NP-Orthopedic CE

Stay on top of your practice by subscribing to the StatPearls Unlimited CE program. Gain access to 683 PubMed indexed activities in NP-Orthopedic. Your subscription also gives you unlimited access to all 6,225 PubMed indexed CE activities in our library.

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All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Orthopedic Nurses Certification Board (ONCB®) content outlines. 830 authors and 24 editors have contributed to the development of the NP-Orthopedic content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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NP-Orthopedic Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
5th Metatarsal Fracture Fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common injuries that must be recognized and treated appropriately to avoid poor clinical outcomes for the patien ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Above the Knee Amputations Above-the-knee amputations are performed in patients of all ages for a variety of reasons. The amputation is performed through the femur and allows pa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Accessory Nerve Injury Cranial nerve XI is also known as the accessory nerve. It is prone to injury due to its long and superficial nature. Injury to the accessory nerve can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acetabular Fractures Acetabular fractures primarily occur in young people who are involved in high-velocity trauma. Since the advent of mandatory seatbelt use, there has ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Many diseases and conditions list pain as a component of their presentation; as a result, pain management is of great importance to both clinicians an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Achilles Tendon Rupture Achilles tendon rupture is the most common tendon rupture in the lower extremity. The injury most commonly occurs in adults in their third to fifth d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia found in humans, accounting for 90% of cases of disproportionate short stature. It is caused by a ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury Acromioclavicular joint injuries account for more than forty percent of all shoulder injuries. Mild injuries are not associated with any significant ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Adamantinoma An adamantinoma is a rare low-grade malignant bone tumor typically found in the diaphyses and metaphyses of long bones in 20 to 40-year-olds. Adamanti ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Addisonian Crisis An Addisonian crisis, or adrenal crisis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that results from an acute insufficiency of adrenal hormones (glu ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adductor Strain An adductor strain or injury to the adductor muscle group of the thigh is a common cause of medial leg and groin pain, especially among athletes. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adhesive Capsulitis Adhesive capsulitis, also known as frozen shoulder, is an inflammatory condition characterized by shoulder stiffness, pain, and significant loss of pa ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Adolescent and Idiopathic Scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of pediatric scoliosis occurring in individuals between the ages of 10 to 18. By definit ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Adrenal Hemorrhage Adrenal hemorrhage represents a rare disease of variable etiologies. The disease often presents in a wide variety of clinical settings and presents a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adult Acquired Flatfoot Adult acquired flatfoot (AAFD), formerly described as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD), is a debilitating condition with complex pathology d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) frequently occur in our medical system, and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome tha ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Ainhum Ainhum, also called dactylolysis spontanea, is a rare disease of fibrotic constricting bands that most commonly occur over digits. These rings of fibr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Allopurinol Allopurinol is a urate-lowering medication that is FDA approved for managing gout, prevention of tumor lysis syndrome, and prevention of recurrent cal ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Aneurysmal Bone Cysts Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-malignant, tumor-like, vascular lesions that can grow aggressively, be locally destructive, and weaken bones to the poin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ankle Arthrocentesis Acute arthritis, particularly monoarthropathy, is a common acute presentation. In regards to the ankle, there is not always a clear etiology for the m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Ankle Splinting Splinting is primarily used to immobilize a joint to allow for pain control, injury stabilization, and ultimately tissue healing. In the acute setting ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most com ... Read the Article 2.25 36 Activity Info
Annular Disc Tear An annular fissure or tear is a deficiency of one or more layers of the annulus fibrosus. Most annular fissures are asymptomatic, but some may be pain ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Antalgic Gait in Adults Antalgic gait is one of the most common forms of altered gait in patients presenting to the emergency department and primary care offices. It refers t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antalgic Gait In Children Antalgic gait is common in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both benign and more serious etiologies. A careful his ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments that aids in stabilizing the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured ligament ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Anterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow is one of the most common large joints to be dislocated. Anterior elbow dislocations are rare due to the high force and position necessary t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations are the most commonly encountered joint dislocations. They can be the result of low or high-energy trauma. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Anterior Hip Dislocation Anterior hip dislocations are usually caused by forceful abduction with external rotation of the thigh and most commonly following a motor vehicle acc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Shoulder Instability Anterior shoulder instability is defined as soft-tissue or bony insult of the shoulder that causes the humeral head to sublux or dislocate from the gl ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs due to compression or entrapment of the deep peroneal nerve. Most commonly, the deep peroneal nerve becomes ent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Apley Grind Test The Apley grind test, also known as the Apley compression test or the Apley test, is a maneuver performed to evaluate meniscus injury. Clinicians usua ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure that is performed to obtain synovial fluid from within a joint capsule, both for diagnostic and for therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Arthroplasty Knee Unicompartmental Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is a surgical technique used for the treatment of osteoarthritis in one compartment of the knee, most commonl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Axillary Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injury can vary wildly in severity and presentation, ranging from mild soreness to severe muscle weakness. Axillary nerve injuries ty ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Back Safety Low back pain (LBP) is common among healthcare professionals with prevalence of low back pain among health care workers being greater than among those ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacteroides Fragilis The human colon possesses the largest population of bacteria in the body, and the majority of these organisms are anaerobes; of these, about 25 percen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Baker's Cyst A Baker's cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the popliteal fossa, which is located on the posterior aspect of the knee. In adults, Baker's cysts ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Barton's Fracture Philadelphia orthopedic surgeon John Rhea Barton first described a Barton fracture. It is a fracture of the distal radius which extends through the do ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Below Knee Amputation A below the knee amputation (BKA) is a transtibial amputation that involves removing the foot, ankle joint, distal tibia, fibula, and corresponding so ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bennett Fracture The Bennett fracture is the most common fracture involving the base of the thumb. This fracture refers to an intraarticular fracture that separates th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Biceps Tendon Dislocation and Instability The long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) is a common source of pain in the shoulder. Biceps tendon pathology is often associated with rotator ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Biceps Tendon Sheath Injection Shoulder pain is a common patient complaint encountered both by primary care physicians and orthopedic surgeons. Many shoulder structures can account ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bier Block The Bier block, also known as intravenous local anesthesia (IVRA), is a safe, effective, and cost-efficient way to provide short-term anesthesia and a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bimalleolar Ankle Fractures A bimalleolar fracture is a fracture of the lateral malleolus and the medial malleolus. This fracture is a bimodal distribution, most likely affects o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in treating ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity Info
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Body Fluid Exposures Health care workers have serious concerns about exposure to bodily fluids. Accidental exposures to bodily fluids present a wide variety of issues to h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bone Age Bone age assessment can be of utmost importance in various complicated situations involving medical, surgical, forensic, and legal issues. Apart from ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bone Cyst A simple bone cyst is a solitary, benign, fluid-filled, cyst that may be a single chamber or septated. The most common sites are the proximal humerus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bone Metastasis The skeleton is the third most common site of metastatic disease after lung and liver. Most bone metastases originate from the breast, prostate or lun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bone Nonunion Nonunion of bone is the body's inability to heal a fracture. The most agreed-upon standard definition of nonunion made by the FDA is a fracture that p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Botfly Bot fly is a term referring to any member of the Oestridae family of flies. To reproduce, these flies rely on myiasis, the infestation of host skin fo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Boutonniere Deformity Boutonniere deformity describes a medical condition in which the finger is flexed at the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and there is hyperexten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Brachial Plexus Block Techniques Blockade of the brachial plexus is an effective method for providing anesthesia to the upper limb from the shoulder to the fingertips. There are multi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bursitis Bursitis is a swelling or inflammation of a bursa, which is a synovium-lined, sac-like structure found throughout the body near bony prominences and b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Calcaneofibular Ligament Injury Isolated calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) injuries are rare. CFL injuries are often described in the lateral ankle compartment, specifically associated ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcaneus Fractures Calcaneus fractures are rare but potentially debilitating injuries. The calcaneus is one of seven tarsal bones and is part of the hind-foot which incl ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Calcitonin Salmon calcitonin (after this referred to as “calcitonin”) is an analog of human calcitonin used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget disease o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is a crystal deposition arthropathy involving the synovial and periarticular tissues. Its clinical pre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carpal Tunnel Injection Carpal tunnel injections are performed because of the extremely high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population. Carpal tunnel syn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Celecoxib The FDA recommends celecoxib and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), along with acetaminophen, as first-line analgesics for patients ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antimicrobials used to manage a wide range of infections from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The five genera ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine typically develops in the aging population equally in terms of sexes. Patients are most commonly prese ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Discogenic Syndrome Cervical discogenic pain syndrome is a common source of neck pain. The presentation can vary and may be caused by degenerative changes in the interver ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cervical Dislocation Cervical dislocations have classically been associated with traumatic spinal cord injuries. These injuries can cause spinal cord compression and drama ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cervical Myelopathy Cervical myelopathy is a condition describing a compression of the spinal cord at the cervical level of the spinal column resulting in spasticity (sus ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cervical Myofascial Pain Cervical myofascial pain is a musculoskeletal disorder that causes pain in the area of a muscle in the body and its surrounding connective tissue. Pro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Radiculopathy Neck pain is widespread and causes significant pain and disability. Workers with a history of neck pain account for up to 40% of work absenteeism. In ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Cervical Spine Fractures Overview The cervical spine is a dynamic structure tasked with protecting nervous innervation to the entire body while also maintaining a range of motion for t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Spondylosis Cervical spondylosis is a natural age-related disease process that is associated with degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc. It most com ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cervical Sprain The term "whiplash" injury was first coined by Harold Crowe in 1928 to define acceleration-deceleration injuries occurring to the cervical spine or ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cervical Traction Cervical traction is a non-invasive procedure used to provide symptomatic relief for a variety of cervical pathologies. Though it can lead to temporar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervicogenic Headache A cervicogenic headache (CGH) presents as unilateral pain that starts in the neck. It is a common chronic and recurrent headache that usually starts a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chance Fractures A Chance fracture is an unstable spine fracture that typically occurs at the thoracolumbar junction. It is a horizontal fracture extending from poster ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Charcot Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is a destructive joint disorder initiated