NP-Acute Care Pediatric CE

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About StatPearls CE

All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Pediatric Nursing Certification Board (PNCB®) content outlines. 1,771 authors and 34 editors have contributed to the development of the NP-Acute Care Pediatric content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

NP-Acute Care Pediatric Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine This activity reviews the class 1 drug 3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA, Ecstacy or Molly. The drug is known to promote a sens ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Abdominal Abscess Abdominal abscesses contain cellular debris, enzymes, and liquid and can be from an infectious or non-infectious source. They are a common and serious ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Abducens Nerve Palsy The abducens nerve, also known as cranial nerve VI, is responsible for ipsilateral eye abduction. Visualizing the anatomy of the nerve allows for bett ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abetalipoproteinemia Abetalipoproteinemia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder marked by low or absent levels of plasma cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins and very-lo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Abnormal Neonatal EEG Electroencephalogram of a newborn shows unique features compared to older children and adults. The principles employed in the identification of abnorm ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Abortion Complications Roughly one million abortions are performed each year in the United States alone. The total abortion-related complication rate is estimated to be abou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Abrasion Abrasion is the superficial denudation of the epithelium due to scraping, impact or pressure. While the management of abrasions is relatively simple, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect refer to the actions or inactions of an individual's caregiver or parent inflicting physical, sexual, or emotional harm on the indiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Toxicity Nerve agents are some of the most deadly and easily employed chemical warfare agents. Given the global threat of terrorism, it is prudent to have a ba ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Achilles Tendon Rupture Achilles tendon rupture is the most common tendon rupture in the lower extremity. The injury most commonly occurs in adults in their third to fifth d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia found in humans, accounting for 90% of cases of disproportionate short stature. It is caused by a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ackee Fruit Toxicity Ingestion of unripe Ackee fruit may result in the metabolic syndrome known as "Jamaican vomiting sickness." Clinical manifestations may include profus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acne Conglobata Acne conglobata is a rare but severe form of acne. It usually presents with deep burrowing abscesses that interconnect with each other. Scar formation ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Acne Fulminans Acne fulminans or acne maligna is a rare skin disorder presenting as an acute, painful, ulcerating, and hemorrhagic clinical form of acne. It may or m ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acne Keloidalis Nuchae Acne keloidalis nuchae is a disease characterized by persistent folliculitis at the nape of the neck that forms keloid like scars and ultimately cicat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acne Vulgaris Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of pilosebaceous unit, which runs a chronic course and it is self-limiting. Acne vulgaris is triggered by pr ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Acneiform Eruptions Acneiform eruptions are a group of disorders characterized by papules and pustules resembling acne vulgaris. Acneiform eruptions demonstrate an acute ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Acquired Angioedema Angioedema is characterized by one or more areas of well-demarcated, non-pitting edema of deep subcutaneous tissues. It is primarily known to involve ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acquired Hemophilia Acquired hemophilia is an uncommon but severe bleeding disorder. It is caused by the development of autoantibodies directed against one of the antihem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acrodynia Acrodynia is a rare disorder caused due to chronic mercury poisoning or idiosyncrasy to mercury. It is a Greek term that means 'painful extremities.' ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury Acromioclavicular joint injuries account for more than forty percent of all shoulder injuries. Mild injuries are not associated with any significant ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Actinic Prurigo Actinic prurigo, also known as prurigo or hydroa aestivale or Hutchinson summer, is a photodermatosis that is characterized by intensely pruritic papu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Actinomycosis Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that typically colonize the human mouth, urogenital trac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Activated Charcoal An oral suspension of activated charcoal should be considered in poisonings when gastrointestinal decontamination of an ingested toxin is indicated. A ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Active Tuberculosis Active tuberculosis is a condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection; typically in the lungs, although many systems can be involved ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchi. It is a common presentation in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and in p ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Chest Syndrome Acute chest syndrome occurs due to vaso-occlusion within the pulmonary vasculature of patients with sickle cell disease. This results in deoxygenation ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis also referred to as post-infectious encephalomyelitis, is an acute, rapidly progressive autoimmune process that i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Hepatitis Acute hepatitis is a term used to describe a wide variety of conditions characterized by acute inflammation of the hepatic parenchyma or injury to hep ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Acute Intermittent