NP-Neonatal CE

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About StatPearls CE

All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Neonatal Nurse Practitioner National Certification Corporation (NCC®) content outlines. 362 authors and 16 editors have contributed to the development of the NP-Neonatal content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

NP-Neonatal Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
21 Hydroxylase Deficiency 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in one of the enzymes required for the synthesis of cortisol in th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Abnormal Neonatal EEG Electroencephalogram of a newborn shows unique features compared to older children and adults. The principles employed in the identification of abnorm ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia found in humans, accounting for 90% of cases of disproportionate short stature. It is caused by a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica Acrodermatitis enteropathica is a rare skin disorder associated with zinc deficiency that is most often seen in infants. Zinc is a very important micr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adrenal Hypoplasia Adrenal hypoplasia is a condition in which there is underdevelopment or hypotrophy of the adrenal cortex due to several clinical conditions. It falls ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Adrenoleukodystrophy Adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal disorder resulting from abnormal metabolism of the very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). It is classified into di ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Agammaglobulinemia Agammaglobulinemia or hypogammaglobulinemia is a rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by low or absent B cells with absent immunogl ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in the inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ambiguous Genitalia And Disorders of Sexual Differentiation Infants born with a disorder of sex development (DSD) prompt multiple medical, surgical, ethical, psychosocial, and physical issues for patients and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amniotic Band Syndrome Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises various congenital anomalies, which include disruption, deformation, and malformations of organs that were inte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anhidrosis Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat. It is important to recognize anhidrosis as it can be potentially life-threatening due to heat-related illnesses. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ankyloglossia Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a short lingual frenum that interferes with normal tongue movement. It is an uncommon congenital oral anom ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Annular Pancreas Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by encasement of the duodenum by a band of pancreatic tissue. AP is not commonly enco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aortopulmonary Window Aortopulmonary Window is a rare congenital cardiac malformation that can lead to congestive cardiac failure if left untreated. To avoid the high morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
APGAR Score In 1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at Columbia University, developed the Apgar score. Serendipitously, APGAR is also a useful mnemonic t ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Apnea In Children Apnea can be defined as the cessation of respiratory effort lasting more than 20 seconds, or lasting a shorter duration but accompanied by bradycardia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arterial Lines Arterial catheterization is a procedure that is common to the intensive care and the operating room settings. It involves placement of a catheter into ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Bacterial Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also informally known as "pink eye," makes up the majority of ophthalmologic disorders seen at primary care clinics. Patients present ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta Thalassemia Thalassemias are a common cause of microcytic anemia and are due to impaired synthesis of the globin protein component of hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biliary Atresia Biliary atresia is a disease of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts with an unknown etiology. It presents in neonates with jaundice, clay colo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Biotinidase Deficiency Biotin acts as a coenzyme for four carboxylation enzymes in the body: 3-methylcrontonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), acetyl-CoA c ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Birth Asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is a lack of blood flow or gas exchange to or from the fetus in the period immediately before, during, or after the birth process. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Birth Trauma This activity reviews common birth-related injuries. The mechanism of injury, clinical features, and management of various birth-related traumatic eve ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bladder Exstrophy Bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a spectrum of anomalies involving the ventral body wall, urinary tract, genitalia, bon ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bochdalek Hernia Bochdalek hernia is a developmental defect in the posterolateral diaphragm, allowing herniation of abdominal contents into the thorax causing mechanic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brachycephaly Brachycephaly is an infant skull deformity characterized by a shortened anteroposterior skull length and a widened biparietal diameter. This condition ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Milk Jaundice Breast milk jaundice is a type of jaundice that occurs in neonates due to breastfeeding. It happens within the first week of life due to the abnormal ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Brief Resolved Unexplained Event In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended replacing the term apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) with brief resolved unexplained even ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bronchial Atresia Congenital bronchial atresia is a rare condition characterized by focal obliteration of a proximal segment of a bronchus. The apicoposterior segmental ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Despite significant advances in preterm inf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
