NP-Diabetes Management CE

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All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Board Certified-Advanced Diabetes Management (BC-ADM®) content outlines. 320 authors and 13 editors have contributed to the development of the NP-Diabetes Management content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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NP-Diabetes Management Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Abducens Nerve Palsy The abducens nerve, also known as cranial nerve VI, is responsible for ipsilateral eye abduction. Visualizing the anatomy of the nerve allows for bett ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilati ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acanthosis Nigricans Acanthosis nigricans is a cutaneous manifestation of an underlying condition. It usually develops in in skin folds, such as the back of the neck, axil ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acarbose Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing concern around the world, and in the USA in particular, with clinicians encountering the condition more frequent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used to treat and manage hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease, heart failure, s ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Actinic Cheilitis Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous lesion that forms most commonly on the lower lip. Similar to actinic keratosis, actinic cheilitis can undergo mali ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Actinomycosis Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that typically colonize the human mouth, urogenital trac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the U ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Acyclovir Acyclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is FDA approved to treat gen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentration. It is a life- ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Allodynia Allodynia is defined as "pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain." An example would be a light feather touch (that should only prod ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Alogliptin Alogliptin was first approved by the FDA in January 2013 and is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alopecia The term alopecia means hair loss regardless of the cause. It is not exclusive to the scalp; it can be anywhere in the body. Many therapies are availa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a group of antidiabetic drugs used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This activity outlines the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alpha-lipoic acid is a medication used in managing and treating chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress such as diabetic neuropathy and slow ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aspart Insulin Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting, human insulin analog that is FDA approved for the treatment of type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Azilsartan Azilsartan is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin-receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics The term "bacteriostatic antibiotics" is used to describe medications whose mechanism of action stalls bacterial cellular activity without directly ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Balanitis Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis. Men with balanitis often present with penile pain and erythema. This activity explains the risk facto ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in managing and treating open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and chronic s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bullosis Diabeticorum Bullosis diabeticorum (BD), also known as diabetic bullae or bullous eruption of diabetes mellitus, is a specific type of skin lesion occurring in pat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Captopril Captopril is an FDA-approved medication used in the management of hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative bacterial resistance to antibiotics has decreased the physician’s ability to combat infection. Carbapenems are the most potent beta-lact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbuncle A carbuncle is an infection of the hair follicle(s) that extends into the surrounding skin and deep underlying subcutaneous tissue. They typically pre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Charcot Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is a destructive joint disorder initiated by trauma to a neuropathic extremity. It can lead to dislocations and f ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy can be caused by multiples diseases, from infectious as well as immunology diseases. It is o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.75 43 Activity Info
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity Info
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that are frequently used in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first choice for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cultural Competence In Caring For American Indians and Alaska Natives Cultural competency is emphasized in treating American Indian/ Alaskan Native (AI/AN) patients because the mortality rates are more likely to increase ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.75 16 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is an extrapulmonary complication of cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is the result of abnormal gluc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dakin Solution Dakin solution, also called Dakin fluid or Carrel-Dakin fluid, is a dilute sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution that is commonly known as bleach. The ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dawn Phenomenon The "dawn phenomenon" refers to periodic episodes of hyperglycemia experienced by patients with diabetes in the early morning hours. This clinical ent ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin or AVP) ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Diabetes Intraoperative Management According to Center for Disease Control data, the incidence of diabetes mellitus in the United States in 2015 was 30.3 million and predicted to increa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus And Exercise Diabetes mellitus leads to macrovascular and microvascular complications, resulting in life-threatening conditions. Exercise is considered an importan ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 In Children Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that leads to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells which in turn causes insufficient insulin production ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Diabetic Amyotrophy Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed in the diabetic neuropathy sp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetic Embryopathy Maternal diabetes has several adverse effects on embryogenesis and fetal development and causes multiple congenital anomalies, and secondary medical c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diabetic Foot Care Proper diabetic foot care is an essential part of limb preservation. Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for foot ulceration secondary to neu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetic Foot Infections There are approximately 29 million people with diabetes in the United States, and approximately 25% of people older than age of 65 have diabetes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Diabetic foot ulcers are among the most common complications of patients who have diabetes mellitus which is not well controlled. It is usually the re ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diabetic Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is defined by objective delaying of gastric emptying without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetic gastroparesis is a potenti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diabetic Macular Edema The retina is a thin layer of tissue in the posterior segment of the eye near the optic nerve. It contains a layer of photoreceptor cells, and receive ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in developed countries, including the United States. It is consider ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Diabetic Perioperative Management With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus; an increasing number of people with diabetes undergo surgery each year. This activity highlights the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of visual loss in adults of working age group in the western population. It is the most common microvascular ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diabetic Ulcer Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic endocrine disorder due to an overall deficiency of insulin (Type 1) or defective insulin function (Type 2) which caus ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diaper Dermatitis Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen i ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP IV) Inhibitors Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a group of antihyperglycemic medications used to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is a significant ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dupuytren Contracture Dupuytren contracture is a myofibroplastic disease that affects the hands. It results in painless cords that eventually leads to flexion contracture o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dyslipidemia Dyslipidemia is the imbalance of lipids such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Empagliflozin Empagliflozin is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT-2) cl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Endocarditis Antibiotic Regimens Infective endocarditis is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It requires prompt identification and carefully selected antibiotic therap ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erb Palsy Erb palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of the most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythromycin Erythromycin has traditionally been used for various respiratory infections (i.e., community-acquired pneumonia, Legionnaires disease), prophylaxis of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ethacrynic Acid Ethacrynic acid is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic heart failure. It is in the loop diuretic class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA) is an uncommon diabetic complication associated with several risk factors such as fasting, surgery, pregnancy, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Exenatide Exenatide is FDA-indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when used as an adjunct to diet and exercise. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ezetimibe Ezetimibe is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypercholesterolemia. It is among a novel class of selective cholesterol-absorption ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Factitious Hypoglycemia Factitious hypoglycemia is the intentional attempt to induce low blood glucose levels and remains one of the diagnostic challenges that face endocrino ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Female Urinary Retention Urinary retention, or the inability to voluntarily void urine, is one of the most prevalent presenting urologic complaints in the emergency department ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femoral Nerve Block Peripheral nerve blocks inhibit the propagation of impulses in nerve terminals to inhibit the perception of pain by the cerebral cortex. Local anesthe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fingertip Injuries The fingertip is the most distal portion of the finger providing the tactile and sensory functions that are then relayed to the brain. It is anatomica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Foot Ulcer Foot ulceration is among the most common health issues, and its prevalence has increased recently. It is one of the major causes of amputations, parti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Fournier Gangrene Fournier gangrene is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening infectious process that involves the genital and perineal areas. The disease is one of th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fungal Sinusitis There are several types of fungal sinusitis. The classification depends on the degree of invasion of the sinuses. The overarching categories are non-i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gallbladder Empyema Empyema of the gallbladder is the most severe complication of acute cholecystitis. It is usually the result of the progression of acute cholecystitis ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a result of any disease process that causes a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. It can be caused by mecha ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gastric Stasis Gastroparesis (gastric stasis) is derived from Greek words gastro/gaster or stomach, and paresis or partial paralysis. It is a clinical condition resu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is an uncommon condition in the community that can be associated with significant morbidity, healthcare burden and could have poor outco ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gestational Diabetes The definition of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM can c ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Glargine Insulin Insulin glargine is used to manage and treat hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a long-acting insulin and is us ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Glimepiride Glimepiride is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sulfonylurea class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glipizide Glipizide is a second-generation sulfonylurea that is FDA-approved for the treatment of adults with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is administered as an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used to manage and treat hypoglycemia as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, anaphylaxis refrac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists are a class of medications utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. This activity will highlight the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glucose Intolerance Glucose intolerance (GI) is a metabolic condition that results from hyperglycemia. It can be defined as dysglycemia that includes