NP-Oncology CE

Stay on top of your practice by subscribing to the StatPearls Unlimited CE program. Gain access to 773 PubMed indexed activities in NP-Oncology. Your subscription also gives you unlimited access to all 6,049 PubMed indexed CE activities in our library.

About StatPearls CE

All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Advanced Oncology Certified Nurse Practitioner (AOCNP®) Certification content outlines. 829 authors and 23 editors have contributed to the development of the NP-Oncology content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

NP-Oncology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
131 I Sodium Iodide Radioiodine-131 is a therapeutic agent used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. This activity describes the ind ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
A Review Of Hereditary Colorectal Cancers Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Many cases of colorectal cancer are associated with lifestyle factors such as obe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acanthosis Nigricans Acanthosis nigricans is a cutaneous manifestation of an underlying condition. It usually develops in in skin folds, such as the back of the neck, axil ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Achalasia Achalasia is an esophageal smooth muscle motility disorder that occurs due to a failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. This conditio ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Acral Lentiginous Melanoma Acral lentiginous melanoma is a subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma. It is comprised of malignant melanocytes, which can become invasive with time ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive growth hormone production from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tissue ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Actinic Cheilitis Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous lesion that forms most commonly on the lower lip. Similar to actinic keratosis, actinic cheilitis can undergo mali ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Actinic Keratosis Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant cutaneous lesions that may progress to squamous cell carcinoma. They are a common skin condition and develop ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy of B or T lymphoblasts characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal, immature lymphocytes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia among the adult population and accounts for about 80% of all cases. It is characterized by cl ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a distinguished subset of acute myeloid leukemia which is characterized by fusion gene transcript PML-RAR-alpha and hi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adamantinoma An adamantinoma is a rare low-grade malignant bone tumor typically found in the diaphyses and metaphyses of long bones in 20 to 40-year-olds. Adamanti ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adenoid Cystic Cancer Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising from the secretory glands, most commonly seen involving the salivary glands. Although unco ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adrenal Adenoma Adrenal adenomas are benign neoplasms of the adrenal cortex. Non-secreting adrenal adenomas secrete low levels of hormones, are usually asymptomatic a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Adrenal Cortical Nodular Hyperplasia A number of heterogeneous disorders can result in adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia. Cortical hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the gland. Nor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones necessary for normal body functioning; the deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adrenal Metastasis Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland and the second most common tumor of the adrenal gland after benig ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adrenal Myelolipoma Adrenal myelolipomas are benign adrenal neoplasm predominantly composed of mature adipose tissue and intermixed myeloid tissue. They comprise 6-16% of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Adult T Cell Leukemia Adult T- cell leukemia (ATL) is a rare and aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type -1 (HTLV-1) infectio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Adverse Effects Of Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy causes DNA break and subsequent cell death. This affects the cancer cells more severely than the normal cells. However, with the growing ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Afatinib Afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a widely used medication for non-small cell lung carcinoma. This activity educates health care providers on ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Afferent Loop Syndrome This activity reviews the etiology, evaluation, and management of afferent loop syndrome (ALS), with particular attention to the difference in managem ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Aflatoxin Toxicity Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which grow in soil, hay, decaying vege ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
ALK Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK(-) ALCL) is an uncommon CD30-positive T-cell lymphoma that presents a major diagnostic challenge. It ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ameloblastoma Ameloblastomas are rare, odontogenic tumors derived from odontogenic ectoderm. Ameloblastomas represent about 1% of all jaw tumors, but they are the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ampullary Cancer Ampullary cancer arises from ampulla of Vater terminal to the confluence of the distal common bile duct (CBD) and the pancreatic duct. It is important ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous acquired or hereditary disease that results from the abnormal deposition of beta-sheet fibrillar protein aggregates in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anal Cancer Anal cancer is a rare tumor comprising only 2.5% of all digestive system malignancies in the United States. The pathophysiology of the development of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), is a T-cell lymphoma characterized by large, pleomorphic lymphoid ce ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, also known as undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor accounting for 2 to 3 per ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Angiosarcoma Angiosarcoma is a tumor of endothelial cell-origin that comprises 1% of all soft tissue sarcomas. It is an aggressive malignancy that carries a poor p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anorexia and Cachexia Cachexia is a significant loss of muscle and adipose tissue. It occurs in patients with advanced cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Antalgic Gait In Children Antalgic gait is common in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both benign and more serious etiologies. A careful his ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anterior Mediastinal Mass The most common anterior mediastinal masses in the adult population are thymoma, teratoma, thyroid goiter, and lymphoma. This activity describes the e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anthracyclines Anthracyclines are drugs extracted from Streptomyces spp and used in the treatment of various types of cancers. These agents are among the most effect ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiemetic Neurokinin-1 Receptor Blockers Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a new class of antiemetic drugs that possess unique anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiemetic properties ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiemetic Serotonin-5-HT3 Receptor Blockers Selective serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis Anti NMDAR encephalitis is a relatively common autoimmune encephalitis characterized by complex neuropsychiatric features and the presence of Immunogl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Antisialagogues Antisialagogues are medications often used in the management and treatment of patients with noisy breathing near the end of life. These medications ar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Appendix Cancer Appendiceal malignancies are a rare group of tumors often found incidentally during surgical removal of the appendix. Histologically, this malignancy ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
APUDoma APUDomas, currently known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arsenic Toxicity Arsenic poisoning is a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide through environmental and occupational exposure, as well as intentio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Asbestosis Asbestosis is an interstitial lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers. Asbestos fibers have been historically chosen for construction, sh ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Astrocytoma Astrocytoma originates in astrocytes, which are a kind of glial cells in the cerebrum which are star-shaped. It is the most common glioma, usually aff ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia telangiectasia (Louis-Bar Syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by cutaneous telangiectasias, cerebellar atrophy with ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Atezolizumab Atezolizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody that has been approved by the U.S Food Drug Administration ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Atypical Breast Hyperplasia Atypical hyperplasia of the breast is defined as abnormal epithelial proliferative breast lesions that are not qualitatively or quantitatively abnorma ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Atypical Ductal Hyperplasia Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH) is a pathology finding, usually found incidentally on biopsy of the breast. ADH is associated with an increased risk ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atypical Fibroxanthoma Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare, low-grade superficial sarcoma that frequently presents as a red nodule or plaque. It is considered a superficial var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a category of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities described by the Bethesda system ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Autoimmune And Chronic Neutropenia Neutropenia is a decreased number of neutrophils less than 1500/microliter and can be idiopathic, congenital, autoimmune, and cyclic types. Those last ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Axillary Lymphadenectomy Axillary lymphadenectomy is a procedure performed most commonly for breast cancer lymph node metastasis, and this activity focuses on breast cancer sp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Axillary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer is an essential part of staging patients with early-stage breast cancer. This activity reviews the indica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Barrett Esophagus Barrett esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium into metaplastic columnar ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Barrett Metaplasia Barrett's esophagus is the condition in which a specialized columnar epithelium replaces the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. P ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Basal Cell Carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting close to one in five Americans. Although rarely fatal, basal cell carcinoma ca ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome is the most common overgrowth syndrome. It is a genetic imprinting disorder, and it can present as a wide and varied clini ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Benign Breast Calcifications Benign breast calcifications are common. If benign breast calcifications are not appropriately identified, unnecessary intervention and use of finite ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Benign Mesothelioma Mesotheliomas represent a proliferative neoplasm made up of epithelial and mesenchymal cells of the mesothelium which make up part of the serosal cove ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Benign Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland neoplasms encompass a wide array of different histologies and locations, including the parotid, submandibular gland, sublingual gland, ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Bevacizumab Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and is used for the treatment of several differen ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Bile Duct Stricture Bile duct strictures are segments of the narrowing of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary ductal system. The narrowing impedes the normal ant ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biliary Duct Hamartoma Biliary duct hamartomas, otherwise known as Von Meyenburg complexes, are dilated cystic bile ducts, which are embryologic remnants that failed to invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biliary Obstruction Biliary obstruction refers to the impairment of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine due to blockage of the biliary duct system. Bile obstr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Biliary Stenting Biliary stenting refers to the insertion of stents which are tubes made of plastic or metal to relieve obstruction in the biliary tree or to treat bil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biliary Tract Cancer Biliary tract cancer consists of tumors that arise from epithelial cells lining the biliary tract, which consists of the intrahepatic bile duct, extra ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Biliary Tract Cholangiocarcinoma The diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma are challenging and complex. To achieve good results and provide appropriate patient care, the trea ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs) Biologic response modifiers (BRMs), also known as immunomodulators, are the class of medications that target the disease-causing mechanism. They are u ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs that are widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is any neoplasm that arises from the urinary bladder. It is the most common urinary tract neoplasm, with urothelial carcinoma (UC) bein ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bleomycin Bleomycin has approval for adult use in the treatment of squamous cell cancer of head and neck regions, Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma. It i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Blepharoplasty Ptosis Surgery Blepharoplasty is the general term for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids either for functional reasons, cosmetic reas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blister Agents Sulfur mustard (dichlorethylsulphide) and nitrogen mustard are blistering agents, or vesicants, that have been used in chemical warfare since before t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Blue Nevus Blue nevi are melanotic dermal lesions that commonly presents as a blue nodule on the scalp, extremities, sacrococcygeal region, or buttocks. Its char ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Failure Bone marrow failure (BMF) refers to the decreased production of one or more major hematopoietic lineages which leads to diminished or absent hematopoi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bone Metastasis The skeleton is the third most common site of metastatic disease after lung and liver. Eighty percent of bone metastases originate from prostate, brea ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bortezomib Bortezomib is FDA-approved for use in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. It is also FDA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brachytherapy Brachytherapy is a procedure to treat and manage cancers. It acts by placing sources containing radioactive isotopes that emit radiation for a specifi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brain Cavernous Angiomas Cavernous angiomas, also referred to as cavernous malformations (CMs), cavernous hemangiomas, or cavernomas are benign intracranial vascular malformat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