C 17 Hydroxylase Deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) covers a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes required for the ste ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cafe Au Lait Macules Cafe-au-lait macules (CALMs) are common pigmented lesions found in the general population. They can be described as well-circumscribed, pigmented macu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carnitine Deficiency Carnitine deficiency is a condition characterized by low carnitine levels in the body. Carnitine deficiency could be primary (due to defect in carniti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cataract A cataract is a disease of the eye in which the normally clear lens has opacified which obscures the passage of light. It is a gradually progressive d ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Central and Peripheral Cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the distal extremities (Hands, fingertips, toes), and can sometimes involve circumoral and periorbi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
CHARGE Syndrome CHARGE syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the DNA-binding protein-7 CHD7 gene. CHARGE syndrome is an acronym for coloboma, hear ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chiari II Malformation Chiari II malformation is a relatively common congenital malformation of the posterior fossa and the spine characterized by beaked midbrain, downward ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Child Development The stages through which a child goes through from birth until he or she becomes an adult is child development. Children are first newborns, and durin ... Read the Article 3.25 60 Activity Info
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chlamydia Pneumonia Three species of Chlamydia namely, C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. They are one of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Choanal Atresia The nasal choanae are paired openings that connect the nasal cavity with the nasopharynx. Choanal atresia is a congenital condition in which these ope ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Choledochal Cyst A choledochal cyst (CC) or biliary cyst is a congenital or acquired anomaly affecting the biliary tree. It involves the dilation of the biliary tree t ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Chorioamnionitis Chorioamnionitis is an infection that can occur before labor, during labor, or after delivery. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Chorioamnionitis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chorioretinitis Chorioretinitis is a type of uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It is a vision-threatening condition that is associated with many sys ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cleft Hand Cleft hand, otherwise referred to as ectrodactyly or colloquially as "split hand," is defined as a central longitudinal deficiency expressed as suppre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cloacal Malformations Cloacal malformations are rare congenital anomalies characterized by a confluence of the gastrointestinal, genital, and urologic systems which exits t ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Clubfoot Clubfoot is a congenital deformity of the foot, otherwise known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is one of the most common congenital malformatio ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Colic Infant colic is estimated to affect 20% of all infants. Despite its prevalence, a clear cause for infantile colic remains elusive. There have been man ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease emerging from mutations of genes for enzymes that lead to the production of glu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition resulting from the herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity resulting in lung hypoplas ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Congenital Herpes Simplex Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in newborn infants can show up as the following: Disseminated disease involving multiple organs, most prominentl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of intellectual disability. This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Congenital Lobar Emphysema Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare developmental anomaly of lungs that occurs mostly due to defective bronchial cartilages. It is diagnosed with a c ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Congenital Nevus Congenital melanocytic nevi are pigmented lesions that are usually present a birth. They are generally benign, but a small percentage (especially the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis (CS) is caused by transmission of the spirochete Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus, resulting in diverse clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Congenital Torticollis Torticollis, also known as a twisted neck, is the contraction or contracture of the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt to one side. It i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cradle Cap Cradle cap, or pityriasis capitis, is a subset of infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). It is a very common, mostly self-limiting, chronic non-inflam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis results from the premature closure of one or more sutures of the skull. Depending on the number of sutures involved, and the range of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cri Du Chat Syndrome Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The name of the syndrome means the cry of the cat an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Crigler Najjar Syndrome Crigler-Najjar syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder that leads to congenital non-hemolytic jaundice. Crigler-Najjar syndrome is cause ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cyanotic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease (CHD) are structural abnormalities of the heart or intrathoracic great vessels occurring during fetal development. CHD is the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is characterized as an inflammatory state of the nasolacrimal sac. It is typically caused by an obstruction within the nasolacrimal duc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Dextrocardia Dextrocardia is a congenital condition in which the heart is located in the right side of the thorax. This activity reviews the evaluation and managem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetic Embryopathy Maternal diabetes has several adverse effects on embryogenesis and fetal development and causes multiple congenital anomalies, and secondary medical c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diaper Dermatitis Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen i ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
