent cessation of menses for at least 12 months. Menopause occurs in all menstruat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Menorrhagia Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the name given to describe any deviation from the normal menstrual cycle. The average cycle lasts 29 days with a ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Menstrual Related Headache Menstrual related headaches (MRH) are a common class of headaches that occur in women related to a decline in estrogen during the menstrual cycle. To ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Metformin Metformin, FDA-approved in 1994, is an antidiabetic agent used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin comes in both immediate-release and extended-rel ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Methadone Methadone is a medication used in the management and treatment of opioid use disorder and as an analgesic in chronic pain. It is a synthetic long-term ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Methamphetamine Methamphetamine is one of the powerful stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS). It is sometimes a second-line treatment for attention deficit h ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Methimazole Methimazole has effects in the production of thyroid hormone and is useful in treating conditions related to thyroid hormone, especially thyrotoxicosi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methyldopa Methyldopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the centrally acting anti-hypertensive class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mifepristone Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid. It is a medication most commonly used for medically induced abortions. Mifepristone can also be used in the manag ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Migraine Headache Migraine is a genetically influenced complex disorder characterized by episodes of moderate-to-severe headache, most often unilateral and generally as ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Migraine Prophylaxis Recurrent migraines can be functionally disabling and can impair quality of life. After the treatment of acute migraines, all migraine patients should ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Miscarriage Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is defined as the loss of pregnancy less than 20 weeks gestation. The American College of Obstetricia ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Misoprostol Misoprostol has four primary effects: cytoprotection of the gastrointestinal mucosa, uterotonic, diarrhea, and abdominal pain (diarrhea and abdominal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mixed Urinary Incontinence Urinary incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine. It ranges in its severity and in its impact on patients' quality of life. Symptoms may force ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
MMR Vaccine The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is a live-attenuated combined vaccine used in the prevention and, in specific patient populations, post-exposu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mondor Disease Initially described in 1939 by Henri Mondor, Mondor disease classically describes a syndrome of sclerosing superficial thrombophlebitis of the veins o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Motion Sickness Motion sickness is a common and complex syndrome that occurs in response to either real or perceived motion. Its presentation can be diverse and may i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mucinous Breast Carcinoma Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a relatively rare subtype of breast cancer accounting for about 2% of all breast carcinomas. According to the late ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Myofascial Pain The fascia is made up of solid (muscles) and liquid (blood, lymph) elements and components. The myofascial system comprises contractile muscle tissue ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Nabothian Cyst Nabothian cysts (also called mucinous retention cysts or epithelial cysts) are a common and benign gynecological condition located at the uterine cerv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neural Tube Disorders Neural tube defects are the most common severe central nervous system anomalies, only second to cardiovascular abnormalities resulting in congenital m ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Neurogenic Bladder The micturition process is usually controlled by the central nervous system, which coordinates the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system acti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nisoldipine Nisoldipine is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It falls under the class of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nitrofurantoin Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic medication that is used for the treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection. It is effective against most ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nocturia Nocturia is defined as the need for patients to get up at night on a regular basis to urinate. A period of sleep must precede and follow the urinary e ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDs are a class of medications used to treat pain, fever, and other inflammatory processes. This activity describes the indications, mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nuclear Medicine PET/CT Breast Cancer Assessment, Protocols, And Interpretation PET/CT (positron emission tomography) is a widely utilized nuclear medicine imaging modality used to evaluate the staging, treatment response, or recu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nutcracker Syndrome Nutcracker syndrome is a venous compression syndrome involving the left renal vein. It is an uncommon, although possibly underdiagnosed, condition tha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Obesity Obesity is the excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat or adipose tissue in the body that may impair health. Obesity has become an epidemic which ha ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Obesity In Pregnancy Obesity in women is such a common problem that its effects on pregnancy are often overlooked. Maternal obesity has both short and long-term consequenc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves intrusive thoughts with or without compensatory actions to alleviate the stress brought on by these thoug ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that can quickly confirm an intrauterine pregnancy at the bedside, significantly shortening the length ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oligohydramnios Oligohydramnios is a disorder of amniotic fluid resulting in decreased amniotic fluid volume for gestational