BRCA 1 and 2 Breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes whose mutations significantly increase the likelihood of developing particular types of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Breast Augmentation Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure where the breast size is enhanced. Augmentation can be from the placement of an implant, or less commonly, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Breast Biopsy With improved screening and diagnostic techniques, the incidence and prevalence of breast cancer are rising worldwide. In 2018 alone, there were 2.2 m ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Conservation Therapy Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in the world. The rapid growth of breast conservation therapy has significantl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Surgery Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. with constantly evolving treatment guidelines. The treatment of breast cancer often invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Breast Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast represents neoplastic lesions, typically localized to the breast ducts with no evidence of invasion into ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Breast Examination Techniques The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many levels and across many specialties. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Breast Fat Necrosis Breast fat necrosis is a non-suppurative inflammation of adipose tissue caused by the disruption of oxygen supply to fat cells, ultimately leading to ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Breast Lymphatics Breast cancer is the most commonly seen cancer diagnosis in women worldwide. Lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Breast Nipple Discharge Nipple discharge is fluid that leaks from one or both nipples of non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding women. Nipple discharge can at times be a complex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Self Examination Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among female populations and is responsible for the second-highest number of cancer-related deaths in A ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Ultrasound Breast ultrasound is performed due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer amongst women globally. Ultrasound is typically used as an adjunct to m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bronchial Carcinoid Tumors The endless types of pulmonary pathologies that exist present in a variety of different ways. With proper suspicion and medical knowledge, the correc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bronchoalveolar Cancer Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a variant of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that, in recent years, has received a new identity and nomenclat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brown Sequard Syndrome Brown-Séquard syndrome is a neurologic syndrome resulting from hemisection of the spinal cord. It manifests with weakness or paralysis and propriocept ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Budd Chiari Syndrome Hepatic venous outflow obstruction due to any cause except the cardiac ones regardless of the level of obstruction is known as Budd-Chiari syndrome. T ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Busulfan Busulfan is a medication used in the management and treatment of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation specifically for patients wi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cachexia Cachexia is a complicated metabolic syndrome related to underlying illness and characterized by muscle mass loss with or without fat mass loss that is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cancer Breast Screening In women, breast cancer is number one in incidence and mortality when compared to all cancers. It is the most common non-skin cancer and second deadli ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cancer-associated Thrombosis Cancer-associated thrombosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients. It commonly occurs in patients with clinical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cannabinoids Cannabinoids are biologically active compounds used in the management and treatment of appetite/weight loss from HIV/AIDS and chemotherapy in addition ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carcinoid Syndrome Carcinoid syndrome refers to a number of symptoms caused by the release of humoral factors such as polypeptides, prostaglandins, and biogenic amines. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Carcinomatous Meningitis Carcinomatous meningitis is the dissemination of malignant cells from the primary tumor sites to leptomeningeal layers of the CNS. It occurs in the ad ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cardiac Cancer Cardiac tumors are uncommon and can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, and the incidence is from 0.001 to 0.3% by autopsy. The ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Fibroma Cardiac fibromas are the second most common primary cardiac tumor after rhabdomyoma in children. They are primarily composed of connective tissue and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carney Complex Carney complex (CNC) is a rare genetic disorder associated with one of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Carney complex affects multip ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Caspofungin Caspofungin is a drug in the echinocandins class of medications, used in the management and treatment of several medical conditions. These conditions ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cavernous Hepatic Hemangiomas Hepatic hemangiomas are benign, hypervascular, venous malformations that occur in the liver. They are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Celecoxib The FDA recommends celecoxib and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), along with acetaminophen, as first-line analgesics for patients ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Celiac Plexus Block First described as a method of providing surgical anesthesia to the upper abdomen, the celiac plexus block (CPB) has been utilized in practice for nea ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Nervous System Lymphoma Lymphoma of the central nervous system, both primary and secondary, represents a rare subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. According to the World Health Or ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Primary prevention and screening are by far the most effective modalities for ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Clear Cell Carcinoma The management of clear cell carcinoma of the cervix is complex, and new approaches have been recently introduced. To achieve optimal outcomes, the ba ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Dysplasia The Pap smear is responsible for decreasing the incidence of and mortality rates from cervical cancer. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a collection of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Cervical cancer incidence and mortality have decreased due primarily to screening programs using the pap smear. As more outcome data has become availa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Intraepithelial Squamous Cell Lesion This article reviews the anatomy, natural history, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, compl ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Cetuximab Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with the following FDA-approved indications: colorectal cancer, metastatic, KRAS wil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chemotherapy Acral Erythema Acral erythema is also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia, hand-foot syndrome (HFS), or Burgdorf reacti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chest Wall Tumors The chest wall refers to the structures surrounding and protecting the lungs, enclosed by the spine, and separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are recombinant receptors for antigens which redirect the specificity and function of T lymphocytes and/or other imm ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous neoplasms with diverse morphological features and clinical behavior. They account for about 20 percent of ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chordoma A chordoma is a low-grade, slow-growing but locally invasive and locally aggressive tumor that is a type of sarcoma. Chordomas arise from remnants of ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Choriocarcinoma Choriocarcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic type of trophoblastic disease. The 2 major types of choriocarcinoma are gestational and non-gestation ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by monoclonal B cell proliferation. It is the most common adult l ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL1-positive, is classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm predominantly composed of proliferating granulocytes ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.75 43 Activity Info
Cisplatin Cisplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. It is in the alkylating agent class of cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma Among the genitourinary cancers, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the seventh most common cancer in men and has a high mortality rate. The prognosis of m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
CNS Lymphoma Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is a rare entity and involves the central nervous system (CN ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Codeine Codeine is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain. It is in the opioid class of medications. This activity outlines the ind ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Colon Cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common diagnosis and second deadliest malignancy for both sexes combined. The incidence of new cases and mor ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Colon Polyps Colon polyps are protrusions occurring in the colon lumen most commonly sporadic or as part of other syndromes. Polyps are classified as diminutive if ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Colonoscopy A colonoscopy is a vital tool utilized in modern medicine today. Its versatility and utility make it a vital life-saving procedure, both in the short ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colostomy Care Colostomy care, as the name suggests, is an all-encompassing term referring to colostomy management, from its creation to peristomal skin management, ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Colovesicular Fistula The most common cause of colovesicular fistulas is the sequelae of complicated diverticulitis and accounts for over two-thirds of cases. The second mo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Congenital Nevus Congenital melanocytic nevi are pigmented lesions that are usually present a birth. They are generally benign, but a small percentage (especially the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Congenital Smooth Muscle Hamartoma Congenital smooth muscle hamartoma is a benign proliferation of smooth muscle cells, organized in haphazardly-oriented bundles among the reticular der ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Conus And Cauda Equina Tumors Primary spinal cord tumors are less common than metastatic spinal tumors. Tumors of the spinal canal may be classified in three ways depending on the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cordotomy Cordotomy is the name of a surgical procedure aimed at destroying the pain-conducting tracts of the spinal cord. The cordotomy to be effective at decr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cowden Disease Cowden disease, also known as Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant genodermatosis and is a member of the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Craniopharyngioma Craniopharyngioma is a rare, virtually benign tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a partly cystic embryonic malformation that can occur i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cryotherapy Cryosurgery was first described in the 1800s and has since evolved into a mainstay of therapy within dermatology. Cryosurgery is an effective alternat ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cryptorchidism Cryptorchidism is the absence of at least one testicle from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect involving the male genitalia. About 3% of ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cushing Disease Cushing disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by the anterior pituitary, leading t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Cutaneous Endometriosis Cutaneous endometriosis can be divided into primary and secondary lesions. They comprise less than 1% of the total cases of endometriosis. However, wi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cutaneous Leiomyomas Piloleiomyomas are a type of cutaneous leiomyoma. Patients with one or more piloleiomyomas should be evaluated for Reed syndrome, also known as Heredi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cutaneous Melanoacanthoma Cutaneous melanoacanthoma is a rare benign epithelial lesion that typically presents as a solitary black plaque or nodule, usually on either the head ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide is a medication primarily used in the management and treatment of neoplasms, including multiple myeloma, sarcoma, and breast cancer. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cystic Teratoma Cystic teratoma is the most common ovarian neoplasm. It consists of well-differentiated derivatives of germ cell layers (i.e., ectoderm, mesoderm, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cytarabine Cytarabine is a medication used in the management and treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It belongs to the anthracycline group of medications. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cytomegalovirus Colitis The management of cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis is complex, and new approaches have been introduced. To achieve satisfactory outcomes, the basic and c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cytomegalovirus Esophagitis Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, which has the largest genome of any herpes virus. It is spread through bodily fluids su ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Daunorubicin Daunorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic mainly used to treat various types of cancers, especially leukemias. It can be used to treat both acute an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Death and Dying Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers e ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Deep Vein Thrombosis A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins, usually of the leg, but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mese ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation or presence of a thrombus in the deep veins. DVT occurs mostly in the lower extremities and to a lesser ex ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Denosumab Denosumab is a bone anti-resorptive drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone-related disorders. FDA-approved indications include pre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dermatofibroma Dermatofibromas are referred to as benign fibrous histiocytomas of the skin, superficial/cutaneous benign fibrous histiocytomas, or common fibrous his ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dermatomyositis Dermatomyositis is a rare condition that causes muscle inflammation. It presents with symmetric proximal muscle weakness, skin rash, and extramacular ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Dermoid Cyst A dermoid cyst is a benign cutaneous developmental anomaly that arises from the entrapment of ectodermal elements along the lines of embryonic closure ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Desmoid Tumor Desmoid tumors , also known as aggressive fibromatosis, are mesenchymal neoplasms that are considered to be locally invasive but do not metastasize. D ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma, accounting for about 25% to 30% of all the non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It typically pres ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disparity In Early Detection Of Breast Cancer Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. Although significant advancements in early detection and treatments have reduced the overall ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Docetaxel Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent used in the management of multiple metastatic and non-resectable tumor types. It is a newer agent from the taxane ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin is an antibiotic derived from the Streptomyces peucetius bacterium. It has widespread use as a chemotherapeutic agent since the 1960s. Dox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Drug Interactions In Palliative Care Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a significant cause of adverse drug events (ADE) in palliative care. This activity will highlight the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Duodenal Ulcer Duodenal ulcers occur when there is a disruption to the surface of the mucosa of the duodenum. These ulcers are part of peptic ulcer disease, which in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Dysplastic Nevi A dysplastic nevus is also referred to as an atypical or Clarks nevus and has been the topic of much debate in the fields of dermatology and dermatopa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dyspnea in Palliative Care Dyspnea is a troubling symptom for many terminally-ill patients and their caregivers. It is common in many advanced diseases and is frequently experie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
EBV Positive Mucocutaneous Ulcer Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a spectrum of diseases that range from self-limiting, localized cond ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Enchondroma Enchondromas are benign tumors of unknown etiology that occur in the hyaline cartilage in bones of endochondral origin. Enchondromas account for appro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity Info
Endometrial Cancer Uterine endometrial cancer is the most prevalent gynecologic malignancy in American women and a major cause of both morbidity and mortality. Over 60,0 ... Read the Article 2 19 Activity Info
