NP-Adult-Geriatric Primary Care

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Streptococcus Pyogenes

Streptococcus pyogenes is a major human-specific bacterial pathogen that causes a wide array of manifestations ranging f ...
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Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each y ...
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Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis

Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis is uncommon compared to left-sided infective endocarditis. Right-sided infected i ...
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Esophageal Stricture

An esophageal stricture is an abnormal narrowing of the esophageal lumen. It often presents with difficulty swallowing a ...
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Median Nerve Injury

This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of an injury to the median nerve and highlights the role of the heal ...
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Hours: 1.75

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Alzheimer Disease

Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder th ...
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NP-Adult-Geriatric Primary Care Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
131 I Sodium Iodide Radioiodine-131 is a therapeutic agent used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. This activity describes the ind ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine This activity reviews the class 1 drug 3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA, Ecstacy or Molly. The drug is known to promote a sens ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
3-3-2 Rule The airway is one of the most critical elements of patient safety, and difficult intubations commonly cause morbidity and mortality. To decrease morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
5 Alpha Reductase Deficiency This activity reviews 5-alpha-reductase deficiency, an important cause of ambiguous genitalia in children. Initially, the phenotype of children with 5 ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
5 Alpha Reductase Inhibitors The 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride and dutasteride) are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hype ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
5th Metatarsal Fracture Fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common injuries that must be recognized and treated appropriately to avoid poor clinical outcomes for the patien ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Abdominal Abscess Abdominal abscesses contain cellular debris, enzymes, and liquid and can be from an infectious or non-infectious source. They are a common and serious ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Abdominal Angina Abdominal angina is postprandial pain that occurs in mesenteric vascular occlusive disease when blood flow to the colon is unable to meet visceral dem ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition that requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or symp ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Imaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are a relatively common pathology. Ruptured aneurysms have an exceptionally high mortality rate. Early diagnosis an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abdominal Hematoma A hematoma is a blood collection in an extravascular space, and is named according to the location of the blood collection. Rectus sheath hematomas r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abdominal Hysterectomy This activity describes the current status of abdominal hysterectomy, which represents the most common gynecologic surgical procedure performed in the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Abducens Nerve Palsy The abducens nerve, also known as cranial nerve VI, is responsible for ipsilateral eye abduction. Visualizing the anatomy of the nerve allows for bett ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ablative Nerve Block Ablation procedures have been used to treat chronic back pain and sciatica of unknown etiology as an alternative to surgical severing the dorsal rami. ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Abulia Abulia, also known as apathy, psychic akinesia, and athymia, refers to a lack of will, drive, or initiative for action, speech and thought, and is fel ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect refer to the actions or inactions of an individual's caregiver or parent inflicting physical, sexual, or emotional harm on the indiv ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Acalculous Cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis is a hypokinetic condition of gallbladder emptying. It often presents as an acute ailment (acute cholecystitis), but it can a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acanthosis Nigricans Acanthosis nigricans is a cutaneous manifestation of an underlying condition. It usually develops in in skin folds, such as the back of the neck, axil ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Many diseases and conditions list pain as a component of their presentation; as a result, pain management is of great importance to both clinicians an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acetaminophen/Aspirin/Caffeine The FDA recognized the combination of acetylsalicylic acid (250 mg), acetaminophen (250 mg), and caffeine (65 mg) as safe and effective in treating ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acetazolamide Acetazolamide is a diuretic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication that is used to treat several illnesses. FDA-approved indications include glau ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Toxicity Nerve agents are some of the most deadly and easily employed chemical warfare agents. Given the global threat of terrorism, it is prudent to have a ba ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Achalasia Achalasia is an esophageal smooth muscle motility disorder that occurs due to a failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. This conditio ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Achlorhydria Achlorhydria is a condition in which the stomach does not produce hydrochloric acid, one of the components of gastric acid. Hydrochloric acid plays an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia found in humans, accounting for 90% of cases of disproportionate short stature. It is caused by a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acinetobacter Acinetobacter is a gram-negative, nonmotile organism that is often found in soil and water and is known to colonize intravenous fluids. In general, Ac ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Acne Fulminans Acne fulminans or acne maligna is a rare skin disorder presenting as an acute, painful, ulcerating, and hemorrhagic clinical form of acne. It may or m ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acne Keloidalis Nuchae Acne keloidalis nuchae is a disease characterized by persistent folliculitis at the nape of the neck that forms keloid like scars and ultimately cicat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acne Vulgaris Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of pilosebaceous unit, which runs a chronic course and it is self-limiting. Acne vulgaris is triggered by pr ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Acneiform Eruptions Acneiform eruptions are a group of disorders characterized by papules and pustules resembling acne vulgaris. Acneiform eruptions demonstrate an acute ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Acquired Angioedema Angioedema is characterized by one or more areas of well-demarcated, non-pitting edema of deep subcutaneous tissues. It is primarily known to involve ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acquired Hemophilia Acquired hemophilia is an uncommon but severe bleeding disorder. It is caused by the development of autoantibodies directed against one of the antihem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted sexually, via blood transfusions, sharing intravenous needles, and from the mother to a child during the b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Antiretroviral Therapy Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a significant health problem worldwide. Advances in treatment have made this disease not only manageable but ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acrokeratosis Paraneoplastica Bazex syndrome, also known as acrokeratosis paraneoplastica or acrokeratosis neoplastica syndrome is a rare, acral psoriasiform dermatosis associated ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tis ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Actinic Cheilitis Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous lesion that forms most commonly on the lower lip. Similar to actinic keratosis, actinic cheilitis can undergo mali ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Actinic Keratosis Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant cutaneous lesions that may progress to squamous cell carcinoma. They are a common skin condition and develop ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Actinic Prurigo Actinic prurigo, also known as prurigo or hydroa aestivale or Hutchinson summer, is a photodermatosis that is characterized by intensely pruritic papu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Actinic Purpura Actinic purpura, also known as solar purpura, Bateman purpura, senile purpura, or Bateman disease is a common disorder of dermal connective tissue due ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Actinomycosis Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that typically colonize the human mouth, urogenital trac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Active Tuberculosis Active tuberculosis is a condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection; typically in the lungs, although many systems can be involved ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Activities of Daily Living Activities of daily living (ADLs) are essential and routine tasks that most young healthy individuals can perform without assistance. The inability to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acupuncture Acupuncture is a system of medical treatment and ideology that is based on the principle of applying small needles or pressure to specific points in t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Anemia Acute anemia occurs when there is an abrupt drop in red blood cells, usually due to acute hemorrhage or hemolysis. This activity reviews the presentat ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Arterial Occlusion Acute arterial occlusion is synonymous with acute limb ischemia and is considered a vascular emergency. Acute limb ischemia is defined as a sudden los ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchi. It is a common presentation in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and in p ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Chest Syndrome Acute chest syndrome occurs due to vaso-occlusion within the pulmonary vasculature of patients with sickle cell disease. This results in deoxygenation ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis also referred to as post-infectious encephalomyelitis, is an acute, rapidly progressive autoimmune process that i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Diverticulitis Acute diverticulitis is inflammation of a diverticulum, a sac-like protrusion from the colon wall, due to micro-perforation. Diverticulitis presents i ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Acute Headache Headache is a nearly universal complaint. Most headaches are benign, and the majority of patients can be safely treated and discharged with minimal wo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Hepatic Porphyria Hepatic porphyrias are genetic disorders caused by the defect in an enzyme involved in heme synthesis and accumulation of heme precursors. Hepatic por ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute Hepatitis Acute hepatitis is a term used to describe a wide variety of conditions characterized by acute inflammation of the hepatic parenchyma or injury to hep ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Intermittent Porphyria Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It presents w ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Interstitial Pneumonia Acute interstitial pneumonia is a form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia with an acute onset and a rapidly progressive course that frequently leads ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury for fewer than twenty six weeks duration with encephalopathy and impaired synthetic functi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Acute Mountain Sickness At higher altitudes, the decreased partial pressure of oxygen can cause several pathological presentations, including high altitude pulmonary edema, h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia among the adult population and accounts for about 80% of all cases. It is characterized by cl ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Acute Myocarditis Acute myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium. It is typically seen in infants and teenagers but can occur at any age. It most commonly results ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2.25 34 Activity Info
Acute Pneumothorax Evaluation and Treatment A pneumothorax is an accumulation of gas in the pleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the chest cavity), which can imp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Porphyria Acute porphyrias are a group of rare disorders characterized by an enzymatic defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Patients present with acute, deb ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Acute Renal Colic Acute renal colic is severe pain resulting from the presence of a stone in the urinary system. The stone can be present anywhere along the path betwee ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Renal Tubular Necrosis The most common intrinsic cause of acute kidney injury is acute tubular necrosis. Acute tubular necrosis is most common in hospitalized patients and c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The d ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction An acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurs due to occlusion of one or more coronary arteries, causing transmural myocardial ischemia which in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acyclovir Acyclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is FDA approved to treat gen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adalimumab Adalimumab is a fully human, high-affinity, recombinant anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha monoclonal antibody, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Addison Disease Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, which can have devastating consequences if not promptly recognized and appropriately treated. Often th ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Addisonian Crisis An Addisonian crisis, or adrenal crisis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that results from an acute insufficiency of adrenal hormones (glu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adenomyomatosis Adenomyomatosis is a benign condition that can present with right upper quadrant pain and is characterized by hyperplasia of the gallbladder wall muco ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adenopathy Lymphadenopathy is a common abnormal finding during the course of the physical exam in general medical practice. Adenopathy can be caused by neoplasm, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adhesive Capsulitis Adhesive capsulitis, also known as frozen shoulder, is an inflammatory condition characterized by shoulder stiffness, pain, and significant loss of pa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Adiposis Dolorosa Adiposis dolorosa is a rare disorder of multiple painful subcutaneous growths of adipose tissue most commonly affecting the proximal extremities, trun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adrenal Adenoma Adrenal adenomas are benign neoplasms of the adrenal cortex. Non-secreting adrenal adenomas secrete low levels of hormones, are usually asymptomatic a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Adrenal Cortical Nodular Hyperplasia A number of heterogeneous disorders can result in adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia. Cortical hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the gland. Nor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adrenal Hemorrhage Adrenal hemorrhage represents a rare disease of variable etiologies. The disease often presents in a wide variety of clinical settings and presents a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones necessary for normal body functioning; the deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adrenal Metastasis Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland and the second most common tumor of the adrenal gland after benig ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adrenalectomy Adrenalectomy is performed to adrenal tumors that secret excess hormone and for those that are concerning for malignancy. There are many approached to ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentration. It is a life- ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adult T Cell Leukemia Adult T- cell leukemia (ATL) is a rare and aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type -1 (HTLV-1) infectio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Adverse Effects Of Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy causes DNA break and subsequent cell death. This affects the cancer cells more severely than the normal cells. However, with the growing ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Afferent Loop Syndrome This activity reviews the etiology, evaluation, and management of afferent loop syndrome (ALS), with particular attention to the difference in managem ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ageusia Ageusia is a symptom reflecting various underline pathological conditions. It is a rare condition that is characterized by complete loss of the taste ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Agnosia Agnosia is a rare disorder whereby a patient is unable to recognize and identify objects, persons, or sounds using one or more of their senses despite ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Agranulocytosis Agranulocytosis is a condition in which the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is less than 100 neutrophils per microlitre of the blood. Agranulocytosis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Agraphia Agraphia is an impairment or loss of a previous ability to write and can result from a number of etiologies. When agraphia results from disruptions to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Akathisia Akathisia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can occur as an adverse effect of antipsychotic medications and manifests as psychomotor restlessness. I ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Albuterol Albuterol is used for the treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (acute or severe) in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. It also h ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alcohol Related Psychosis Psychosis associated with alcohol can occur with acute intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, and chronic alcoholism. Alcohol-related psychosis is also kno ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol use disorder is very common in the United States. The cause of alcohol use disorder is not well understood, however, several factors are thou ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Alcohol Withdrawal Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually appear when an individual discontinues or reduces alcohol intake after a period of prolonged consumption. In most ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a cardiac disease caused by chronic alcohol consumption. It is characterized by ventricular dilation and impairment ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alcoholic Hepatitis Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe syndrome related to alcoholic liver disease. It is characterized by rapid onset of jaundice, malaise, tender hepatomeg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a condition seen commonly in patients with alcohol use disorder or after a bout of heavy drinking. It is a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alcoholic Liver Disease The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is hepatic steatosis, which involves the accumulation of small fat droplets under liver cells approaching t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Alcoholic Pancreatitis Pancreatitis is defined as inflammation of the pancreas, leading to damage and dysfunction of the retroperitoneal organ. It can be classified as Acute ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Alendronate Alendronate is FDA-approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alexia Alexia is a rare condition in which reading comprehension is nonexistent or significantly limited due to brain injury, damage, or trauma. It can be as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aliskiren Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor medication that is FDA approved to treat hypertension in adults and children six years and older. It may be used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alkaptonuria Alkaptonuria is a rare genetic inborn error of protein metabolism. It is the result of the deficiency of an enzyme (homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase - HG ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common fungal infection in uncontrolled asthmatics, cystic fibrosis patients, and immunocompromise ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Allergic Contact Dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type 4 or delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) by an individual’s immune system to a small molecule (le ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease presenting with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an IgE ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Allergy Desensitization Allergy desensitization also termed allergen immunotherapy (AIT) or hyposensitization was first introduced by Leonard Noon in 1911, who proposed that ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Allodynia Allodynia is defined as "pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain." An example would be a light feather touch (that should only prod ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Allopurinol Allopurinol is a urate-lowering medication that is FDA approved for the management of gout, prevention of tumor lysis syndrome, and prevention of recu ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Almotriptan Almotriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraines. It is in the triptan 5-HT class of drugs. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alopecia The term alopecia means hair loss regardless of the cause. It is not exclusive to the scalp; it can be anywhere in the body. Many therapies are availa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used in the management and treatment of severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Adrenergic Receptors The indication for the use of an alpha-receptor modifying medication depends on which receptor is the target: the alpha-1 receptor or the alpha-2 rece ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alpha Blockers Alpha-blockers are medications used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and pheochromocytom ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Thalassemia Hemoglobin H disease (alpha-thalassemia) can be found in patients that live in areas with a high incidence of malaria. Symptoms at presentation, such ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alport Syndrome Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, loss of hearing, and eye abnormalities. It takes place due to an abnormality o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alprazolam Alprazolam, known by various trade names, is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication in the United States. Alprazolam is frequently presc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Altitude Induced Pulmonary Hypertension This activity describes the development of pulmonary hypertension due to high altitude. We describe a phenomenon known as HAPH (high altitude pulmonar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alveolar Proteinosis Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare disease characterized by an accumulation of a lipoproteinaceous material within the alveoli. It can be idiopa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Amantadine Amantadine is an antiviral agent with mild antiparkinsonian activity. Amantadine was used in the early 2000s for Influenza A treatment. However, high ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amaurosis Fugax The term amaurosis fugax is often used interchangeably to describe transient visual loss (TVL). However, it is employed widely in medicine to refer to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amebiasis Amebiasis or amoebic dysentery is a parasitic intestinal infection caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. It may be asymptomatic or pres ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amebic Colitis Amebic colitis results from invasive infection of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Losch first reported disease due to E. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amebic Liver Abscess Amebic liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The life cycle involves consumption of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Amebic Meningoencephalitis Amebic encephalitis is a rare but lethal central nervous system infection caused by free-living amoebae found in freshwater, lakes, and rivers. There ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Aminophylline Aminophylline is FDA approved for the treatment of reversible airway obstruction due to asthma or other chronic lung diseases. This activity illustrat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amlodipine Amlodipine is an oral dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Compared to nifedipine and other medications in the dihydropyridine class, amlodipine h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amoxapine Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. Generally, it is reserved for ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in the primary care setting. It is an amino-penicillin, created by adding an extra amino grou ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the name conventional amphotericin B and has been used fo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ampullary Cancer Ampullary cancer arises from ampulla of Vater terminal to the confluence of the distal common bile duct (CBD) and the pancreatic duct. It is important ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amsler Grid Wet age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of severe vision loss in the elderly population, both in the United States and worldwide. Earl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous acquired or hereditary disease that results from the abnormal deposition of beta-sheet fibrillar protein aggregates in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Anabolic Steroid Toxicity Anabolic steroids such as testosterone are produced naturally and enhance protein synthesis at the cellular level. There are also synthetic analogs av ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anal Fissures An anal fissure is a superficial tear in the skin distal to the dentate line. Anal fissures are common in those with a history of constipation or hard ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Analgesic Nephropathy Analgesic nephropathy is chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by chronic use of analgesics such as acetaminophen, aspirin, and NSAIDs as the pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a gram-negative intracellular bacteria that causes an acute febrile illness known as anaplasmosis or human granulocytic a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), is a T-cell lymphoma characterized by large, pleomorphic lymphoid ce ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anasarca Anasarca is a serious condition in which there is a generalized accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space. This accumulation of fluid occurs whe ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
ANCA Positive Vasculitis Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of rare autoimmune conditions that causes an inflammati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Andexanet Alfa Andexanet alfa is a recombinant modified Factor Xa protein approved by the FDA in May 2018 for the reversal of apixaban and rivaroxaban in patients wi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a common etiology of sexual developmental disorders and results in varying phenotypes. These disorders of and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Androgen Replacement Testosterone is FDA-approved as replacement therapy in men who have low testosterone levels and those with symptoms of hypogonadism. It is essential t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anemia Anemia is a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb) or hematocrit (HCT) or RBC count. It is a presentation of an underlying condition and can be subdivided into ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Anemia Of Chronic Renal Disease Anemia of chronic renal disease, also known as anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a form of normocytic, normochromic, hypoproliferative anemia ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) refers to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Angiodysplasia Angiodysplasia is an abnormal, tortuous, dilated small blood vessel in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the GI tract. It is the most common vascul ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Angioneurotic Edema Angioneurotic edema is a relatively common presentation in the emergency department. It presents as unpredictable frequent edematous episodes of cutan ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade has is a common and successful strategy in the treatment of several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart fa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Angular Chelitis Angular cheilitis describes an inflammatory skin process of variable etiology occurring at the labial commissure, the angle of the mouth. It is usuall ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anhidrosis Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat. It is important to recognize anhidrosis as it can be potentially life-threatening due to heat-related illnesses. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ankle Brachial Index The ankle-brachial index (ABI) is a non-invasive tool for the assessment of vascular status. It consists of the ratio between the systolic blood press ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2.25 35 Activity Info
Annular Pancreas Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by encasement of the duodenum by a band of pancreatic tissue. AP is not commonly enco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anorexia and Cachexia Cachexia is a significant loss of muscle and adipose tissue. It occurs in patients with advanced cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Anosognosia Anosognosia is a neurological condition in which the patient is unaware of their neurological deficit or psychiatric condition. It is associated with ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anoxia Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from inade ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Antacids Antacids are a group of drugs that have been on the market for many years. They were initially first-line defense against peptic ulcer disease; howeve ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Antalgic Gait in Adults Antalgic gait is one of the most common forms of altered gait in patients presenting to the emergency department and primary care offices. It refers t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments which aids in stabilization of the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured li ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Anterior Epistaxis Nasal Pack Among the nasal emergencies, epistaxis is one of the most common chief complaints in patients presenting to the emergency department. Typically, anter ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anterior Mediastinal Mass The most common anterior mediastinal masses in the adult population are thymoma, teratoma, thyroid goiter, and lymphoma. This activity describes the e ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Myocardial Infarction Anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common heart disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Advancement in diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction Anteroseptal myocardial infarctions are commonly caused by rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the left anterior descending artery. Delay ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotics are powerful drugs that are used to combat once fatal diseases. As with any powerful medication, antibiotics carry a wide range of adverse ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Medications Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Toxicity Anticholinergic toxicity is commonly seen in the emergency department but is rarely fatal. According to the 2015 annual American Association of Poison ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anticoagulation Safety One class of drugs that has been implicated in serious adverse drugs reactions for many decades are the oral anticoagulants, especially warfarin. Ther ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antidepressants While antidepressants may be the drug of choice for depression, they also have FDA approval as treatments for other medical disorders. For example, an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Antidotes Overdoses and accidental ingestions or exposures are common throughout the world. With more than 2.4 million toxic exposures each year, poisoning is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antifungal Antibiotics Fungi are unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that exist in all environments worldwide. While most fungi do not play a significant role ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Antihistamine Toxicity In 1943, as the planet was engulfed in WWII and the United States was officially announcing the end of The Great Depression, the most common modern an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Antihypertensive Medications Hypertension (HTN) is considered one of the leading causes of increased cardiovascular disease. Lowering blood pressure does reduce cardiovascular ris ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Antiparasitic Drugs Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ect ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Drug Toxicity Antiplatelet medications are primarily used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related events. Currently, there are fou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Medications Over time, numerous antiplatelet agents have been developed with a multitude of indications. Antiplatelet medications divide into oral and parenteral ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antisialagogues Antisialagogues are medications often used in the management and treatment of patients with noisy breathing near the end of life. These medications ar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antitubercular Medications Antitubercular medications: rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are FDA approved for the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infecti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Aortic Valve Disease Aortic valve disease consists of both regurgitations comprising retrograde flow throw the aortic valve and stenosis or narrowing of the orifice limiti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Infective endocarditis occurs globally and is defined by the infection of the endocardial surface of the native valve, prosthetic heart valve, or an i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Surgical Treatment Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease involving the endocardial surface of the heart and can include the valves and/or the mural endocardium ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Aortofemoral Bypass Aortofemoral bypass surgery has been used in the management of aortoiliac occlusive disease since the 1950s. Today, revascularization with endovascula ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease Aortoiliac occlusive disease is defined by atherosclerotic blockage of the distal abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. Patients commonly present with c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Apixaban Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 for use in patients with non-valv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Apley Grind Test The Apley grind test, also known as the Apley compression test or the Apley test, is a maneuver performed to evaluate for meniscus injury. Clinicians ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Appropriate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Ordering Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic imaging technique useful for the detailed characterization of the soft tissues without ionizing radia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
APUDoma APUDomas, currently known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arcus Senilis Corneal arcus are white or gray incomplete rings that form around the cornea. They are usually clinically insignificant but may be associated with an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of hepari ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aripiprazole Aripiprazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, mania associated with bipolar I disorder, irritability associated ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aromatic Toxicity Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Toluene and benzene can be found in products such as gasoline, nail polis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), a condition also known as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), is a genetic diso ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arsenical Keratosis Arsenical keratosis is an important cutaneous manifestation of chronic arsenic toxicity (CAT). As it is a common presenting complaint of CAT and a pre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Art Therapy Creative art therapy is a complementary therapy used to assist patients with serious illness to ameliorate symptom burden and adapt to the stressful l ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arterial Lines Arterial catheterization is a procedure that is common to the intensive care and the operating room settings. It involves placement of a catheter into ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure that is performed to obtain synovial fluid from within a joint capsule, both for diagnostic and for therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Asbestosis Asbestosis is an interstitial lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers. Asbestos fibers have been historically chosen for construction, sh ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Aseptic Meningitis Aseptic meningitis is an umbrella term for all of the causes of inflammation of the brain meninges that have negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ashman Phenomenon Ashman phenomenon was initially described by Dr. Gouaux and Dr. Ashman in 1947. They described that the earlier in the cycle a premature atrial contra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aspergilloma An aspergilloma is a fungus ball or mycetoma composed of Aspergillus hyphae along with cellular debris and mucus. It is a noninvasive type of chronic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mostly occurs in the form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), aspergilloma or al ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Aspergillus Fumigatus Aspergillus is a ubiquitous saprophyte in nature found in air, soil and organic matter. Humans normally inhale the spore form of the fungi. However, t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Aspiration Risk Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized ba ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Asplenia Asplenia means the absence of a spleen. Asplenia can occur in a variety of clinical settings, and it can refer to an anatomic absence of the spleen or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Asteatotic Eczema This activity outlines the evaluation and treatment of