age. Low amniotic fluid volumes can be th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Oligomenorrhea Oligomenorrhea is defined as irregular and inconsistent menstrual blood flow in a woman. Some change in menstrual flow is normal at menarche, postpart ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Opioid Use Disorder Opioid use disorder has a significant impact on the quality of life. It is an epidemic in the United States. The persistent use of opioids should be d ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Oral Contraceptive Pills Currently, there are three types of oral contraceptive pills: combined estrogen-progesterone, progesterone only and the continuous or extended use pil ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Osteopenia Osteopenia describes a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) below normal reference values, yet not low enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for os ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is defined as low bone mineral density caused by altered bone microstructure, ultimately predisposing patients to low-impact, fragility f ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Osteoporosis In Females Osteoporosis is commonly encountered in older women with no underlying risk factors. This activity provides an overall basic and specialist knowledge ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in women of developed nations. They should be diagnosed early for better chan ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ovarian Cyst Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that may be simple or complex. They are common findings that are usually discovered incidentally on physical exami ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ovarian Cystadenoma Epithelial neoplasms of the ovary account for 60 percent of all ovarian tumors and 40 percent of benign tumors. They are classified as benign, borderl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Oxytocin Oxytocin is indicated and approved by the FDA for two specific time frames in the obstetric world: antepartum and postpartum. In the antepartum period ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Paramyxovirus The Paramyxoviridae is a family of single-stranded RNA viruses known to cause different types of infections in vertebrates. Examples of these infecti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, also known as paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia is one of the most commonly occurring paraneoplastic neurologic ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is thought to be caused by an onconeural antibody to cancer that cross-reacts with self-antigen in the neurons and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parental Consent Physicians and medical researchers have a moral and legal obligation to obtain informed consent. Informed consent must include the patient being compe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parvoviruses Parvovirus B19 is a virus that only infects humans. It is known to cause fifth disease, also known as erythema infectiosum or slapped cheek syndrome, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Patau Syndrome Patau syndrome, also called trisomy 13, is a clinical syndrome that occurs when all or some cells of the body contain an extra copy of chromosome 13. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pediatric Hearing Loss Pediatric hearing loss is a broad category that covers a wide range of pathologies. Early detection and prompt management are essential, as the develo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pelvic Congestion Syndrome Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is a common cause of chronic pelvic pain in women of reproductive age. Pain that is intermittent or constant lasting ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pelvic Exenteration Pelvic exenteration is performed as a palliative or curative option for patients with recurrent or locally invasive pelvic cancer. Pelvic exenteration ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Pelvic Floor Dysfunction Pelvic floor dysfunction involves the abnormal activity or function of the pelvic floor musculature. This activity reviews the anatomy of the pelvic f ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as an inflammation of the upper genital tract due to an infection in women. The disease affects the uteru ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Pelvic Organ Prolapse Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a gynecological condition in which the pelvic organs herniate into the vagina due to ligament or muscular weakness. POP ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pelvic Ultrasound The ultrasound is a critical modality for the evaluation of the contents of the female pelvis. It allows ready and portable imaging of the uterus, ova ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pemphigoid Gestationis Pemphigoid gestationis, formerly known as herpes gestationis, is a rare autoimmune sub-epidermal bullous dermatosis of pregnancy that shares some clin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perimortem Cesarean The perimortem cesarean section, as described in its name, is the surgical delivery of the fetus, performed during or near the time of death of the mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perinatal Drug Abuse And Neonatal Drug Withdrawal Drug abuse and addiction have significantly increased over the last few decades; specifically, opioid abuse and dependence have increased to epidemic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Perineal Lacerations Lacerations occur frequently in childbirth and can involve the perineum, labia, vagina and cervix. Most lacerations will heal without long term compli ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Peripheral Edema Peripheral edema is a very common finding in daily medical practice both in outpatient and inpatient settings. It can vary from benign condition to se ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pharmacologic Therapy For Obesity Obesity is a metabolic disease represented by excessive adipose tissue. Its classification is based on the body mass index (BMI), which is a relations ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Phenylketonuria Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) most often caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (P ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Phyllodes Tumor Of The Breast Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a relatively rare fibroepithelial neoplasm that presents a morphologic continuum from benign to malignant. Most phyll ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pioglitazone Pioglitazone is a drug used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone is the third marketed thiazolidinedione group of oral antidiab ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary adenomas are tumors of the anterior pituitary. Most pituitary tumors are slow-growing and benign. They are classified based on size or cell ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Placenta Abnormalities The placenta attaches to the uterine wall and allows metabolic exchange between the fetus and the mother. The placenta has both embryonic and maternal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Placenta Accreta Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders are considered to be iatrogenic conditions. They are more common in women with previous cesarean deliveries. ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Placenta Previa Placenta previa is the complete or partial covering of the internal os of the cervix with the placenta. It is a major risk factor for postpartum hemor ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Placental Abruption Placental abruption is the early separation of the placenta from the lining of the uterus before the completion of the second stage of labor. It is on ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Polycystic Ovarian Disease Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder in females of reproductive age. It is characterized by two or more of the foll ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Polyhydramnios Polyhydramnios is an increase in amniotic fluid in pregnancy associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The severity of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Posterior Urethral Valve This article contains a synopsis of the anatomy, embryology, and classification of posterior urethral valves with a brief discussion of the theories a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) is recommended for patients with more advanced breast cancer and/or certain high-risk pathologic features. In ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Postmenopausal Bleeding Postmenopausal bleeding is a common complaint with a broad differential, which includes both benign and malignant conditions. This activity describes ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Postmenopausal Syndrome Menopause is a significant event that all women experience in their lifetime. This brings in significant physiological changes and symptoms that are f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Postoperative Fever Postoperative fever is defined as a temperature higher than 38 C (or greater than 100.4 F) on two consecutive postoperative days or higher than 39 C ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postpartum Blues Postpartum “blues” is defined as low mood and mild depressive symptoms that are transient and self-limited and are extremely common in the perinatal p ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Postpartum Cardiomyopathy Postpartum cardiomyopathy, also known as peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), is defined as new onset heart failure between the last month of pregnancy a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postpartum Care Of The New Mother The postpartum period begins soon after the delivery of the baby and usually lasts six to eight weeks and ends when the mother’s body has nearly retur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postpartum Depression Around one in seven women can develop postpartum depression (PPD). While women experiencing baby blues tend to recover quickly, PPD tends to last long ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Postpartum Headache Headaches are a frequent presenting complaint that disproportionally affects women of childbearing age. The incidence of headaches increases in the pu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postpartum Infection Postpartum infections account for a significant, and often preventable, portion of the global healthcare burden. Puerperal sepsis is one of the top fi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postpartum Psychosis Postpartum psychosis is an acute illness of multifactorial origin and is considered a psychiatric emergency. In this activity, the common presentation ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Postpartum Pubic Symphysis Diastasis Pubic symphysis diastasis (PSD) following childbirth via vaginal delivery is a rare but debilitating condition. Widening of the cartilaginous joint du ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postpartum Thyroiditis Postpartum thyroiditis is rather a common problem during the postpartum period. Postpartum thyroiditis has found in approximately 5% of mothers in the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Precocious Puberty Precocious puberty is an early onset of puberty and secondary sexual characteristics in children. It is a very challenging diagnosis as the differenti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Preconception Counseling Preconception counseling is defined as health education and promotion. The goal of preconception care is health education and promotion, risk assessme ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Preeclampsia Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disease that occurs during pregnancy. This disease encompasses 2% to 8% of pregnancy-related complications, greater tha ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Pregnancy Globally, there are more than 200 million pregnancies each year. Of these pregnancies, more than 40% are unintended. Unintended does not imply unwante ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Pregnancy And Viral Hepatitis The common cause of jaundice in pregnancy is acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis could be caused by diseases distinctively associated with pregnancy and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pregnancy Dating The most important step in the initial evaluation of any pregnant patient is establishing an accurate delivery date (due date). Accurate knowledge of ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Pregnancy Intrahepatic Cholestasis Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disorder in pregnancy and is associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pregnancy Medications The treatment of common medical conditions during pregnancy frequently becomes complicated due to the potential effects that medications can have on f ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pregnancy Ultrasound Evaluation The use of ultrasound in pregnancy is vast and has become the standard of care during pregnancy. This activity describes different applications of ult ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Premalignant Lesions Of The Endometrium Premalignant lesions of the endometrium are a characteristic sequence of atypical endometrial hyperplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia that may give r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Premature Rupture Of