Endometrial Hyperplasia Endometrial hyperplasia is a common disorder due to exposure to exogenous or endogenous estrogen along with a relative deficiency of progesterone. It ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Endometrial Polyp Endometrial polyps refer to overgrowths of endometrial glands and stroma within the uterine cavity. Endometrial polyps vary in size from few millimete ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Endovascular Papillary Angioendothelioma Endovascular papillary angioendothelioma (EPA), also known as Dabska tumor (DT) and papillary intralymphatic angioendothelioma (PILA), represents a bo ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Eosinophilic Granuloma Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare and mildest form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The presentation of EG can be monostotic, polyostotic, or can ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ependymoma Ependymomas are glial cell tumors that commonly arise in the lining cells of the ventricular system, and less commonly outside the central nervous sys ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Epidermoid Cancer Epidermoid tumors are congenital lesions that arise from ectodermal cells misplaced during the closure of the neural tube in the process of embryogene ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidermoid Cyst Epidermoid cysts, also known as a sebaceous cysts, are encapsulated subepidermal nodules filled with keratin. Although most commonly located on the fa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epithelioid Sarcoma Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare soft tissue sarcoma of young adults that presents as a painless, slow growing mass. Complete surgical resection can be c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epoetin Alfa Epoetin alfa is a medication used in the management of anemia secondary to bone marrow failure. It is one of the erythropoiesis-stimulating class of d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erlotinib Erlotinib is a medication used in the management and treatment of some types of non-small cell lung cancer and advanced pancreatic cancer. It is in th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erythromelalgia Erythromelalgia is a rarely occurring disease entity characterized by a triad of erythema, warmth, and recurrent burning pain, most notably affecting ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a deadly malignancy with a very low survival, even with treatment. In the United States, esophageal cancers represent the fifth m ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Esophageal Leiomyoma Esophageal leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the esophagus. This activity explains how to properly evaluate for esophageal leiomyoma, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Esophageal Stricture An esophageal stricture is an abnormal narrowing of the esophageal lumen. It often presents with difficulty swallowing and has many potential etiologi ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Esophageal Ulcer An esophageal ulcer is a distinct break in the margin of the esophageal mucosa. This mucosal damage to the esophagus is often caused by gastroesophage ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Etoposide Etoposide is a medication used in the management and treatment of various cancers such as testicular, prostate, bladder, stomach, and lung cancer. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Excisional Biopsy In dermatology, skin biopsies are essential to assist in making a correct diagnosis and for therapeutic planning. Several types of skin biopsy techniq ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Extraintestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease involve multiple organ systems. They are common and may result in significant morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Extramammary Paget Disease Extramammary Paget disease (EMPD) is a rare dermatologic condition that frequently presents in areas where apocrine sweat glands are abundant. Most co ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Extranodal NK-Cell Lymphoma Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Patients commonly present with a nasal mass, nasal obstruction, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Eyelid Papilloma The term papilloma refers to a group of various benign epithelial proliferations that can affect the eyelid skin. These lesions are not necessarily as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or familial polyposis coli (FPC) is an autosomal dominant polyposis syndrome with varying degrees of penetrance. ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Febrile Neutropenia Neutropenic fever is defined as a single oral temperature greater than or equal to 101 F, or a temperature greater than or equal to 100.4 F for at lea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Feeding Jejunostomy Tube The feeding jejunostomy tube is a method of delivering feeds through jejunal access in the small bowel. It is used when there is a contraindication to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Feeding Tube Feeding tubes are tubes inserted into the gastrointestinal tract to provide a patient with enteral nutrition or for decompression. Tubes come in a var ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fentanyl Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid, which, similar to morphine, produces analgesia but to a greater extent. This robust pharmacologic agent is typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fentanyl Transdermal Transdermal Fentanyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain and cancer pain. It is part of the opioid class of drugs. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic breast disease is the most common benign type of breast disease, diagnosed in millions of women worldwide. Certain hormonal factors underp ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma Fibrolamellar Hepatocellular Carcinoma (FL-HCC) is a rare cancer of the liver and it displays features that make it very different in its behavior and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fibrosarcoma Fibrosarcoma is defined as a neoplasm composed of fibroblasts with variable collagen production. This activity serves to provide a high-level overview ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fibrous Dysplasia Fibrous dysplasia is a typically benign bone lesion characterized by intramedullary fibro-osseous proliferation secondary to altered osteogenesis. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Filgrastim Filgrastim is a medication used for the management and treatment of neutropenia in patients with myelosuppression from chemotherapy or radiation, whic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fine Needle Aspiration Fine-needle aspiration is a minimally invasive way to obtain a cell sample to confirm a diagnosis or guide treatment. Fine-needle aspiration is an alt ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Fine Needle Aspiration Of Breast Masses Fine needle aspiration of breast masses is a type of biopsy performed using a small needle to obtain samples of tissue and fluid from solid or cystic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Flucytosine Flucytosine is a medication used in the management and treatment of systemic and severe candida and cryptococcus infections. It is in the antimetaboli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) Fludeoxyglucose F18 is a radioactive tracer that acts as a glucose analog and is used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with Positron Emitting To ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluorouracil 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a medication used for the treatment of various neoplasms. It is in the chemotherapy class of medications. This activity outli ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Flutamide Flutamide is used in the management and treatment of androgen-dependent tumors like prostate cancer and conditions associated with hyperandrogenism li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Focal Nodular Hyperplasia In 1958, pathologist, Hugh Edmondson, MD, first described focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a solid, benign hepatic mass of non-vascular origin. Unli ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Folinic Acid Folinic acid is a medication used in the treatment of various cancers in combination with 5-FU. It is also commonly used as an antidote to folic acid ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Follicular Adenoma Follicular adenomas are a common benign neoplasm encountered in clinical practice. They usually present as a solitary thyroid nodule, but other presen ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Follicular Lymphoma Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and accounts for up 30% of all lymphomas. FL is a generally lazy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Follicular Thyroid Cancer The thyroid is an endocrine gland located just below the cricoid cartilage in the neck, and it is composed of both the right and the left lobes separa ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Foscarnet Foscarnet is a medication used to manage and treat CMV, HSV, and VZV viral infections in AIDS and immunocompromised patients. It is in the antiviral c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fungal Endophthalmitis Fungal endophthalmitis is a rare disease of ocular inflammation caused by fungal infections from either endogenous or exogenous sources. Because the c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gadolinium Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast agents are pharmaceuticals that increase the information content of diagnostic images. They serve to improve the sensitivity and specificity ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder cancer (GC) is a rare malignancy but represents almost 50% of all biliary tract cancer. Biliary cancers are highly fatal malignancies with ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gallbladder Polyp Gallbladder polyps describe several conditions that present as projections into the gallbladder lumen. They may be asymptomatic, or they may be relate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gardner Syndrome Gardner syndrome is a phenotypic variant of familial adenomatous polyposis. It is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by numerous adenomatous ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gastric Cancer Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The only potentially curative tre ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Gastric Lymphoma Gastric lymphoma is a rare malignancy that comprises less than 5 % of all neoplasms in the stomach. However, the incidence in the united states is ris ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a result of any disease process that causes a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. It can be caused by mecha ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gastric Polyp Gastric polyps are intraluminal projections of mucosal or submucosal tissue. They are generally asymptomatic and, as such, are typically found inciden ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gastrinoma Gastrinomas are neuroendocrine tumors characterized by the secretion of gastrin with resultant excessive gastric acid production causing severe peptic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gastritis The current classification of gastritis is based on time course (acute versus chronic), histological features, anatomic distribution, and underlying p ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Gastrointestinal Stromal Cancer Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are typically benign tumors that most commonly occur along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While only compris ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gastrojejunostomy Gastrojejunostomy is a procedure that connects the stomach to the jejunum. It is typically performed in either an open or laparoscopic manner. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Germ Cell Seminoma Germinoma is an uncommon pediatric brain tumor that is morphologically identical to its gonadal counterpart: testicular seminoma and ovarian dysgermin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Gestational Trophoblastic Disease Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a group of tumors defined by abnormal trophoblastic proliferation. Trophoblast cells produce human chorioni ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Gestational Trophoblastic Neoplasia Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) involves both benign and malignant entities that include hydatidiform mole (complete and partial), choriocarci ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Giant Cell Tumor Giant cell tumor is one of the most common benign bone tumors, occurring in young adults ages 20–40 years with a high recurrence rate and a potential ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Glioblastoma Multiforme Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary brain malignancy with a poor prognosis. No specific risk factors are identified. Diagnosis is by imaging li ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Gliomas Glioma is the most common form of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm that originates from glial cells. In the United States, there are six cases of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Glomus Cancer Glomangioma or glomuvenous malformation is a rare cutaneous venous malformation that shows glomus cells (undifferentiated smooth muscle cells which ar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glomus Jugulare Glomus jugulare is a slow-growing paraganglioma of the head and neck that arises within the jugular foramen and localized to the jugular fossa. Paraga ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glottic Cancer Laryngeal cancers are one of the most common head and neck malignancies. Glottic cancers arise from true vocal cords and similarly to other laryngeal ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Glucagonoma Syndrome Glucagonomas are neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreatic islets that secrete glucagon. Glucagonoma syndrome occurs due to the effects of elevated gluc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Graft Versus Host Disease Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs due to the presence of immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the graft attacking the immunodeficient recipient tiss ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Granular Cell Tumor Granular cell tumors are rare neoplasms derived from Schwann cells with characteristic pathologic findings. They can exhibit either benign or malignan ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Granulosa Theca Cell Cancer Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian neoplasms derived from the sex cords/ovarian mesenchyme with an indolent course and long natural history. Unlik ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Grief Reaction Grief is a natural and universal response to the loss of a loved one. The grief experience is not a state but a process. Most individuals recover adeq ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gynecomastia Gynecomastia is an increase in male breast volume. This condition most often occurs during times of hormonal change such as at birth, during adolescen ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Haemophilus Influenza Type B Vaccine The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent invasive H. influenzae infections (usually caused by H. influenzae type b ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hairy Cell Leukemia Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, chronic B-cell malignancy that involves the spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. Patients often have non-sp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hamartoma A hamartoma is a local malformation made up of an abnormal mixture of cells and tissue. Although most hamartomas are benign, they cause morbidity by v ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hashimoto Thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which thyroid cel ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Health Screening A health screening test is a medical test or procedure performed on members of an asymptomatic population or population subgroup to assess their likel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Helicobacter Pylori H. pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can infect humans. It is often found in the stomach of affected individuals and causes in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Bone marrow transplant, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HPSCT) involves the administration of healthy hematopoietic stem cells to pa ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hematuria Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria can be gross or microscopic; gross hematuria is visible blood in urine whereas microscopic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hemochromatosis Hemochromatosis is a disorder that causes excess iron deposition and, in turn, multiple organ dysfunction. Organs affected by hemochromatosis include ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by the presence of the triad of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, acute renal im ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hepatic Adenoma Hepatic adenomas, also called hepatocellular adenomas, are rare but benign epithelial tumors of the liver frequently associated with oral contraceptiv ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hepatic Chemoembolization Chemoembolization is the technique of injecting substances designed to decrease or stop tumor growth into the arteries that feed a tumor. Injected sub ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hepatic Cystadenoma Hepatic cystic lesions were once thought to be relatively uncommon; however, they are being diagnosed more frequently with the continued advancement a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hepatic Lymphoma Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) which primarily involves the liver. This is in contrast to predominant lym ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hepatobiliary Tract Cancer In the past, the term cholangiocarcinoma was used to reference intrahepatic bile duct cancer. However, usage of the term has evolved and it is now use ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hepatoblastoma Hepatoblastomas are the most common primary malignant liver tumor in pediatric patients, and most often occur within the first 2 years of life. The hi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hepatocellular Carcinoma Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary tumor of the liver. Hepatocellular carcinoma constitutes more than 90% of the primary tumor of the liver. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder. Individuals with HNPCC are at inc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Herpes Virus Type 8 The Human Herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), also called Kaposi sarcoma Herpesvirus (KSHV), belongs to the family of DNA viruses Herpeseviridae. It causes Kaposi ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
High Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion High grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) encompasses the entities previously termed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)2, CIN3, moderate ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hodgkin Lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare monoclonal lymphoid neoplasm characterized by the following four features: HL usually presents in young adults, common ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil) a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hot Flashes Hot flashes are sudden-onset, spontaneous, and episodic sensations of warmth usually felt on the chest, neck, and face immediately followed by an outb ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Human Papillomavirus The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded, circular DNA virus that is responsible for causing multiple epithelial lesions and ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Human T Cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) are a family of retroviruses. Currently, four types of this virus have been identified which are known to inf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hurthle Cell Thyroid Carcinoma Differentiated thyroid carcinomas are among the cancers with one of the best survival rates. Historically they have been divided into papillary, folli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydrocele A hydrocele is a collection of peritoneal fluid between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis, which directly surrounds the testis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hydroxyurea Toxicity Hydroxyurea is an antineoplastic agent used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation in the treatment of resistant leuke ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism occurs due to the excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Hyperaldosteronism can initially present as essential an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Patient Selection In hyperbaric medicine, healthcare professionals must recognize that approved indications are not common knowledge amongst those that do not practice ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Related Myopia and Cataract Formation Oxygen has been shown to be harmful to many tissues in the body via the formation of oxygen free radicals through normal metabolic processes. The high ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Soft Tissue Radionecrosis Soft tissue radionecrosis refers to the delayed effects of radiation therapy which result in tissue breakdown from the impaired blood supply radiation ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Brain Radiation Necrosis Delayed effects of radiation therapy can include radiation necrosis of the brain, which generally occurs in the area of the brain where the tumor was ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Delayed Radiation Injury There will be 1.2 million cases of invasive cancer diagnosed in the United States this year. Half of those patients will receive radiation therapy as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Radiation Proctitis Radiation therapy of the pelvis is used to treat a variety of cancers, for example, ovarian, uterine, cervical, prostate, bladder, and rectal cancers. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hypercoagulability Hypercoagulability or thrombophilia is the increased tendency of blood to thrombose. A normal and healthy response to bleeding for maintaining hemosta ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hyperkeratosis Hyperkeratosis refers to the increased thickness of the stratum corneum, the outer layer of the skin. It is most frequently due to chronic physical or ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperphosphatemia This article summarises the basics of Hyperphosphatemia, including its pathophysiology, evaluation, and management. Though this condition is seen more ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia is a common disorder that affects patients of all ages and genders. The most common manifestation of hyperuricemia is gout, which can be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperviscosity Syndrome Hyperviscosity syndrome (HVS) is an oncologic emergency that classically presents with the triad of neurological deficits, visual changes, and mucosal ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypoalbuminemia Hypoalbuminaemia is one of the most prevalent disorders in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Hypoalbuminaemia may be a result of decreased pro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypogammaglobulinemia Hypogammaglobulinemia is a disorder caused by low serum immunoglobulin or antibody levels. Immunoglobulins are the main components of the humoral immu ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypophosphatemia Given its widespread role in nearly every molecular, cellular function, aberrations in serum phosphate levels can be highly impactful. Hypophosphatemi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypopituitarism Hypopituitarism is defined as a deficiency of one or more of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The presence of hypopituitarism is associat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ifosfamide Ifosfamide is a cytotoxic medication used in the management and treatment of various cancers such as lymphomas, sarcomas, and lung cancers. It is in t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Imatinib Imatinib is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other malignancies ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Imiquimod Imiquimod is a medication used in the management and treatment of anogenital warts, superficial basal cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. It is in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is used to upregulate or downregulate the immune system to achieve a therapeutic effect in immunological mediated disorders including im ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Impaired Bilirubin Conjugation Bilirubin circulates in both the unconjugated and conjugated forms. Disorders of impaired conjugation of bilirubin classically present with elevated l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Inferior Vena Cava Syndrome Inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS) is caused by physical invasion or compression by a pathological process or by thrombosis within the vein itself. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Inflammatory Breast Cancer Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare subtype of locally advanced breast cancer according to the TNM breast cancer staging system. Despite its lo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Infliximab-abda Infliximab (IFX) is a biologic agent that specifically targets an immune mediator, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), involved in a pathological proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Insulinoma Insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor characterized by hypersecretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia. This activity reviews the man ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Intercostal Neuralgia Intercostal neuralgia encompasses any painful condition of the intercostal nerves. There are a variety of causes of intercostal neuralgia which cause ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Interferon Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune dise ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Internal jugular vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus develops in the lumen of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Hereditary and acquired risk factors ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Intestinal And Multivisceral Transplantation Organ transplantation has quickly developed into a dynamic field in medicine that involves a large multidisciplinary team to manage patients care in t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intestinal Carcinoid Cancer Carcinoid tumor refers to a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that originate commonly in the gastrointestinal tract (about 55%) or in oth ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Intestinal Perforation Intestinal perforation, defined as a loss of continuity of the bowel wall, is a potentially devastating complication that may result from a variety of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Cancer Of The Pancreas Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are cystic neoplasms of the pancreas that grow within the pancreatic ducts and produce mucin. They ha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intraductal Papilloma Intraductal papilloma is a benign tumor found within breast ducts. The abnormal proliferation of ductal epithelial cells causes tumor growth. A solita ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intraepidermal Carcinoma “Intraepidermal” means that the cancerous cells are located in the epidermis from where they originally developed (in situ). Squamous cell carcinoma i ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Intramedullary Spinal Cord Tumors Tumors in the spine comprise about 15 percent of all central nervous system tumors. They usually are benign and cause symptoms primarily via compressi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Intraventricular Meningioma Intraventricular meningiomas show similar characteristics to those found in the extra-axial space. Their cells of origin are the same. However, extra- ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intussusception In Adults The diagnosis of intussusception in adults is rare and challenging. The management, on the other hand, is rather straight forward. To achieve good ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Inverted Urothelial Papilloma Inverted urothelial papilloma is a rare non-invasive endophytic urothelial tumor of the urinary bladder accounting for less than 1% of urothelial neop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ionizing Radiation Ionizing radiation has been proven to be a risk factor for malignancy in the future. Evidence from studies conducted following the Chernobyl accident, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Ipilimumab Ipilimumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of metastatic melanoma. It is in the CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody class of medications. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Irinotecan Irinotecan is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of solid tumors. It is in the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor class of drug ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Islets Transplantation Pancreatic islet cell transplantation is performed to prevent unrecognized hypoglycemia in type I diabetics. The procedure involves placing Islet cell ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ixazomib Ixazomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, is used primarily in the treatment of multiple myeloma. This activity outlines the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma is an interesting soft tissue tumor occurring in several distinct populations with a variety of presentations and courses. In its most ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Keratoacanthoma Keratoacanthoma (KA) is a low-grade, rapidly growing, 1 to 2 cm dome-shaped skin tumor with a centralized keratinous plug. Over the past hundred years ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the result of 2 or more X chromosomes in a phenotypic male. The clinical phenotype of KS was first described in males wit ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Krukenberg Tumor Krukenburg tumor is a metastatic malignancy of the ovary characterized by mucin-rich signet-ring adenocarcinoma that primarily arises from a gastroint ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Lambert Eaton Myasthenic Syndrome Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a neuromuscular junction disorder which may present as a paraneoplastic phenomenon or a primary autoimmune ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is an idiopathic condition characterized by proliferation of abnormal Langerhans (antigen-presenting) cells. The d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Laryngeal Cancer Laryngeal cancers represent one-third of head and neck cancers and may be a significant source of morbidity and mortality. They are most often diagnos ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Laryngotracheal Stenosis Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a narrowing of the upper airway between the larynx and the trachea with potentially devastating consequences, includ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is the central measure of left ventricular systolic function. LVEF is the fraction of chamber volume ejected ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Leiomyoma Leiomyomas, also known as fibroids, are a group of benign smooth muscle tumors commonly present in premenopausal women. These tumors are of monoclonal ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Leiomyosarcoma This activity reviews the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and latest advances in the field of leiomyosarcoma. It will discuss the existing literatur ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Lentigo Maligna Melanoma Lentigo maligna (LM) is a slow-growing subtype of melanoma that often occurs on chronically sun-damaged skin, particularly the head and neck, in the e ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lenvatinib Lenvatinib is FDA approved for the treatment of radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), unresectable or advanced hepatocell ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis is cancer involving the pia mater and arachnoid mater. Studies have shown that both solid tumors, including brain tumors ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Leser Trelat Sign The sign of Leser-Trelat is considered to be a fairly rare paraneoplastic cutaneous marker of internal malignancy with the hallmark finding being an a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Leucovorin Leucovorin is a medication used in the treatment of methotrexate toxicity and chemotherapy regimens. Leucovorin is a folate analog. This activity revi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Leukemia Leukemia is a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies that arise from dysfunctional proliferation of developing leukocytes. It is classified a ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Leukemia Cutis Leukemia cutis is skin involvement in patients with peripheral leukemia; it is relatively rare and typically signifies an advanced disease stage. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Leukocoria Leukocoria means ‘white pupil’ or ‘cat’s eye pupil’. Leukocoria is an abnormal pupillary reflex more clearly seen on mydriasis or photography. It is o ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Leukocytosis Leukocytosis has a variety of etiologies with which clinicians of all backgrounds should be familiar. This activity outlines the evaluation of leukocy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Leuprolide Leuprolide is a medication used in the management and treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, precocious puberty, and other sex ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Leydig Cell Cancer Although testicular cancers are relatively rare, accounting for only 1% to 2% of worldwide male cancer diagnoses, it is the most common malignancy in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lhermitte Sign Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, predominantly immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Neuropathic pain in MS is poorly understood ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Li Fraumeni syndrome, also known as sarcoma, breast, leukemia, and adrenal gland (SBLA) syndrome, is a rare inherited autosomal dominant disorder asso ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Linitis Plastica This activity reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, genetic background, staging, histological assessment, evaluation, treatment, the prognosis of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lipoma Lipomas are common, benign subcutaneous tumors of fat cells (adipocytes) that present as soft, painless nodules that are most commonly seen on the tru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Liposarcoma Liposarcomas arise from lipocytes found in soft tissues such as the esophagus, retroperitoneum, and popliteal fossa. The cellular subtypes of liposarc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lisch Nodules Lisch nodules, traditionally described as iris hamartomas is one of the pathognomic markers of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) and are rarely seen in i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Littoral Cell Splenic Angioma Littoral cell angioma (LCA) is a rare splenic tumor. Both benign and malignant cases have been reported. This activity reviews the clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Liver Angiosarcoma Angiosarcoma is described as a high-grade, malignant neoplasm of endothelial cells of blood or lymphatic vessels. Primary hepatic angiosarcoma is a ra ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Liver Biopsy Liver biopsy remains the gold standard in the diagnosis of several liver disorders. With refinement in techniques, it has emerged as a safe, useful to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Liver Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common form of primary liver cancer in the United States with three-quarters of primary and secondary liver cance ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Liver Cystic Disease Hepatic cysts (HCs) have been a common reason for consultation by gastroenterologists and hepatologists. HCs are defined as small abnormal fluid-fille ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Liver Imaging Liver lesions have a broad spectrum of pathologies ranging from benign liver lesions such as hemangiomas to malignant lesions such as primary hepatoce ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Liver Metastasis The presence of hepatic metastases increases the morbidity and mortality of patients with another site of a primary tumor disease. The majority of pub ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Liver Transplantation Cirrhosis and decompensated liver disease were the ninth leading cause of death for males in 2016 in the United States. Liver transplantation (LT) is ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Lobectomy The anatomic resection of an entire lobe of a lung is called a lobectomy. It is usually done with the help of the video scope and with less than an 8 ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lobular Breast Carcinoma Invasive lobular carcinoma is the second most common histologic form of breast cancer, representing 5% to 15% of all invasive breast cancers. It is co ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Localized Prostate Cancer The natural history of prostate cancer has been extensively studied in patients treated conservatively. Most localized prostate cancer represents an i ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Low Grade Gliomas Low-grade gliomas are benign tumors and are grade 1 and grade 2 tumors according to WHO classification. They can be due to some genetic mutations or e ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Plexopathy Lumbosacral plexopathy is a relatively uncommon occurrence that can be difficult to diagnose and manage. When an injury occurs to the lumbosacral plex ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lung Adenocarcinoma Lung adenocarcinoma is the most common primary lung cancer seen in the United States. It falls under the umbrella of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lung Biopsy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing tissue specimens via a puncture through the chest wall into the lung (percutaneous lung lesi ... Read the Article 1.25 4 Activity Info