both prediabetes and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glyburide Glyburide is a medication used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sulfonylurea class of drugs. This activity outlines the ind ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glycogenic Hepatopathy Glycogenic hepatopathy (GH) is a rare or possibly under-diagnosed complication seen in children and young adults with poorly controlled type 1 diabete ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hemochromatosis Hemochromatosis is a disorder that causes excess iron deposition and, in turn, multiple organ dysfunction. Organs affected by hemochromatosis include ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Hereditary Angioedema Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by either a lack of C1-inhibitor protein or dysfunctional C1-inhibitor protein. HA ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase is an enzyme useful in facilitating the management of injectable medications. This activity reviews the indications, action, adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydrochlorothiazide Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide-type diuretic that has been used clinically for more than half a century. The drug has been widely used to tr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Cardiovascular Effects Both the high-pressure environment as well as the hyperoxygenation that is associated with hyperbaric oxygen treatments (HBOT) have numerous consequen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Therapy For Wound Healing The international body that sets the standards for hyperbaric medicine is The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. There are currently 14 approved ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Chronic Refractory Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is infection of the bone or marrow caused by bacteria or mycobacteria. It is difficult to treat due to the relative paucity of blood ves ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypercholesterolemia Lipoprotein disorders are clinically important due to the of the role of lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the associated risk of atherosclerotic card ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperglycemia The term "hyperglycemia" is derived from the Greek hyper (high) + glykys (sweet/sugar) + haima (blood). Hyperglycemia is blood glucose greater than 12 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels within the body. It is a very com ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Coma Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) is a clinical condition that arises from a complication of diabetes mellitus. Type 2 diabetes accounts for a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hypocarbia Hypocarbia, also known as hypocapnia, is a decrease in alveolar and blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels below the normal reference range of 35 mmHg. CO2 ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Insulin Insulin is a medication used in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus type-1 and sometimes diabetes mellitus type-2, both of which are sig ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Insulin Lispro Insulin lispro is an insulin analog that is FDA-approved for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 to control hyperglycemia. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Insulin Resistance Insulin resistance is identified as an impaired biologic response to insulin stimulation of target tissues, primarily the liver, muscle, and adipose t ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Insulinoma Insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor characterized by hypersecretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia. This activity reviews the man ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Intertrigo Intertrigo is a superficial inflammatory skin condition of the skin's flexural surfaces, prompted or irritated by warm temperatures, friction, moistur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Keratosis Pilaris Keratosis pilaris is a chronic condition most common in the adolescent population. The condition characteristically presents with papules with follicu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with pathologically high serum and urine concentrations of ketone bodies. Clinically relevant forms of ke ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Ketogenic Diet Despite continuous advances in the medical world, obesity continues to remain a major worldwide health hazard with adult mortality as high as 2.8 mill ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Knee Effusion The knee is a hinge joint and susceptible to injury from trauma, inflammation, infection, and degenerative changes. A knee effusion may result from ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kyrle Disease Kyrle disease is a rare papular eruption on the lower extremities of patients with chronic systemic diseases, most commonly renal failure and diabetes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Latent Autoimmune Diabetes Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is autoimmune diabetes that begins in adulthood and does not need insulin for glycemic control at least in ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Lipodystrophies Lipodystrophies are conditions that share the common finding of a reduction in subcutaneous fat. There are multiple subtypes of lipodystrophy, which m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lisinopril Lisinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Lisinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Losartan Losartan is FDA approved for the treatment of several medical conditions, which include the following: hypertension, diabetic nephropathy. ARBs are kn ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Low Carbohydrate Diet Low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets are a strategy for weight loss. Today, there continues to be an interest in low-carb approaches. While all low carbo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Macrosomia Macrosomia is commonly encountered during obstetric practice. It is associated with a higher likelihood of obstetric as well as neonatal complications ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malignant Otitis Externa Malignant otitis media is a serious infection of the ear canal and temporal bone. It can lead to severe complications if not treated urgently. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Maturity Onset Diabetes in the Young The most commonly recognized forms of diabetes mellitus include type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder, and type 2 diabetes, a polygenic disorder inf ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Median Nerve Injury This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of an injury to the median nerve and highlights the role of the healthcare team in managing patien ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Medication Dispensing Errors And Prevention Close to 6,800 prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States. To further complicate a practitioner' ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Meralgia Paresthetica Meralgia paresthetica is a clinical condition that includes pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh associated with lateral femoral cutaneous ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is an accumulation of several disorders, which together raise the risk of an individual developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Meteorism Meteorism, also known as tympanites, is characterized by the accumulation of gas in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Gas may cause the sensation of bl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Metformin Metformin, FDA-approved in 1994, is an antidiabetic agent used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin comes in both immediate-release and extended-rel ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Microalbuminuria The current definition of microalbuminuria (MA) is an amount of urinary albumin that is greater than the normal value, but also lower than what is det ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Monoarticular Arthritis Monoarticular arthritis is an inflammation of one joint that may later involve other joints of the body. The differential diagnosis and treatment of s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mucormycosis Mucormycosis results from a variety of fungi that may be typically innocuous environmental fungi and primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Fo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries of 2.5 mm diameter or more. This activity helps i ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps result in continuous, involuntary, painful, and localized contraction of an entire muscle group, individual single muscle, or select mus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Necrobiosis Lipoidica Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare, chronic, idiopathic, granulomatous disease of collagen degeneration with the risk of ulceration, classically ass ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nephrotoxic Medications Numerous drugs used to manage and treat multiple diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and other pathologies, are nephrotoxic. These agents are ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neuropathy About 2.4 percent of the population is affected by peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence increases to 8 percent in older populations. Peripheral neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
New Onset Diabetes After Transplant New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) is the development of diabetes mellitus after solid organ transplantation. NODAT frequently ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nickel Allergy Nickel allergy is a type of contact dermatitis caused by direct contact with nickel. It is the most common identifiable cause of metal-related contact ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a broad term used to cover a spectrum of conditions that are characterized by evidence of hepatic steatos ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Nonalcoholic, fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is defined as the ectopic accumulation of fat in the liver (hepatic steatosis) when no other causes of secon ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Non-diabetic Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is uncommonly seen in adults without diabetes mellitus. However, all patients should undergo evaluation and management who develop sympto ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
NPH Insulin NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) insulin is a medication used to treat and manage diabetes mellitus, which is a significant risk factor for coronary a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Obesity Obesity is the excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat or adipose tissue in the body that may impair health. Obesity has become an epidemic which ha ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Obesity Effects On Child Health Obesity in childhood is the most challenging public health issue in the twenty-first century. Childhood obesity is associated with increased morbidit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Obesity Surgery Indications And Contraindications Obesity affects at least one-third of adults and 17 percent of youth in the United States and confers an increased risk of related comorbidities such ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by episodes of complete collapse of the airway or partial collapse with an associated decrease in oxyge ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Osteoporosis In Males Osteoporosis is a silent disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone microarchitecture leading to fragility and increa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Overview On Ordering and Evaluation of Laboratory Tests The laboratory medicine service in a hospital is concerned with relevant investigations of patient’s presenting complaints and sometimes with detectio ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Paleolithic Diet A Paleolithic diet is the modern interpretation of the diet that humans ate during the Paleolithic or “Old Stone Age” era. This period, about 2.5 mill ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pancreas Transplantation Pancreas transplantation provides effective glycemic control in diabetic patients and has the potential to cure this disease and prevent cardiovascula ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pancreatic Insufficiency The pancreas has an essential role in the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Damage to the cells producing pa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pancrelipase Therapy Pancrelipase, a combination of lipase, protease, and amylase, has benefited patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. The FDA-approved conditio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pathophysiology of Obesity Obesity is a chronic disease having a major public health concern. Obesity is a mild state of chronic inflammation of adipose tissue and a state of ma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of relative insulin deficiency affecting primarily type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM). DKA can occur ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by peripheral insulin resistance, leading to hyperglycemia. While once considered an ad ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Percutaneous liver biopsy is a procedure in which a needle is introduced through the skin and, eventually, liver tissue to obtain a specimen to help a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy (PN) encompasses a broad range of clinical pathologies potentially presenting with peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and limb loss in the United States. An early identification and risk factor modifica ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Pharmacologic Therapy For Obesity Obesity is a metabolic disease represented by excessive adipose tissue. Its classification is based on the body mass index (BMI), which is a relations ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pioglitazone Pioglitazone is a drug used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pioglitazone is the third marketed thiazolidinedione group of oral antidiab ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pitavastatin Pitavastatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia. It is in the statin class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type II Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type 2 (PAS-2) is an autoimmune syndrome which leads to lymphocytic infiltration causing organ-specific damage. PAS- ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Postoperative Wound Infection Postoperative wound infection is a common problem. The process of wound infection is complex and involves an interplay between several biological path ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Postpartum Care Of The New Mother The postpartum period begins soon after the delivery of the baby and usually lasts six to eight weeks and ends when the mother’s body has nearly retur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Potassium Chloride Potassium chloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypokalemia. It is in the electrolyte supplement class of medications. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prediabetes Prediabetes is a precursor before the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus. Adults with prediabetes often may show no signs or symptoms of diabetes but will ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pregabalin Pregabalin is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripher ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pregnancy Medications The treatment of common medical conditions during pregnancy frequently becomes complicated due to the potential effects that medications can have on f ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Proteinuria Proteinuria is a very common finding in outpatient as well as inpatient settings. Any such results warrant further investigation, especially in the se ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Regular Insulin Regular insulin is a medication used in the management of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia of a variety of etiologies. It is in the short-acting in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Renal Tubular Acidosis Kidneys play a pivotal role in maintaining the acid-base balance of body along with lungs, and they do so by reabsorbing filtered bicarbonate and remo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Repaglinide Repaglinide is a medication used in the management and treatment of diabetes mellitus Type 2. It is in the antihyperglycemic class of drugs. This acti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Restenosis Despite advances in cardiovascular health and interventional cardiology, coronary restenosis continues to be a challenge for interventional cardiologi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Retinopathy Retinopathy refers to pathological alterations to the retina resulting from a variety of causes, including environmental conditions and genetic factor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Rhinocerebral mucormycosis, also called zygomycosis, is a rare disease caused by filamentous fungi involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, and brain. I ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rhino-orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis Rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis is an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales and has high morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Rifampin Rifampin is a medication used in the management and treatment of various mycobacterial and gram-positive bacterial infections. It belongs to the antim ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Risk Factors For Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality among adults in the United States. While common, it is preventable. CAD and its ri ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ropinirole Ropinirole is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson's disease and restless leg syndrome. It is a dopamine agonist (D2). The d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rosiglitazone Rosiglitazone is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the thiazolidinediones class of medications. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sea Urchin Toxicity Sea urchin envenomation occurs when a sea urchin spine penetrates the soft tissue of the victim. Frequently spines break off and remain in the soft ti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Selecting A Treatment Modality In Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a commonly encountered diagnosis and a common reason for inpatient admission. Timely identification of this condition ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Skin Tags Skin tags, also known as 'acrochordons,' are commonly seen cutaneous growths noticeable as soft excrescences of heaped up skin and are usually benign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sleep Apnea Syndrome Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a condition in which there is a dynamic collapse of upper airway tissues during sleep. This may result in recurren ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Streptococcus Group A Group A streptococci are ubiquitous bacteria encountered on a daily basis, which have the potential to cause a wide range of infections in humans. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sulfonylureas Sulfonylureas represent a class of medications utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This activity outlines the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Syncope And Related Paroxysmal Spells Paroxysmal spells are non-epileptic events that may mimic epileptic seizures but are not associated with rhythmic discharges of cortical neurons typic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Thallium Toxicity Thallium is a tasteless, odorless, and water-soluble chemical element for which both accidental intoxication and criminal poisoning have been reported ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thiazolidinediones Thiazolidinediones are medications used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These medications may be acting as a nuclear tran ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Transposition Of The Great Arteries Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital pediatric cardiac defect arising from an embryological discordance between the aorta and pul ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vitamin C Deficiency Vitamin C deficiency, also known as scurvy, is a disease primarily associated with socioeconomic status and access to food. Signs and symptoms are oft ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Wound Assessment A wound is damaged or disruption to the skin and, before treatment, the exact cause, location, and type of wound must be assessed to provide appropria ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Wound Debridement Wound debridement is based on the premise that debridement will promote reepithelialization. Wound debridement has been utilized for more than a decad ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Wound Dressings Wounds can be present over different anatomical parts of the body. However, the basic principles of choosing a wound dressing remain the same. Choosin ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Wrist Arthrodesis Wrist arthrodesis, also known as wrist fusion, is a procedure in which the wrist joint is immobilized by fusing the radius to the carpal bones. It may ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info

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