Membranes Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is the rupture of gestational membranes prior to the onset of labor. When membrane rupture occurs before 37 wee ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder Premenstrual symptoms include a constellation of mood, behavioral, and physical indications that occur in a cyclic pattern prior to menstruation and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Premenstrual Syndrome This activity is a review of the existing literature on premenstrual syndrome (PMS). It summarizes the management of PMS by outlining the importance o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Prenatal Non-stress Test Prenatal non-stress test, popularly known as NST, is a method used to test fetal wellbeing before the onset of labor. A prenatal non-stress test funct ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prenatal Screening Historically, pregnancy was a very tenuous part of a woman's life because of the high mortality rate associated with gestation. In the early 1900s, ma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Preterm Labor Preterm labor is labor occurring between after 20 and before 37 weeks gestation. Preterm labors are subcategorized as early or late preterm. Early pre ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Primary Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menarche in females of reproductive age. Primary amenorrhea is defined as the failure to initiate menses by ag ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Procidentia Procidentia is the severe stage of pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic organ prolapse is usually a non-life-threatening condition with the most common sympt ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Progestin Progestins, or progestogens, are a class of synthetic hormone drugs that mimic progesterone's endogenous hormone. These drugs each act on the progeste ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prolactinoma Prolactin-secreting tumors of the pituitary gland, also known as prolactinomas, are the most common secretory tumors of the pituitary gland, accountin ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Propylthiouracil (PTU) Propylthiouracil is an anti-thyroid drug used in the management of Graves disease and hyperthyroidism. This activity will highlight the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pruritic Urticarial Papules And Plaques Of Pregnancy Pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP), also known as polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP) is the most common gestational der ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pruritus Gravidarum Pruritus is a common symptom in pregnancy. The causes of pruritus can be unrelated or specific to pregnancy. Pruritus specific to pregnancy must be ad ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pudendal Nerve Entrapment Syndrome Pudendal neuralgia caused by pudendal nerve entrapment is chronic, severely disabling, neuropathic pain in the distribution of the pudendal nerve in b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pudendal Neuralgia Pudendal neuralgia (PN) is a chronic pelvic pain syndrome that originates from damage or irritation to the pudendal nerve. Few providers examine speci ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pyogenic Granuloma Pyogenic granuloma, sometimes known as granuloma pyogenicum, refers to a common, acquired, benign, vascular tumor that arises in tissues such as the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Radiation Effects On The Fetus Cancer management during ongoing pregnancy poses a clinical challenge in itself, especially when administering radiotherapy; if indicated, it can seve ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy For Early Stage Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. In the United States, it is the most common cancer (excluding skin cancer) a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Raloxifene Raloxifene is a medication used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis and the risk reduction of invasive breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Osteop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Raynaud Disease In response to cold temperatures, the body adapts by restricting blood flow to the skin. This is done as a thermoregulating mechanism to prevent furth ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis (ReA) is inflammatory arthritis that manifests several days to weeks after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection. It is als ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Rectocele Rectoceles are a type of pelvic organ prolapse where the rectal tissue herniates through a defect in the rectovaginal septum into the vaginal lumen. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rectovaginal Fistula A fistula is an abnormal connection between 2 epithelial surfaces. This is a general definition that applies to most of the known fistula but not all ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Rectus Sheath Hematoma Rectus sheath hematoma is a relatively uncommon entity that is most often associated with abdominal wall trauma or anticoagulation. Although it is a w ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss The definition of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in the United States is two or more consecutive failed clinical pregnancies documented by ultrasound ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common cause of morbidity, especially in young women. However, with appropriate care, they can be easi ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Rh Incompatibility Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility refers to the discordant pairing of maternal and fetal Rh type. It is associated with the development of maternal Rh sensi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rh-Hemolytic Disease Rh-hemolytic disease develops due to the conception of an Rh-negative female with an Rh-positive fetus and can cause a broad range of symptoms in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rhinitis Medicamentosa Rhinitis medicamentosa (RM), also known as; rebound congestion is inflammation of the nasal mucosa caused by the overuse of topical nasal decongestant ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rho(D) Immune Globulin Rho(D) immune globulin (RhIG) is a medication used to manage and treat Rh-negative pregnancies and immune thrombocytopenic purpura. It is in the immun ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Rifampin Rifampin is a medication used in the management and treatment of various mycobacterial and gram-positive bacterial infections. It belongs to the antim ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Rubella Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in children and non-immune young adults. In pregnant women, rubella infection can produce a