asteatotic eczema and reviews the role of the healthcare team in managing patients with this co ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Asthma Medications Asthma is a wide-reaching, chronic, inflammatory illness that impacts millions of people daily. It is frequently responsible for unscheduled healthcar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the properly collected urine of a patient that has no signs or symptoms of a urinary tract inf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ataxia Ataxia is a neurological sign that manifests in a lack of coordination in the movement of different muscles in the body. It is a clinical finding and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atazanavir Atazanavir is FDA approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, for patients who are 3-months-old or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Atenolol Atenolol is a second-generation beta-1-selective adrenergic antagonist indicated in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and acute myocardi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atheroembolic Kidney Disease Atheroembolic renal disease is caused by occlusion of small arteries in the kidneys by cholesterol crystal emboli from ulcerated atherosclerotic plaqu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Atopy Atopy is a predisposition to an immune response against diverse antigens and allergens leading to CD4+ Th2 differentiation and overproduction of immun ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Atorvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Atrial Tachycardia A focal atrial tachycardia is an arrhythmia with electrical impulses originating and confined within the atria. Focal tachycardia typically occurs in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Block Second-Degree A delay in conduction between the atria and ventricles results in an atrioventricular conduction block. This is indicated by a prolongation of the PR ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Dissociation Atrioventricular dissociation is a cardiac conduction defect where the atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. It can occur due to vari ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry Tachycardia Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia that results due to the presence of a re-ent ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) is a macroreentrant tachycardia that needs an accessory pathway to bypass the conventional conductio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrophic Gastritis Gastric atrophy (GA) and intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa (GIM) are collectively known as chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). These early con ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Atrophic Vaginitis Atrophic vaginitis is an inflammatory process that occurs in clients experiencing vaginal atrophy. Vaginal atrophy develops secondary to a lack of est ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection, specifically involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Atypical Fibroxanthoma Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare, low-grade superficial sarcoma that frequently presents as a red nodule or plaque. It is considered a superficial var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atypical Mycobacterial Disease Atypical mycobacteria or nontuberculous mycobacteria are organisms that cause various diseases such as skin and soft tissue infection, lymphadenitis, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Auditory Hallucinations Auditory hallucinations are the sensory perceptions of hearing voices without an external stimulus. This symptom is particularly associated with schiz ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Austin Flint Murmur American physician Austin Flint first described his namesake murmur in 1862. In his own poetic words: "The murmur is oftener rough than soft. The roug ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Autoimmune And Chronic Neutropenia Neutropenia is a decreased number of neutrophils less than 1500/microliter and can be idiopathic, congenital, autoimmune, and cyclic types. Those last ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Autoimmune Hepatitis Autoimmune hepatitis refers to a chronic and progressive inflammation of the liver from an unknown cause. Proposed mechanism for the development of au ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Autoimmune Myopathies Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) is classified into four subtypes based on clinical and histopathological features. Polymyositis (PM) and dermat ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Autoimmune Pancreatitis Autoimmune pancreatitis is a clinical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas from an autoimmune etiology. It is an uncommon cause of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Automatic Internal Cardiac Defibrillator The automated internal cardiac defibrillator or shock box is the common name given to the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD). ICD is a state ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Average Volume-Assured Pressure Support Respiratory failure is one of the most important and common causes of patient admissions to the intensive care unit (ICU). In the last few years, non- ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Azathioprine Azathioprine (AZA) is a medication used in the management and treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevention of kidney transplant r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antimicrobial medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Babesiosis Babesiosis is an infection caused by the parasitic protozoa Babesia. This parasite is carried and transferred by ticks and primarily infects erythrocy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Bacteremia Bacteremia, in the strictest sense, refers to viable bacteria in the blood. Asymptomatic bacteremia can occur in normal daily activities such as condu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacterial Acute Prostatitis Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is an infection of the prostate gland occurring in a bimodal distribution in younger and older men. It can be acute (ABP) o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacterial Diarrhea Diarrhea consists of the passage of watery and loose stools multiple times a day (usually more than 3), though specific definitions may vary when appl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bacterial Endophthalmitis The word "endophthalmitis" can be broken down in greek to "interior-eye-inflammation" and is used to describe an infection of the vitreous or the aque ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease characterized by an increase in bowel movement frequency with or without fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. T ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Bacterial Pharyngitis Pharyngitis, more commonly described as sore throat, represents inflammation or irritation of the posterior oropharynx. While the majority of cases ar ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a condition caused by an overgrowth of normal vaginal flora. Most commonly, this presents clinically with increased vaginal dis ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics The term "bacteriostatic antibiotics" is used to describe medications whose mechanism of action stalls bacterial cellular activity without directly ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacteroides Fragilis The human colon possesses the largest population of bacteria in the body, and the majority of these organisms are anaerobes; of these, about 25 percen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bacteruria Bacteruria is the presence of bacteria in the urine and can be classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic. A patient with asymptomatic bacteruria is de ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bagassosis Bagassosis belongs to the group of respiratory conditions classified as interstitial lung diseases or hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It presents simila ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Baker's Cyst A Baker's cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the popliteal fossa, which is located on the posterior aspect of the knee. In adults, Baker's cysts ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Balanitis Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis. Men with balanitis often present with penile pain and erythema. This activity explains the risk facto ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Balanitis Circumscripta Plasmacellularis Balanitis circumscripta is a chronic idiopathic reactive balanoposthitis that can occur in uncircumcised men and is caused by a dysfunctional foreskin ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Balanoposthitis Balanoposthitis is a common disease process involving the glans penis and prepuce. It affects up to 12% to 20% of pediatric and adult males. This acti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Balint Syndrome Balint syndrome, sometimes also referred to as Balint-Holmes syndrome, is described as a triad of optic ataxia, oculomotor apraxia, and simultagnosia. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Balloon Valvuloplasty Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac intervention to open up a stenotic or stiffed heart valves (e.g., aortic or mitral) using a catheter with a balloon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bancroftian Filariasis Bancroftian filariasis is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a significant public health problem. The chronic sequelae of the disease are cri ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Barbiturates Barbiturates are a group of sedative-hypnotic medications used for the treatment of seizure disorder, neonatal withdrawal, insomnia, preoperative anxi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Barium Swallow The barium swallow study, also known as a barium esophagogram or esophagram, is a contrast-enhanced radiographic study commonly used to assess structu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barosinusitis Barosinusitis is an uncommon entity that is rarely described within the otolaryngology literature. It is generally affiliated with pilots and scuba di ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Barotrauma Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damag ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Barrett Esophagus Barrett esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium into metaplastic columnar ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Barrett Metaplasia Barrett's esophagus is the condition in which a specialized columnar epithelium replaces the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. P ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bartonellosis Bartonellosis is the term used to describe any infectious disease produced by the bacteria Bartonella. These include trench fever, Oroya fever, Carrio ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bartter Syndrome Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of salt reabsorption resulting in extracellular fluid volume depletion with low/normal blood press ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Basal Cell Carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting close to one in five Americans. Although rarely fatal, basal cell carcinoma ca ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Basilar Artery Infarct The basilar artery (BA) is formed over the surface of pons by two vertebral arteries to supply the critical areas of the brain and brainstem. Anatomic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Basilar Artery Thrombosis The basilar artery is formed by the convergence of the vertebral arteries at the junction of the pons and medulla. It provides oxygen-rich blood to th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Basilar Migraine A migraine with predominant brainstem aura symptoms is known as a basilar migraine. Bickerstaff first described it in 1961. Other names for it are bas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Becker Muscular Dystrophy Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder due to mutation in the Dystrophin gene that results in progressive muscle degenerati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bedbug Bites There are as many as 90 species of "bugs" (bed bugs are true bugs with specialized elongated mouthparts) within the family Cimicidae; however, few bit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Beeturia Beeturia is the discoloration of urine following the consumption of beets or foods colored with beetroot. The typical color can range from pink to dee ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Behavioral And Psychological Symptoms In Dementia Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) include a range of neuropsychiatric disturbances such as agitation, aggression, depression, a ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Behcet Disease Behcet disease, also known as an oculo-orogenital syndrome, is a chronic remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bekhterev Jacobsohn Reflex The Bekhterev-Jacobsohn reflex is also known as the Jacobsohn finger flexion sign. Dr. Vladimir Bekhterev (a Russian neurologist) and Dr. Louis Jacobs ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Benazepril Benazepril is a drug used in the management of hypertension. It is in the ACE inhibitor class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Benign Breast Calcifications Benign breast calcifications are common. If benign breast calcifications are not appropriately identified, unnecessary intervention and use of finite ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Benign Florid Vascular Proliferation Mimicking Vascular Neoplasm Florid vascular proliferation (FVP) is a benign pseudo-neoplastic reactive proliferation of small vessels in the colon, which can mimic other benign o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benign Mesothelioma Mesotheliomas represent a proliferative neoplasm made up of epithelial and mesenchymal cells of the mesothelium which make up part of the serosal cove ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Vertigo is the perception of motion in the absence of motion, which may be described as a sensation of swaying, tilting, spinning, or feeling unbalanc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition encountered in aging men and a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms. Histological pre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benzocaine Benzocaine is a local anesthetic used in the management of pain control. It is in the ester local anesthetic class of medications. This activity descr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide and shortly thereafter diazepam, benzodiazepines quickly became popular medications secondar ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Benzoyl Peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is an over-the-counter topical medication and is also an FDA-approved prescription medication for the treatment of acne vulgaris. It ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Benztropine Benztropine is FDA approved as adjunctive therapy for all forms of parkinsonism. It is also used for drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and the prev ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Berger Disease Berger disease is a common cause of primary glomerulonephritis and it involves the deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium. It is a cause of pro ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bernard Soulier Syndrome Bernard-Soulier syndrome is a rare inherited blood clotting disorder that is characterized by unusually giant platelet cells, thrombocytopenia, and pr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Berry Aneurysm Berry (saccular) aneurysms are the most common type of intracranial aneurysm, representing 90% of cerebral aneurysms. Generally speaking, there is a b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Berylliosis Berylliosis, also known as chronic beryllium disease (CBD), is a granulomatous disease caused by exposure to beryllium. CBD has a variable clinical co ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Beta 2 Agonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of medications used in the frontline management and treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta Lactam Antibiotics Beta-lactam antibiotics are used in the management and treatment of bacterial infections. This activity will highlight the mechanism of action, advers ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antimicrobials to prevent antimicrobial resistance by inhibiting serine ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta Thalassemia Thalassemias are a common cause of microcytic anemia and are due to impaired synthesis of the globin protein component of hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in the management and treatment of open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved for the treatment of postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by ne ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bevacizumab Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and is used for the treatment of several differen ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bile Duct Injury Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed over 750,000 times in the United States annually. As laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been increasingly used ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bile Duct Stricture Bile duct strictures are segments of the narrowing of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary ductal system. The narrowing impedes the normal ant ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biliary Colic Biliary colic is defined as pain in the abdomen, due to obstruction usually by stones in the cystic duct or common bile duct of the biliary tree. It t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Biliary Duct Hamartoma Biliary duct hamartomas, otherwise known as Von Meyenburg complexes, are dilated cystic bile ducts, which are embryologic remnants that failed to invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biliary Obstruction Biliary obstruction refers to blockage of the bile duct system preventing bile from flowing from the liver into the intestinal tract. Bile obstructio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Biliary Tract Cancer Biliary tract cancer consists of tumors that arise from epithelial cells lining the biliary tract, which consists of the intrahepatic bile duct, extra ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Biliary Tract Cholangiocarcinoma The diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma are challenging and complex. To achieve good results and provide appropriate patient care, the trea ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Biliopancreatic Diversion With Duodenal Switch The biliopancreatic diversion was first described by Scorpinaro in 1979. This procedure combined a horizontal gastric resection with the closure of a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bilirubinuria Bilirubinuria is the presence of bilirubin in the urine, usually detected while performing a routine urine dipstick test. Its presence is abnormal and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Binge Eating Disorder Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder associated with various psychological and non-psychological issues with some degree of impairment of daily ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Biofeedback Biofeedback is a technique to augment the normal sensory feedback and allow better control of body functions that are usually considered involuntary. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs) Biologic response modifiers (BRMs), also known as immunomodulators, are the class of medications that target the disease-causing mechanism. They are u ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biologic Warfare Agent Toxicity Biological warfare agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and biological toxins. Some agents are frequently lethal while others are intended to caus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Biologic, Chemical, and Radiation Terrorism Review Terrorism is the intentional use of indiscriminate violence to create fear and terror as a means to achieve an ideological, financial, religious, or p ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Biotin Biotin is an alternative medication used in the management and treatment of pathological hair conditions. It is in the vitamin class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Biotin Deficiency Biotin is a B-complex vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases: pyruvate carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, prop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bipolar Affective Disorder The bipolar affective disorder is a chronic and complex disorder of mood that is characterized by a combination of manic (bipolar mania), hypomanic an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Birt Hogg Dube Syndrome Birt Hogg Dube syndrome is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis, usually manifesting in the third decade of life with multiple fibrofolliculomas, tric ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bisacodyl Bisacodyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic or functional constipation. This activity outlines the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bismuth Subsalicylate Bismuth subsalicylate is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of gastrointestinal discomfort and traveler's diarrhea. It is in th ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bisoprolol Bisoprolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is in the selective beta-blocker clas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs that are widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bivalirudin Bivalirudin is a medication used in the management and treatment of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Biventricular Devices Heart failure is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and it is associated with poor life expectancy, poor quality of life, a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Black Cohosh Black Cohosh, or Cimicifuga racemosa, is a perennial dicot of the Buttercup family native to the Eastern half of the United States and Canada. It is a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Black Piedra Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of hair shafts, which presents with small nodules stuck-on to the shaft. Black piedra, caused by Piedraia hor ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Black Widow Spider Toxicity The black widow spider species, also known by its biological nomenclature as the Latrodectus species is one of more than 40,000 different species of s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is any neoplasm that arises from the urinary bladder. It is the most common urinary tract neoplasm, with urothelial carcinoma (UC) bein ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization is a commonly performed procedure in all hospitals. It can be performed by external, urethral, and suprapubic techniques. It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bladder Rupture Bladder rupture is most commonly due to abdominal and/or pelvic trauma but may be spontaneous or iatrogenic in association with surgical or endoscopic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bladder Sphincter Dyssynergia Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in a patient with spinal cord injury and various other neurological d ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bladder Trauma Bladder injury is broadly divided into extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal injuries. Extraperitoneal bladder injuries generally occur with pelvic frac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Blastomycosis Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents as a pulmonary infection after the inhalation of spores, and it ma ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bleomycin Bleomycin has approval for adult use in the treatment of squamous cell cancer of head and neck regions, Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma. It i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Blepharitis Blepharitis is an ophthalmologic condition where there is inflammation of the eyelid margins. The diagnosis is clinical and based on irritation of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blepharoconjunctivitis Blepharoconjunctivitis is an ocular condition involving the inflammation of the eyelid and conjunctiva. It is a common chronic condition that can lead ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blindness The term blindness is a general term that can include those with low vision and legal blindness. Low vision is a term used to describe those whose vis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Blister Agents Sulfur mustard (dichlorethylsulphide) and nitrogen mustard are blistering agents, or vesicants, that have been used in chemical warfare since before t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Blistering Distal Dactylitis Blistering distal dactylitis (BDD) is a bacterial infection of the fingers presenting as multiple fluid-filled lesions. This condition is common in ch ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blood Gas Temperature Correction Blood gas temperature correction is an important process to implement when assessing blood gas laboratory values. The laws of physics concerning gas s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blood Product Safety Transfusion of blood products is one of the most commonly performed clinical procedures in healthcare today. Blood product safety has been an improvin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Bloom Syndrome Bloom syndrome, also called Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome or congenital telangiectatic erythema, is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder char ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blue Nevus Blue nevi are melanotic dermal lesions that commonly presents as a blue nodule on the scalp, extremities, sacrococcygeal region, or buttocks. Its char ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is also known as Bean syndrome. It is a rare syndrome of venous malformations that arise in the skin and gastrointesti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Blunt Cardiac Injury A cardiac contusion is a misnomer used to indicate injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Blunt Eye Trauma Blunt injury to the eye can lead to various intrinsic eye injuries. Globe rupture and retrobulbar hematoma are two emergent entities that are of impor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Body Dysmorphic Disorder Body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, formally known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric condition defined in the DSM 5 as a preoccupation with a perceiv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Body Fluid Exposures Health care workers have serious concerns about exposures to bodily fluids. Accidental exposures to bodily fluids present a wide variety of issues to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Body Image Distortion Body image is a complex construct. Body image distortion and body dissatisfaction are common in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Distortions ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common site of piercings are the ears, mouth, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Boerhaave Syndrome Boerhaave syndrome is also known as spontaneous esophageal rupture or effort rupture of the esophagus. Although vomiting is thought to be the most com ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Failure Bone marrow failure (BMF) refers to the decreased production of one or more major hematopoietic lineages which leads to diminished or absent hematopoi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Transplantation In Sickle Cell Disease Since the Sickle Cell Anemia Act, there has been progress in the screening and treatment of sickle cell disease. For instance, in most parts of the Un ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bone Metastasis The skeleton is the third most common site of metastatic disease after lung and liver. Eighty percent of bone metastases originate from prostate, brea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bone Nonunion Nonunion of bone is the body's inability to heal a fracture. The most agreed-upon standard definition of nonunion made by the FDA is a fracture that p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Borrelia Burgdorferi Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete responsible for Lyme disease via a tick vector. This spirochete causes a characteristic annular rash, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bortezomib Bortezomib is FDA-approved for use in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. It is also FDA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Botfly Bot fly is a term referring to any member of the Oestridae family of flies. To reproduce, these flies rely on myiasis, the infestation of host skin fo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Therapeutic uses include chronic migraine, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Botulism Botulism is a rare, potentially fatal syndrome of diffuse, flaccid paralysis caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) which is elaborated by the bacteriu ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Botulism Antitoxin Botulinum antitoxin, also known as botulism antitoxin, is comprised of antibodies or antibody antigen-binding fragments that block the neurotoxin prod ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Boutonneuse Fever Boutonneuse fever is a disease caused by the rickettsia genus and is of the spotted fever group classification. This disease classically causes fever, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bouveret Syndrome Bouveret syndrome is caused by a large stone passing through a bilioduodenal fistula causing gastric outlet obstruction. Morbidity and mortality rates ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bowel Adhesions Bowel adhesions are irregular bands of scar tissue that form between bowel loops, which are normally not bound together. The bands of tissue can devel ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bowel Ischemia Bowel ischemia can classify as small intestine ischemia, which is commonly known as mesenteric ischemia and large intestine ischemia, which generally ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Bowel Necrosis Bowel necrosis is a late stage finding of several different disease processes characterized by cellular death due to reduced blood flow to the gastroi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bowel Obstruction A bowel obstruction can either be a mechanical or functional obstruction of the small or large intestines. Obstruction frequently causes abdominal pai ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bowel Preparation Clinicians can use a range of methods to prepare the bowel for colonoscopy, the gold standard for imaging the mucosa of the colon to identify concerni ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Bowenoid Papulosis Bowenoid papulosis is an uncommon sexually transmitted condition that occurs in both males and females. It is characterized by multiple well-demarcate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brachial Neuritis Brachial neuritis, also called neuralgic amyotrophy, has two major clinical symptoms, pain and muscle weakness from atrophy. It is a multifocal, immun ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Brachioradial Pruritus Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) is a localized neuropathic dysesthesia of the dorsolateral upper extremities. It is commonly seen in middle-aged white fe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brain Abscess Brain abscess is a localized zone of necrosis with a surrounding membrane within the brain parenchyma, usually resulting from an infectious or traumat ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Brain Cavernous Angiomas Cavernous angiomas, also referred to as cavernous malformations (CMs), cavernous hemangiomas, or cavernomas are benign intracranial vascular malformat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Brain Death Criteria Brain death accounts for about 2% of deaths in the United States and caused most likely by traumatic brain injury. Criteria of Brain death determinati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Brainstem Death The revised memorandum in 1979 correlated the brain stem death with death itself. This activity outlines current recommendations set for diagnosing br ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brainstem Infarction Brainstem infarcts are a collection of difficult to diagnose syndromes affecting the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. They can cause a v ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion The human retina is the most metabolically expensive tissue in the human body. Processing visual input in the retina requires high quantities of arter ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
BRCA 1 and 2 Breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes whose mutations significantly increase the likelihood of developing particular types of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Breast Abscess Breast abscesses are a common problem, especially in lactating women. Most breast abscesses are benign, however when a non-lactating patient presents ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Breast Augmentation Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure where the breast size is enhanced. Augmentation can be from the placement of an implant, or less commonly, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Conservation Therapy Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among females in the world. The rapid growth of breast conservation therapy has significantl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Surgery Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women in the U.S. with constantly evolving treatment guidelines. The treatment of breast cancer often invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Breast Ductal Carcinoma in Situ Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast represents neoplastic lesions, typically localized to the breast ducts with no evidence of invasion into ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Breast Examination Techniques The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many levels and across many specialties. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Breast Fat Necrosis Breast fat necrosis is a non-suppurative inflammation of adipose tissue caused by the disruption of oxygen supply to fat cells, ultimately leading to ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Breast Implant Rupture Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure designed to enhance the size of the patient's breasts, using implants (saline or silicone) or fat transfer ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Breast Lymphatics Breast cancer is the most commonly seen cancer diagnosis in women worldwide. Lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging Over the past several years, magnetic resonance imaging of the breast has become an increasingly important modality for screening for and diagnosing b ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Breast Nipple Discharge Nipple discharge is fluid that leaks from one or both nipples of non-pregnant and non-breastfeeding women. Nipple discharge can at times be a complex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Self Examination Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignancy among female populations and is responsible for the second-highest number of cancer-related deaths in A ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Breast Ultrasound Breast ultrasound is performed due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer amongst women globally. Ultrasound is typically used as an adjunct to m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brexanolone Brexanolone is a medication used in the treatment of postpartum depression in adult women. It is in the GABA-A modulator class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brief Psychotic Disorder Brief psychotic disorder (BPD) according to DSM-5 is the sudden onset of psychotic behavior that lasts less than 1 month followed by complete remissio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Broca Aphasia Broca’s aphasia is a non-fluent aphasia in which the output of spontaneous speech is markedly diminished and there is a loss of normal grammatical str ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brodalumab Brodalumab is a monoclonal antibody approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque ps ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bromocriptine Bromocriptine is a medication currently used in the management and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is an ergot alkaloid derivative in the d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bronchial Atresia Congenital bronchial atresia is a rare condition characterized by focal obliteration of a proximal segment of a bronchus. The apicoposterior segmental ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bronchial Carcinoid Tumors The endless types of pulmonary pathologies that exist present in a variety of different ways. With proper suspicion and medical knowledge, the correc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterized by persistent and lifelong widening of the bronchial airways and weakening of the function muco ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Bronchiolitis obliterans is also known as obliterative bronchiolitis or constrictive bronchiolitis. When it occurs after lung transplantation or hemat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bronchoalveolar Cancer Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) is a variant of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that in recent years has received a new identity and nomenclatur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Bronchoalveolar Lavage or BAL is a minimally invasive procedure that involves instillation of sterile normal saline into a subsegment of the lung, fol ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bronchodilators Bronchodilators are indicated for individuals that have lower than optimal airflow through the lungs. The mainstay of treatment is beta-2 agonists tha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bronchoscopy A bronchoscopy is an essential tool for clinicians and health care providers treating patients with lung diseases. Since its introduction to clinical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brown Recluse Spider Toxicity In the United States, Loxosceles reclusa or brown recluse spiders are found mostly in the south, west, and midwest areas. They are usually in dark are ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brown Sequard Syndrome Brown-Séquard syndrome is a neurologic syndrome resulting from hemisection of the spinal cord. It manifests with weakness or paralysis and propriocept ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brown Syndrome True Brown syndrome is due to congenital causes, with a constant limitation of elevation and a positive traction test secondary to a tight superior ob ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brucellosis Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella species. It is known by many other names, including remitting fever, undulant fever, Mediterra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brugada Syndrome Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening inherited disease that predisposes patients to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The syndrome is ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Budd Chiari Syndrome Hepatic venous outflow obstruction due to any cause except the cardiac ones regardless of the level of obstruction is known as Budd-Chiari syndrome. T ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Buerger Disease Buerger disease is a nonatherosclerotic, progressive, segmental inflammatory disease affecting the small and medium-sized arteries of upper and lower ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Bullosis Diabeticorum Bullosis diabeticorum (BD), also known as diabetic bullae or bullous eruption of diabetes mellitus, is a specific type of skin lesion occurring in pat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bullous Emphysema The definition of a bulla is an air-filled space of 1 cm in diameter within the lung which has developed because of emphysematous destruction of the l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bullous Myringitis Bullous myringitis (BM) is a relatively common infectious condition characterized by bullae or vesicles on the tympanic membrane without affecting the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bullous Pemphigoid Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder, representing 80% of subepidermal immunobullous cases. Bullous ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. It has clinical and histological features that ma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bumetanide Bumetanide is FDA approved for the management of various edematous conditions secondary to cardiac failure, or hepatic or renal disease, including the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bupropion Bupropion is an antidepressant medication that is now also used in smoking cessation. Bupropion has been FDA-approved since 1985. The drug is FDA-appr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by extremely painful burning sensation of the tongue and mucosal tissue of the mouth, lips, and/or ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bursitis Bursitis is a swelling or inflammation of a bursa, which is a synovium-lined, sac-like structure found throughout the body near bony prominences and b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic. Originally the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but found not to be effective for psychosis, but it had anxio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Busulfan Busulfan is a medication used in the management and treatment of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation specifically for patients wi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Butterbur Butterbur (derived from the leaves of Petasites japonicus) is an herbal supplement that has been found to be effective in the prophylaxis of adult mig ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Byssinosis Following its relatively recent birth in the 1700s from the pioneering work of Dr. Bernardino Ramazzini, occupational medicine has grown to encompass ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