DiGeorge Syndrome DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital disorder with a broad phenotypic presentation, which results predominantly from the microdeletion of chromosom ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal life ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Ebstein Anomaly And Malformation Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve is a congenital malformation, in which there is downward displacement of insertion of septal and posterior leaf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ectodermal Dysplasia Ectodermal dysplasias form a diverse group of inherited disorders characterized by a congenital defect in two or more ectodermal structures, one of wh ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (bullous ichthyosiform erythroderma) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of cornification caused by mutations in kerati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epstein Pearls Epstein pearls are small, benign, self-resolving nodules commonly found in the oral cavities of newborns. This activity describes the evaluation and m ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erb Palsy Erb's palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is for ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Erythema Toxicum Erythema toxicum neonatorum is a condition that has been described (rash) as early as the 15th century by a pediatrician named B. Metlinger. It has be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is also known as alloimmune HDFN or erythroblastosis fetalis. It is caused by the destruction of neo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Esophageal Atresia The trachea and esophagus arise from a separation of a common foregut tube during early fetal development. Failure of separation or complete developme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Exchange Transfusion Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure employed to "cleanse" the blood of various pathologic entities including antibodies, immune complexes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
External Ear Aural Atresia Aural atresia is the absence of a patent ear canal that may be acquired or congenital. To preserve hearing and allow normal speech and language develo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Eyelid Coloboma Eyelid coloboma is a rare condition that affects congenitally. It’s a very annoying and disturbing condition for the parents also. While treating the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Factor XIII Deficiency Factor XIII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that is challenging to recognize clinically. The lab tests such as the prothrombin time, INR, and a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Feeding Disability In Children Feeding disability in children is an inadequacy of food intake that results in poor weight gain, failure to thrive, and/or delayed milestones. This ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fetal Growth Restriction Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is most often defined as an estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age by prenatal ultras ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fever In A Neonate The World Health Organization categorizes neonatal sepsis as early or late based on the age of onset. Early neonatal sepsis affects infants less than ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Food Allergies Food allergy is defined as an immune reaction to proteins in the food and can be immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated or non-IgE-mediated. IgE-mediated food ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Forceps Delivery The use of forceps in infant delivery has fallen out of favor among obstetricians in the past three decades. Forceps deliveries now make up about only ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Galactokinase Deficiency Galactokinase deficiency or galactosemia type II is a rare inborn error of galactose metabolism. Galactosemia type II is rarer and more insidious than ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyltransferase Deficiency Galactosemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to impaired degradation of galactose. If not recognized and treated promptly, affected infants may d ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Gastroschisis Gastroschisis is a paraumbilical abdominal wall defect associated with protrusion of the bowel through the defect. A membrane does not cover the bowe ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC), also known as gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum when it occurs in neonates, is an infection that is transmitted by cont ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hemolytic Diseases Of The Newborn Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is a red blood cell mismatch between mothers and their fetus that can cause significant morbidity and morta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Disease Of Newborn Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a life-threatening condition that is caused due to insufficient vitamin K levels in the newborns as a result of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hepatic Hemangioma Hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors that may involve either the skin or viscera. Infantile hemangioma (IH) grows rapidly after birth then involutes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B infection is a serious global healthcare problem. Often transmitted via body fluids like blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, the hepatit ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Vaccine The hepatitis B vaccine is a medication used in the prevention of hepatitis B infection, which can lead to chronic liver failure and hepatocellular ca ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Hepatobiliary Iminodiacetic Acid Scan Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a diagnostic nuclear medicine procedure that uses radiotracers to evaluate the biliary system and indirectly, the liver. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hereditary Elliptocytosis Hereditary elliptocytosis is a group of inherited heterogenous red blood cell (RBC) membrane disorders characterized by elliptical-shaped RBCs. The pr ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Hereditary Spherocytosis Hereditary spherocytosis, a type of congenital hemolytic anemia, is the most prevalent cause of hemolytic anemia due to an abnormal red cell membrane. ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Neonatorum Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in the neonatal period continue to be troublesome for practitioners. In the 1970s, the drug vidarabine was intro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
High Frequency Ventilation High-frequency ventilation (HFV) is a type of ventilation that is utilized when conventional ventilation fails. It is a technique where the set respir ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hirschsprung Disease Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells (GC) at the Meissner's plexus (submucosa) and Auerba ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