cons ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Rubella Vaccine The rubella vaccine is a vaccine that aims to prevent rubella. Rubella, also known as German measles, is an acute, self-limiting, contagious viral inf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sacroiliac Joint Pain The sacroiliac (SI) joint lies between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis. There are two joints, one on each side of the sacrum. The joint s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Safe And Effective Administration Of Vaccines And Epinephrine Autoinjection Safe and effective administration of vaccines and epinephrine autoinjection is performed on various populations to reduce rates of varying life-threat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Salpingitis Isthmica Nodosa Salpingitis isthmica nodosa (SIN) occasionally referred to as diverticulosis of the fallopian tube is a common finding in patients investigated for ec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Scleroderma And Primary Myocardial Disease Systemic scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that can affect internal organs. Cardiac manifestations of the disease can be a result of the prim ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Scopolamine Scopolamine is a medication used to manage and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness. It is in the anticholinergic class ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Secondary Hyperparathyroidism Hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic renal failure is a condition characterized by inappropriate secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), secondary ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sexual Assault Clothing Collection and Documentation Medical management should be the first and top priority in caring for sexual assault victims. After the patient is clinically stable, proper assault p ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Sexual assault evidence collection is the process of collecting specimens and documenting injuries of sexual assault victims to be used in the court o ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Sexual Assault Infectious Disease Prophylaxis Patients presenting for medical treatment after a sexual assault may be concerned about the possibility of acquiring an infectious disease. For many t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Sexually Transmitted Infections Sexually transmitted infections are disease processes from close physical contact between males and females by transmission through sexual contact. Se ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Sheehan Syndrome Sheehan syndrome which is also called post-partum pituitary necrosis refers to the necrosis of cells of the anterior pituitary gland following signifi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sonography 2nd Trimester Assessment, Protocols, And Interpretation The mid-trimester ultrasound (also known as the second-trimester anatomy scan or the anomaly scan) is a routine examination in many countries that's a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sonography Assessment Of Gestational Age Assessment of gestational age with sonography is a critical element of evaluating a pregnant woman in any healthcare setting. Providers caring for pr ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Sonography Evaluation Of Amniotic Fluid Amniotic fluid is produced and processed largely by the fetus. Two main methods are used to communicate amniotic fluid levels: the amniotic fluid ind ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sonography Gynecology Infertility Assessment, Protocols, And Interpretation According to the CDC, in the United States, about 7% of reproductive-aged women have infertility after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse. Inf ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Sonography Post-Menopausal Assessment, Protocols, And Interpretation Pelvic ultrasound is the imaging modality of choice to evaluate the uterus, cervix, ovaries, and adnexa. In the postmenopausal patient, it is performe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Specific Phobia Patients with specific phobias experience anxiety and panic attacks along with unreasonable fear of exposure or anticipated exposure to a feared stimu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Spontaneous Abortion Spontaneous abortion is the loss of pregnancy naturally before twenty weeks of gestation. There are several different types of spontaneous abortion. D ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
St. John's Wort St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) is an invasive, flowering plant native to Europe and Asia. It is also known as Amber, Goatweed, Hardhay, and o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Stages of Labor Labor is a process that subdivides into three stages. The first stage starts when labor begins and ends with full cervical dilation and effacement. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Streptococcal Pharyngitis Group A streptococcus is a Gram-positive, non-motile bacteria that is the most common etiology for acute pharyngitis accounting for 5 to 15 percent of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Streptococcus Group B Group B Streptococcus (GBS) commonly appears in up to 35% of healthy women's reproductive or gastrointestinal tracts. Pregnant women colonized with GB ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Stress Incontinence Stress urinary incontinence is the sudden, involuntary loss of urine secondary to increased intraabdominal pressure that is affecting the patient’s qu ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Stroke Prevention There is a significant overlap between the risk factors accounting for cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular events. The INTERHEART study looked a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardial surfaces of the heart, which includes one or more heart valves. The incidence of infect ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Subchorionic Hemorrhage Subchorionic hemorrhage is bleeding beneath the chorion membranes that enclose the embryo in the uterus. It is thought to occur due to partial detachm ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subclinical Hypothyroidism Subclinical hypothyroidism characteristically presents with normal thyroxine (T4) levels and elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels. The in ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Substance Use Disorder Substance use disorders result from long-term exposure to substances and subsequent mental and physical dependence. This can lead to social, academic, ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Substance Use In Pregnancy Substance use disorder (SUD) in pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Patients with