C 17 Hydroxylase Deficiency Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) covers a group of autosomal recessive disorders caused by a deficiency of one of the enzymes required for the ste ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, also known as hereditary angioedema, results in the unchecked production of the vasodilator bradykinin. This increas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cachexia Cachexia is a complicated metabolic syndrome related to underlying illness and characterized by muscle mass loss with or without fat mass loss that is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cadmium Toxicity Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes direct harm to humans in several forms. It is regularly found with other heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cafe Au Lait Macules Cafe-au-lait macules (CALMs) are common pigmented lesions found in the general population. They can be described as well-circumscribed, pigmented macu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Caffeine Withdrawal Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Unlike other p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcified Plaque Coronary artery calcification is frequently encountered during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Calcified plaque poses numerous challenges t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Calcifying Epithelioma of Malherbe A pilomatrixoma, or calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a benign tumor of the hair follicle matrix that exclusively occurs in heat-bearing areas. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcinosis Cutis Calcinosis cutis occurs when calcium salts are deposited into the skin and subcutaneous tissue. It is classified into five main types: dystrophic, met ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calciphylaxis Calciphylaxis, also known as calcific uremic arteriolopathy, is a rare but potentially devastating condition most often observed in patients with end- ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcitonin Salmon calcitonin (after this referred to as “calcitonin”) is an analog of human calcitonin used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Page ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor CGRP receptor antagonists and monoclonal antibodies against CGRP and its receptor are medications used in the management and treatment of migraine, wh ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Calcitriol Calcitriol is a hormonally-active, synthetic, vitamin D analog prescribed for the treatment of hypocalcemia, osteoporosis, and prevention of corticost ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Calcium Calcium homeostasis is critical and is controlled by three hormones: the parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and calcitriol. Dysregulation of calcium lev ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate is an inorganic salt primarily used in the management and treatment of low calcium conditions, GERD, CKD, and a variety of other ind ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are among the most commonly used cardiovascular drugs in the adult population. Like most other medications, when calci ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel antagonists, also known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have been widely used for many indications. These agents are often classif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Gluconate Calcium gluconate is a medication used in the management of hypocalcemia, cardiac arrest and cardiotoxicity due to hyperkalemia or hypermagnesemia. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is a crystal deposition arthropathy involving the synovial and periarticular tissues. Its clinical pre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Campylobacter Campylobacter is a bacterial species that represent one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. This infection is associated with th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Canaliculitis Canaliculitis is inflammation of the lacrimal canaliculus. It is an uncommon condition which ophthalmologists frequently misdiagnose. The condition is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cancer Breast Screening In women, breast cancer is number one in incidence and mortality when compared to all cancers. It is the most common non-skin cancer and second deadli ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Cancer Prostate Screening This activity describes the current burden of prostate cancer, various expert recommendations on prostate cancer screening, PSA, and other pre-biopsy ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cancer-associated Thrombosis Cancer-associated thrombosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients. It commonly occurs in patients with clinical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Candesartan Candesartan is an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker. It is available as a pro-drug, candesartan cilexetil, which undergoes hydrolysis in the gastro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Candida Auris Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is associated with nosocomial infections and is considered a serious global health threat. It has nu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cannabidiol (CBD) CBD is a medication used in the management and treatment of the seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. This activity describes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a condition in which a patient experiences cyclical nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain after using cannabi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cannabinoid Toxicity Cannabinoids are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. They include plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cannabinoids Cannabinoids are biologically active compounds used in the management and treatment of appetite/weight loss from HIV/AIDS and chemotherapy in addition ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cannabis Use Disorder Cannabis use can cause intoxication, withdrawal, and biopsychosocial issues. This activity describes the evaluation and management of cannabis use dis ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market. Dronabinol and nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Caplan Syndrome Caplan syndrome was first described in 1953 by Dr. Anthony Caplan, a physician on the Cardiff Pneumoconiosis Panel, as radiologic evidence of intrapul ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Capnography And Pulse Oximetry Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive measure of oxygen saturation. Capnography is a method of monitoring the concentration or partial pressure of carbon di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Capsaicin Capsaicin is a chili pepper extract, genus Capsicum, with analgesic properties. Since its discovery, it is used as a homeopathic remedy to treat burni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Capsule Endoscopy Capsule endoscopy, also known as wireless capsule endoscopy or video capsule endoscopy, is a gastrointestinal study that uses a pill camera to take im ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Captopril Captopril is an FDA-approved medication used in the management of hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Carbamazepine is used in the management and treatment for epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and acute manic and mixed episodes in bipolar I disorder. In ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriacea Gram-negative bacterial resistance to antibiotics has decreased the physician’s ability to combat infection. Carbapenems are the most potent beta-lact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbidopa Carbidopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). It is in the decarboxylase inhibitor class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Angiography Carbon dioxide (CO2) angiography is an alternative to conventionial iodinated contrast angiography, particularly in situations where there are contrai ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Embolism Laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing popularity in clinical practice. As part of laparoscopic surgeries, gas insufflation is usually adopted to ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis Carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis is a condition that develops when excessive CO2 is present in the bloodstream, leading to a depressed level of conscious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an important agent for multiple purposes, such as cleaning purposes, industrial agents, etc. But it can cause several a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is a medication used in the management and treatment of glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, altitude sicknes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carboxyhemoglobin Toxicity Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-irritating gas formed with the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels). It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carbuncle A carbuncle is an infection of the hair follicle(s) that extends into the surrounding skin and deep underlying subcutaneous tissue. They typically pre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carcinoid Syndrome Carcinoid syndrome refers to a number of symptoms caused by the release of humoral factors such as polypeptides, prostaglandins, and biogenic amines. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Carcinomatous Meningitis Carcinomatous meningitis is the dissemination of malignant cells from the primary tumor sites to leptomeningeal layers of the CNS. It occurs in the ad ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cardiac Abscess A cardiac abscess is a suppurative infection of the myocardium, endocardium, native or prosthetic valve tissue. Similar to other abscesses, it develop ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cardiac Calcifications Cardiac calcifications carry different diagnostic and prognostic significance depending on their location. They can involve the coronary arteries, car ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiac Cancer Cardiac tumors are uncommon and can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, and the incidence is from 0.001 to 0.3% by autopsy. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Disease In Pregnancy Many cardiac diseases during pregnancy are under investigation, and many others which are still not understood require further inquiry. Some of these ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cardiac Manifestations Of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Coronaviruses are a large family of single positive-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that can infect many animal species and humans. Human coronaviruse ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiac Rehabilitation Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in the United States. Cardiac rehabilitati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Risk Stratification Cardiac Risk Stratification is an essential evaluation among health professionals. In today's world, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Stress Imaging Cardiac stress imaging is a noninvasive modality used in evaluating coronary artery disease, myocardium viability, and exercise capacity. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Surgery Cardiac surgery is the specialty of medicine concerning the surgical treatment of pathologies related to the heart and thoracic aorta. The spectrum of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiac Syncope Syncope, a sudden, transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, is a phenomenon estimated to affect 30% to 40% of the population, and those numb ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Cardiac Trauma Cardiac trauma can be categorized as either blunt or penetrating according to the mechanism of injury. Outcomes range from spontaneously-resolving arr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Ultrasound Cardiac ultrasound, or echocardiography, is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that can provide detailed hemodynamic information in a short period of t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardioactive Steroid Toxicity Cardioactive steroids (CAS) are medically important compounds historically used for conditions like edema and "dropsy." They are available in several ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardioembolic Stroke An estimated 26 million people suffer a stroke each year, making it a significant source of mortality and long-term disability. Up to two-thirds of st ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Adults Cardiopulmonary arrest is the cessation of adequate heart function and respiration and results in death without reversal. Often this condition is foun ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cardiorenal Syndrome The cardiorenal syndrome includes multiple subtypes based on underlying pathology and chronicity. Each subtype involves unique pathophysiology, and th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiovascular Disease The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and its blood vessels. A wide array of problems can arise within the cardiovascular system, a few of w ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Care Of A Chest Tube There are variable practice patterns used to manage chest tubes. Care and management of the chest tube are subject to the direction of the responsible ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Carisoprodol Carisoprodol is an FDA-approved drug indicated for the relief of discomfort associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Although market ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carney Complex Carney complex (CNC) is a rare genetic disorder associated with one of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Carney complex affects multip ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Caroli Disease Caroli disease is a rare inherited disorder involving segmental dilatation of large, intrahepatic bile ducts which appear as cysts on imaging and hist ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Fibromuscular Dysplasia Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) of the carotid artery is a non-atherosclerotic and noninflammatory disease that can lead to stenosis and/or aneurysm of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Stenosis The distinction between hemodynamic and embolic stroke in the setting of chronic internal carotid artery occlusion is important. Embolic symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Stenting Traditionally, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has been the primary method of treating high-grade asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. A ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Surgery Symptoms of extracranial carotid disease are usually caused by embolization. Arterial emboli account for approximately 25 percent of strokes in Europe ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carotid Contusion The neck has several important anatomical structures which include the carotid arteries bilaterally. While the injury to the carotid artery is not a c ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Carotid Endarterectomy Atherosclerosis can lead to a build-up of plaque in the carotid artery, causing narrowing and carotid artery disease, which increases the risk for cer ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is an exaggerated response to pressure applied to the carotid sinus located in the carotid bifurcation, resulting in br ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carotidynia Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome or TIPIC Syndrome, is a rare vascular disorder that presents with atypical pain in the face and neck area. The ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Carvedilol Carvedilol is a non-selective adrenergic blocker indicated for the chronic therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), hypertensi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Caspofungin Caspofungin is a drug in the echinocandins class of medications, used in the management and treatment of several medical conditions. These conditions ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Castor Oil Castor oil is a vegetable oil made from Ricinus communis, a plant common in the Eastern areas of the world. Castor oil is most well known for its laxa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cat Scratch Disease Cat scratch disease is an illness caused by an intracellular gram-negative rod known as Bartonella henselae. It affects the lymph nodes draining the a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cataplexy Cataplexy, a physical feature of narcolepsy, is characterized by transient episodes of voluntary muscle weakness precipitated by intense emotion. Subj ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cataract A cataract is a disease of the eye in which the normally clear lens has opacified which obscures the passage of light. It is a gradually progressive d ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Catatonia Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by abnormal movements, behaviors, and withdrawal, is a condition that is most often seen in mood ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Catatonic Schizophrenia Catatonic schizophrenia is one of the classical clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. The concept of catatonic symptoms in schizophrenia has changed thr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Caterpillar and Moth Bites “Lepidopterism” refers to various skin & systemic reactions secondary to contact with moth and butterfly larvae or caterpillars (order Lepidoptera). I ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Catheter Ablation Catheter ablation is a rapidly evolving field and has proven to be a valid solution for many patients suffering from recurrent arrhythmias. Even thoug ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Catheter Directed Thrombolysis Of Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death in the United States of America. It is one of the most common causes of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Catheter Management Of Aortic Valve Disorders Aortic valve disease is one of the most common valvular disorders in the United States and worldwide. Transcatheter management is emerging as a releva ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Catheter Management Of Atrial Septal Defect Transcatheter closure of the ASD is currently available for secundum type of ASDs, and currently, there are