HIV In Pregnancy Several thousand HIV positive pregnant women give birth in the US annually. With proper management, these women can achieve viral suppression to undet ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Holoprosencephaly Holoprosencephaly occurs as a result of anomalous signaling interactions between the neural crest and neural ectoderm. This primarily results in the a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hydranencephaly Hydranencephaly is a rare congenital abnormality in which the cerebral hemispheres are absent with the basal ganglia, brainstem and meninges preserved ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydrocele A hydrocele is a collection of peritoneal fluid between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis, which directly surrounds the testis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypermagnesemia Magnesium is an essential element for the life of plants as it is part of chlorophyll. Moreover, it is abundant in animal tissues, where it is fundame ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism In Pregnancy Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon condition that complicates approximately 0.1% to 0.4% of pregnancies. The condition is marked by increased levels of ci ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hypoplastic Lung Disease Pulmonary hypoplasia is a relatively uncommon medical condition characterized by incomplete development of the lungs that can affect the overall devel ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypospadias Hypospadias is an anatomical congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. It is characterized by abnormal development of the urethral fold ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypotonia Hypotonia is an easily recognizable entity but determining the etiology is a challenging task for a clinician given its vast differential. Systematica ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ileal Atresia Jejunoileal atresia (JIA) is one of the common causes of intestinal obstruction in neonates. It has been generally reported that JIA occurs as a resul ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency results from a failure or absence of elements of the immune system, including lymphocytes, phagocytes, and complement system. Immunod ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Impaired Bilirubin Conjugation Bilirubin circulates in both the unconjugated and conjugated forms. Disorders of impaired conjugation of bilirubin classically present with elevated l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Imperforate Anus Imperforate anus or anal atresia is a congenital anorectal malformation (ARM) where a normal anal opening is absent at birth. ARMs comprise of a broad ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infant Apnea Apnea in infants is the term used to describe episodes of cessation of breathing and may be due to many physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Bri ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Infant Nutrition Requirements and Options Infancy is a period of rapid growth second only to the fetal period, with a pressing need to optimize nutrition to ensure adequate growth and organ de ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Infantile Botulism Infantile botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum, which is an anaerobic spore-forming, gram-positive bacillus. It can be found in the soil, water ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Infantile Spasm Infantile spasms are spasms that occur in infancy or early childhood. They are classically characterized by symmetric, brief jerking spells that invol ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infantile Spasms Infantile spasms (IS) is a seizure disorder that was first described by William West in 1841 and has been referred to as West syndrome. It is a disord ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Interrupted Aortic Arch A rare type of congenital heart disease is an interrupted aortic arch (IAA), which affects approximately 1.5% of congenital heart disease patients. In ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Intoeing Deformities and angular variations of the lower extremities are one of the most common reasons for referral to pediatric orthopedics, with in-toeing s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intraosseous Vascular Access Obtaining vascular access is often difficult and delays patient care in the prehospital and hospital setting. Intraosseous (IO) access is a fast and r ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intrauterine Fetal Demise Stillbirth has many causes: intrapartum complications, hypertension, diabetes, infection, congenital and genetic abnormalities, placental dysfunction, ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia Junctional ectopic tachycardia is an arrhythmia usually present in infants but has been seen in older children as well. It can be congenital or postop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kernicterus Kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is bilirubin-induced neurological damage, which is most commonly seen in infants. It occurs when the unconju ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Laryngomalacia Laryngomalacia ranks as the most prevalent cause of stridor in an infant. It is crucial to make the diagnosis in early infancy as it may affect multip ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Laxatives Constipation is a common diagnosis that requires proper evaluation and appropriate treatment. The approach to a patient with chronic constipation incl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymphangioma Lymphangiomas are uncommon, benign malformations of the lymphatic system that can occur anywhere on the skin and mucous membranes. Lymphangiomas can b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lymphedema Lymphedema is a chronic disease marked by the increased collection of lymphatic fluid in the body, causing swelling, which can lead to skin and tissue ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Macrosomia Macrosomia is commonly encountered during obstetric practice. It is associated with a higher likelihood of obstetric as well as neonatal complications ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Maple Syrup Urine Disease Maple syrup urine disease is a rare, inborn error of metabolism, resulting in decreased branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme activity. It can ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meconium Aspiration Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is the neonatal respiratory distress that occurs in a newborn in the context of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MA ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Meconium Ileus Meconium Ileus (MI) is one of the earliest manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and presents in up to 20 percent of infants with CF. The inspissated ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meconium Plug Syndrome Meconium plug syndrome is a condition that predominantly affects preterm-neonates of low birth weight. It presents with an inability to pass meconium ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medium-Chain Acyl-COA Dehydrogenase Deficiency Medium-chain acyl-COA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is one of the most common fatty acid ß-oxidation disorders. It is an autosomal recessive disorde ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Meningocele Meningocele is one of the common congenital neural tube defects. Meningocele is the simplest form of open neural tube defects characterized by cystic ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Meningomyelocele Myelomeningocele or open spina bifida is a devastating congenital malformation of the central nervous system associated with significant morbidity. Ti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Methamphetamine Methamphetamine is one of the powerful stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS). It is sometimes a second-line treatment for attention deficit h ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition with life-threatening potential in which diminution of the oxygen-carrying capacity of circulating hemoglobin occurs ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Micropenis Micropenis is a vital sign that can indicate a hormonal deficiency or genetic association. Early recognition of this condition is essential in providi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Midgut Volvulus A volvulus is a medical condition where the intestines twist upon themselves. This condition can occur at any age. However, it is more frequent in chi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Milia Milia are benign and transient dermal cysts of keratine. These white appearing bumps are common, present in many different ways, and can develop in an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Miliaria Miliaria, also known as eccrine miliaria, heat rash, prickly heat, or sweat rash, is a frequently seen skin condition triggered by blocked eccrine swe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defects are a spectrum of congenital anomalies that includes cranial defects and open or closed spinal dysraphism. Open spinal dysraphism ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) or dacryostenosis is the most common disorder of the lacrimal system, and approximately 6 to 20 percent of newbor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Necrotizing Enterocolitis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening illness almost exclusively affecting neonates with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent. The p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a spectrum of clinical manifestations seen in neonates due to withdrawal from intrauterine drug exposure. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Neonatal Conjunctivitis Neonatal eye discharge is usually due to congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction or either chemical or infectious conjunctivitis. Neonatal conjunctiv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neonatal EEG Neurological evaluation of the neonate has many inherent limitations that make it challenging to delineate physiological variations from pathological ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Neonatal Evaluation The initial examination within the first 24 hours of birth is critical in determining the general well-being of newborns, but also to identify any red ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neonatal HIV Over 95% of HIV-infected pediatric cases are a result of vertical transmission. Neonatal HIV is the concern for HIV in an infant born to a mother with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neonatal Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia is less common than hypoglycemia among neonates, but it is essential to address it because it increases mortality and morbidity among ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neonatal Hypertension Neonatal hypertension often has non-specific presentation and it is commonly under-diagnosed. However, in the last few years, with the advancing techn ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neonatal Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is the most common metabolic disturbance occurring in the neonatal period. Screening at-risk infants and the management of low blood gluc ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Neonatal Jaundice Neonatal jaundice is yellowish discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva, and sclera due to elevated serum or plasma bilirubin in the newborn period. Neo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Neonatal Lupus Erythematosus Neonatal lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease that takes place due to the passive maternal transfer of autoantibodies of Sjogren syndrome auto ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neonatal Meningitis Bacterial meningitis during the neonatal period remains a highly devastating condition, with a morbidity rate of 20 to 60 percent. The nationwide mort ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Neonatal Myasthenia Gravis Neonatal myasthenia gravis (MG) is a temporary form of MG. Babies born to mothers with MG are susceptible to it. This is due to the mother’s antibodi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is a frequent cause of increased morbidity and mortality in neonates. Understanding the pathophysiology, clinic ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Neonatal Seizure Neonatal seizures are a commonly encountered neurologic condition in neonates. They are defined as the occurrence of sudden, paroxysmal, abnormal alte ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neonatal Sepsis Neonatal sepsis refers to an infection involving bloodstream in newborn infants less than 28 days old. It continues to remain a leading cause of morbi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neonatal Therapeutic Hypothermia Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy among neonates is a significant cause of infant mortality and neurodevelopmental deficits. It is evident from many sys ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neural Tube Disorders Neural tube defects are the most common severe central nervous system anomalies, only second to cardiovascular abnormalities resulting in congenital m ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Newborn Subcutaneous Fat Necrosis Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn is a rare, self-limited panniculitis that typically occurs in full-term or post-term newborn infants within t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nitric Oxide Nitric oxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn ( ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nitrofurantoin Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic medication that is used for the treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection. It is effective against most ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nonketotic Hyperglycinemia Nonketotic hyperglycinemia is a rare, genetic, inborn error of glycine metabolism. Due to a mutation in the glycine cleavage enzyme system, the patien ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Noonan Syndrome Noonan syndrome is typically a genetically inherited disorder with heterogeneous phenotypic manifestations that can change with age. The most consiste ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Omphalitis Omphalitis is an infection of the umbilicus and/or surrounding tissues, occurring primarily in the neonatal period. It is a true medical emergency tha ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Omphalocele Omphalocele is a rare congenital abdominal wall defect with a reported prevalence of 3.38 per 10,000 pregnancies. It is a protrusion of the abdominal ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ophthalmia Neonatorum Ophthalmia neonatorum is a type of conjunctivitis that takes place in the neonatal period. This condition is commonly transmitted during vaginal deliv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Optic Nerve Coloboma The term coloboma derives from the Greek word koloboma, originally used to indicate a part that was removed by mutilation, missing or cut short. Colob ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oropharyngeal Airway Acute respiratory failure is caused by a wide range of etiologies. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest and ultimately death is likely in the absenc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Otitis Media With Effusion Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a condition in which there is fluid in the middle ear, but no signs of acute infection. As fluid builds up in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oxygen Toxicity Oxygen is vital to sustaining life. However, breathing oxygen at higher than normal partial pressure leads to hyperoxia and can cause oxygen toxicity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Parental Consent Physicians and medical researchers have a moral and legal obligation to obtain informed consent. Informed consent must include the patient being compe ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Parvoviruses Parvovirus B19 is a virus that only infects humans. It is known to cause Fifth Disease, also known as erythema infectiosum or slapped cheek syndrome, ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Patau Syndrome Patau syndrome, also called trisomy 13, is a clinical syndrome that occurs when all or some cells of the body contain an extra copy of chromosome 13. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vessel that allows the oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the fetal lungs in utero. At birth, a newborn inh ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) occurs when a remnant of normal fetal anatomy abnormally persists into adulthood. It represents a benign finding in the new ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Patent Urachus Patent urachus refers to a spectrum of umbilical disorders that result from the failure of involution of normal embryologic tissues that connect the d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Pediatric Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles usually caused by an acute viral illness. It is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Fluid Management Dehydration occurs commonly in children and many times requires resuscitation. Fluid resuscitation is essential in the management of critically ill ch ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pediatric Functional Constipation Most individuals have bowel movements at regular intervals, and although the frequency varies from person to person, stools should pass without signif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Pneumonia Globally, pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than the age of 5 years. Although the majority of deaths attribu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Umbilical Hernia An umbilical hernia presents as a bulge at the site of the umbilicus; it is a common finding during routine well-baby visits for the first few months ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pelvic Kidney The term pelvic kidney encompasses a range of anatomical abnormalities that occur when the kidney fails to rise from the pelvis in its metanephros sta ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pentalogy of Cantrell Pentalogy of Cantrell is a collection of congenital malformations involving the heart, pericardium, diaphragm, sternum, and ventral abdominal wall. It ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Perinatal Drug Abuse And Neonatal Drug Withdrawal Drug abuse and addiction have significantly increased over the last few decades; specifically, opioid abuse and dependence have increased to epidemic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Periventricular Hemorrhage-Intraventricular Hemorrhage Periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage is a disease process that primarily affects the premature newborn infant born at less than 33 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
PHACE Syndrome Infantile hemangioma is the most prevalent benign tumor of infancy, with an estimated incidence between 4 and 5 percent. Large facial segmental hemang ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Phenylketonuria Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) most often caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (P ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Phocomelia Phocomelia is a rare congenital anomaly where the proximal aspect of an extremity is absent with the hand or foot attached directly to the trunk. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phrenic Nerve Injury The phrenic nerve is among the most important nerves in the body due to its role in respiration. The phrenic nerve provides the primary motor supply t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pierre Robin Syndrome Pierre Robin sequence is a constellation of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction. It is a clinical diagnosis that can range in sev ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Plagiocephaly Plagiocephaly is defined as an asymmetric shape of the head due to unilateral flattening. The term flathead can be used as a synonym. Plagiocephaly ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Platelet Transfusion Platelet transfusion is a lifesaving procedure that is carried out to prevent bleeding or stop ongoing bleeding in patients with low platelet count or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pneumatocele Pneumatoceles are air-filled cavitary lesions usually seen in the lung after infection, trauma, or as a part of more extensive cystic disease of the l ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Pneumatosis Intestinalis Pneumatosis intestinalis can be classified as primary or secondary, but both are representative of underlying pathology. Pathophysiology and etiology ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pneumococcal Vaccine The advent of pneumococcal vaccines has proven to be a significant advancement in the treatment and prevention of a widespread and sometimes deadly di ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Polycystic Kidney Disease Of Childhood There are two inherited varieties of polycystic kidney disease (PKD): autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and autosomal recessive pol ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Polydactyly Polydactyly may indicate the presence of a very serious underlying disease or may present as an isolated finding. It may present in upper extremity or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Posterior Urethral Valve This article contains a synopsis of the anatomy, embryology, and classification of posterior urethral valves with a brief discussion of the theories a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Potter Syndrome Potter syndrome is a fatal congenital disorder characterized by the changes in physical appearances of neonate due to oligohydramnios caused by renal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pregnancy Globally, there are more than 200 million pregnancies each year. Of these pregnancies, more than 40% are unintended. Unintended does not imply