Lung Biopsy Techniques And Clinical Significance Lung biopsy is a widely accepted procedure for diagnosing pulmonary disorders by obtaining samples of lung tissue. Besides lung nodules and masses, a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lung Cancer Lung cancer or bronchogenic carcinoma refers to tumors originating in the lung parenchyma or within bronchi. It is one of the leading causes of cancer ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Lung Cancer Screening Worldwide lung cancer has the highest rate of mortality and is the leading cause of cancer deaths. The incidence of lung cancer is approximately equal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lung Carcinoid Tumors Pulmonary carcinoid tumors are uncommon neuroendocrine epithelial malignancies accounting for less than 1% of all lung cancers. They divide into two s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lung Metastasis The lung is one of the most common sites of cancer metastasis. This activity will provide an overview of the common cancers that metastasize to the lu ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Lung Pancoast Tumor Pancoast or superior sulcus tumor consists of a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall and producing a characteristic syndrome named Panc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Luspatercept Luspatercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes, primary myelofibrosis, and beta-thalassemia. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymph Node Dissection Lymph node dissection is a surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are dissected, and a sample of tissue is checked for the presence of cancer und ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy refers to the swelling of lymph nodes which can be secondary to bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, autoimmune disease, and malign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymphangioma Lymphangiomas are uncommon, benign malformations of the lymphatic system that can occur anywhere on the skin and mucous membranes. Lymphangiomas can b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is the infiltration & inflammation of lymphatic vessels secondary to the spread of malignancy from a primary site. Pulmona ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Lymphedema Lymphedema is a chronic disease marked by the increased collection of lymphatic fluid in the body, causing swelling, which can lead to skin and tissue ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)/lymphoblastic lymphoma (LBL) is a clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorder of B or T cell origin. The World Health O ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lymphocyte Depleted Hodgkin Lymphoma Lymphocyte-depleted classic Hodgkin lymphoma is the rarest subtype of classic Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 1% to 1.5% of classic Hodgkin lymphoma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lymphocytosis Lymphocytosis, defined by an increase in absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) to more than 4000 lymphocytes/microL in adult patients, is a common hematolog ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lymphohistiocytosis Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening, hyper-inflammatory disorder affecting both newborns and adults alike. The disease is c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymphoma Lymphoma comprises heterogeneous malignancies that arise from the clonal proliferation of lymphocytes. It represents approximately 5% of malignancies. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lymphomatoid Papulosis Lymphomatoid papulosis is a non-aggressive T-cell lymphoma characterized by recurrent, spontaneously-regressive papulonodular and sometimes, necrotic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma Lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, also known as Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, is a low-grade B cell lymphoproliferative neoplasm characterized by small lym ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lymphoproliferative Disorders Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled production of lymphocytes that cause mono ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lynch Syndrome Most colorectal cancers occur sporadically; however, inherited cancer syndromes or inherited mutations cause approximately 5 to 10 percent of cases. T ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lytic Bone Lesions Bone tumors are mostly benign. Most important determinants in imaging of bone tumors are morphology on plain radiograph (well defined lytic, ill-defin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Macrocytosis Macrocytosis refers to the finding of enlarged red blood cells (RBCs). The measurement of RBC size is reported in the complete blood count (CBC) as me ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Male Breast Cancer Although breast cancer is typically synonymous as a disease that commonly occurs in women, it does occur in men as well. This is because although mini ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Male Infertility Infertility is usually defined as the inability of a couple to conceive even after one year of unprotected, frequent sexual intercourse. The male is s ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Malignancy-Related Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic abnormality seen in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Depending on the serum calcium levels, hypercalcemia i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Malignant Effusion Pleural effusion is a frequent complication of advanced malignancy with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the managem ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Malignant Melanoma A melanoma is a tumor produced by the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest; consequently, melanomas, ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Malignant Melanoma Metastatic To The Central Nervous System Malignant melanoma metastatic to the central nervous system is an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of these patients is rapi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malignant Mesothelioma Malignant mesothelioma is a rare growth of mesothelial cells strongly associated with asbestos exposure. Mesothelial cells form the lining layers of t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Malignant Otitis Externa Malignant otitis media is a serious infection of the ear canal and temporal bone. It can lead to severe complications if not treated urgently. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland tumors are a rare group of complex, heterogenous histologies that are located in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gla ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Malignant Tumors of the Palate Malignant tumors of the palate incorporate a wide range of differing histologies with their own distinctive characteristics. The location is rich in m ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
MALToma The neoplastic proliferation of B cells in the marginal zone of lymphoid tissue gives rise to marginal zone B cell lymphomas. Mucosa-associated lympho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mammary Paget Disease Paget's disease of the breast is an uncommon manifestation of underlying breast cancer in postmenopausal female patients. Underlying breast lesion is ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Mammoscintigraphy Breast cancer is increasing in incidence and is one of the leading types of cancer. Once thought to be mostly a disease of elderly females, there is a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mandible Osteoradionecrosis Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is a severe iatrogenic disease of devitalized bone caused by radiation therapy of oral and oropharyngeal canc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mantle Cell Lymphoma Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) defined by a confirmatory translocation of the CCND1 gene. The va ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Marjolin Ulcer A Marjolin ulcer is a cutaneous malignancy that arises in the setting of previously injured skin, longstanding scars, and chronic wounds. Historically ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mean Corpuscular Volume Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measure used to determine anemia etiologies. This activity illustrates the categories of anemia with varying MCVs, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mediastinal Cancer The mediastinum is a cavity that separates the lungs from the other structures in the chest. Generally, it is further divided into three main parts: a ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Mediastinal Carcinoid Tumors Mediastinal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare malignancies with aggressive behavior and a grim prognosis. These malignancies often go undetected unt ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumors Mediastinal germ cell tumors can be classified as a teratoma, a seminomatous tumor, or a non-seminomatous tumor. They have similar histology and treat ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mediastinal Nonseminoma Germ cell tumors are cancers that arise from the reproductive cells of the testis or ovaries. Germ cell tumors can arise along the track of the migrat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mediastinal Seminoma Mediastinal seminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor in the mediastinum. The tumor usually occurs in the anterior-superior mediastinum in males aged 20 ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mediastinoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a thoracic surgical procedure performed with a mediastinoscope to examine the mediastinum— the space in the thoracic cavity between ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medullary Breast Carcinoma Medullary carcinoma is a rare and distinct subgroup of breast carcinomas. Despite its highly malignant characteristics, medullary breast carcinoma car ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Medullary Thyroid Cancer Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a tumor arising from the parafollicular cells, or C cells, of the thyroid gland. Medullary thyroid cancer produces c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Medulloblastoma While leukemias are the most common type of malignancy affecting the pediatric population, brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in this popul ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Megestrol Megestrol is a medication used in the management and treatment of significant, inexplicable weight loss in HIV/AIDS patients and anorexia or cachexia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Meigs Syndrome Meigs syndrome is an uncommon presentation, where a benign ovarian tumor present along with ascites and pleural effusion. About 1 % of ovarian tumors ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Melanocytic Nevi To improve patient outcomes, a thorough examination of the skin is vital. This exam should include often overlooked surfaces, including plantar surfac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Melanoma Of The Head And Neck Melanoma is a malignant tumor produced from malignant transformation of melanocytes. This can be sporadic or arise from a preexisting premalignant les ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor Of Infancy Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rapidly growing benign tumor arising from the neural crest cells. It typically affects infants ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meningioma Meningioma is a known benign central nervous system tumor commonly arising from the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. The rate of recurrence and ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Mercaptopurine Mercaptopurine is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is in the class of medications known as purine ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Merkel Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with increasing incidence. It most frequently presents on the head ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mesna Mesna is a medication used in the management and treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with chemotherapy. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Metastatic Melanoma Melanoma is the third most common cutaneous malignancy after basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma is the fifth most common malig ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma Microcystic adnexal carcinoma is a slow-growing, locally aggressive sweat gland tumor that is more commonly found on the head and neck. This activity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Minoxidil Minoxidil (also called 2,4-pyrimidinediamine, 6-(1-piperidinyl)-, 3-oxide) was first designed as a potent peripheral vasodilator agent for the treatme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mitomycin Mitomycin is a medication used in the treatment of anal carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, breast carcinoma, head and neck malignancies, and some other gas ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Monoclonal Gammopathy Of Undetermined Significance Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is an asymptomatic preneoplastic plasma cell disorder that is characterized by serum M-prot ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Mucinous Breast Carcinoma Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a relatively rare subtype of breast cancer accounting for about 2% of all breast carcinomas. According to the late ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mucinous Cystic Pancreatic Neoplasms Mucinous cystic pancreatic neoplasms (MCPN) are rare tumors of the pancreas, which mostly occur in middle-aged females. The survival rate for this dis ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Mucoepidermoid Lung Tumor Mucoepidermoid carcinomas are rare salivary gland-type tumors that comprise mucin-secreting cells, squamous cells, and intermediate-type cells. They m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Mucormycosis Mucormycosis results from a variety of fungi that may be typically innocuous environmental fungi and primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mucosa-associated Lymphoma Tissue Mucosa-associated lymphoma tissue (MALT) lymphoma is non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity reviews the etiolog ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Muehrcke Lines Of The Fingernails Muehrcke lines are multiple transverse white linear bands parallel to the lunula of the fingernail. They represent an apparent leukonychia as they res ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is a rare hereditary endocrine tumor syndrome. The most common tumors seen ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias Type 2 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a hereditary cancer syndrome associated primarily with tumors of the adrenal gland, thyroid and parathy ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias Type 4 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 4 (MEN4) is a rare autosomal dominant endocrine tumor syndrome. The most common tumors seen in this condition involv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Multiple Myeloma Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell proliferative disorder characterized by the abnormal increase of monoclonal paraprotein leading to evide ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Mycosis Fungoides The early identification, diagnosis and management of Mycosis fungoides is imperative in a dermatology out patient setting. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myelodysplastic Syndrome Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of hematologic neoplasms classically described as a clonal disorder of hematopoietic stem cell ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Myeloma Kidney Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell disorder characterized by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells producing monoclonal proteins and caus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myelophthisic Anemia Myelophthisic anemia is categorized under the normocytic type of anemia. Myelophthisic anemia is anemia characterized by the presence of immature eryt ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Hematopoietic pluripotent stem cells have self-renewal capability and give rise to either myeloid or the lymphoid lineage which further differentiates ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Myofascial Pain The fascia is made up of a solid (muscles) and liquid (blood, lymph) elements and components. The myofascial system comprises contractile muscle tissu ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Myxopapillary Ependymoma Myxopapillary ependymoma is a distinct subtype of spinal cord ependymomas that has a predilection for the lumbosacral region. To achieve satisfactory ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nail Clubbing Clubbing of the nails is soft tissue swelling of the terminal phalanx resulting in flattening of the angle that exists between the nail bed and the na ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare highly vascular tumor within the posterior nasal cavity found almost exclusively in adolescent boys. This activi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Cancer The nasopharynx is a small, tubular structure above the soft palate that connects the nose to the oropharynx. Cancers that arise from this area are us ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC, Lymphoepithelioma) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neck Cancer Resection and Dissection Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The single most important factor affecting prognosis for squamous cell carcinoma is th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Necrolytic Migratory Erythema Necrolytic migratory erythema (NME) is a characteristic skin rash most often associated with the glucagonoma, an alpha-cell tumor of the pancreatic is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nelson Syndrome Nelson syndrome or post adrenalectomy syndrome was first reported in 1958 by Dr. Don H. Nelson, an endocrinology fellow at the time. This clinical syn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nephrocalcinosis Nephrocalcinosis, a term first coined in 1934 by Fuller Albright, refers to augmented calcium content within the kidney which can be in the form of ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nephrolithiasis Nephrolithiasis is the term employed for kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, and they are crystal concretions formed typically in the kidney. ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Neuraxial Neurolysis Neurolysis is the application of chemical or physical agents to a nerve to cause a temporary or permanent degeneration of targeted nerve fibers. When ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Neurilemmoma The vast majority of tumors of the peripheral nervous system arise from the cells of Schwann, rather than from the nerve cells themselves. Schwann cel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neuroblastoma Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most frequently-occurring extracranial childhood tumor. It is classified as an embryonal neuroendocrine tumor, originating f ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Neurofibroma Neurofibromas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumor and are often found either by patients or during routine skin exams. These lesions app ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Neurofibromatosis Neurofibromatosis is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by tumors in the nervous system and skin. The most common types of neurofibromatosis are ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) or Von Recklinghausen's disease is one of the inheritable neurocutaneous disorders manifested by developmental changes in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple tumors involving the central nervous sys ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neuropathy About 2.4 percent of the population is affected by peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence increases to 8 percent in older populations. Peripheral neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Neutropenic Enterocolitis Neutropenic colitis is a life-threatening condition usually seen in patients who are severely myelosuppressed. Although the exact pathogenesis is not ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neutropenic Enterocolitis (Typhlitis) Neutropenic enterocolitis is a severe inflammatory condition of the intestines, occurring mainly in the neutropenic, immune-compromised patients. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nevus Sebaceus Nevus sebaceus of Jadassohn also referred to as organoid nevus, is a congenital malformation involving hamartomas of the pilosebaceous follicular unit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nivolumab Nivolumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of metastatic melanoma and several other tumors. It is a monoclonal antibody that targe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung cancer is a diagnosis that has become a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer includes the subsets of adenocarcinom ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Noncardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema is a disease process that results in acute hypoxia secondary to a rapid deterioration in respiratory status. The diseas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms originating from the lymphoid tissues, mainly the lymph nodes. These tumors may result due to c ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Ocular Manifestations of HIV Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which causes a multisystemic disease called acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ocular mani ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ocular Melanoma Ocular melanoma is diagnosed from ultrasonography, fluorescein angiography, enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, and fine-needle aspir ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Oligodendroglioma Oligodendroglioma (OG) is a type of diffusely infiltrating glioma and constitutes approximately 5% of primary intracranial tumors. They often involve ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Omentum Tumors The omentum is made up of cells that are mesothelial in origin. The omentum exhibits angiogenic, fibrotic, stem cells, and immune activities responsib ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ondansetron Ondansetron is one of the medications most commonly used for empiric treatment. Ondansetron has extreme utility as an antiemetic drug, and it is effec ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Opioid Opioids are medications used in the management and treatment of pain, cough, or diarrhea. This activity outlines the indications, actions, and contrai ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Opioid Equivalency Opioids are often prescribed for cancer-related pain and moderate-to-severe chronic pain, especially pain that is inadequately controlled with non-opi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Opioid Induced Constipation Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) accounts for between 40 and sixty percent of patients without cancer receiving opioids. Laxatives must be started at ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Opsoclonus Opsoclonus is an oculomotor dyskinesia characterized by rapid, repetitive conjugate eye movements that are involuntary, arrhythmic, chaotic, and multi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Optic Nerve Glioma Optic pathway gliomas are benign CNS tumors that primarily affect children. Although typically slow growing, the location of these tumors makes resect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Optic Nerve Sheath Meningioma Optic nerve sheath meningiomas are rare benign tumors of the central nervous system. Although they are slow-growing, their location directly affects t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Oral Cutaneous Fistula Oral cutaneous fistulas (OCF) are an infrequent condition in which there is a pathologic communication between the oral cavity and the skin. Chronic d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oral Leukoplakia Oral leukoplakia is a white patch or plaque that develops in the oral cavity. The condition is potentially malignant and is strongly associated with t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oral Melanoma Melanocytes arise from neural crest cells and are usually found in the skin. However, melanocytes are also found in mucosal membranes. Melanocytes in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oral Mucosa Cancer Oral mucosal cancer is cancer that arises from the lining (mucosa) of the oral cavity. The main risk factors are smoking and alcohol consumption. The ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Oral Mucositis Oral mucositis is a debilitating condition, and it presents as erythema, edema, and ulceration of the oral mucosa with subsequent pain and restriction ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Oral transmucosal fentanyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of breakthrough pain. It is in the class of short-acting synthetic opi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Orf Disease Orf disease, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is an occupational disease acquired from infected sheep and goats. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, commonly known as throat cancer or tonsil cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer that refers to the cancer o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica Osteitis fibrosa cystica (OFC) is a skeletal disorder caused by an overproduction of parathyroid hormone from the overactive parathyroid glands. Ostei ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), consists of the presence of digital clubbing, increased periosteal activity of the tubular bones, arthralgias, an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Osteoblastoma Osteoblastoma is an uncommon benign bone-forming neoplasm that accounts for about 1% of all primary bone tumors. It commonly arises in the posterior e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteochondroma Osteochondromas are common benign osseous surface lesions generally arising from the metaphysis of long bones. The lesions are most commonly asymptoma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteoclastoma A giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is an aggressive osteolytic neoplasm that primarily affects skeletally mature young adults. This tumor can have seve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Osteofibrous Dysplasia Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is a rare disease. It is considered a benign non-neoplastic condition of unknown cause, characterized by a fibrovascular ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteogenic Sarcoma Osteogenic sarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor with an annual incidence of 900 cases in the United States. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Osteoid Osteoma An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone-forming tumor that has no potential to become malignant. It classically causes severe pain at night and is relieve ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Osteomalacia Vitamin D deficiency accounts for the most common nutritional deficiency among children and adults. Osteomalacia describes a disorder of “bone softeni ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Osteoradionecrosis Treatment of malignancies with ionizing radiation has saved countless lives in the past 50 years. However, a small percentage of patients treated with ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is a malignant osseous neoplasm. It is the most common primary bone cancer of childhood. Less frequently, it occurs in adults where it re ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Ovarian Cancer Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related deaths in women of developed nations. They should be diagnosed early for better chan ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ovarian Cystadenoma Epithelial neoplasms of the ovary account for 60 percent of all ovarian tumors and 40 percent of benign tumors. They are classified as benign, borderl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Oxaliplatin Oxaliplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. It is in the platinum-based chemotherapeutic class o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Paclitaxel Paclitaxel is a chemotherapeutic agent used as therapy for several types of cancer. It has a long list of both approved and off label malignancies for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Paget Disease Paget disease is a skeletal growth disorder in which abnormalities such as unusual bone growth can occur in several multifactoral ways. This is often ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Palliation Radiation Therapy Of The Spinal Cord Radiation therapy is frequently used in medicine as both a curative and palliative treatment modality. When cancer metastasizes to the spine, patients ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Palliative Care The World Health Organization characterizes the field of palliative care as a form of specialized medical care which aims to optimize the quality of l ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Palliative Radiation Therapy For Brain Metastases Up to a third of cancer patients go onto developing brain metastasis, with lung and breast cancer accounting for most cases. The average survival from ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Palliative Sedation Palliative sedation is indicated when there is intractable distress in patients who are terminally ill or dying. It is a palliative practice geared to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pamidronate Pamidronate is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate or severe hypercalcemia of malignancy, moderate to severe Paget disease o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pancoast Syndrome Superior pulmonary sulcus tumors, also called Pancoast tumors, arise from the apical pleuropulmonary groove located superior to the first rib. When th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pancreatectomy Pancreatectomy is a term for surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas. There is a multitude of surgical techniques for both benign and malignan ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic cancer refers to the carcinoma arising from the pancreatic duct cells, pancreatic ductal carcinoma. It is the fourth leading cause of cance ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pancreatic Cysts Pancreatic cysts are often detected in patients undergoing imaging with either computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for unrela ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pancreatic Islet Cell Cancer Islet cell cancer of the pancreas is a type of cancer of neuroendocrine origin. Since there are different types of islet cells, the presentation furth ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pancreatic Mucinous Cystadenoma Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are often seen in the body and tail region of the pancreas in middle-aged women. They are considered premalignant les ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pancreatic Serous Cystadenoma Pancreatic serous cystadenomas are mostly benign lesions. Their incidence has increased recently due to the improvements in imaging techniques nowaday ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pancytopenia Pancytopenia is defined as a decrease of all three hematologic cell lines. The condition is not a disease in itself, but a common pathway caused by a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Papillary Fibroelastoma Papillary fibroelastomas are one of the most common types of primary cardiac tumors. They are increasingly recognized as the spatial resolution of ima ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an epithelial malignancy showing evidence of follicular cell differentiation and a set of distinctive nuclear fea ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Papilledema Papilledema is a disease entity that refers to the swelling of the optic disc due to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). This term should be distin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Papilloma A papilloma is a benign non-cancerous epithelial proliferation caused by the Human Papillomavirus. Most papillomas are caused by low-risk HPV forms, a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Paraganglioma Paragangliomas are benign tumors, and a small percentage may become malignant and metastasize; hence, early identification leading to complete surgica ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Degeneration Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, also known as paraneoplastic cerebellar ataxia is one of the most commonly occurring paraneoplastic neurologic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis Paraneoplastic Encephalomyelitis is a subtype of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. This group of neurological disorders is associated with antibo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis is thought to be caused by an onconeural antibody to cancer that cross-reacts with self-antigen in the neurons and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Paraneoplastic Pemphigus Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP) is a rare autoimmune disease that is almost always associated with confirmed or occult malignancy. Patients typically p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Paraneoplastic Syndromes Paraneoplastic syndromes are rare disorders with complex systemic clinical manifestations due to underlying malignancy. In paraneoplastic syndromes, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Paraproteinemic Keratopathy Ocular manifestations of monoclonal gammopathy may include corneal, retinal, vascular, or inflammatory changes that may lead to vision loss. This arti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Parathyroid Adenoma A parathyroid adenoma is part of a spectrum of parathyroid disease that also includes parathyroid hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma. History of ra ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Parathyroid Cancer Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare, malignant neoplasm originating from the parathyroid gland. The clinical presentation can mimic primary parathyroid ad ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parathyroidectomy Parathyroidectomy is the surgery to remove one or more of the parathyroid glands in the patient who has hyperparathyroidism with a varies of etiology. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parinaud Syndrome Parinaud syndrome is also known as sylvian aqueduct syndrome, dorsal midbrain syndrome, pretectal syndrome, and Koerber-Salus-Elschnig syndrome. Parin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Paronychia Paronychia is an infection of the proximal and lateral toenail and fingernail folds which may occur spontaneously or following trauma or manipulation. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Parotid Cancer Salivary gland tumors are characterized by diverse histological appearances and variable biological behavior. The distinction between tumor types can ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pathologic Fractures Pathologic fractures occur secondary to altered skeletal physiology and mechanics in the setting of a benign or malignant lesion. Proper diagnosis, st ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Pembrolizumab Pembrolizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of various oncologic conditions. It is in the cancer immunotherapy class of drugs. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Penile Cancer Penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy, but when diagnosed is psychologically devastating to the patient and can pose a difficult challenge to the tr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Parenteral and enteral feedings are considered in patients with insufficient oral intake or contraindications to anything by mouth. Nutritional suppor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation Of Liver Tumors The liver is a common location for both primary and metastatic malignancies, which often result in significant morbidity and mortality. Traditional su ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiogram This activity reviews salient details regarding bile duct access via needle puncture through the body wall and liver via percutaneous transhepatic cho ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perianal Abscess Perianal abscesses are the most common type of anorectal abscesses. These abscesses can cause significant discomfort for patients. They are located at ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma Peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a relatively rare, heterogeneous neoplasm involving T lymphocytes categorized under non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). A ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perirectal Abscess The anorectal abscess can vary on the spectrum of complexity based on the location and involvement of surrounding tissue. A thorough knowledge of the ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Peritoneal Cancer Peritoneal cancer is the invasion of the serous membrane lining the peritoneal cavity by malignant cells. The malignant cells originate de novo in the ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Peritoneal Metastasis The term peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) generally refers to the metastatic involvement of the peritoneum. The name was first coined in 1931 by Sampson ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peritoneovenous Shunt Peritoneovenous shunt placement is performed as a long- term treatment for chronic refractory ascites. The shunt used most commonly is the Denver shun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phenothiazine Phenothiazines are termed first-generation heterocyclic anti-psychotic medications which display antagonistic activity towards dopamine receptors as w ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Phyllodes Tumor Of The Breast Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a relatively rare fibroepithelial neoplasm that presents a morphologic continuum from benign to malignant. Most phyll ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pilocytic Astrocytoma Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common childhood brain tumor and most often found in the posterior fossa. Complete resection usually cures the patie ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pineal Gland Cancer Tumors of the pineal region are rare and account for 1% of all intracranial tumors in adults and up to 8% in children. Multiple pathologies are associ ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary adenomas are tumors of the anterior pituitary. Most pituitary tumors are slow-growing and benign. They are classified based on size or cell ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pituitary Cancer Pituitary gland tumors are rarely cancerous and mostly benign. The pituitary tumors may be functioning with hormone production or non-functioning with ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Plasma Cell Cancer Plasma cell neoplasms are a group of disorders involving mature B-cells. These disorders result in the excessive production of specific monoclonal hea ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Plasmablastic Lymphoma Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an uncommon but aggressive subtype of diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma. The diagnosis of PBL is difficult because its f ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Platelet Transfusion Platelet transfusion is a lifesaving procedure that is carried out to prevent bleeding or stop ongoing bleeding in patients with low platelet count or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pleomorphic Adenoma Pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumor, is also known as benign mixed tumors (BMT's), because of its dual origin from epithelial an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Pleurodesis Pleurodesis is a procedure performed to obliterate the pleural space to prevent recurrent pleural effusion or pneumothorax or to treat a persistent pn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pleuropulmonary Blastoma Pleuropulmonary blastomas are rare, malignant mesenchymal tumors that typically present with non-specific symptoms. Radiologic features may increase t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Plummer Vinson Syndrome Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is a rare condition characterized by the classic triad of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia, and esophageal webbing. Plu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunoc ... Read the Article 2.25 35 Activity Info