substance use disorders in the peripartum period fa ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Sucralfate Sucralfate is a medication used to treat duodenal ulcers, epithelial wounds, chemotherapy-induced mucositis, radiation proctitis, ulcers in Behcet dis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Suicide Risk Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States, but it can often be prevented with appropriate intervention. This activity re ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Superficial Thrombophlebitis Superficial thrombophlebitis, increasingly known as superficial venous thrombosis, is no longer considered a benign entity. It is often associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Surfactant Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that lines the alveoli and decreases the surface tension to prevent lung atelectasis. Surfactant deficie ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Syphilis Ocular Manifestations Syphilis is caused by infection by the spirochete, Treponema pallidum. Ocular manifestations can occur at any stage of the disease with varied clinica ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Systemic Sclerosis Scleroderma is a rare connective tissue disorder with unknown and complex pathogenesis. Scleroderma can be divided into two forms, localized scleroder ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Tetanus Prophylaxis This activity reviews and outlines the role of tetanus prophylaxis. It will outline the basics of immunization and prophylaxis and will discuss types ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Therapeutic Communication Therapeutic communication is an invaluable approach to interactions with patients that is applicable across multiple disciplines. This activity revie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Therapeutic Exercise This activity outlines the modalities, underpinnings, anatomy, and physiology of exercise as a tool for treating various illnesses such as musculoskel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Threatened Abortion A threatened abortion is vaginal bleeding during pregnancy that does not meet diagnostic criteria for spontaneous abortion. In a threatened abortion, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy Thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelet count of under 150 x 10^9/L, is the second most common hematological abnormality in pregnancy. This CME activi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Thyroid Disease And Pregnancy Thyroid disease is the second most common endocrine disorder after diabetes in pregnancy. Thyroid disease poses a substantial challenge on the physiol ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Thyroiditis This activity reviews the different types of thyroiditis, their presentation, evaluation, diagnosis and treatment and highlights the role of the inter ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Thyrotoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical state associated with excess thyroid hormone activity, usually due to inappropriately high-circulating thyroid hormones ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Tocolysis Tocolysis is an obstetrical procedure to prolong gestation in patients, some of which are experiencing preterm labor. This is achieved through various ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tolterodine Tolterodine is a medication used in the management and treatment of overactive bladder. It is in the antimuscarinic class of medications. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Topiramate Topiramate is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy and migraine. It is in the second-generation anti-epileptic drugs class of ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular protozoan. Although many people are infected worldwide, the disea ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Tretinoin Tretinoin is a valuable medication in the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe acne that can be used topically or systemically. Tretinoin also used ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan responsible for trichomoniasis, one of the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Tubal Ligation Tubal ligation is the most common method of contraception worldwide. While the indication, desire for permanent sterilization, is clear, the ethics su ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tubal Sterilization Tubal sterilization is performed at the request of women who have completed childbearing and desire an effective and irreversible form of birth contro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tubo-Ovarian Abscess A tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA) is a complex infectious mass of the adnexa that forms as a sequela of pelvic inflammatory disease. Classically, a TOA man ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Turner Syndrome Turner syndrome, also referred to as congenital ovarian hypoplasia syndrome is the most common sex chromosomal abnormality found in females. It result ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Twin Births Twin births account for approximately 3 percent of live births in the United States. Barring pregnancies that result from assisted reproductive techno ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Twin-To-Twin Transfusion Syndrome Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a potential complication of monochorionic twin or higher gestations. There are numerous possible outcomes of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Typhoid Vaccine There are two United States-licensed vaccines available for Salmonella typhi, an oral attenuated live virus, and an injectable polysaccharide vaccine. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Umbilical Cord Prolapse Umbilical cord prolapse is when the umbilical cord exits the cervical os before the fetal presenting part. Compression of the cord results in vasocons ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Understanding and Application of CDC Immunization Guidelines Immunization is the most effective and safe public health intervention in reducing the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of various infe ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Universal Precautions Universal precautions were introduced by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1985, mostly in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection In Pregnancy Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered in pregnant women. Pyelonephritis is the most common serious medical condition seen in preg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Uterine Atony Uterine atony is a principal cause of postpartum hemorrhage, an obstetric emergency. Globally, it is one of the top 5 causes of maternal mortality. Ut ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Uterine