unwante ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Pregnancy And Viral Hepatitis The common cause of jaundice in pregnancy is acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis could be caused by diseases distinctively associated with pregnancy and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prenatal Non-stress Test Prenatal non-stress test, popularly known as NST, is a method used to test fetal wellbeing before the onset of labor. A prenatal non-stress test funct ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Preterm Labor Preterm labor is labor occurring between after 20 and before 37 weeks gestation. Preterm labors are subcategorized as early or late preterm. Early pre ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Prostaglandin E1 Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) is a medication used in the management of erectile dysfunction as well as ductus arteriosus in neonates. It is a smooth muscle ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Prune Belly Syndrome Prune belly syndrome is a rare congenitally acquired disorder primarily characterized by the clinical triad of deficient abdominal musculature, crypto ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulmonary Artery Sling Pulmonary artery sling is a specific type of anatomical vascular anomaly that can compress nearby structures. Instead of arising from the main pulmona ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum This activity provides a detailed review of the complex congenital heart defect pulmonary atresia with the intact ventricular septum. This review art ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pulmonary Atresia With Ventricular Septal Defect Pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect is a rare congenital anomaly with poor prognostic outcomes. It is a serious anomaly affecting the dev ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pulmonary Interstitial Emphysema Pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PIE) is a rare disease that most commonly occurs in premature infants but can be seen in adults as well. Pathology i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pulmonary Sequestration Pulmonary sequestration is thought to account for less than 6 percent of congenital lung malformations. In this condition, there is a nonfunctional se ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickeni ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Renal Artery Thrombosis Renal artery thrombosis is a rare pathology that may be overlooked when evaluating impaired renal function. It is the formation of a blood clot in one ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rh Incompatibility Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility refers to the discordant pairing of maternal and fetal Rh type. It is associated with the development of maternal Rh sensi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Rh-Hemolytic Disease Rh-hemolytic disease develops due to the conception of an Rh-negative female with an Rh-positive fetus and can cause a broad range of symptoms in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Right Aortic Arches Right aortic arch anomalies occur in approximately 0.01 to 0.1 percent of the general population. In general, these anomalies do not directly cause an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Roseola Infantum Roseola infantum is a common disease of childhood that is seen globally and is caused by infection with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), or, less frequent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rubella Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in children and non-immune young adults. In pregnant women, rubella infection can produce a cons ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Scalp Catheterization Peripheral venous access is a key need for resuscitating patients of all ages. An ideal site for venous catheterization is one that is easy to access ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Septic Hip Joint Septic arthritis in the pediatric hip is an emergent surgical condition that if not rapidly treated, can lead to the rapid destruction of the hip, sep ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Shoulder Dystocia Shoulder dystocia is a complication of vaginal delivery in which the baby's shoulder gets caught above the mother's pubic bone. It is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder of the globin chains that causes hemolysis and chronic organ damage. This activity reviews the pathophysio ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Trait Sickle cell trait (SCT) is a benign condition in which the affected individual has only one abnormal hemoglobin beta gene allele. This is in contrast ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Small for Gestational Age Small for gestational age (SGA) is defined as a birth weight of less than 10th percentile for gestational age. The burden of fetal growth-restricted ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Spinal Dysraphism And Myelomeningocele Spinal dysraphism is a congenital abnormality that results in an abnormal structure in the spine, including the bony structure, the spinal cord, and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Streptococcal Meningitis Streptococcal meningitis is an acute, purulent inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord caused by bacteria from the Strepto ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Streptococcus Group B Group B Streptococcus (GBS) commonly appears in up to 35% of healthy women's reproductive or gastrointestinal tracts. Pregnant women colonized with GB ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subdural Hematoma A subdural hematoma, as its name implies, forms because of an abnormal collection of blood under the dura mater. This is one of the intracranial injur ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Subglottic Stenosis Subglottic stenosis can be defined as the narrowing of the upper airway, which lies between the vocal folds and the lower border of the cricoid cartil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Substance Use In Pregnancy Substance use disorder (SUD) in pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Patients with substance use disorders in the peripartum period fa ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the abrupt and unexplained death of an infant less than 1-year old. Despite a thorough investigation (a careful ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Suprapubic Aspiration Suprapubic aspiration is a procedure performed to obtain a urine sample. It is often done when a urinary catheter cannot be placed. It is commonly per ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Supravalvar Aortic Stenosis Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a congenital heart defect that accounts for 8 to 14 percent of all cases of congenital aortic stenosis. It inv ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Surfactant Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that lines the alveoli and decreases the surface tension to prevent lung atelectasis. Surfactant deficie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Tetracycline Tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, tigecycline) are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of bac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Thalassemia Thalassemia is a heterogeneous group of blood disorders affecting the hemoglobin genes and resulting in ineffective erythropoiesis. The decreased prod ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy Thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelet count of under 150 x 10^9/L, is the second most common hematological abnormality in pregnancy. This CME activi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