by trauma to a neuropathic extremity. It can lead to dislocations and f ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cheiralgia Paresthetica Cheiralgia paresthetica is a compression neuropathy of the superficial radial nerve. It manifests as sensory disturbances, such as paresthesias, to th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chest Wall Tumors The chest wall refers to the structures surrounding and protecting the lungs, enclosed by the spine, and separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Child Abuse and Neglect The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and explo ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Child Physical Abuse And Neglect Approximately one in four children experience child abuse or neglect in their lifetime. Of maltreated children, 18 percent are abused physically, 78 p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Chondromalacia Patella Chondromalacia is an affliction of the hyaline cartilage coating of the articular surfaces of the bone. It results in the softening and then subsequen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chordoma A chordoma is a low-grade, slow-growing but locally invasive and locally aggressive tumor that is a type of sarcoma. Chordomas arise from remnants of ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.75 43 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chylous Ascites Chylous ascites (CA) is defined as a milky appearing, triglyceride-rich peritoneal fluid in the abdominal cavity. It is characterized by the accumulat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clavicle Fractures Fractures of the clavicle are quite common, accounting for up to 10% of all fractures. It is the most common fracture of childhood. A fall onto the la ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Clavus A clavus is a well-demarcated thickened area of the epidermis that has a central core. This skin lesion is most commonly found on the foot and is ofte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Claw Hand Ulnar nerve palsy is the loss of sensory and motor function. This can occur after injury to any portion of the ulnar nerve. The ulnar nerve is the ter ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cleft Hand Cleft hand, otherwise referred to as ectrodactyly or colloquially as "split hand," is defined as a central longitudinal deficiency expressed as suppre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clinodactyly Clinodactyly is defined as a congenital curvature of a digit distal to the metacarpal phalangeal joint in the coronal plane. Curvatures with an angula ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Clostridium Perfringens Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus that is associated with acute gastrointestinal infection ranging in sever ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clubfoot Clubfoot is a congenital deformity of the foot, otherwise known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is one of the most common congenital malformatio ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Colchicine Colchicine has FDA approval for gout prophylaxis and treatment of acute gouty flares. It also has approval for the treatment of familial Mediterranean ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colles' Fracture This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injuries that require medical manag ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Competency and Capacity This article reviews the concepts of capacity and competency with regard to clinical practice. More specifically, it discusses the foundational ethica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Comprehensive Shoulder Evaluation Strategies Shoulder pathology is very common. A comprehensive history should be acquired by clinicians evaluating patients with acute or chronic shoulder dysfunc ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Congenital Torticollis Torticollis, also known as a twisted neck, is the contraction or contracture of the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt to one side. It i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Conus And Cauda Equina Tumors Primary spinal cord tumors are less common than metastatic spinal tumors. Tumors of the spinal canal may be classified in three ways depending on the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease is a common heart condition that involves atherosclerotic plaque formation in the vessel lumen. This leads to impairment in bl ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Corticosteroid Adverse Effects Corticosteroids are hormone mediators produced by the cortex of adrenal glands that further categorize into glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and a ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas of medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
COX Inhibitors COX inhibitors are medications used in the management and treatment of chronic pain syndromes. They are in the anti-inflammatory class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Crutches Crutches are medical devices designed to aid in ambulation, by transferring body weight from the legs to the torso and arms. They are mainly used to a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Cubital tunnel syndrome is neuropathy of the ulnar nerve causing symptoms of numbness and shooting pain along the medial aspect of the forearm, also i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cubitus Varus Malunion of supracondylar fractures often leads to cubitus varus, or "gunstock deformity." This condition is a triplanar malalignment of the elbow, ch ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cuboid Stress Fractures Overuse injuries are a common entity in medical practice. Stress reactions and fractures make up a significant portion of patients in a typical sports ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cupping Therapy Cupping therapy can generally be described as a technique that uses cups placed over the skin to create negative pressure through suction. Cupping th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
De Quervain Tenosynovitis De Quervain tenosynovitis is named after the Swiss surgeon, Fritz de Quervain, who first described it in 1895. It is a condition which involves tendon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Deep Peroneal Nerve Block The deep peroneal nerve is one of 5 nerves that are often blocked or anesthetized to perform ankle surgery. It can be performed as a regional block an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation or presence of a thrombus in the deep veins. DVT occurs mostly in the lower extremities and to a lesser ex ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Degloving Injuries Internal degloving injuries are usually associated with high-energy trauma and can be devastating. This injury occurs when a tangential shearing occur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diabetic Foot Care Proper diabetic foot care is an essential part of limb preservation. Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for foot ulceration secondary to neu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetic Foot Infections There are approximately 29 million people with diabetes in the United States, and approximately 25% of people older than age of 65 have diabetes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Diabetic foot ulcers are among the most common complications of patients who have diabetes mellitus which is not well controlled. It is usually the re ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diabetic Perioperative Management With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus; an increasing number of people with diabetes undergo surgery each year. This activity highlights the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Diabetic Ulcer Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic endocrine disorder due to an overall deficiency of insulin (Type 1) or defective insulin function (Type 2) which caus ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diaphyseal Femur Fracture Diaphyseal femur fractures are commonly encountered in association with other high-energy injuries. These injuries can lead to life-threatening sequel ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digit Amputation Digital amputation is often associated with traumatic injuries but is also seen within the elective surgery setting, such as in the case of cancer res ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digit Replantation The focus of replantation of any part of the upper extremity is maximizing functional outcome rather than simple survival of the amputated part. Funct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digital Mucous Cyst Digital mucous cysts are a type of ganglion commonly found on the hand. They commonly have an association with underlying DIP joint osteoarthritis. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digital Nerve Block The digital nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed to provide immediate anesthesia for a multitude of injuries and procedures, such a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Discectomy Lumbar disc herniation is a common pathology and leads to a significant healthcare burden. Patients with low back pain and related conditions may seek ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diskitis Discitis is a serious but uncommon medical diagnosis. It is an infection of the intervertebral disc space. The role of the intervertebral discs is to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Distal Femur Fractures Distal femur fractures include fractures of the supracondylar and intercondylar region of the distal femur and are relatively common injuries. To avo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Distal Humerus Fractures Distal humerus fractures in the adult population represent about 2% of all fractures and 33% of all humerus fractures. They typically present in a bim ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Distal Radius Fractures Emergency Department and primary care clinics are frequently called on to evaluate orthopedic complaints. It is essential for most providers to feel c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has sustained a niche for measuring bone mineral density since its approval by the Food and Drug Administratio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dupuytren Contracture Dupuytren contracture is a myofibroplastic disease that affects the hands. It results in painless cords that eventually leads to flexion contracture o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Dysbaric osteonecrosis is a type of avascular necrosis of the bone that is most commonly found in undersea divers and workers that breathe compressed ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dystonia Dystonia is defined by involuntary maintained contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles yielding abnormal posturing, twisting and repetitive movem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Elbow Arthrocentesis Elbow arthrocentesis is a procedure performed to aspirate the contents of a joint cavity to evaluate and treat elbow effusion. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Elbow Fractures Overview The most common type of fracture in the pediatric population is elbow fractures. Most commonly, individuals fall on their outstretched hand. Prompt a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Elbow Trauma Elbow trauma is a common occurrence in children and athletes and can cause a broad array of injury patterns ranging from mild soft tissue injuries and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Ulnar Neuropathy Electrodiagnostic testing, which includes electromyography and nerve conduction studies, can be used to confirm the diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy, loc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
EMS Long Spine Board Immobilization Spinal motion restriction using a long spine board and cervical spine collar is implemented in the case of trauma, when certain criteria are met, to h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Enchondroma Enchondromas are benign tumors of unknown etiology that occur in the hyaline cartilage in bones of endochondral origin. Enchondromas account for appro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Enthesopathies Enthesopathies encompass a broad range of pathologies that include ligamentous and tendinous injuries. They are relatively common and can be the initi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Abscess An epidural abscess is an infection within the epidural space anywhere in the brain or spinal cord. Epidural abscesses occur as a result of infections ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural Steroid Injections Epidural steroid injections have been utilized for pain relief since 1952. When indicated, they are an invaluable non-surgical treatment for low-back ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in various settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved for va ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Erb Palsy Erb palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of the most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Escharotomy Burns commonly present acutely. They can be due to many modalities, including thermal, chemical, electrical, or radiation. Often, burns result in supe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Excited Delirium Delirium is understood as a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that is characterized by disturbances in consciousness, orientation, memory, thought, pe ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Exertional Compartment Syndrome Exertional compartment syndrome is a commonly underdiagnosed entity that occurs secondary to elevated intra-compartmental pressures in the absence of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Facet Arthritis Facet joints are formed by the articulations of the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Except for the atlantooccipital a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Facet Joint Disease Facet joint disease is a condition in which the joints of the spine become a source of pain. This is a very common disease process and its prevalence ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Failed Back Surgery Syndrome Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain as lumbar spinal pain of unknown origin either p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fasciotomy A fasciotomy procedure is a procedure used to decompress acute compartment syndrome. Most commonly, acute compartment syndrome occurs in the leg and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Female Athlete Triad Female athletes often complain of low energy availability, which is defined as energy from oral nutrition less energy used for exercise. As such, low ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a type of osteonecrosis due to disruption of blood supply to the proximal femur. There are approximately 100 ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Femoral Neck Fractures Hip fractures are common injuries. Femoral neck fractures are a specific type of intracapsular hip fracture. The femoral neck connects the femoral sha ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Femoral Nerve Block Peripheral nerve blocks inhibit the propagation of impulses in nerve terminals to inhibit the perception of pain by the cerebral cortex. Local anesthe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femoral Shaft Fractures Femoral shaft fractures are a common orthopedic injury occurring in high energy trauma or low energy trauma in the elderly. Femoral shaft fractures ar ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Femoroacetabular Impingement Femoroacetabular impingement is an increasingly recognized source of hip pain, particularly in the young adult population. This condition is a known r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femur Immobilization The need to immobilize the femur is primarily due to fractures and dislocations. Each of these injuries dictates a specific immobilization and stabili ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fentanyl Transdermal Transdermal fentanyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain and cancer pain. It is part of the opioid class of drugs. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. This activity illustrates the evaluation and management of fibro ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Fibrous Dysplasia Fibrous dysplasia is a typically benign bone lesion characterized by intramedullary fibro-osseous proliferation secondary to altered osteogenesis. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fibula Fractures Isolated fibula fractures are quite rare, much less common than fibula fractures with associated ligamentous involvement and/or tibia fractures. Fortu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fifth Metacarpal Fractures Metacarpal fractures account for 40% of all hand fractures. A fracture of the neck of the fifth metacarpal, or boxer's fracture, named for the classic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fifth-Toe Deformities Deformities of the fifth toe are often congenital and include deformities such as an overlapping fifth toe or a congenital curly toe. Many of these de ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fingertip Injuries The fingertip is the most distal portion of the finger providing the tactile and sensory functions that are then relayed to the brain. It is anatomica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Finkelstein Sign Harry Finkelstein, an American surgeon, described the Finkelstein's test or Finkelstein's sign in 1930. It is a provocative test for diagnosis of De Q ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Flexor Tendon Lacerations Flexor tendon injury is frequently seen in household accidents involving knives, glass, or mirror injuries, but also can be due to chainsaw injuries, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Floating Knee As early as 1975, the term floating knee was initially used by Blake and McBryde to describe fractures of the ipsilateral femur and tibia. Fractures c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluid Resuscitation The primary role of fluid resuscitation is to maintain organ perfusion (hemodynamics) and substrate (oxygen, electrolytes, among others) delivery thro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluoroscopy Podiatric Assessment, Protocols, and Interpretation Fluoroscopy of the foot is vital to the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with foot and ankle pathology. There are patient positioning ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Foot Drop Foot drop is a clinical entity that is not frequently seen in primary care settings. There are multiple etiologies of foot drop. Careful neurological ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Foot Ulcer Foot ulceration is among the most common health issues, and its prevalence has increased recently. It is one of the major causes of amputations, parti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Forearm Amputation Forearm amputations are a life-changing but often unavoidable procedure, most commonly needed secondary to trauma. These are a complicated process, an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Forearm Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased tissue pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the contents ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Forearm Splinting The main goal of forearm splinting is to prevent pronation and supination of the forearm. There are a variety of indications for forearm splinting, in ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Freiberg Infraction Freiberg infraction pattern results in flattening and collapse of the head of the second metatarsophalangeal joint, leading to degenerative changes an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Frostbite Frostbite, also known as freezing cold injury is tissue damage that occurs due to cold exposure, occurring at temperatures below zero degrees celsius. ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Frozen Shoulder Adhesive capsulitis (AC), is also known as frozen shoulder an insidious painful condition of the shoulder persisting more than 3 months. This inflamma ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Furosemide Furosemide is a loop diuretic that has been in use for decades. However, clinicians must be aware of updates related to the indications and administra ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Galeazzi Fractures A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the middle to distal third of the radius associated with dislocation or subluxation of the distal radioulnar join ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ganglion Cyst Ganglion cysts are synovial cysts that are filled with gelatinous mucoid material and commonly encountered in orthopedic clinical practice. Although t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gas Gangrene Gas gangrene is a highly lethal infection of soft tissue, caused by Clostridium species, with Clostridium perfringens being the most common. This is s ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Gastrocnemius Rupture Gastrocnemius injuries are common in both recreational and competitive athletes. This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of g ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gastrocnemius Strain The gastrocnemius muscle consists of two heads. The medial head originates from the posterior medial femoral condyle while the lateral head arises fro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Genu Valgum Genu valgum (knocked knees) is part of the coronal plane deformities of the lower extremity. The majority of patients are asymptomatic and have no fun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Geriatric Cervical Spine Injury According to the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, there are 12 injury-related emergency department visits for every 100 persons over ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Giant Cell Tumor Giant cell tumor is one of the most common benign bone tumors, occurring in young adults ages 20–40 years with a high recurrence rate and a potential ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Glenoid Fractures The glenohumeral joint is a complex joint that lacks innate stability; the humeral head relies heavily on the ligaments of the shoulder and the rotato ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glucosamine Sulfate Glucosamine sulfate is an oral supplement used in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. This activity outlines the indications, hypothesized ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Glyburide Glyburide is a medication used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sulfonylurea class of drugs. This activity outlines the ind ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Golfers Elbow Golfer’s elbow (medial epicondylitis or pitcher's elbow) is tendinopathy caused by overuse or overload and affects the medial common flexor tendon of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Gordon Reflex Gordon reflex, also called the paradoxical flexor reflex, is a clinical sign utilized to detect upper motor neuron lesions. Evaluation of this reflex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Greater Trochanteric Syndrome Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a degenerative condition that affects the gluteal tendons and bursa. Repetitive friction between the grea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Greenstick Fracture A greenstick fracture is a partial thickness fracture where only cortex and periosteum are interrupted on one side of the bone, while they remain unin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Guyon Canal Syndrome Guyon canal syndrome is a relatively rare peripheral ulnar neuropathy that involves injury to the distal portion of the ulnar nerve as it travels thro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hallux Valgus A hallux valgus is a complex deformity of the first ray of the forefoot. This deformity is, at times, red and painful and can disrupt daily activities ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hallux Varus Hallux varus is a clinical condition characterized by medial deviation of the great toe at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. This condition has mul ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Halo Brace The halo vest immobilizer (halo brace) device is the most rigid form of external immobilization of the upper cervical spine to date. Indications for i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hamate Fractures Fractures of the hamate are rare, under-reported injuries. They can be divided anatomically into two groups: body or hook. While conventional X-rays m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hammertoe Hammertoes are among the most common deformities of the forefoot. This activity outlines the evaluation and management of hammertoe deformity and expl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hamstring Injury Hamstring muscles comprise the three major muscles of the posterior aspect of the thigh. These include the semimembranous as the medial most, long and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hand Amputation This activity reviews the presentation and evaluation of patients with hand amputations. Additionally, it highlights the treatment options and associa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hand and Wrist Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated multisystem inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the synovial joints. This activity provide ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hand Extensor Tendon Lacerations Extensor tendon lacerations are relatively common injuries and, when not treated appropriately, may result in a lasting impairment of hand function. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hand High Pressure Injury High-pressure injection injuries of the hand occur when the hand comes into contact with the nozzle of a high-pressure injecting system such as a pain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hand Infection Hand infections comprise a broad spectrum of pathology, dependent upon which superficial or deep structures are involved. Given the anatomical complex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hand Nerve Compression Syndromes Nerve compression syndrome is a common complaint in the general population. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe. This activity w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hand Splint There are many different indications for hand splinting. These include phalanx fractures, conditions requiring immobilization of the metacarpophalange ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hangman's Fractures A hangman’s fracture is a bilateral fracture traversing the pars interarticularis of cervical vertebrae 2 (C2) with an associated traumatic subluxatio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Heat Illness The disorders of hyperthermia, also known as heat-related injury or illness, exist on a continuum, which is marked by dysregulation of the body’s ther ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Height Assessment Height assessment is important from a clinical, anthropological, forensic as well as medico-legal standpoint. This activity describes the significance ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemarthrosis Hemarthrosis is a condition of articular bleeding, that is into the joint cavity. This can occur after an injury or, more commonly, in bleeding disord ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemophilia A Hemophilia encompasses a group of inherited disorders that alter blood coagulation. Classical hemophilia, also known as hemophilia A, is a hereditary ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hip Fracture Overview Hip fractures are fractures of the proximal femur and are commonly seen in the elderly population following a fall. This type of injury has a high rat ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Hip Joint Injection Hip pain is a common clinical complaint and a source of disability with an incidence of 12 to 15 percent among all adults over the age of 60 years. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hip Osteonecrosis Osteonecrosis of the hip, commonly known as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the hip, is the death of the femoral head as a result of vascular disruption. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hip Pointer Injuries A hip pointer is a contusion of the iliac crest and/or the greater trochanteric region of the femur following a direct impact or collision. The manage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hirayama Disease Hirayama is a rare nonfamiliar monomelic amyotrophy that is also known as benign juvenile brachial spinal muscular atrophy, juvenile asymmetric segmen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
HLA B27 Syndromes The human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are gene loci in the major histocompatibility complex class I of genes on chromosome 6, present on all nucleated ce ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Humeral Shaft Fractures Midshaft humeral fractures usually occur due to a direct blow to the upper arm, which commonly results from falls, motor vehicle accidents, or motorcy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Humerus Fractures Overview Humerus fractures account for 4 to 6 percent of all fractures in young patients and 1 to 3 percent of all fractures in elderly patients. In young men, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hyaluronic Acid Hyaluronic acid is a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide, which is widely distributed in the connective tissue extracellular matrix. Several hyaluron ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hydrocodone Hydrocodone is a schedule II semi-synthetic opioid medication used to treat pain. Hydrocodone is also an antitussive indicated for cough in adults. In ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydromorphone Hydromorphone is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate to severe acute pain as well as severe chronic pain. It is in the opioi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Management Of Frostbite Although evidence for treating frostbite with hyperbaric oxygen is sparse and limited to case reports and animal studies, the proposed mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Therapy For Wound Healing The international body that sets the standards for hyperbaric medicine is The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. There are currently 14 approved ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Chronic Refractory Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is infection of the bone or marrow caused by bacteria or mycobacteria. It is difficult to treat due to the relative paucity of blood ves ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Clostridial Myositis And Myonecrosis Clostridial myonecrosis, also called gas gangrene, can rapidly cause death if not immediately detected and treated. It is caused by the anaerobic spor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Treatment of Crush Injury And Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome (ACS) occurs when compartment pressures increase to the point that circulation and tissue function is compromised. Human li ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypercalciuria Hypercalciuria is generally considered to be the most common identifiable metabolic risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis. It also contributes to os ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hyperphosphatemia This article summarises the basics of Hyperphosphatemia, including its pathophysiology, evaluation, and management. Though this condition is seen more ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypertrophic Scarring Hypertrophic scarring represents an undesirable variant in the wound healing process. In hypertrophic scars, excess connective tissue is deposited in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome Iliotibial band syndrome is a common cause of lateral knee pain in athletes. Iliotibial band syndrome is often successfully treated with nonoperative ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infantile