two FDA-approved devices in the United Sta ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Catheter Management Of Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is one of the most common valvular abnormalities. Medical management along with regular surveillance is the typical recommen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Catheter Management Of Mitral Stenosis The diagnostic test of choice for percutaneous transcatheter mitral valve replacement (PMVR) remains to be the echocardiogram. While surgery is the pr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cauda Equina And Conus Medullaris Syndromes Cauda equina and conus medullaris syndromes have overlap in anatomy and clinical presentation. The cauda equina is a group of nerves and nerve roots s ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Caudal Anesthesia A caudal block is a type of central neuraxial block, most commonly used in pediatrics to provide analgesia for surgeries up to the umbilicus, and in a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cavernous Hepatic Hemangiomas Hepatic hemangiomas are benign, hypervascular, venous malformations that occur in the liver. They are the most common benign mesenchymal tumors of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cavernous Sinus Aneurysm Cavernous sinus aneurysms are most common in the elderly population and often present with an indolent ophthalmoplegia. The morbidity of these aneurys ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cavernous Sinus Syndromes Cavernous sinus syndrome (CSS) is any disease process that affects the cavernous sinus. It presents as proptosis, chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, Horner sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cavernous Venous Malformation Cerebral cavernous malformations, also known as cavernomas or cavernous hemangiomas, are clusters of abnormal and hyalinized capillaries without inter ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cavum Septum Pellucidum The septum pellucidum (meaning translucent wall in Latin - SP), also known as the ventricle of Sylvius, is a thin, triangular double membrane separati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cefepime Cefepime is a cephalosporin in the beta-lactam class of antibiotics used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime(CTX) is a medication used in the management and treatment of cervicitis/urethritis and pneumonia. Cefotaxime (CTX) is a beta-lactam antibio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Celecoxib The FDA recommends celecoxib and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), along with acetaminophen, as first-line analgesics for patients ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Celiac artery compression syndrome is also known as Dunbar syndrome or median arcuate ligament syndrome. It is a rare condition characterized by recur ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Centipede Envenomation Centipede bites are uncommon but can be clinically significant in regards to patient discomfort, morbidity, and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Central and Peripheral Cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the distal extremities (Hands, fingertips, toes), and can sometimes involve circumoral and periorbi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Central Cord Syndrome The central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete cord injury and almost always occurs as a consequence of a traumatic injury. It result ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Line Central venous catheterization (CVC) is a procedure frequently required in acute or critical care resuscitation. Indications include patients with mul ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection not related to an infection at ano ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Line Placement A central line is a large-bore central venous catheter that is typically placed using a sterile technique unless a patient is unstable, in which case ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Nervous System Lymphoma Lymphoma of the central nervous system, both primary and secondary, represents a rare subset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. According to the World Health Or ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Central Pain Syndrome Central sensitization of pain occurs when the patient's nervous system is persistently in a state of high activity. This state decreases sensitivity t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the sudden blockage of the central retinal artery, resulting in retinal hypoperfusion, rapidly progressive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is the second most common retinal vascular disease and is a common loss of vision in older patients. There are two types ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Venous Access of The Subclavian Vein In the United States, more than 5 million central venous catheters are inserted every year in both hospitalized and surgical patients. Once an indicat ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cephalexin Cephalexin is an FDA approved antibiotic. Cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin utilized in the treatment of urinary tract infections, respir ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antimicrobials used to manage a wide range of infections from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The five genera ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cerebellar Dysfunction The cerebellum maintains our coordination and balance. Cerebellar dysfunction causes difficulty with coordination, imbalance, and gait disorders. Poss ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebellar Hematoma Cerebellar hemorrhage or hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage in which the bleeding is located in the posterior fossa or cerebellum. This con ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebellar Infarct A cerebellar infarct (or cerebellar stroke) is a type of cerebrovascular event involving the posterior cranial fossa, specifically the cerebellum. Imp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy Cerebral amyloid angiopathy is a type of cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide within the leptomeninges a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is an inherited disease with almost exclusively n ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cerebral Contusion Traumatic brain injury includes several types of insults to the parenchyma of the brain. One of the most severe forms of damage is a hemorrhagic cereb ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral ischemia is a common mechanism of acute brain injury that results from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cerebral ischemia represents a medic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a potential cause of hyponatremia in the setting of disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebral salt wasting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which includes thrombosis of the cerebral veins and the dural sinuses, is a rare disorder that can lead to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease associated with abnormally high cholestanol levels in the blood, ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerumen Impaction Removal Production of cerumen (earwax) is a normal and naturally occurring process. It protects the ear from infection and provides a barrier to insects and w ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine typically develops in the aging population equally in terms of sexes. Patients are most commonly prese ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Dysplasia The Pap smear is responsible for decreasing the incidence of and mortality rates from cervical cancer. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a collection of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Ectropion Cervical ectropion is a benign gynecological condition and is regarded as a normal variant that frequently occurs in women of the reproductive age gro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Cervical cancer incidence and mortality have decreased due primarily to screening programs using the pap smear. As more outcome data has become availa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Intraepithelial Squamous Cell Lesion This article reviews the anatomy, natural history, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, compl ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Cervical Myelopathy Cervical myelopathy is a condition describing a compression at the cervical level of the spinal column resulting in spasticity (sustained muscle contr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Myofascial Pain Cervical myofascial pain is a musculoskeletal disorder that causes pain in the area of a muscle in the body and its surrounding connective tissue. Pro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Radiculopathy Neck pain is widespread and causes significant pain and disability. Workers with a history of neck pain account for up to 40% of work absenteeism. In ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Cervical Spondylosis Cervical spondylosis is a natural age-related disease process that is associated with degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc. It most com ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cervical Sprain The term "whiplash" injury was first coined by Harold Crowe in 1928 to define acceleration-deceleration injuries occurring to the cervical spine or ne ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cervicitis Cervicitis is the inflammation of the ectocervix, which can be infectious or non-infectious. Due to the association of serious complications like infe ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cervicogenic Headache A cervicogenic headache (CGH) presents as unilateral pain that starts in the neck. It is a common chronic and recurrent headache that usually starts a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cetirizine Cetirizine is a medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. This activity reviews th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cetuximab Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with the following FDA-approved indications: colorectal cancer, metastatic, KRAS wil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chaddock Reflex The Babinski reflex is part of the routine neurological examination to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract. However, in settings where p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Chalazion Chalazia (plural of chalazion), are the most common inflammatory lesions of the eyelid. They are typically slowly enlarging, non-tender eyelid nodules ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chancroid Chancroid is an exceedingly rare sexually transmitted infection, both in the United States and globally. Knowledge regarding its true prevalence is ma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Change In Mental Status Altered mental status is a common presentation. It is important to recognize the early signs of altered mental status, identify the underlying cause, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Charcot Bouchard Aneurysm The rupture of Charcot Bouchard aneurysms causes intracerebral bleeds in the deep structures of the brain especially in patients predisposed to this c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Charcot Marie Tooth Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder. It affects the peripheral nerves and leads to progressive weaknes ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Charcot Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is a destructive joint disorder initiated by trauma to a neuropathic extremity. It can lead to dislocations and f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chediak Higashi Syndrome Chediak Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by easy bruising, oculocutaneous albinism and recurrent pyogen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cheilitis Cheilitis is an inflammation of the lips. It may be acute or chronic, involving the vermilion and/or surrounding skin of one or both lips. It is a fre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cheilitis Granulomatosa Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare granulomatous disorder characterized by a recurrent firm swelling of one or both lips. This is called the cheil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cheiralgia Paresthetica Cheiralgia paresthetica is a compression neuropathy of the superficial radial nerve. It manifests as sensory disturbances, such as paresthesias, to th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chemotherapy Acral Erythema Acral erythema is also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia, hand-foot syndrome (HFS), or Burgdorf reacti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cherry Hemangioma Cherry hemangiomas are the most common type of acquired vascular proliferation of the skin. They present as a dome-shaped, bright, ruby-colored papule ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cherry Red Spot A cherry-red spot refers to a red-tinted region at the center of macula surrounded by retinal opacification. Cherry-red spots may be present in a vari ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chest Trauma Chest trauma has quickly risen the second most common traumatic injury in non-intentional trauma. Trauma to the chest comes with the highest mortality ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chest Wall Tumors The chest wall refers to the structures surrounding and protecting the lungs, enclosed by the spine, and separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cheyne Stokes Respirations Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a type of breathing disorder characterized by cyclical episodes of apnea and hyperventilation. Although described in the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chiari I Malformation Arnold-Chiari 1 malformation, otherwise known as the Chiari 1 malformation, is the more common variant of the Chiari malformations, defined as a spect ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chigger Bites Chigger is the common name for species of the Trombiculid family of mites. Bites from the larva of these mites can cause local pruritus and irritation ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chikungunya Fever Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus that is arthropod-borne and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. This virus causes a rash, an acute febrile illness, an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chilaiditi Syndrome Chilaiditi syndrome is a generally benign condition in which a segment of intestine is interposed between the liver and diaphragm, which can be confus ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are recombinant receptors for antigens which redirect the specificity and function of T lymphocytes and/or other imm ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Chlamydia Pneumonia Three species of Chlamydia namely, C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. They are one of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chloracne Chloracne is an uncommon acneiform dermatosis caused by exposure to halogenated aromatic compounds. It represents a hallmark cutaneous manifestation o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a medication used in the management and treatment of superficial eye infections such as bacterial conjunctivitis, and otitis extern ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chlordiazepoxide Chlordiazepoxide is a long-acting benzodiazepine and is an FDA approved medication for adults with mild-moderate to severe anxiety, preoperative anxie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chlorine Gas Toxicity Gaseous chlorine is poisonous and classified as a pulmonary irritant. It has intermediate water solubility with the capability of causing acute damage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chloroquine Chloroquine is a medication used in the management and treatment of malaria and inflammatory diseases. It is in the sulfonamides class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, can cause pathologic ocular damage unless strict prescribing and screening ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and acute psychosis. It is in the category of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chlorthalidone Chlorthalidone is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the thiazide-like diuretics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cholangitis Acute cholangitis, also known as ascending cholangitis, is a life-threatening condition that is caused by an ascending bacterial infection of the bili ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cholecystocutaneous Fistula Cholecystocutaneous fistulas are a rare surgical condition. This activity reviews their clinical presentation, underlying causes, pathophysiology, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Choledochal Cyst A choledochal cyst (CC) or biliary cyst is a congenital or acquired anomaly affecting the biliary tree. It involves the dilation of the biliary tree t ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Choledocholithiasis Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones within the common bile duct. It is estimated that common bile duct stones are present in anywhere from 1 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis or gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small organ located just ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cholera Cholera is an acute secretory diarrheal illness caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. It is estimated to cause upwards of four million cases per yea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cholestatic Jaundice Cholestasis is defined as stagnation, or at least a marked reduction, in bile secretion and flow. Cholestasis can be due to a functional impairment of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cholestyramine Resin Cholestyramine is used for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia. The reduction in LDL cholesterol by the resin is dose-dependent. A dose of 8 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Cholinergic Crisis A cholinergic crisis develops as a result of overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions. This is usually sec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholinergic Medications Cholinergic medications are a category of pharmaceutical agents that act upon the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter within ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cholinergic Toxicity Cholinergic toxicity is caused by substances that stimulate, enhance or mimic the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter of the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholinesterase Inhibitors Cholinesterase inhibitors function to decrease the breakdown of acetylcholine. They SEe use in the treatment of Alzheimer and dementia symptoms. This ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous neoplasms with diverse morphological features and clinical behavior. They account for about 20 percent of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chorea According to the Committee on Classification of the World Federation of Neurology, chorea is defined as "a state of excessive, spontaneous movements, ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Choriocarcinoma Choriocarcinoma is a rare, aggressive neoplastic type of trophoblastic disease. The 2 major types of choriocarcinoma are gestational and non-gestation ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chorioretinitis Chorioretinitis is a type of uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It is a vision-threatening condition that is associated with many sys ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chromoblastomycosis Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic granulomatous infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue caused by several different dematiaceous fungi and result ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Chronic Anemia Anemia, like a fever, is not a diagnosis but a presentation of an underlying disease. Multiple diseases can present as anemia due to various mechanism ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Aspiration Chronic aspiration is a common condition that occurs in the elderly population, pediatric patients with certain neurological conditions, and chronical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is defined as a productive cough of more than 3 months occurring wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chronic Cholecystitis Chronic cholecystitis is a prolonged, subacute condition caused by the mechanical or functional dysfunction of the emptying of the gallbladder. It pre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Closed Angle Glaucoma Chronic closed-angle glaucoma, also called chronic angle-closure glaucoma, is a condition that can be a cause of permanent vision loss if not diagnose ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Cough Cough is a natural defense mechanism that allows clearance of bronchial tree secretions and the elimination of inhaled foreign particles. It is a comm ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Diarrhea Chronic diarrhea is defined as loose/watery stools, which occur three or more times within 24 hours and lasts for 4 or more weeks. This activity outli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Emphysema Pulmonary emphysema is a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is defined as a pathological, permanent dilatation of distal airways (resp ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Chronic fatigue syndrome, also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis, is a complex multisystem disease commonly characterized by severe fatigue, cognitiv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Headaches Chronic headaches are headaches that occur for at least 15 days of a month for at least three months. There are a variety of causes and ways to manage ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Inflammation Chronic inflammation is also referred to as slow, long-term inflammation lasting several months to years. Generally, the extent and effects of chronic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy can be caused by multiples diseases, from infectious as well as immunology diseases. It is o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the United States affecting about one-third of the general population. According to the third edition of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Iron Deficiency Chronic iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world and a significant common cause of anemia worldwide. It is mainly caused by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Selection of Treatment Modality The term stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) often is used synonymously with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and encompasses a variety of condi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chronic Kidney Transplant Rejection Kidney transplantation is currently the definitive treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Compared to dialysis, kidney transpla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Liver Disease Chronic liver disease is a progressive deterioration of liver functions. Liver functions include the production of clotting factors and other proteins ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by monoclonal B cell proliferation. It is the most common adult l ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral vascular disease in which the blood supply fails to meet the metabolic demands of visceral organs ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL1-positive, is classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm predominantly composed of proliferating granulocytes ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2.25 35 Activity Info
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Compensatory Measure By 2020, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to be the third leading cause of death according to the epidemiological data. Althou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chronic Pancreatitis Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disorder that leads to irreversible destruction of exocrine and endocrine pancreatic parenchyma cau ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Chronic Paroxysmal Hemicrania Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania is a primary headache syndrome characterized by recurrent unilateral episodes of headache associated with cranial autono ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Chronic Sinusitis Chronic sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus or nasal passages occurring for more than 12 weeks at a time. It may present as chronic sinusitis wi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chronic Suppurative Otitis Chronic suppurative otitis media continues to be an important disease in the pediatric population and a significant cause of hearing problems leading ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Testicular Pain Chronic orchialgia is defined as 3 months of intermittent or constant testicular pain that is significantly bothersome to the patient. It is the cause ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Thrombo-Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Chronic pulmonary embolism (also known as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is a potentially life-threatening condition and is associated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chronic Total Occlusion Of The Coronary Artery Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are diagnosed in patients who are undergoing coronary angiography as part of the evaluation of ischemic heart di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly popular in the scientific literature over the past few decades. However, the first ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Urticaria Chronic spontaneous urticaria is defined as the occurrence of wheals and/or angioedema for a total duration of six weeks or more. Synonymous with "chr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ciliary Dysfunction The majority of newborns with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), formerly known as immotile cilia syndrome, develop neonatal respiratory distress with ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cilostazol Cilostazol is a quinolone derivative primarily used for the treatment of intermittent claudication due to peripheral vascular disease; this is the FDA ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cimetidine Cimetidine is a drug with the indication of peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and for dermatological conditions including warts, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cinacalcet Cinacalcet is a medication used in the management and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (on dialysis population), primary hyperparathyroidism ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cinchonism Cinchonism is a collection of symptoms described as hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, flushing, and blurry vision stemming from the ingestion of quin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic agent in the fluoroquinolone class used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections and pneumonia. C ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cirrhotic Cardiomyopathy Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy is a type of cardiac dysfunction that develops in patients with cirrhosis without other known cardiac disease. It develops in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Citalopram Citalopram hydrobromide is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The primary FDA-approved clinical use for citalopram hydrobromide is for the trea ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Claustrophobia Claustrophobia is the fear of enclosed spaces. There are about 12.5% of the population that have this fear, with the majority of them being females. T ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Clavulanic Acid Clavulanic acid is a medication that can be used in conjunction with amoxicillin in the management and treatment of bacterial infections, specifically ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clavus A clavus is a well-demarcated thickened area of the epidermis that has a central core. This skin lesion is most commonly found on the foot and is ofte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clinical Frailty Scale Frailty is a multidimensional geriatric syndrome, which is characterized by an increased vulnerability to various external stressors into a serious he ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clomipramine The only FDA approved use for clomipramine is for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in ages 10 and older. For the treatment of OCD, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clonazepam Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug used for the acute management of panic disorder, epilepsy, and non-convulsive status epilepticus. It also has many ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Clostridium Perfringens Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus that is associated with acute gastrointestinal infection ranging in sever ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clotrimazole Clotrimazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the imidazole class of drugs. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clozapine Clozapine is an FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is not the first-line drug of choice d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cluster Headache Cluster headaches are the most common of the primary headache type known as trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. They are fairly rare, plaguing 0.1% of the ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Coccidioidomycosis The dimorphic fungus coccidioides causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, which is endemic to the arid regions of the Weste ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 is not FDA-approved to treat any medical condition although it is widely available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and recommended by p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cognitive Behavior Therapy In the 1960s, Aaron Beck developed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or cognitive therapy. Since then, it has been extensively researched and found to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cognitive Deficits Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It encompasses various ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Colesevelam Colesevelam is an FDA approved antihyperlipidemic drug. When treating hyperlipidemia, colesevelam should be used in conjunction with restriction of ch ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Colles' Fracture This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injuries that require medical manag ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Colon Cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common diagnosis and second deadliest malignancy for both sexes combined. The incidence of new cases and mor ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Colon Diverticulitis Diverticulitis has increased in incidence over the past few decades and represents a significant healthcare burden in western countries. In the United ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Colon Polyps Colon polyps are protrusions occurring in the colon lumen most commonly sporadic or as part of other syndromes. Polyps are classified as diminutive if ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization, mortality, and incurs significant health care costs. As disease presentation varie ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Complement Deficiency The immune system is the body’s defense mechanism against infections and is made of two pathways - the innate and adaptive pathway. The innate pathway ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Complex Partial Seizure Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, refers to focal seizures that st ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common presenting causes of sepsis in hospitals, and urinary tract infections have a wide variety o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Comprehensive Shoulder Evaluation Strategies Shoulder pathology is very common. A comprehensive history should be acquired by clinicians evaluating patients with acute or chronic shoulder dysfunc ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Concussion A concussion is a "traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function." Concussions are a subset of the neurologic injuries known as trauma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Conduction Aphasia Conduction aphasia is a rare form of aphasia in which both expression and comprehension remain intact, but the patient shows an isolated impairment in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Condyloma Acuminata Condyloma acuminata is a manifestation of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The condition is characterized by skin-colored, fleshy papules in the ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CMD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder with multisystem involvement. It is a subtype of myotonic dystroph ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is usually secondary to hepatocellular disease or cholestasis (intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ). Early workup and diagno ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Constipation Functional constipation is a prevalent condition in childhood, about 29.6% worldwide. In the United States, represents 3% to 5% of pediatric visits an ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Constrictive Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that covers the heart. Besides acting as a protective barrier, it also affects cardiac hemodynamics. Constrict ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Contact Dermatitis Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory eczematous skin disease. It is caused by chemicals or metal ions that exert toxic effects without inducing a T-c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Contact Urticaria Contact urticaria is a transient wheal and flare response on exposure to specific agents, especially in the work environment. Contact urticaria falls ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of positive airway pressure that is used to deliver a set pressure to the airways that is maintai ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function that are inconsistent with patte ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cooley Anemia Thalassemia major or Cooley anemia is one of the common monogenic hereditary hemoglobin disorders. It results from the absence of a beta-globin chain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cor Pulmonale Cor pulmonale is a Latin word that means "pulmonary heart," its definition varies, and presently, there is no consensual definition. Cor pulmonale can ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cornea Foreign Body Removal A corneal foreign body can be the cause of agonizing eye pain and loss of vision. This activity reviews the safe removal of a corneal foreign body and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corneal Mucous Plaque Corneal mucous plaques are most commonly associated with dry eye syndrome. They are made of a collection of mucin, corneal epithelial cell debris admi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Corneal Ulcer A corneal ulcer is a defect in the surface epithelium of the cornea that involves the underlying stroma. It is common in contact lens wearers and pres ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corns A corn, also known as a "heloma" or "focal intractable plantar hyperkeratosis," is a type of callosity. This latter is a common, uncomfortable, thicke ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Anomalies With the increasing application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as the standard of care for patients with acute chest pain, health ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Calcification Arterial calcium development is closely related to vascular injury, inflammation, and repair. Calcification occurs very early in the process of athero ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease is a common heart condition that involves atherosclerotic plaque formation in the vessel lumen. This leads to impairment in bl ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Prevention In the United States, cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. According to the AHA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Vasospasm Coronary artery vasospasm (CAVS) is a constriction of the coronary arteries that can cause complete or near-complete occlusion of the vessel. In 1959, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coronary CT Angiography Chest pain is often the herald of cardiovascular disease and is one of the most common diagnostic challenges encountered by practicing clinicians. Car ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coronary Ectasia Treatment of coronary ectasia encompasses multiple options across different disciplines. The treatment goal is to correct the defects leading to ische ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coronary Flow Effects of Arterial Spasm or Microembolization Two conditions that can lead to angina symptoms include coronary artery spasm and microembolization. Coronary artery spasm can cause partial or comple ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coronary Sinus Thrombosis The coronary venous system generally receives minimal attention in the medical literature. Even though the coronary sinus is a major access site for m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cortical Blindness Cortical blindness is an important cause of blindness due to damage to the occipital cortex. It is commonly associated with posterior circulation stro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Corticosteroid Adverse Effects Corticosteroids are hormone mediators produced by the cortex of adrenal glands that further categorize into glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and a ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Corticosteroid Induced Myopathy Corticosteroid induced myopathy is an iatrogenic myopathy caused by chronic high to moderate systemic corticosteroid use. This is a common condition w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas in medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Costochondritis Costochondritis is a benign cause of chest wall pain that results from inflammation of the costal cartilage, the cartilage that connect the ribs to th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
COX Inhibitors COX inhibitors are medications used in the management and treatment of chronic pain syndromes. They are in the anti-inflammatory class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Coxiella Burnetii Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, which is a zoonotic disease. Q fever can present as a febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Craniopharyngioma Craniopharyngioma is a rare, virtually benign tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a partly cystic embryonic malformation that can occur i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Crocodile Tears Syndrome The term “crocodile tears” is derived from the ancient belief that crocodiles weep after killing their victims. “crocodile tears syndrome,” also known ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity Info