TORCH Complex The term TORCH complex or TORCHes infection includes toxoplasmosis, others (syphilis, hepatitis B), rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex. These ar ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC) is likely the most common cause of infectious retinochoroiditis worldwide. One-quarter of patients with a history o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tracheoesophageal Fistula Tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs) represent one of the most common congenital anomalies seen in major pediatric surgical centers. Infants with tracheo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Tracheomalacia Tracheomalacia is a condition that is characterized by excessive collapsibility of the trachea. Depending on the severity of the disease, patients’ sy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a benign, self-limited condition that can present in infants of any gestational age shortly after birth. I ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Transposition Of The Great Arteries Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital pediatric cardiac defect arising from an embryological discordance between the aorta and pul ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan responsible for trichomoniasis, one of the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the United ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Tricuspid Atresia Tricuspid atresia is a cyanotic congenital heart defect characterized by the complete agenesis of the tricuspid valve. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Tricuspid Regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitation, also called tricuspid insufficiency, is a relatively common condition that can result from structural abnormalities of any pa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Trisomy 13 Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal aneuploidy characterized by meiotic nondisjunction. The phenotypic holoprosencephaly and midline fusion aberrancies are re ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Truncus Arteriosus Persistent truncus arteriosus (TA) is a rare, congenital, cyanotic heart defect characterized by a ventricular septal defect (VSD), a single truncal v ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Turner Syndrome Turner syndrome, also referred to as congenital ovarian hypoplasia syndrome is the most common sex chromosomal abnormality found in females. It result ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Umbilical Artery Catheterization Catheterization of an umbilical artery is one of the commonly performed procedures in extremely premature neonates. This activity reviews the indicati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Umbilical Hernia An umbilical hernia is a ventral hernia located at or near the umbilicus. In general, umbilical hernias tend to have a narrow neck, which increases ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Umbilical Vein Catheterization Umbilical vein catheterization utilizes the exposed umbilical stump in a neonate as a site for emergency central venous access up to 14 days old. Umbi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Unconjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is a condition defined as elevated serum or plasma bilirubin (unconjugated) levels above the reference range of the la ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Understanding and Application of CDC Immunization Guidelines Immunization is the most effective and safe public health intervention in reducing the incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality of various infe ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Upper Airway Resistance Syndrome Upper airway resistance syndrome, commonly known as UARS, is a disorder included with many others that encompass an umbrella of conditions characteriz ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Urea Cycle Disorders Urea cycle disorders are inborn errors of metabolism resulting from defects in one of the enzymes or transporter molecules involved in the hepatic rem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is one of the most common causes of hydronephrosis in children. If it is left untreated, it might cause loss ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaccine (Vaccination) Immunization is a successful use of immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vagal Maneuver Vagal maneuvers are techniques used to increase vagal parasympathetic tone in an attempt to diagnose and treat various arrhythmias. They are often uti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vascular Ring Double Aortic Arch The term "vascular ring" refers to the vascular structures that encircle and compress the trachea and esophagus causing respiratory and gastrointestin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Ventriculitis Ventriculitis is the inflammation of the ependymal lining of the cerebral ventricles, usually secondary to infection (for example meningitis, device-r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Viral Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammatory process of the myocardium. It can present in the acute, subacute, or chronic phase with either focal or diffuse involve ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Viral Pneumonia The increasing role of viral pathogens in pneumonia and the increased recognition of bacterial and viral coinfections in patients with pneumonia neces ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Vitamin A Toxicity Vitamin A toxicity can due to either topical or oral vitamin A administration. Oral vitamin A toxicity can be acute, due to the ingestion of a large a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vitamin B6 Deficiency Water-soluble vitamin B6 is widely present in many foods, including meat, fish, nuts, beans, grains, fruits and vegetables. As a coenzyme, vitamin B6 ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vitamin K Deficiency Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds involved in coagulation, bone development, and cardiovascular health. Vitamin K deficiency can co ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Zika Virus Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family and the genus Flavivirus. In the majority of people, infection by the Zika virus is mild and s ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Zinc Deficiency Zinc deficiency is common worldwide but is seen with greater frequency in developing countries. Zinc deficiency can be inherited or acquired, and typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info

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