Cancer Uterine cancer arising from the innermost layer of the uterus, the endometrium, is called endometrial carcinoma. Endometrial carcinoma is the most com ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Uterine Inversion Uterine inversion is one of the most serious complications of childbirth. It refers to the collapse of the fundus into the uterine cavity. Although it ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Uterine Leiomyomata Uterine leiomyomata or fibroids are an extremely common benign neoplasm in women of reproductive age. Although they are benign, they can have a signif ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Uterine Prolapse Uterine prolapse is the herniation of the uterus into the vaginal canal due to the weakening of its support structures. This is a common condition tha ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Vaccine (Vaccination) Immunization successfully uses immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or spec ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Vaginal Atrophy Vaginal atrophy is thinning of the vaginal epithelium and decreased cervical secretions most closely related to changes in estrogen levels. It is a co ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) describes a vaginal delivery in a women who has given birth via cesarean section in a former pregnancy. Pa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vaginal Bleeding Vaginal bleeding is a common complaint with a broad differential diagnosis. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of vaginal bleeding an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is an uncommon gynecologic malignancy. The diagnosis of primary vaginal cancer is rare because most of these lesions will be metastatic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaginal Candidiasis Vulvovaginitis, or inflammation of the vulva and vagina, most commonly occurs in reproductive-aged women and is usually secondary to infection. Candid ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Vaginal Delivery Vaginal delivery is safest for the fetus and for the mother when the newborn is full-term at the gestational age of 37 to 42 weeks. Vaginal delivery i ... Read the Article 2.25 30 Activity Info
Vaginal Foreign Body Evaluation and Treatment Vaginal foreign bodies present in female patients of all ages and a wide range of healthcare settings, including the emergency department, primary car ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaginal Hysterectomy Hysterectomy is the most common nonobstetric surgical procedure among women. As such, it is imperative to continue evaluating trends in the performanc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaginitis Vaginal discharge and discomfort are common complaints from women in all stages of life. Vaginitis is a frequently encountered problem for providers t ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Valproic Acid Valproic acid is an anticonvulsive and mood stabilizer medication. It is extensively used in the adult population to treat convulsions, migraines, and ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Vanishing Twin Syndrome When one of the twins or multiple embryos dies in utero, disappear or get resorbed partially or entirely, with an outcome of a spontaneous reduction o ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) is an acute febrile rash illness that was very common in children in the United States before the universal vaccin ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Vasodilators Vasodilators are useful in the management of hypertension, angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and more. This activity reviews the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vasomotor Rhinitis Vasomotor rhinitis affects millions of Americans and costs billions of dollars annually in healthcare costs. Vasomotor rhinitis is the most common for ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Venous Sinus Thrombosis Venous sinus thromboses are venous blood clots of the major veins of the brain. They can be provoked or unprovoked, and the signs and symptoms thereof ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Vesicovaginal Fistula Vesicovaginal fistula is an anomalous communication between the bladder and vagina, resulting in continuous urine leakage through the vagina. This con ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Viral Arthritis Acute-onset polyarticular arthritis is the most common presentation of viral arthritis. The most commonly implicated viruses are parvovirus, the alpha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Viral Pneumonia The increasing role of viral pathogens in pneumonia and the increased recognition of bacterial and viral coinfections in patients with pneumonia neces ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Vitamin A Toxicity Vitamin A toxicity can due to either topical or oral vitamin A administration. Oral vitamin A toxicity can be acute, due to the ingestion of a large a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vulva Cancer Vulvar cancer represents 0.3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type and is usually diagnosed a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Vulvar Hematoma Vulvar hematoma is a rare but potentially fatal condition if left undiagnosed and untreated. Hence, prompt recognition of this condition is important. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is a non-invasive squamous lesion and precursor of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. This activity reviews the ev ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vulvodynia Vulvodynia is a vulvar pain of at least three months' duration without a clear identifiable cause. It is a diagnosis of exclusion and is considered an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Yolk Sac Tumors Yolk sac tumors (also known as endodermal sinus tumors) are malignant primitive germ cell tumors; they are histologically similar to the mesenchyma of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Young Syndrome Young syndrome, also known as sinusitis-infertility syndrome, is a rare inherited syndrome similar to Kartagener syndrome. Individuals born with this ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Zidovudine Zidovudine is a medication used in the management and treatment of HIV-1. It is in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor class of medications ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Zika Virus Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family and the genus Flavivirus. In the majority of people, infection by the Zika virus is mild and s ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Zolmitriptan Zolmitriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraine. It is in the triptan class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info

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