and Juvenile Scoliosis Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) occurs in young children and presents a unique and challenging dilemma since the spine, thorax, and lungs are still develo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Inferior Shoulder Dislocations The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body and accounts for approximately 50% of all major dislocations ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Inflammatory Back Pain Inflammatory back pain (IBP) is a condition of pain localized to the axial spine and sacroiliac joints that is chronic and is differentiated from mech ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infraclavicular Nerve Block The infraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique developed to avoid the side effects and complications of supraclavicular blocks, particul ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Interscalene Block An interscalene nerve block anesthetizes most of the territory innervated by the brachial plexus, sparing the inferior trunk. This block is generally ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Intersection Syndrome Intersection syndrome is a condition that affects the first and second compartments of the dorsal wrist extensors. The condition is thought to occur a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intertrochanteric Femur Fracture Intertrochanteric femur fractures are a very common injury seen in the elderly. Understanding the pathophysiology as well as the proper treatment opt ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Intoeing Deformities and angular variations of the lower extremities are one of the most common reasons for referral to pediatric orthopedics, with in-toeing s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intrinsic Hand Deformity Intrinsic hand deformities represent a challenging condition that disables the patient if left untreated. A thorough physical examination is essential ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Ischial Bursitis Ischial bursitis (ischio-gluteal bursitis) is a condition of inflammation of the bursa, which lies between the ischial tuberosity and the gluteus maxi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis occurs when there is an anterior subluxation or “slippage” of the vertebral body above on the vertebral body below. In most cases, s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Jersey Finger This activity aims to review "jersey finger" injuries. Jersey finger is a distal avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon from its inse ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Joint Immobilization Splinting and immobilization are crucial skills for prehospital medical providers, as traumatic musculoskeletal injuries are commonly encountered by e ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Jumpers Knee “Jumper's knee,” also called patellar tendinopathy, is a painful condition of the knee caused by small tears in the patellar tendon that mainly occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), a heterogeneous group of chronic arthritis, is the most common chronic rheumatological condition in children. The ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Kienbock Disease Kienböck disease refers to avascular necrosis of the lunate carpal bone, known as lunatomalacia. It was first recognized and described by Austrian rad ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Klippel Feil Syndrome Klippel-Feil syndrome presents with an abnormal fusion of 2 or more bones in the cervical spine. This creates a characteristic appearance of a short n ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Knee Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure performed to aspirate synovial fluid from a joint cavity. It has both diagnostic and therapeutic utilization. While arth ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Knee Arthroplasty Knee arthroplasty is the reconstruction of the knee joint. It is more commonly referred to as a total knee replacement and is a very reliable procedur ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Knee Dislocation A knee dislocation is a potentially devastating injury and is often a surgical emergency. This injury requires prompt identification, evaluation with ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Knee Effusion The knee is a hinge joint and susceptible to injury from trauma, inflammation, infection, and degenerative changes. A knee effusion may result from ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Knee Extensor Mechanism Injuries Knee extensor mechanism injuries are a group of morbidities that involve the quadriceps muscles, quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Knee Meniscal Tears The lateral and medial menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures that collectively cover approximately 70% of the articular surface of ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Knee Osteoarthritis Knee osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease of the knee, is typically the result of wear and tear and progressive loss of artic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a somewhat rare cause of knee dysfunction and pain that has been recognized for over one hundred years, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Kohler Disease Kohler disease is a disease only seen in pediatric patients. Although the etiology is not fully understood, it is thought to be caused by the compress ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kyphoscoliosis Kyphoscoliosis is a disease of the thoracolumbar spine in which normal curvature is excessively deviated in multiple planes. Its complications are var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kyphosis Kyphosis is defined as an increase in the forward curvature of the spine that is seen along the sagittal plane, whereas lordosis is an increase in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lachman Test The Lachman test is a specific clinical exam technique used to evaluate patients with a suspected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The test re ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Laminectomy Laminectomy is one of the most common procedures to decompress spinal canal in cases of narrowing secondary to a variety of conditions such as degener ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lateral Ankle Instability Lateral ankle instability is a complex condition that can, at times, prove difficult to evaluate and treat for general practitioners. The difficulty i ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Lateral Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries The lateral collateral ligament (LCL), also known as the fibular ligament serves as one of the key stabilizers of the knee joint. Originating on the l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Legg Calve Perthes Disease Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is idiopathic osteonecrosis or idiopathic avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis of the femoral head. T ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lisfranc Dislocation A Lisfranc dislocation or injury describes a spectrum of injuries involving the tarsometatarsal joints of the foot. The Lisfranc joint is comprised of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practices. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Long Arm Splinting Long arm splints are used in a variety of settings for immobilization of both bony and soft tissue injuries to the upper extremities. This type of spl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lumbar Degenerative Disk Disease Between each vertebral body of the spine are pads of fibrocartilage-based structures that provide support, flexibility, and minor load-sharing known a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lumbar Facet Arthropathy The lumbar zygapophysial joint, otherwise known as facet joint, is a common generator of lower back pain. The facet joint is formed via the posterolat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lumbar Plexus Block Regional anesthesia techniques are powerful tools for postoperative pain management that have shown to reduce perioperative opioid consumption, Increa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common source of leg and back pain. It refers to a narrowing in the vertebra, in the areas of the central canal, lateral ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lumbar Spondylolysis And Spondylolisthesis Spondylolysis refers to a posterior defect in the vertebral body at the pars interarticularis. Usually, this defect is due to trauma or from a chronic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Disc Injuries The area between the lumbar vertebral bodies and sacral vertebral bodies is a transition zone at increased risk of injury due to the change in biomech ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Discogenic Syndrome Lumbosacral discogenic syndrome is a common cause of axial low back pain (ABP), which can arise from structures such as facet joints, spinal muscles, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Facet Syndrome Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints encountered in clinical practice. It is the leading cause of disability in the deve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Plexopathy Lumbosacral plexopathy is a relatively uncommon occurrence that can be difficult to diagnose and manage. When an injury occurs to the lumbosacral plex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Radiculopathy Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints encountered in clinical practice. It is the leading cause of disability in the deve ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis Lumbosacral spondylolisthesis is a forward translation of the fifth lumbar vertebrae over the first sacral vertebrae. Untreated, it may be associated ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lung Adenocarcinoma Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common primary lung cancer seen in the United States. It falls under the umbrella of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lung Perfusion Scan A ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scan is a diagnostic test using radioisotopes to evaluate lung perfusion and ventilation. Its most common clinical use is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lunotriquetral Instability Lunotriquetral joint instability is often misdiagnosed and if left untreated can result in lunotriquetral dissociation. Although patients may lack sym ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread by ticks. Lyme disease is divided into three stages: early local ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Lymphedema Lymphedema is a chronic disease marked by the increased collection of lymphatic fluid in the body, causing swelling, which can lead to skin and tissue ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lytic Bone Lesions Bone tumors are mostly benign. The most important determinants in imaging of bone tumors are morphology on plain radiograph (well-defined lytic, ill-d ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Male Urinary Retention Urinary retention is the inability to void urine voluntarily. It is a common problem around the world and can occur acutely or chronically. Acute rete ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mallet Finger Mallet finger injuries are commonly encountered in everyday clinical practice. Mallet, which means hammer, was the term used to describe the hammer-li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mallet Finger Injuries Mallet finger is the term usually applied to extensor avulsion fractures. However, this entity may also be caused by distal extensor tendon ruptures. ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mandible Dislocation Temporal mandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation, or mandibular dislocation, can present as bilateral or unilateral displacement of the mandibular condyle ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
March Fracture March fractures (metatarsal stress fractures) were first described in 1855, when the term was coined for the foot pain and swelling experienced by Pru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Marfan Syndrome One of the most common inherited disorders affecting connective tissue, Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant condition with a reported incid ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
McKenzie Back Exercises The McKenzie back exercises belong to an exercise protocol pioneered by physiotherapist Robin Anthony McKenzie in the 1950s and popularized around 198 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mechanical Back Strain Mechanical back strain is a prevalent disease in the medical field. Most patients who develop a mechanical back strain have a benign course; however, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Medial Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a flat band of connective tissue that runs from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medial Epicondylar Elbow Fractures Medial epicondylar fractures are fractures that occur at the medial distal humerus. These are common injuries in the pediatric population. Prompt diag ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medial Epicondyle Injection Medial epicondylitis, commonly known as golfer’s elbow, is an overuse injury that occurs from tendinosis of the medial elbow at the origin of the flex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Medial Epicondylitis Medial epicondylitis refers to the chronic tendinosis of the wrist flexors and pronators that attach to the medial epicondyle. Medial epicondylitis oc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injuries of the lower extremity, often seen in athletes and military personnel. It involves e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Median Nerve Injury This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of an injury to the median nerve and highlights the role of the healthcare team in managing patien ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Median Nerve Palsy This activity addresses the topic of median nerve palsy in great detail. The median nerve is a critical neurological structure in the upper extremity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meniscectomy Meniscectomy is a procedure commonly performed for degenerative or traumatic meniscal tears as a method of pain relief. It is typically done in an out ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meralgia Paresthetica Meralgia paresthetica is a clinical condition that includes pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh associated with lateral femoral cutaneous ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Metacarpal Fracture The metacarpals form the osseous base of the complex lever system of flexor and extensor tendons of the hand. Understandably, fractures of the metaca ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Metacarpal Hand Fracture Hand fractures are common in the general population with relative propensity seen in contact-sport athletes (e.g., boxers, football players) and manua ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methotrexate Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite most commonly used in chemotherapy and immunosuppressant in auto-immune diseases. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Microdiscectomy Microdiscectomy, with its smaller incision, less traumatic approach, and better visualization of the operative field than standard open discectomy, is ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Monoarticular Arthritis Monoarticular arthritis is an inflammation of one joint that may later involve other joints of the body. The differential diagnosis and treatment of s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Monteggia Fractures The forearm is a vital structure in the human body that is essential for completing activities of daily living. It is designed to help maximize versat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Morton Neuroma Morton neuroma is a compressive neuropathy of the interdigital nerve in the forefoot due to compression and constant irritation at the plantar aspect ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Multidirectional Shoulder Instability Multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder was first described in 1980 as a complex condition of the shoulder defined by instability in 2 or m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Multimodal Postoperative Pain Control After Orthopaedic Surgery Multimodal pain control is an important modality to control pain in the post-operative period in all patients undergoing surgery or various other proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell proliferative disorder characterized by the abnormal increase of monoclonal paraprotein leading to evide ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Myofascial Pain Syndrome Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is common among patients with musculoskeletal pain problems. MPS is a pain condition originating from muscle and surrou ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nail Patella Syndrome Nail patella syndrome (NPS) is a rare multisystemic disease with a classic clinical tetrad of fingernail dysplasia, hypoplasia or absence of the patel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Needlestick Needlestick injuries are frequent occurrences in healthcare settings and can lead to serious complications. While the introduction of universal precau ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Neoplastic Lumbosacral Plexopathy Neoplastic lumbosacral plexopathy is an injury to one or more nerves of the lumbosacral plexus due to malignant neoplasms. Neoplastic lumbosacral plex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nerve Stimulation Chronic pain conditions, including low back pain, neck pain, and neuropathic pain states like chronic regional pain syndrome, causalgia, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Neuropathic Ulcer Neuropathic ulcers occur when a patient with poor neurological function of the peripheral nervous system has pressure points that cause ulceration thr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neurotmesis Neurotmesis is a complete transection of a peripheral nerve. The severity of peripheral nerve injury can be classified as neurapraxia, axonotmesis, or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nightstick Fracture Nightstick fractures are a relatively rare injury presenting in patients of all ages that can result in discomfort, weakness, and loss of function. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nosocomial Pneumonia Nosocomial pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after hospital admission and not incuba ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Nucleus Pulposus Herniation This activity describes the etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment of a nucleus pulposus herniation, which is a condition charact ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nursemaid Elbow Nursemaid's elbow, or "radial head subluxation" is a common injury in young children in which the radial head slips under the annular ligament resulti ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Obesity and Orthopedic Issues Obesity affects one-third of the North American population and increases the risk of multiple co-morbidities. In addition, obesity has been linked to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Occipital Nerve Stimulation Occipital nerve stimulation is a neuromodulation technique used for the treatment of refractory primary and secondary headache disorders. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Odontoid Fractures The odontoid process, or dens, is a superior projecting bony element from the second cervical vertebrae (C2, or the axis). The first cervical vertebra ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Olecranon Bursa Aspiration In its normal state, the olecranon bursa is a small fluid-filled subcutaneous sac which overlies the olecranon process in the elbow. Olecranon bursa s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Olecranon Bursitis The olecranon bursa is synovial membrane located immediately posterior to the olecranon bone of the elbow. The bursa's function is to allow the bony o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Olecranon Fracture The olecranon is the proximal articular portion of the ulna. Along with the coronoid process, it forms the greater sigmoid notch which articulates wi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Open Fracture Management An open fracture is an injury where the fractured bone and/or fracture hematoma are exposed to the external environment via a traumatic violation of t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Opioid Use Disorder Opioid use disorder has a significant impact on the quality of life. It is an epidemic in the United States. The persistent use of opioids should be d ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Os Odontoideum This activity discusses os odontoideum, a rare cervical entity characterized by a failure in the normal development of the odontoid process resulting ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Os Peroneum Os peroneum is one of several accessory ossicles of the foot and ankle, located lateral to the cuboid within the distal peroneus longus tendon. Painfu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osgood Schlatter Disease Osgood Schlatter disease, also known as osteochondrosis, tibial tubercle apophysitis, or traction apophysitis of the tibial tubercle, is a common caus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica Osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC) is a skeletal disorder caused by an overproduction of parathyroid hormone from the overactive parathyroid glands. Ostei ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteitis Pubis Osteitis pubis (OP) is a noninfectious, chronic inflammatory state of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues with multiple etiologies, all r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the world. It can be classified into two categories: primary osteoarthritis and secondary ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Osteochondritis Dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), also known as an osteochondral lesion, is not a fully understood process, though it is believed to be multi-factorial ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Osteochondroma Osteochondromas are common benign osseous surface lesions generally arising from the metaphysis of long bones. The lesions are most commonly asymptoma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteoclastoma A giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is an aggressive osteolytic neoplasm that primarily affects skeletally mature young adults. This tumor can have seve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Osteofibrous Dysplasia Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is a rare disease. It is considered a benign non-neoplastic condition of unknown cause, characterized by a fibrovascular ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteogenesis Imperfecta Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disorder of connective tissues caused by an abnormality in the synthesis or processing of type I collagen. I ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Osteogenic Sarcoma Osteogenic sarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor with an annual incidence of 900 cases in the United States. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Osteoid Osteoma An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone-forming tumor that has no potential to become malignant. It classically causes severe pain at night and is relieve ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Osteomalacia Vitamin D deficiency accounts for the most common nutritional deficiency among children and adults. Osteomalacia describes a disorder of “bone softeni ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a serious infection of the bone that can be either acute or chronic. It is an inflammatory process involving the bone and its structu ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Counterstrain/FPR Procedure - Thoracic Vertebrae This procedure outlines thoracic strain-counterstrain and functional positional release. These two indirect techniques are used for somatic dysfunctio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Muscle Energy Procedure - Lumbar Vertebrae Low back pain is one of the most prevalent conditions seen in medical care and contributes to high healthcare costs, emergency room visits, and decrea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Osteopenia Osteopenia describes a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) below normal reference values, yet not low enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for os ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Osteopetrosis The name osteopetrosis encompasses a group of hereditary metabolic bone diseases, all of which detrimentally affect bone growth and remodeling leading ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is defined as low bone mineral density caused by altered bone microstructure, ultimately predisposing patients to low-impact, fragility f ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Osteoporosis In Males Osteoporosis is a silent disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone microarchitecture leading to fragility and increa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Osteoporosis in Spinal Cord Injuries Osteoporosis is a condition describing a spectrum of overall compromised skeletal microarchitecture with clinical manifestations related to decreasing ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is a malignant osseous neoplasm. It is the most common primary bone cancer of childhood. Less frequently, it occurs in adults where it re ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Paget Disease Paget disease is a skeletal growth disorder in which abnormalities such as unusual bone growth can occur in several multifactoral ways. This is often ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Paget Schroetter Syndrome Paget Schroetter syndrome (PSS) is effort-induced thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins associated with compression of the subclavian vein a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Pain Management Medications Analgesics are medications used in the management and treatment of pain. They include several classes of medications (acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Palliation Radiation Therapy Of The Spinal Cord Radiation therapy is frequently used in medicine as both a curative and palliative treatment modality. When cancer metastasizes to the spine, patients ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pamidronate Pamidronate is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate or severe hypercalcemia of malignancy, moderate to severe Paget disease o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Paronychia Drainage Acute paronychia is one of the most common infections of the hand. It is usually caused by a breakdown of the seal between the nail plate and the nail ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Paroxetine Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is used to treat several diseases, including major depressive disorder, obsessive-co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pars Interarticularis Defect Pars interarticularis defects also referred to as spondylolysis, are a common cause of axial back pain in adolescents, especially young athletes. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pars Interarticularis Injury Pars interarticularis injury, a condition characterized by a fracture in the pars isthmus, is a common cause of low back pain, mainly among young athl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Patella Dislocation Acute patellar dislocations typically occur as a result of trauma, usually a non-contact twisting injury to the knee, or from a direct blow to the med ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Patella Fractures The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. The posterior aspect of the patella contains a thick cartilage layer, which is the thickes ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Patellar Instability Patellar dislocations are common and represent 3 percent of all knee injuries. Additionally, they are a leading cause of knee hemarthrosis. Patellar d ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Patellar Tendon Rupture A patellar tendon rupture involves a complete tear of the tendon that runs from the patella's inferior pole to the tibial tubercle. It is typically se ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Patellofemoral Arthritis Patellofemoral arthritis is a common cause of anterior knee pain. The patellofemoral joint is composed of the bony patella, which is a sesamoid bone e ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Patellofemoral Syndrome Patellofemoral syndrome (PFS) is one of the most common causes of anterior knee pain. It is commonly known as runner's knee, patellofemoral pain syndr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pathologic Fractures Pathologic fractures occur secondary to altered skeletal physiology and mechanics in the setting of a benign or malignant lesion. Therefore, proper di ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pectoralis Major Tear Injuries of the pectoralis major muscle are rare. Although the injury typically occurs while lifting weights, specifically while performing a bench pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pectus Carinatum Pectus carinatum is a structural deformity of the chest wall that affects nearly 1 in 1000 teens, and early identification allows for more noninvasive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pectus Excavatum Approximately 95 percent of congenital chest wall anomalies are attributed to pectus deformities, with pectus excavatum being the most common. Pectus ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pediatric Lateral Humeral Condyle Fractures This activity reviews the injury mechanism, presentation, evaluation, management, and post-operative care of pediatric lateral humeral condyle fractur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pediatric Physeal Injuries Overview This activity describes the evaluation and management of physeal injuries in the pediatric population. It explains the role of the interprofessional t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Pediatric Spine Trauma A spinal cord injury is a potentially crippling injury which often results in severe and permanent disability. Quite often when encountering multi-sys ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Torus Buckle Fracture Buckle fractures are incredibly common injuries that present to the emergency department, which are invariably always managed conservatively, and do n ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pelvic Abscess A pelvic abscess is potentially a life-threatening condition. It can lead to sepsis and rupture and poor prognosis, especially in women of reproductiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pelvic Fracture A pelvic fracture involves damage to the hip bones, sacrum, or coccyx - the bony structures forming the pelvic ring. Due to the inherent structural an ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Pelvic Ring Injuries The pelvic ring is made of the sacrum and two innominate bones, each containing an ilium, ischium, and pubis. There is no inherent stability to the bo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Pelvic Trauma Pelvic injuries are the result of high energy trauma; they frequently have associated injuries. The injuries can be life-threatening and lead to life- ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