Crotalidae Envenomation Crotalid envenomations cause a spectrum of disease, with both localized and systemic toxicity, which can result in both prolonged morbidity and rarely ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cryglobulinemic Vasculitis Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is an immune complex-mediated inflammation of blood vessels. It is usually seen as part of other diseases and is the most ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cryoglobulinemia Cryoglobulins are proteins that precipitate from an individual’s serum or plasma at temperatures lower than 37°C. They can be a mixture of immunoglobu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cryotherapy Cryosurgery was first described in the 1800s and has since evolved into a mainstay of therapy within dermatology. Cryosurgery is an effective alternat ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Cryptococcus Cryptococcus is an invasive fungus, transmitted through the inhalation of spores and causes cryptococcosis, an infection commonly associated with immu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cryptogenic Cirrhosis Cryptogenic cirrhosis is cirrhosis of uncertain etiology that lacks definitive clinical and histological criteria for a specific disease. Although the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) known formerly as bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is a form of idiopathic diffuse intersti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium is the second major cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children younger than two and an important cause of mortality worldwide. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Cubital tunnel syndrome is neuropathy of the ulnar nerve causing symptoms of numbness and shooting pain along the medial aspect of the forearm, also i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cushing Disease Cushing disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the anterior pituitary leading ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Cutanea Tarda Porphyria Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is a part of a spectrum of diseases that arise as a result of abnormal enzymes in the biosynthesis of heme. It is caused ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR), also known as toxidermia, are skin manifestations resulting from systemic drug administration. These reaction ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cutaneous Crohn Disease Crohn disease, a well-known subtype of inflammatory bowel disease, is an inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract with numerous possible e ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cutaneous Horn A cutaneous horn is usually evident upon physical examination and can be described as a white or yellow exophytic protrusion in the shape of an animal ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cutaneous Larva Migrans Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), also having been termed for the clinical sign of creeping eruption, is an infectious syndrome caused by multiple types ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cyanocobalamin Cyanocobalamin is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiencies. This activity reviews the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cyclic Neutropenia Cyclic neutropenia is a very rare hematological condition characterized by regular fluctuations in blood neutrophil counts, leading to periodic neutro ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized by recurrent episodes of nausea and vomiting lasting from hours to days in the absence of identifiable patho ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cyclothymic Disorder Cyclothymia is an affective disorder characterized by mood instability and mood changes that do not fit the criteria for other mood disorders such as ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis And Liver Disease Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive (AR) disorder that commonly affects the White population with an annual incidence of approximately 1 in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is an extrapulmonary complication of cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is the result of abnormal gluc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cystic Kidney Disease Cystic kidney diseases are multisystemic disorders that can develop due to genetic or non-genetic causes in children and adults. These can be a seriou ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cystinuria Cystine stones are due to an inherited defect in the transport of the amino acid cystine leading to excessive excretion in the kidney causing cystinur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cystitis Cystitis refers to infection of the lower urinary tract, or more specifically the urinary bladder. It may be broadly categorized as either uncomplicat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cytomegalovirus Colitis The management of cytomegalovirus colitis is complex, and new approaches have been introduced. To achieve satisfactory outcomes, the basic and clinica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dacryoadenitis Dacryoadenitis refers to acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal gland and can be due to infectious, inflammatory, or idiopathic causes. Acute d ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is characterized as an inflammatory state of the nasolacrimal sac. It is typically caused by an obstruction within the nasolacrimal duc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dantrolene Dantrolene sodium is a postsynaptic muscle relaxant with multiple indications in the fields of anesthesiology and neurology. While there are many indi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dapsone Dapsone is indicated for a variety of conditions, both dermatologic and non-dermatologic. The FDA-approved indications are leprosy and dermatitis herp ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Daptomycin Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic derived from the organism Streptomyces roseosporus. Daptomycin is used for the treatment of various bact ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dawn Phenomenon The "dawn phenomenon" refers to periodic episodes of hyperglycemia experienced by patients with diabetes in the early morning hours before, and to som ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
De Quervain Tenosynovitis De Quervain tenosynovitis is named after the Swiss surgeon, Fritz de Quervain, who first described it in 1895. It is a condition which involves tendon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
De Quervain Thyroiditis In general, thyroiditis is defined as an inflammation of the thyroid gland. There are several kinds of thyroiditis, and they can be associated with ei ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first approved in the 1990s for the treatment of movement disorders. DBS has the potential to offer symptom resolutio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Deep Neck Infections Deep neck infections are a serious but treatable group of infections affecting the deep cervical space and characterized by rapid progression and life ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Deep Vein Thrombosis A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins, usually of the leg, but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mese ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Ultrasound Evaluation Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) is a common condition for which clinical diagnosis is typically unreliable due to the infrequency of the classic findings ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Deferoxamine Deferoxamine is a medication used in Iron and aluminum toxicity. It is in the chelator class of drugs. This activity reviews the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to devel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Delusional Disorder A delusion is a fixed false belief based on an inaccurate interpretation of an external reality despite evidence to the contrary. The diagnosis of a d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Delusions Delusions can precipitate in isolation or as psychiatric sequelae of ongoing disease. Delusions must be appropriately identified and managed as they c ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Delusions Of Parasitosis This activity reviews delusions of parasitosis, a rare psychiatric disorder. Communicating and evaluating patients with this condition can be complex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dementia Dementia describes an overall decline in memory and other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. I ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Dental Abscess Dental infections, while relatively straightforward regarding diagnosis and access, can be challenging to manage acutely. Dental abscesses or periapic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dental Caries Dental caries is a common chronic infectious, transmissible disease resulting from tooth-adherent specific bacteria, primarily Streptococci Mutans th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Depression Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic Stat ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Depressive Cognitive Disorders Depressive cognitive disorders, also called pseudodementia (a term founded by Kiloh in the year 1961), is defined as the cognitive and functional impa ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Dermatitis Artefacta Dermatitis artefacta or factitious dermatitis is a psychocutaneous disorder in which the patients consciously create lesions in skin, hair, nail, or m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis herpetiformis is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease that causes an extremely pruritic rash that predominantly affects the extensor s ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Dermatofibroma Dermatofibromas are referred to as benign fibrous histiocytomas of the skin, superficial/cutaneous benign fibrous histiocytomas, or common fibrous his ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dermatographism Dermatographism, also known as dermographism urticaria, or urticaria factitia, is an urticarial eruption upon pressure or trauma to the skin. The lite ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dermatomyositis Dermatomyositis is a rare condition that causes muscle inflammation. It presents with symmetric proximal muscle weakness, skin rash, and extramacular ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Dermatoses of Pregnancy Skin changes during pregnancy may be physiological. However, some dermatoses are specific to pregnancy, while others are altered by pregnancy. These c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epidermal growth that presents as hyperpigmented or skin-colored papules that develop on the face and neck ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Desipramine Desipramine is a secondary amine tricyclic antidepressant that is FDA approved for the treatment of depression. This drug has off-label use to treat b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Desmopressin Desmopressin is a drug which acts on the vasopressin receptors of the body. It has many relevant clinical uses, ranging from nocturnal enuresis to hem ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia Desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) is a pathology characterized by extensive alveolar infiltration of macrophages followed by interstitial infl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Desvenlafaxine Desvenlafaxine is an antidepressant that is an FDA-approved drug to treat major depressive disorder in adults. For healthy women who have contraindica ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dexamethasone Dexamethasone has a wide variety of uses in the medical field. As a treatment, dexamethasone has been useful in the treatment of acute exacerbation of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dextrocardia Dextrocardia is a congenital condition in which the heart is located in the right side of the thorax. This activity reviews the evaluation and managem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin or AVP) ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus And Exercise Diabetes mellitus leads to macrovascular and microvascular complications, resulting in life-threatening conditions. Exercise is considered an importan ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Diabetic Amyotrophy Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed in the diabetic neuropathy sp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetic Foot Care Proper diabetic foot care is an essential part of limb preservation. Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for foot ulceration secondary to neu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetic Foot Infections There are approximately 29 million people with diabetes in the United States, and approximately 25% of people older than age of 65 have diabetes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Diabetic foot ulcers are among the most common complications of patients who have diabetes mellitus which is not well controlled. It is usually the re ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diabetic Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is defined by objective delaying of gastric emptying without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetic gastroparesis is a potenti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diabetic Macular Edema The retina is a thin layer of tissue in the posterior segment of the eye near the optic nerve. It contains a layer of photoreceptor cells, and receive ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in developed countries, including the United States. It is consider ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Diabetic Perioperative Management With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus; an increasing number of people with diabetes undergo surgery each year. This activity highlights the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of visual loss in adults of working age group in the western population. It is the most common microvascular ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diabetic Ulcer Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic endocrine disorder due to an overall deficiency of insulin (Type 1) or defective insulin function (Type 2) which caus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Didanosine Didanosine is a medication used in the management and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dietary Calcium Adequate calcium intake, from either direct food sources or calcium supplements, is essential for nutrition in patients of all ages. This article will ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm Diffuse esophageal spasm is an esophageal motility disorder that often manifests as dysphagia. If the diagnosis is delayed, diffuse esophageal spasm i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis Diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (DPGN) is a common and serious histological form of renal injury seen commonly in those suffering from autoim ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diffuse Toxic Goiter Goiter is an anatomical enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can be related with thyroid dysfunction or have normal thyroid function. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digital Mucous Cyst Digital mucous cysts are a type of ganglion commonly found on the hand. They commonly have an association with underlying DIP joint osteoarthritis. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digitalis Toxicity Digoxin is a well-known cardiac glycoside and one of the oldest drugs used today in cardiovascular medicine. It has wide-ranging beneficial effects an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure and certain arrhythmias and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside cla ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diltiazem Diltiazem is an oral and parenteral non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in many clinical scenarios as an antihypertensive, anti-ar ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP IV) Inhibitors Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a group of antihyperglycemic medications used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Toxicity Diphenhydramine is most often used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, allergic rhinitis, mild to severe allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a toxin-mediated infection caused by Corynebacterium species, primarily Corynebacterium diphtheria. It causes skin and mucosal infection ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diplopia Diplopia refers to seeing two images and is due either to ocular misalignment in which case it disappears when either eye is occluded or to an optical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dipyridamole Dipyridamole is an antiplatelet agent used in secondary prophylaxis against stroke and as an adjunctive agent with warfarin post mechanical valve repl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dipyridamole Nuclear Stress Test While conventional stress tests are exercise based, in certain circumstances, there may be contraindications to exercise. In these cases, pharmacologi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Discoid Lupus Erythematosus Lupus erythematosus is a multisystem disorder that predominately affects the skin. There are several types of cutaneous lupus. The most common types a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are a class of drugs indicated for the treatment of several inflammatory arthritides including rheumato ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diseases of the Eyelashes Eyelashes are important anatomical structures that protect the eye by stopping the particulate matter from getting to the eye and also by diverting wa ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Diskitis Discitis is a serious but uncommon medical diagnosis. It is an infection of the intervertebral disc space. The role of the intervertebral discs is to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disulfiram Disulfiram is one of three drugs approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It is a second-line option ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diverticulosis Diverticulosis is a clinical condition in which multiple sac-like protrusions (diverticula) develop along the gastrointestinal tract. Though diverticu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dix Hallpike Maneuver Vertigo can be challenging to evaluate and treat. It can arise from a slew of vastly different pathophysiologies, with acuity ranging from minimally c ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Docusate Docusate is a medication used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the stool softener class of drugs. This activity reviews the i ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Dofetilide Clinical uses of dofetilide include maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation. Dofetilide is indicated in adults for the conversio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Domestic Violence Family and domestic violence is a common problem in the United States, affecting an estimated 10 million people every year; as many as one in four wom ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Donepezil Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor most commonly used for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Donepezil is FDA approved for ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dopamine Dopamine is a peripheral vasostimulant used to treat low blood pressure, low heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Low infusion rates (0.5 to 2 micrograms/k ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dopamine Agonists Dopamine agonists are used in patients with Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists such as ropinirole, are the first-line treatment for restless legs sy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Doxazosin Doxazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, hypertension, ureteral stones, and PTSD associated nig ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Doxepin Doxepin is a medication used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety, insomnia as well as in the management of skin pruritus. It is in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Doxycycline Hyclate Doxycycline hyclate is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of infections. It is in the tetracyclines class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dressler Syndrome Dressler syndrome, also known as postmyocardial infarction syndrome, is a form of secondary pericarditis with or without pericardial effusion that occ ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Drug and Alcohol Use The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition includes 10 separate classes of drugs of abuse, which include alcohol, caffei ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drug Induced Esophagitis Drugs can be damaging to the esophageal wall by having a direct toxic effect on the esophageal mucosa. They may produce a caustic effect by creating a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is an acute or chronic liver injury secondary to drugs or herbal compounds. It is difficult to diagnose because the presen ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drug Induced Pigmentation Drug-induced pigmentation represents a complex issue for patients who are prescribed certain medications. These medications may include NSAIDs, tetrac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Drug Induced Valvular Heart Disease Drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) is a condition involving changes in the morphology and functionality of valvular leaflets secondary to exp ... Read the Article 1 5