Pneumonectomy A pneumonectomy is an invasive procedure used as a management option for patients with advanced malignant and non-malignant lung disease. Proper patie ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Pneumonia In An Immunocompromised Patient Pneumonia is a common clinical condition. It results from an infectious inflammatory process that involves the lung parenchyma and results in impairme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Polyarteritis Nodosa Polyarteritis Nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis first described in 1866 by Adolph Kussmaul and Rudolph Maier. It typically affects med ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Polycystic Kidney Disease In Adults Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease is a disorder in which there is an enlargement of the kidneys with multiple cyst formation. There is a de ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Polycystic Kidney Disease Of Childhood There are two inherited varieties of polycystic kidney disease (PKD): autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive pol ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Polycystic Liver Disease Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a progressive disease, but only a small subset of patients develop severe symptoms. Supportive management is recomme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Polycythemia Vera Polycythemia vera is a myeloproliferative disorder associated with a JAK2 kinase mutation that causes the neoplastic proliferation of the hematopoieti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Polymyositis Polymyositis, a relatively uncommon autoimmune disorder, develops due to abnormal activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8 cells) and macrophages ag ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Porcelain Aorta Porcelain aorta (PA) is a structural aortic wall disease characterized by extensive heavy calcification of the ascending thoracic aorta extending to t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Porcelain Gallbladder Porcelain gallbladder refers to the condition in which the inner gallbladder wall is encrusted with calcium. The wall becomes brittle, hard, and often ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Porokeratosis Porokeratosis is an uncommon diagnosis that presents with keratotic papules or annular plaques with an elevated border. It usually occurs on sun-expos ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Portal Vein Obstruction Portal vein obstruction most commonly results from thrombosis or, to a lesser extent, from malignancy. It also occurs as a complication of several met ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Portal Vein Thrombosis Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a narrowing or blockage of the portal vein by a blood clot. Thrombosis can develop in the main body of the portal vein ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Post Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a well-known, life-threatening complication of organ transplantation, predominantly occurring a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Post Transplantation Cancer Cancer is one of the three major causes of death after an organ transplant. Cardiovascular disease and infection are the other two reasons for death a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postherpetic Neuralgia Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common long-term complication of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. This reactivation of the dormant ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Postmastectomy Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy Postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) is recommended for patients with more advanced breast cancer and/or certain high-risk pathologic features. In ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Postmenopausal Bleeding Postmenopausal bleeding is a common complaint with a broad differential, which includes both benign and malignant conditions. This activity describes ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Pott Disease Pott disease, or tuberculosis of the spine, has recently shown a significant resurgence in developed nations secondary to global migration. Concurrent ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Premalignant Lesions Of The Endometrium Premalignant lesions of the endometrium are a characteristic sequence of atypical endometrial hyperplasia or intraepithelial neoplasia that may give r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Premature Atrial Contractions Premature atrial contractions, when isolated, are benign findings in most patients. While typically non-threatening, in association with underlying me ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Primary Bone Cancer Primary bone cancers are rare malignant tumors originating in bone and derived from primitive mesenchymal cells. They are frequently aggressive tumors ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Primary Cutaneous Follicle Center Lymphoma Primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) is the most common B-cell lymphoma of the skin and has an excellent prognosis. It can be confused w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor In 2016, the World Health Organization published a revised classification of central nervous system tumors using molecular parameters. In this classif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Proctitis And Anusitis Proctitis is inflammation of the rectal mucosa, distal to the rectosigmoid junction, within 18 cm of the anal verge. Anusitis is inflammation of the l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a severe, progressive, fatal demyelinating disease that presents in immunocompromised states. Treatment ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Prolactinoma Prolactin-secreting tumors of the pituitary gland, also known as prolactinomas, are the most common secretory tumors of the pituitary gland, accountin ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Prostate Cancer Worldwide, prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the sixth leading cause of cancer death in men. In 2012, this amounted to 1,1 ... Read the Article 1.75 14 Activity Info
Pseudohyponatremia Pseudohyponatremia is an uncommon laboratory artifact finding that can lead to severe morbidity and mortality if not recognized promptly. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pseudomembranous Colitis Pseudomembranous colitis, a severe inflammation of the inner lining of the large intestine, manifests as an antibiotic-associated colonic inflammatory ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Pulmonary Hamartoma Pulmonary hamartomas are benign malformations of the lung and include an abnormal mixture of tissue components such as cartilage, epithelium, fat, or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pulmonary Papilloma Pulmonary papillomas are benign papillary tumors characterized by a fibrovascular core covered by an epithelium. These tumors are rarely multiple. The ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pulmonic Stenosis Pulmonic stenosis is a typically benign condition in most patients. While generally non-life-threatening after the neonatal period, complications and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pure Red Cell Aplasia Pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) is a rare disorder which designates anemia secondary to failure of erythropoiesis. It is characterized by normocytic, nor ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Radiation Cystitis And Hyperbaric Management Radiation cystitis describes the inflammation and resultant cellular destruction of the bladder that occurs as an adverse effect of the radiation used ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Radiation Effects On The Fetus Cancer management during ongoing pregnancy poses a clinical challenge in itself, especially when administering radiotherapy; if indicated, it can seve ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Radiation Enteritis Radiation enteritis is damage to small and/or large intestine secondary to radiation. Different terms like radiation colitis, radiation enteropathy, r ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Radiation Esophagitis Radiation esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagitis due to radiation. Radiation esophagitis is typically an adverse effect that develops in indiv ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Radiation Proctitis Radiation proctitis refers to injury or damage of the rectum secondary to radiation therapy. It is postulated that almost half of all patients with pe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Radiation Syndrome Prolonged or significant exposure to ionizing radiation can result in acute radiation syndrome (ARS). The National Council on Radiation Protection and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy For Anal Cancer Cancers of the anal canal are rare, comprising approximately 10% of malignancies in the anorectal region, although its incidence has been increasing o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy For Early Stage Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. In the United States, it is the most common cancer (excluding skin cancer) a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy For Early Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer In the United States, lung cancers comprise about 14 percent of all new cancers, and lung cancer is the number one cancer killer in both men and women ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy In The Treatment Of Keloids Keloids are benign raised scars that are formed after cutaneous insult. Normally, cutaneous injury results in wound closure and a flat scar. Some in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Radiation Therapy Induced Skin Ulcer Management of acute or chronic skin injuries due to ionizing radiation is a complex challenge with injuries ranging from acute redness to chronic woun ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Radioactive Iodine Therapy Radioactive iodine therapy is used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism. This activity describes the indications, actions, and contraind ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Radon Toxicity Radon toxicity is one of the leading causes of lung cancers in non-smokers. It is a radioactive gas that is naturally occurring in the environment and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Raloxifene Raloxifene is a medication used in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and the risk reduction of invasive breast cancer in post-menopausal w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rectal Cancer Colon and rectal cancers together are the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States and the second deadliest. Rectal cancer has distin ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Rectal Exam The rectal exam is an oft-overlooked part of the physical exam. For those practitioners who understand how to interpret it, a lot of information can i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Refractory Anemia With Ring Sideroblasts Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts (RARS) is a type of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) that is characterized by anemia and the presence of at lea ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Renal Biopsy This activity reviews the process of obtaining kidney tissue samples for analysis of both focal renal lesions and diffuse renal diseases via needle pu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Renal Cancer Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the kidney and constitutes over 90 percent of all renal malignancies. RCC may be spor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Renal Cell Cancer Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), which originate within the renal cortex, are responsible for 80% to 85% of all primary renal neoplasms. Transitional cel ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Renal Clear Cell Cancer Clear cell renal cancer is the most common type of kidney cancer, comprising 80 percent of all malignant tumors found within the kidney. It is known a ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Renal Cyst Renal cysts are the most common lesion of the kidney and are seen in approximately 40 percent of patients that undergo imaging studies involving the a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renal Leiomyosarcoma Renal leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare and aggressive mesenchymal tumor. The tumor usually arises from the smooth muscle cells of the intrarenal blood v ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renal Lymphoma Renal involvement in lymphoma is commonly in the presence of widespread nodal or extranodal lymphoma. This is classified as secondary renal lymphoma ( ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renal Mass Renal mass is an abnormal growth in the kidney. The majority of renal masses are benign; however, a significant number of them require further interve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renal Oncocytoma Renal oncocytomas are common benign kidney neoplasms that account for 3 to 7 percent of renal neoplasms. They usually occur in adults, most frequently ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Retinoblastoma Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood. Patients management is best in consultation with an experienced ophthal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Rhabdomyosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a primitive pediatric malignant soft tissue sarcoma of skeletal muscle phenotype that originates from a primitive mesenchyma ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Rhino-orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis Rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis in an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales and has high morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Rituximab Rituximab, an anti CD20 monoclonal antibody, is used in the management of lymphoproliferative and autoimmune conditions. This activity reviews the ind ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rivaroxaban Rivaroxaban is used for treatment and management venous thromboembolism as a postoperative thromboprophylaxis for patients undergoing orthopedic surge ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Roseola Infantum Roseola infantum is a common disease of childhood that is seen globally and is caused by infection with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), or, less frequent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Sarcoma Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a group neoplasms that can affect individuals at the extremes of age and can originate from any location throughout the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Schwannoma Schwannomas (also known as neuromas, neurinomas "of Verocay" and neurilemmomas) are benign, well-encapsulated, slow-growing nerve sheath tumors that a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma Sebaceous carcinomas are rare malignant tumors of the sebaceous glands. They most commonly develop on the eyelid, but may arise from anywhere sebaceou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Seborrheic Keratosis Seborrheic keratoses are epidermal skin tumors that commonly present in adult and elderly patients. They are benign skin lesions and often do not requ ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Secondary Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is mainly caused by mainly fibrovascular proliferation. It is characterized by a combination of clinical findings, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Seminoma Seminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor that involves most commonly the testicle or less frequently the mediastinum, the retroperitoneum, or other ext ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sertoli-Cell-Only Syndrome Sertoli cell-only syndrome, also known as del Castillo syndrome or germ cell aplasia, typically occurs in males between the age of 20 and 40. In this ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Serum Sickness Serum sickness is a