PENG Regional Block The pericapsular nerve group block (PENG) is a regional anesthetic technique that was described in 2018, developed primarily in total hip arthroplasti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Percutaneous Vertebroplasty And Kyphoplasty Compression fractures are prone to progression over time and may facilitate the compression of adjacent vertebrae due to compensatory increases in axi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Perilunate Dislocation Perilunate dislocations (PLDs), lunate dislocations (LDs), and perilunate fracture-dislocations (PLFDs) are rare high-energy injuries. Because these i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy (PN) encompasses a broad range of clinical pathologies potentially presenting with peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Peripheral Nerve Blocks Recent advances in surgical techniques and the development of a greater number of minimally invasive procedures have led to an increase in outpatient ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Peripheral nerve stimulation is an emerging field in adjunctive analgesic therapies. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, and tec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Periprosthetic Distal Femur Fracture Total knee arthroplasty provides a safe and effective treatment for patients with end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. The combination of increased l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Periprosthetic Proximal Femur Fractures Periprosthetic proximal femur fractures are complex orthopedic issues that carry significant morbidity and mortality. The demand for primary total hip ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peroneal Nerve Injury The common peroneal nerve is a major nerve that innervates the lower extremity. There are numerous traumatic and non-traumatic causes of peroneal nerv ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Peroneal Tendon Syndromes Peroneal tendon disorders are a cause of hindfoot and lateral foot pain. There are three primary disorders of the tendons; Peroneal tendonitis, perone ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pes Anserine Bursitis The pes anserine describes a region where tendinous structures of the semitendinosus, gracilis, and sartorius muscles join to insert at the medial kne ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pes Cavus Pes cavus is an orthopedic condition that manifests in both children and adults. It is defined primarily by the elevation of the longitudinal arch of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pes Planus Pes planus is a relatively common foot deformity that refers to the loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, resulting in this region of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pfeiffer Syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome is an inherited craniofacial disorder that is associated with primary craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Phalanx Fracture Phalangeal fractures of the hand are a common injury that presents to the emergency department and clinic. Injuries can be located at the proximal, mi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phalanx Fractures of the Hand Phalanx fractures of the hand are some of the most common fractures occurring in humans. They are often noted to be in the more common of all upper ex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phantom Limb Pain Phantom limb pain is the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that is no longer there. PLP most commonly presents as a sequela of amputation. Th ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) refers to a subtype of tenosynovial giant cell tumors that diffusely affect the soft tissue lining of joints a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pilon Fracture “Pilon,” the French word for pestle, was first used by Etienne Destot in 1911 as an analogy for the mechanical function of the distal tibia on the tal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Piriformis Syndrome Piriformis syndrome occurs due to sciatic nerve entrapment at the level of the ischial tuberosity. While there are multiple factors that may contribut ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Plantar Fasciitis Plantar fasciitis is the result of degenerative irritation of the plantar fascia origin at the medial calcaneal tuberosity of the heel as well as the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Plantar Fibromatosis Plantar fibromatosis is a benign fibroblastic, connective tissue proliferative disorder of the superficial plantar aponeurosis of the foot. It belongs ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Plantar Heel Pain Plantar heel pain is a common problem among adults. It can lead to severe pain which causes significant disability and impairment of activities of dai ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Plica Syndrome A plica is a band of thick, fibrotic tissue that extends from the synovial capsule of a joint. The knee is the joint most commonly affected by plica t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Poland Syndrome In Children Poland syndrome encompasses a range of chest wall anomalies with possible ipsilateral upper extremity involvement. This syndrome is an uncommon and di ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Polyarticular Arthritis Clinicians frequently encounter patients with a complaint of "all my joints hurt." In reality, many of these patients have either transient self-limi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Polydactyly Polydactyly may indicate the presence of a very serious underlying disease or may present as an isolated finding. It may present in upper extremity or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Polymyalgia Rheumatica Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a rheumatic disorder characterized by pain and stiffness around the neck, shoulder, and hip area. This disorder is mor ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome The rare clinical manifestation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (PAES) was defined approximately 40 years ago. It has a preference for young t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee joint that functions to stabilize the tibia on the femur. It orig ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Posterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow joint is considered relatively stable; however, elbow dislocations are a fairly common occurrence. This injury frequently occurs during spor ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Posterior Hip Dislocation In the United States, hip dislocations are responsible for significant morbidity and potentially mortality with deleterious consequences to the surrou ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Posterior Interosseous Nerve Syndrome There are multiple compression neuropathies of the upper extremity. Some neuropathies, like carpal tunnel, are quite common; others like posterior in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Posterior Shoulder Dislocations The shoulder girdle is a complex articulation connecting the upper extremity to the axial skeleton. The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is the most ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Posterior Shoulder Instability Posterior shoulder instability is a rare clinical entity that represents a spectrum of instability ranging from posterior subluxation to posterior dis ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) represents an acquired, progressive disease of the foot and ankle that is seen commonly in middle-aged pati ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postoperative Pain Control Postoperative pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients who undergo surgical procedures. Control of postoperative pain plays an essential r ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Postoperative Wound Infection Postoperative wound infection is a common problem. The process of wound infection is complex and involves an interplay between several biological path ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Postpartum Pubic Symphysis Diastasis Pubic symphysis diastasis (PSD) following childbirth via vaginal delivery is a rare but debilitating condition. Widening of the cartilaginous joint du ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Post-Traumatic Hand Stiffness Post-traumatic hand stiffness is a common complication. Evaluating and treating the stiff hand requires an understanding of the anatomy of the hand as ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Posttraumatic Syringomyelia Posttraumatic syringomyelia refers to the development of a cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord several months or years after a kn ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postural Instability Postural instability is the inability to maintain equilibrium under dynamic and static conditions such as preparation of movements, perturbations, and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pott Disease Pott disease, or tuberculosis of the spine, has recently shown a significant resurgence in developed nations secondary to global migration. Concurrent ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Pregnancy Trauma Trauma in pregnancy can ranges from mild, for example trauma associated with a single fall from standing height or hitting the abdomen on an object su ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is administering antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infections. The ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Prepatellar Bursitis A bursa is a potential space containing fluid that is present between the skin and tendon or tendon and bone. It functions to reduce friction between ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pressure Injury Pressure injuries are formed when pressure causes localized damage to underlying skin and soft tissue. These skin and soft tissue injuries remain a si ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Primary Bone Cancer Primary bone cancers are rare malignant tumors originating in bone and derived from primitive mesenchymal cells. They are frequently aggressive tumors ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Primary Osteoarthritis Primary osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis that affects adults and the elderly. All providers, but especially primary care physicians ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pronator Teres Syndrome Pronator teres syndrome (PTS), first described by Henrik Seyffarth in 1951, is caused by a compression of the median nerve (MN) by the pronator teres ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Prostate Cancer Worldwide, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in men. In 2012, this amounted to 1,1 ... Read the Article 2.25 23 Activity Info
Prosthetic Joint Infection There is no uniformly accepted definition for prosthetic joint infection. The presentation is often varied and classic features of infection, such as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Prosthetics In Orthopedics This activity reviews orthopedic prosthetics that are currently used in practice. It discusses both lower limb and upper limb prostheses and the diff ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Proximal Biceps Tendinitis and Tendinopathy The main function of the biceps muscle is forearm supination and elbow flexion. The biceps also contribute 10 percent of the total power in shoulder a ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Proximal Humeral Epiphysiolysis Proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, colloquially termed Little League shoulder, is a stress injury of the epiphyseal cartilage of the proximal humerus th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Proximal Humerus Fracture Proximal humerus fractures (PHFs) account for 5 to 6 percent of all adult fractures and often occur in elderly individuals who experience low-energy f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pseudohypoparathyroidism Pseudohypoparathyroidism is a rare disorder where patients are resistant to parathyroid hormone. Parathyroid hormone resistance leads to hypocalcemia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Psoriatic Arthritis Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is chronic inflammatory arthritis associated with psoriasis (PsO) and found in about 20 to 30% of such patients. It shares ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Quadriceps Tendon Rupture The quadriceps tendon is derived from the muscular junction of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius muscles a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Radial Dysplasia The radial club hand encompasses a spectrum of complex congenital malformations of the radial side of the forearm. These are uncommon and can range fr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Radial Head Dislocation Radial head dislocations are very uncommon. Most commonly seen in children as a radial head subluxation. Radial head dislocations most commonly occur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Radial Head Fractures Radial head fractures account for approximately one in three elbow fractures and 1 to 4 percent of all fractures in adults. In the past, the radial he ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Radial Neck Fracture Repair In A Child Radial neck fractures commonly occur in children and tend to be more prevalent at ages 9 to 10 years. They represent up to 10% of all pediatric elbow ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Radial Nerve Entrapment Radial nerve entrapment is an uncommon diagnosis that is prone to under-recognition. Compression or entrapment can occur at any location within the co ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Radial Nerve Injury The radial nerve stems from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and supplies the upper limb. It also supplies the triceps brachii muscle of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Radial Tunnel Syndrome Radial tunnel syndrome refers to a compressive neuropathy of the posterior interosseus nerve (PIN) in the radial tunnel. Symptoms include pain without ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy For Heterotopic Ossification Prophylaxis Heterotopic ossification is the formation of mature, lamellar bone in soft tissues where bone does not normally exist. It is commonly seen following t ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Radicular Back Pain Radicular back pain is one of the common reasons for low back pain. The definition of acute lumbosacral radiculopathy is a diffuse disease process tha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Radius and Ulnar Shaft Fractures The forearm provides the bony structure and muscular origins that allow the hand to operate in many orientations. The two bones of the forearm (the ra ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis (ReA) is inflammatory arthritis that manifests several days to weeks after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection. It is als ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Recurrent Ankle Sprain Ankle sprains are one of the most common recurrent injuries of the lower extremity. Up to 40% of ankle sprains go on to develop chronic symptoms, incl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Regional Anesthetic Blocks A regional block is a specific anesthetic technique that inhibits nerve transmission to avoid or relieve pain. This activity reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Rheumatoid Arthritis And Ankylosing Spondylitis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are among the most common rheumatic diseases. These chronic progressive inflammatory disease ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rib Fracture When enough force is placed on the rib, the rib will fracture. Most isolated rib fractures can be managed expectantly. However, certain patterns of ri ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rickets Rickets is a condition characterized by a defect in mineralization of the epiphyseal plates. Rickets could be inherited or acquired. The acquired rick ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Robotic Assisted Total Knee Arthroplasty The term “robotic surgery” refers to the use of programmable devices to perform a wide variety of surgical tasks. These are not intended to replace th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rolando Fractures The term Rolando fracture was described for the first time in 1910 by Silvio Rolando, an Italian surgeon. The eponym is used to describe a comminuted ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Rotation Vertebral Artery Syndrome Rotational vertebral artery syndrome, or "bow hunter syndrome," is a very rare diagnosis that is easily missed. Furthermore, symptoms are very nonspec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rotator Cuff Injury Rotator cuff pathology is a commonly encountered condition, and the natural history suggests tears increase with increasing age. This activity will di ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Rotator Cuff Syndrome The rotator cuff is made up of the muscle bellies and tendons of the infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles. Rotator cuf ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis Rotator cuff tendonitis is an inflammation of the tendons that make up the rotator cuff, i.e., supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sacroiliac Joint Injection Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a common etiology of low back pain. Studies have shown that 10 to 27 percent of mechanical low back pain is secondary to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sacroiliac Joint Injury Sacroiliac joint injury is a common type of low back pain. Differentiating SI joint pain from mechanical low back pain is essential. This activity out ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sacroiliac Joint Pain The sacroiliac (SI) joint lies between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis. There are two joints, one on each side of the sacrum. The joint s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sacroiliitis Sacroiliitis is inflammation of the sacroiliac joint (SI), the joint that connects the ilium to the sacrum. The SI joint is one of the largest joints ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Salicylates Toxicity Salicylate toxicity is a medical emergency. Intentional ingestion or accidental overdose can cause severe metabolic derangements, making treatment dif ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Salter Harris Fractures The Salter-Harris classification system is a method used to grade fractures that occur in children and involve the growth plate, which is also known a ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Saphenous Nerve Block The saphenous nerve block is widely used in both emergency and perioperative settings for procedural anesthesia and post-procedural pain management. T ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Saturday Night Palsy Saturday night palsy refers to a compressive neuropathy of the radial nerve that occurs from prolonged, direct pressure onto the upper medial arm or a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Scaphoid Wrist Fracture Scaphoid fractures are the most common carpal fractures and tend to occur in younger, active individuals. They account for 2% to 7% of all fractures a ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Scapholunate Advanced Collapse Scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) is a characteristic degenerative clinical wrist condition of progressive deformity, instability, and arthritis t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Scapula Fracture Scapular fractures are uncommon, accounting for less than 1 percent of all fractures. This may be because they typically result from high-energy traum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Scheuermann Disease Scheuermann kyphosis, also known as Scheuermann disease, juvenile kyphosis or juvenile discogenic disease, is a condition involving an abnormal, exces ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sciatic Nerve Block The sciatic nerve supplies the vast majority of motor and sensory function to the lower limb. Regional anesthetic blockade of the sciatic nerve can be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sciatica Sciatica is a debilitating condition that is a result of the sciatic nerve or sciatic nerve root pathology. Affected patients experience pain and pare ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Seat Belt Injuries Although seatbelts have prevented numerous deaths by reducing head injuries, they can cause damage via the transmission of force upon impact associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Secondary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is mainly caused by mainly fibrovascular proliferation. It is characterized by a combination of clinical findings, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Secondary Osteonecrosis of the Knee Secondary osteonecrosis is a subtype of the disabling disease osteonecrosis, which leads to end-stage arthritis of various joints, including the knee. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Secondary Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a bone disorder which is characterized by a decrease in bone strength, resulting from reduced bone mineral density, microarchitectural ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Segond Fractures Segond fractures are a type of avulsion fracture on the lateral aspect of the knee. They are relatively common and are highly associated with an under ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Septic Arthritis Septic arthritis is inflammation of the joints secondary to an infectious etiology such as bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, viral, or other pathogens ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Septic Bursitis Bursae are fluid-filled sacs that produce small amounts of synovial fluid to reduce friction between mobile structures of the musculoskeletal system. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Septic Hip Joint Septic arthritis in the pediatric hip is an emergent surgical condition that if not rapidly treated, can lead to the rapid destruction of the hip, sep ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognoses. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Seronegative Spondyloarthropathy Seronegative spondyloarthropathies are a family of joint disorders that classically include ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sever Disease Sever disease, or calcaneal apophysitis, is an overuse injury in young athletes that causes heel pain. This overuse injury is thought to be caused by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Shoulder Arthrocentesis Technique Shoulder arthrocentesis, also known as shoulder aspiration, is an important skill for interprofessional team members. It can be used for both diagnost ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Shoulder Dislocations Overview Shoulder dislocations represent 50 percent of all major joint dislocations, with anterior dislocation being most common. The shoulder is an unstable j ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Shoulder Dystocia Shoulder dystocia is a complication of vaginal delivery in which the baby's shoulder gets caught above the mother's pubic bone. It is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Shoulder impingement syndrome is a painful condition of the upper extremity resulting from a structural narrowing of the subacromial space. It is prim ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Shoulder Joint Injection Shoulder pain is a common clinical complaint with an annual incidence of 14.7 per 1000 patients per year. Lifetime prevalence is reportedly as high as ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Smith's Fracture Review A Smith fracture is a fracture of the distal radius featuring volar displacement or angulation. It typically results from a fall on the dorsum of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Snake Toxicity Venomous snakes inflict considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, although specific data on the total number of venomous snakebites globally are ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Snapping Hip Syndrome Snapping hip syndrome (dancer’s hip or coxa saltans) is a clinical condition characterized by a palpable or audible snapping sensation that is heard d ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Soft Tissue Clear Cell Sarcoma Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCSST) is an exceedingly rare tumor that originates from neural crest cells and is histologically characterized by ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Somatic Syndrome Disorders According to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V), somatic symptom disorder (SSD) involves one or mo ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Abscess Intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) is a rare central nervous system infection associated with high mortality and neurological morbidity. A qui ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Compression Spinal cord compression can result from a myriad of both atraumatic and traumatic causes. The spinal column is vulnerable to a variety of compressive ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition, which often results in severe morbidity and permanent disability. It occurs when the axons of ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Ischemia Spinal cord ischemia and infarction occur less frequently than cerebral infarction but result in significant mortality, disability, and reduced qualit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Stimulation In the middle of the spectrum of increasingly invasive pain treatment modalities lies spinal cord stimulation (SCS), also referred to as dorsal column ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Spinal Metastasis Spinal metastases are the most common tumors of the spine. These are more commonly found as bone metastasis and may present with symptoms of spinal ca ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Spinal Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is a common condition involving articular surfaces that can develop gradually over time into a debilitating condition, which causes pai ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Osteotomy Spinal osteotomy is an umbrella term for techniques used by spinal surgeons to correct spinal deformity. They can be performed on pediatric or adult p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Shock Spinal shock is a result of severe spinal cord injury. It usually requires high-impact, direct trauma that leads to spinal cord injury and spinal shoc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Stenosis Spinal stenosis is a condition characterized by the compression of the nerve roots by a number of pathologic factors, leading to symptoms such as pain ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Spinal Stenosis And Neurogenic Claudication Approximately 90 percent of the population will present with low back pain at some point in their lifetime. Spinal stenosis is a condition that is cau ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spirometry Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches to test pulmonary function. It measures the volume of exhaled air vs. time. This activity highl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Splinting Injuries that result in instability require immobilization, decreasing the likelihood of further damage, protecting soft tissues, alleviating pain, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis is a condition that occurs when one vertebral body slips with respect to the adjacent vertebral body causing radicular or mechanical ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Spondylolysis Spondylolysis is a unilateral or bilateral defect in the region of the pars interarticularis, (isthmus or bone bridge between the inferior and superio ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee can be distinguished from secondary osteonecrosis of the knee by its insidious onset and lack of identifiable ca ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Staphylococcus Aureus Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacteria that cause a wide variety of clinical diseases. Infections caused by this pathogen are common both i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Stener Lesion A Stener lesion occurs when a complete distal, thumb ulnar collateral ligament tear results in the interposition of the aponeurosis of the adductor po ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Steppage Gait Steppage gait is an entity that is not too commonly seen in primary care settings. The etiology of this disorder is multifactorial. The pathology and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Sternoclavicular Joint Infection Septic arthritis of the sternoclavicular joint is rare and represents less than 1% of all bone and joint infections. A sternoclavicular joint infectio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sternoclavicular Joint Injury Sternoclavicular joint injuries are uncommon injuries that involve the sternoclavicular joint and its associated ligaments. They can be traumatic or a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Straight Leg Raise Test The straight leg raise test, also called the Lasegue test, is a fundamental maneuver during the physical examination of a patient with lower back pain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Stress Fractures Stress fractures occur when bone, typically in the lower extremities, is subjected to repeated mechanical stress that results in microscopic fractures ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Subacromial Bursitis Subacromial bursitis is an inflammatory condition that is a common cause of shoulder pain. It is typically caused by repetitive overhead activities a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subaxial Cervical Spine Fractures The subaxial cervical spine consists of levels C3 through C7 and includes both the bony anatomy as well as the ligamentous anatomy. Injuries to the su ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subclavian Vein Thrombosis Subclavian vein thrombosis occurs due to either a primary etiology or a secondary etiology. It requires a thorough history and physical exam for diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Subtrochanteric Femur Fractures When a patient presents with an open subtrochanteric fracture, time is of the essence. Improving health professionals ability to quickly recognize thi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Subungual Hematoma Drainage Subungual hematomas are injuries of the nail bed in which bleeding develops under the nail. Patients usually complain of pain and discoloration of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Subungual Melanoma Subungual melanoma is a distinct subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma arising from structures within the nail apparatus. The word subungual is deri ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sulfasalazine Sulfasalazine is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) used in the treatment and management of autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sulindac Sulindac is a medication used in a host of conditions. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, activity, adverse events, and other k ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Superficial Thrombophlebitis Superficial thrombophlebitis, increasingly known as superficial venous thrombosis, is no longer considered a benign entity. It is often associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Superior Labrum Anterior Posterior Lesions Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal complaint seen in outpatient clinics. A systematic approach to diagnosis is essential to exclud ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Superior Labrum Lesions Superior labrum lesions, or frequently referred to as superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, are a subset of injuries of the labrum in th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Supernumerary Digit Polydactyly or supernumerary digit is a common malformation. It involves mostly the upper limbs. Classifications have been established to ease its man ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Supracondylar Humerus Fractures Supracondylar fractures of humerus are the most common type of elbow fractures in children accounting for up to 60% of elbow fractures. This activity ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Suprascapular Nerve Injury There is increasing interest in the literature regarding the clinical delineation of suprascapular nerve (SSN) injuries. While the underlying etiology ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Supraspinatus Tendonitis This activity describes the spectrum of supraspinatus tendonitis. This activity discusses information relevant to all portions of clinical care by an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Surgical Management of Femoral Neck Fractures Femoral neck fractures (FNFs) are extremely common. FNFs demonstrate a bimodal distribution pattern, occurring secondary to low energy falls in elderl ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Swan-Neck Deformity Swan neck deformity is characterized by proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint hyperextension and the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint flexion. There ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Swimmer's Shoulder Swimmers have significant susceptibility for shoulder injuries due to the involvement of the shoulders required for various strokes and the high volum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Syndactyly Syndactyly is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the extremities. It is a failure of differentiation of the digits, defined as a fusion of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Synovial Chondromatosis Synovial chondromatosis typically presents with large joint effusion(s), and joints may appear deformed due to swelling or synovial hypertrophy. Synov ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Talipes Equinovarus Talipes equinovarus is a congenital disorder that affects the mobility and quality of life of patients worldwide. This common abnormality is typically ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Talus Fracture The talus ranks as the second largest tarsal bone with unique anatomic features and serves an important role in the mobility of the foot and ankle as ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Tarsal Navicular Fractures Fractures of the tarsal navicular bone are most commonly the result of either traumatic injury or undue stress, with the latter having a higher incide ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Tarsal tunnel syndrome is sometimes referred to as tibial nerve dysfunction or posterior tibial nerve neuralgia. It is an entrapment neuropathy that i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Technetium-99m Technetium-99m (99mTc) is used for imaging and diagnostic purposes of organs and tissue. This activity describes the indications, actions, and contrai ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Telangiectatic Osteosarcoma Telangiectatic osteosarcoma is a rare high-grade malignant neoplasm, accounting for less than 4 percent of all cases of osteosarcoma. It is a rare var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tendinosis Tendon injuries plague a wide variety of patients, ranging from vigorous athletes to non-athletes. Different sports and occupations expose patients to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tennis Elbow Lateral epicondylitis, also commonly referred to as tennis elbow, describes an overuse injury that occurs secondary to an eccentric overload of the co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tenosynovitis Tenosynovitis is an inflammatory condition affecting the tendon sheath has a wide variety of causes and treatment considerations. Infectious forms of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Therapeutic Exercise This activity outlines the modalities, underpinnings, anatomy, and physiology of exercise as a tool for treating various illnesses such as musculoskel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Thoracic Discogenic Syndrome Symptomatic thoracic discogenic pain syndrome (TDPS) is a rare phenomenon making it challenging to diagnose. The rarity of TDPS is attributed to the p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) manifests when pressures in the thoracic outlet increase to the point of impinging vessels or nerves. TOS presents in a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Thoracolumbar Spine Fracture The T10-L2 thoracolumbar region is the most common area of injury to the spine from trauma due to the specific biomechanics of this segment of the spi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Thumb Spica Splinting Hand and wrist injuries afflict a large proportion of the population and impact patients of all ages and activity levels. Splinting can be effective a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tibia Diaphyseal Fracture Tibial fractures are common injuries; the subcutaneous nature of the tibia makes it more prone to open injury. Radiographs are essential in the initia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tibia Fractures Overview Tibial shaft fractures are the most common long bone fractures and are seen in 4 percent of the senior population. This activity reviews the evaluatio ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Tibia Nonunion The four major factors that influence bone healing are biomechanics, osteogenic cells, scaffolds, and growth factors. In some circumstances, this proc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tibial Eminence Fractures Tibial eminence fractures are very common in the pediatric population. Appropriate diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid the numerous associa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tibial Plateau Fractures Tibial plateau fractures account for 1 percent of all fractures and are typically sustained with high-energy mechanisms. Tibial plateau fractures may ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Tibial Tubercle Avulsion Tibial tubercle avulsion fractures are an uncommon cause of knee pain in jumping adolescent athletes. Tibial tubercle fractures are a fairly uncommon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tillaux Fracture Tillaux fractures are intraarticular fractures involving the physis and epiphysis of the distal tibia and are seen in children and adolescents. Thes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Torticollis Torticollis is a common diagnosis, and estimates are that 90 percent of individuals will exhibit at least one episode of torticollis throughout their ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Total Hip Arthroplasty Techniques Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most cost-effective and consistently successful surgeries performed in orthopedics. It provides reliable ou ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Total Knee Arthroplasty Techniques Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most cost-effective and consistently successful surgeries in orthopedics. It provides reliable outcomes fo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Total Knee Replacement Techniques Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a viable treatment for symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee refractory to conservative measures. In those with end- ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tramadol Tramadol is an FDA-approved medication for pain relief. It has specific indications for moderate to severe pain. It is considered a class IV drug by t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Transdermal Medications Transdermal drugs are medications used in managing and treating various conditions, including hypertension, motion sickness, pain, migraines, etc. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Transient Synovitis Transient synovitis (TS) is an acute, non-specific, inflammatory process affecting the joint synovium. Transient synovitis of the hip is a common caus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Trauma Neurological Exam The neurological examination in the setting of trauma is a systematic evaluation of important clinical signs that provide evidence to help determine f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Traumatic Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Traumatic lumbar spondylolisthesis, also known as traumatic lumbar locked facet syndrome, is an acute anterior shift of a lumbar vertebral body (L1 an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Trendelenburg Gait A trendelenburg gait is an abnormal gait resulting from a defective hip abductor mechanism. The primary musculature involved is the gluteal musculatur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is a load-bearing structure between the lunate, triquetrum, and ulnar head. The function of the TFCC is t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Trigger Finger Trigger finger, or stenosing tenosynovitis, is tenosynovitis of the flexor sheaths that typically occurs in the 4th finger and thumb as a result of re ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Trigger Point Injection Myofascial trigger points are focal "knots" located in a taut band of skeletal muscle first described by Dr. Janet Travell in 1942. Trigger points may ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Trigger Thumb Trigger thumb is a simple term for stenosing flexor tenosynovitis of the thumb. This is a narrowing of the flexor tendon sheath which causes a clickin ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Trochanteric Bursitis Trochanteric bursitis is a common cause of lateral hip pain that occurs when the bursa of the hip becomes inflamed. This can be due to repetitive micr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury Ulnar collateral ligament injury of the thumb, also known as skier's thumb or gamekeeper's thumb, is an injury of the ulnar collateral ligament of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ulnar Nerve Block Techniques An ultrasound-guided ulnar nerve block can be used to provide surgical anesthesia or analgesia to the ulnar portion of the hand including the little f ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Ulnar Nerve Entrapment Ulnar nerve entrapment is a common condition presenting in patients of all ages that can result in discomfort, weakness, and loss of function. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ulnar Neuropathy The ulnar nerve has several potential compression sites along its course. Although the elbow is the most common site of compression, the ulnar nerve i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ultrasound-guided Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block Pain management is an integral part of providing care in the emergency setting. Lower extremity pain from hip fractures, burns, and other trauma is a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Unicameral Bone Cyst Unicameral bone cysts (UBCs) are common benign tumor-like bone lesions. They are also known as simple or solitary bone cysts. Most benign bone tumors ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Upper Limb Amputation Upper extremity amputations are a procedure commonly done in a variety of circumstances including infection, trauma, cancer, disease progression or co ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Vancomycin Vancomycin is a medication used in the treatment of serious Gram-positive bacterial infections. It is in the cell wall synthesis inhibitor class of an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vertebral Compression Fractures Vertebral compression fractures of the spinal column occur secondary to an axial/compressive load with resultant biomechanical failure of the bone, re ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vertebral Fracture Vertebral fractures can result from trauma and metastatic disease but, in most cases, are the result of osteoporosis. This activity describes the eva ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Vertebral Osteomyelitis Vertebral osteomyelitis is challenging to diagnose in its early stages and unfortunately can lead to significant morbidity in late stages. Systematic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Viral Arthritis Acute-onset polyarticular arthritis is the most common presentation of viral arthritis. The most commonly implicated viruses are parvovirus, the alpha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin D Vitamin D is labeled as the "sunshine vitamin," as it is produced in the skin on sun exposure. Vitamin D is required to maintain serum calcium concent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Vitamin D Deficiency Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin used by the body for normal bone development and maintenance by increasing the absorption of calcium, magnesium, an ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Volar Splinting The technique of volar splinting of the upper extremity can be used to immobilize hard and soft tissue injuries as well as painful non-traumatic condi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Volkmann Contracture Volkmann contracture, also known as Volkmann ischemic contracture, is a claw-like deformity of the hand named after the 19-century German doctor Richa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Waddell Sign Professor Gordon Waddell first described a group of eight clinical physical signs in 1980 known as Waddell signs. As an orthopedic surgeon, Waddell in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Winging of the Scapula In a patient who has a winged scapula, the medial (or in some cases, lateral) aspect of the scapula appears to be protruding from the back. As the nam ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Wound Assessment A wound is damaged or disruption to the skin and, before treatment, the exact cause, location, and type of wound must be assessed to provide appropria ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Wound Dressings Wounds can be present over different anatomical parts of the body. However, the basic principles of choosing a wound dressing remain the same. Choosin ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Wound Irrigation Wounds and lacerations are common complaints. Each year in the United States, roughly 12.2 million patients are seen in emergency departments for woun ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Wound Pressure Injury Management Pressure injuries have been given various names over the last several years, including pressure ulcers, decubitus ulcers, or bed sores. Pressure injur ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Wrist Arthritis Although the wrist is not a weight-bearing joint, it has a significant function in day-to-day activities, which predisposes it to trauma and arthritis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wrist Arthrocentesis Wrist arthrocentesis is a procedure where the synovial fluid is aspirated from a patient's wrist. This is a sterile procedure that can be therapeutic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wrist Arthrodesis Wrist arthrodesis, also known as wrist fusion, is a procedure in which the wrist joint is immobilized by fusing the radius to the carpal bones. It may ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Wrist Dislocation Carpal instability represents about 7 to 10 percent of all reported carpal bone injuries. The majority of carpal instability is centered around the lu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Wrist Drop The radial nerve is responsible for innervating the extensor muscles of the wrist and digits. Consequently, injury to the radial nerve results in the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Wrist Fracture Distal radius fractures, commonly known as a wrist fracture, are defined by the involvement of the metaphysis of the distal radius. In younger patient ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Wrist Instability This activity outlines the causative factors of wrist instability, clinical diagnostic tests, laboratory investigations, and biomechanism of the wrist ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wrist Splint The wrist is one of the most frequently splinted parts of the body, often after injury or surgery. Wrist splints provide rigid support to allow proper ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Wrist Sprain A wrist sprain is a common injury, particularly in work and athletic environments. An acute wrist sprain is an injury to a ligament often due to an ac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Xanthoma Xanthomas are localized lipid deposits within an organ system. They are often an important sign of systemic disease. To avoid the high morbidity and m ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info

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