rare but important cause of fever, arthritis, and rash in both children and adults. This activity reviews the differences between ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sex Cord Stromal Testicular Tumor Testicular cancer is included in the list of curable cancers that have an excellent prognosis. Hence, proper diagnosis and treatment are of paramount ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Short Term Memory Impairment Short-term memory (STM), also referred to as short-term storage, or primary or active memory indicates different systems of memory involved in the ret ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sjogren Syndrome Primary Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder commonly presenting with dryness involving the eyes and mouth due to inflammation and resul ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Skin Biopsy Skin biopsy is an important and common diagnostic procedure in dermatology practice. Various methods of skin biopsy exist, and multiple factors are co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States and is generally classified as nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) or melanoma. This act ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Skin Cancer Types Vascular tumors include tufted angiomas, pyogenic granulomas, hemangiomas, and hemangiopericytomas. Vascular malformations include venous, lymphatic, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Small Bowel Cancer Small Bowel Cancer encompasses a series of malignant lesions that may be identified throughout the small intestine (SI). The small bowel lies between ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most diagnosed cancer in the United States. It is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women, accounting for ap ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth In contrast to the large intestine, the concentration of the bacteria in the small intestine rarely exceeds 1000 organisms/mL. Gastric acid secretion ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Soft Tissue Clear Cell Sarcoma Clear cell sarcoma of soft tissue (CCSST) is an exceedingly rare tumor that originates from neural crest cells and is histologically characterized by ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Solid and Papillary Epithelial Neoplasm Solid pseudopapillary pancreatic neoplasms are rare pancreatic tumors accounting for 1% to 2% of exocrine pancreatic lesions. Recent surveys report a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Solitary Pulmonary Nodule A solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN) is a single lung nodule measuring less than 3 cm. Even though most cases are benign, it is essential to determine th ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Somatostatinoma Somatostatinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with an incidence of 1 in 40 million individuals and accounts for less than 5% of pancreatic NETs ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
SPECT Imaging Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a nuclear imaging modality used frequently in diagnostic medicine. It allows the clinician to as ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Hemangioma Spinal hemangiomas are the most common primary tumor of the spine. These lesions are of vascular origin and usually involve a proliferation of normal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Metastasis Spinal metastases are the most common tumors of the spine. These are more commonly found as bone metastasis and may present with symptoms of spinal ca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Spinal Opioids In Anesthetic Practice Spinal opioids for use in anesthesia offers several advantages to systemic pain management. This occurs mainly through the mechanism of action when pl ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Splenomegaly Splenomegaly is defined as enlargement of the spleen measured by size or weight. The spleen plays a significant role in hematopoiesis and immunosurvei ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Squamous Cell Lung Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, also known as squamous cell lung cancer, is a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Squamous cell lun ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer, is caused by the cumulative exposure of skin to UV light. This condition has prec ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Subclavian Vein Thrombosis Subclavian vein thrombosis occurs due to either a primary etiology or a secondary etiology. It requires a thorough history and physical exam for diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Subcutaneous Panniculitis Like T-cell Lymphoma Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL) is a rare primary cutaneous lymphoma that mimics panniculitis and is composed of cytotoxic alph ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subfalcine Herniation Herniation occurs when brain tissue is displaced across a structure within the cranium. Subfalcine herniation is the most common form of brain herniat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Suboccipital Puncture Suboccipital puncture is a procedure that was developed at the beginning of the last century. It was designed to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for diagno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subtrochanteric Femur Fractures When a patient presents with an open subtrochanteric fracture, time is of the essence. Improving health professionals ability to quickly recognize thi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Subungual Melanoma Subungual melanoma is a distinct subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma arising from structures within the nail apparatus. The word subungual is deri ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sucralfate Sucralfate is a medication used to treat duodenal ulcers, epithelial wounds, chemotherapy-induced mucositis, radiation proctitis, ulcers in Behcet dis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Sweet Syndrome Sweet syndrome, also called acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is a rare disorder that typically presents with acute-onset tender plaques or nodul ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Systemic Mastocytosis Systemic mastocytosis is an aggressive disorder characterized by the release of numerous vasoactive cell mediators due to excessive activity of mast c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
T Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia T-PLL (T Prolymphocytic leukemia) is mature and aggressive T-cell leukemias characterized by the proliferation of small to medium-sized prolymphocytes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tacrolimus Tacrolimus is a medication used in the prevention and treatment of solid-organ transplant rejection. It is in the calcineurin-inhibitor class of medic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tamoxifen Tamoxifen is indicated for the treatment of breast cancer in a variety of settings. It should be noted that evidence suggests that patients with estro ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
T-Cell Lymphoma T-cell lymphomas are the uncommon and rare subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. This disease group has a poor prognosis compared to their B-cell counterp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Technetium (99mTc) Sestamibi Technetium 99m sestamibi (MIBI), also known as 99m Tc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile, is a radiopharmaceutical used in the evaluation of pathology within ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Testicle Cancer Testicular cancer is one of the most common malignancies in men aged 15 to 45 years. Etiology is multifactorial, comprising various genetic and enviro ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Testicular Seminoma Testicular seminomas are cancers that can usually be managed with surgical resection, although radiation is added for advanced-stage disease. Stage 1 ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Testicular Teratoma Testicular teratoma is a neoplasm derived from germ cells of the testicle. It can display diverse biological behavior with an aggressive nature at tim ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Thalidomide Thalidomide is a medication used in the management and treatment of advanced leprosy and multiple myeloma as well as various other solid and hematolog ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
The Importance Of Cultural Competence in Pain and Palliative Care Managing pain is often a challenge for health professionals. This challenge is compounded when the patient in pain is dying. Living in an ethnically a ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Therapeutic Communication Therapeutic communication is an invaluable approach to interactions with patients that is applicable across multiple disciplines. This activity revie ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Thromboembolic Event Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease is the most feared complication of hospitalizations and is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortalit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thymoma Thymomas and thymic carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the thymus within the anterior mediastinum. The presence of histologic heterogen ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thyroid Adenoma Thyroid adenoma is a benign lesion of the thyroid gland. There are two types of thyroid adenomas, follicular and papillary. Thyroid adenoma usually pr ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer is a malignancy arising from cells of thyroid origin, disproportionately affecting those with a history of neck radiation. Management ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Thyroid Lymphoma Thyroid lymphoma is classified as primary and secondary thyroid lymphoma. Primary thyroid lymphoma affects the thyroid gland first, followed by spread ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Thyroid Nodule Although more than 90 percent of identified thyroid nodules are clinically insignificant benign lesions, 4 to 6.5 percent of cases these nodules are d ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thyroid Nodule Biopsy Fine needle aspiration (FNA) dates back to the 1930s when Martin and Ellis first described the procedure and its potential implications in the medical ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Thyroidectomy This activity describes indications and techniques of thyroidectomy and reviews the role of the healthcare team in evaluating and treating patients wh ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Tinnitus Tinnitus is classicaly described as the presence of high pitched ringing or buzzing that is usually only audible to the affected individual. Most tinn ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tissue and Organ Donation Tissue/organ donation is a complex and multidisciplinary process that begins with the meticulous procedure of determining death. This is followed by a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tongue Cancer Tongue cancer is one of the most common sites of head and neck malignancy. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and, more recently, human papilloma virus infect ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Tonsil Cancer Tonsil cancer is the most common form of oropharyngeal malignancy, and its incidence is sharply rising due to the increasing prevalence of human papil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Total Laryngectomy The primary goal for the treatment of laryngeal cancer is the control of the disease. Preservation of speech, swallowing functions, and avoidance of t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Total Parenteral Nutrition Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment. It is in the nutrition class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Tracheal Cancer Primary tracheal neoplasms are very uncommon but are usually malignant in adults and benign in children. They present with symptoms that mimic other c ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tracheal Resection Tracheal resection is performed when tracheal stenosis is unresponsive to conservative management, such as balloon dilation and scar excision. Trachea ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Tracheoesophageal Fistula Tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs) represent one of the most common congenital anomalies seen in major pediatric surgical centers. Infants with tracheo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Trastuzumab Trastuzumab is a biologic antineoplastic agent that, at the time of its FDA approval in 1998, was among the first available targeted chemotherapies. I ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tretinoin Tretinoin is a valuable medication in the treatment of mild, moderate, and severe acne that can be used topically or systemically. Tretinoin also used ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Tubular Adenoma Colonic adenomas are raised protrusions of colonic mucosa, i.e., polyps formed by glandular tissue. Although a tumor of benign nature, these adenomas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tubular Breast Carcinoma Tubular carcinoma of the breast is a distinct, relatively rare low-grade neoplasm, accounting for approximately 1 to 2% of invasive breast cancers. It ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tumor Lysis Syndrome Tumor lysis syndrome is the most common oncologic emergency. This condition is prevalent in both adult and pediatric oncology patients undergoing chem ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Typhoid Fever Typhoid fever is an enteric fever characterized by systemic illness along with abdominal pain and fever in a “step-ladder” pattern. The organism respo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) is a group of pharmacologic agents that disrupt the signal transduction pathways of protein kinases by several modes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ulcerative Colitis Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the colon which results in diffuse friability and superficial erosions on the colonic wa ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Unilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Unilateral vocal cord paralysis (UVCP) presents with dysphonia, shortness of breath and swallowing difficulty. It occurs secondary to damage to the re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis Vocal fold immobility is a broad term that can be used to describe the abnormal movement of the true vocal folds. It can be unilateral, where only one ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis Uric acid nephrolithiasis is commonly seen with certain conditions like metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Increasing a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Uterine Cancer Uterine cancer arising from the innermost layer of the uterus, the endometrium, is called endometrial carcinoma. Endometrial carcinoma is the most com ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Uterine Leiomyomata Uterine leiomyomata or fibroids are an extremely common benign neoplasm in women of reproductive age. Although they are benign, they can have a signif ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Vaginal Cancer Vaginal cancer is an uncommon gynecologic malignancy. The diagnosis of primary vaginal cancer is rare because most of these lesions will be metastatic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vascular Tunneled Central Catheter Access In contrast to non-tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), subcutaneously tunneled CVCs travel under the skin, away from the point of venous entry, ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Vemurafenib Vemurafenib is FDA-approved for metastatic and unrespectable melanoma with V600 mutation, and Erdheim- Chester disease (non-Langerhans histiocytic dis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Villous Adenoma Adenoma refers broadly to any benign tumor of glandular tissue. Adenomatous polyps are the most common type of polyp in the colon whose prevalence in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Vinca Alkaloid Toxicity Vinca alkaloids, which belong to a class of cell cycle phase M specific anti-tubulin agents are one of the first plant alkaloids to be developed for u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
ViPoma Vasoactive intestinal peptide tumors (VIPoma) are neuroendocrine tumors secreting vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in an unregulated manner. The VI ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vismodegib Initially approved in 2012, vismodegib is the first FDA-approved pharmacologic agent that targets the Hedgehog signaling pathway (sonic hedgehog, SHH) ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Von Hippel Lindau Syndrome Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease affecting several organ systems. The disease is characterized by the growth of cysts ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vulva Cancer Vulvar cancer represents 0.3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type and is usually diagnosed a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Vulvar Intraepithelial Neoplasia Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia is a non-invasive squamous lesion and precursor of squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. This activity reviews the ev ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Warthin Tumor Warthin tumor is a relatively frequent and benign neoplasm of the major salivary glands. It is histologically characterized by a dense lymphoid stroma ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Wilms Tumor Wilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, is the most common pediatric renal cancer, the most common pediatric abdominal cancer, and the fourth most common pedi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Wound Irrigation Wounds and lacerations are common complaints. Each year in the United States, roughly 12.2 million patients are seen in emergency departments for woun ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Xeroderma Pigmentosum Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis that results due to mutations in nucleotide excision repair. The condition is chara ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Yolk Sac Tumors Yolk sac tumors (also known as endodermal sinus tumors) are malignant primitive germ cell tumors; they are histologically similar to the mesenchyma of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Zollinger Ellison Syndrome Zollinger-Ellison syndrome could impact the patient's quality of life and increase mortality if it is not recognized and treated. This activity covers ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info

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