Porphyria Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease, characterized by a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It presents w ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute Liver Failure Acute liver failure is defined as severe acute liver injury for fewer than twenty six weeks duration with encephalopathy and impaired synthetic functi ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy of B or T lymphoblasts characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal, immature lymphocytes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia among the adult population and accounts for about 80% of all cases. It is characterized by cl ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Myocarditis Acute myocarditis is inflammation of the myocardium. It is typically seen in infants and teenagers but can occur at any age. It most commonly results ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Acute Porphyria Acute porphyrias are a group of rare disorders characterized by an enzymatic defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Patients present with acute, deb ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The d ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Acute Scrotum Pain Acute scrotum pain is an umbrella term that includes a wide variety of unique disease processes. Patients may describe the rapid onset of symptoms wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Acyclovir Acyclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is FDA approved to treat gen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adapalene Adapalene is a topical retinoid with FDA-approval for the treatment of acne vulgaris. Clinicians use retinoids are used to treat a wide variety of ski ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Addison Disease Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, which can have devastating consequences if not promptly recognized and appropriately treated. Often th ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Adductor Strain An adductor strain or injury to the adductor muscle group of the thigh is a common cause of medial leg and groin pain, especially among athletes. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenoid Hypertrophy Adenoid hypertrophy is an obstructive condition due to enlarged adenoids. This can occur with or without an acute or chronic infection of the adenoids ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenoidectomy Adenoidectomy is a common surgical procedure primarily performed in children for infectious or obstructive reasons. This activity details the indicati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenoiditis Adenoiditis occurs when there is inflammation of the adenoid tissue resulting from infection, allergies, or irritation from stomach acid. Adenoiditis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenopathy Lymphadenopathy is a common abnormal finding during the course of the physical exam in general medical practice. Adenopathy can be caused by neoplasm, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Adenoviruses The adenoviruses are DNA viruses common in animals and humans, occurring frequently in both adults and children. There are more than 100 serologically ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Adie Syndrome Adie syndrome, also known as the Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonically dil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adolescent and Idiopathic Scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of pediatric scoliosis occurring in individuals between the ages of 10 to 18. By definit ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adrenal Hypoplasia Adrenal hypoplasia is a condition in which there is underdevelopment or hypotrophy of the adrenal cortex due to several clinical conditions. It falls ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones necessary for normal body functioning; the deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adrenoleukodystrophy Adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal disorder resulting from abnormal metabolism of the very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). It is classified into di ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Aerospace Decompression Illness Decompression sickness in aviation is most commonly seen following flights in nonpressurized aircraft, in flights with cabin pressure fluctuations, or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aflatoxin Toxicity Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which grow in soil, hay, decaying vege ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Agammaglobulinemia Agammaglobulinemia or hypogammaglobulinemia is a rare inherited immunodeficiency disorder, characterized by low or absent B cells with absent immunogl ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Agitation Agitation is a nonspecific constellation of relatively unrelated behaviors that can be seen in various clinical situations, usually presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that under normal circumstances do not contain air. The term air leak synd ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in the inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Albendazole Albendazole has FDA approval for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum resulting from the larval form of the dog ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Albinism Albinism is a group of heritable conditions associated with decreased or absent melanin in ectoderm-derived tissues (most notably the skin, hair, and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Albuterol Albuterol is used for the treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (acute or severe) in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. It also h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common fungal infection in uncontrolled asthmatics, cystic fibrosis patients, and immunocompromise ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Allergic Conjunctivitis Allergic conjunctivitis is encountered in up to 40 percent of the population, but only a small proportion of affected individuals seek medical help. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease presenting with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an IgE ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Allodynia Allodynia is defined as "pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain." An example would be a light feather touch (that should only prod ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Almotriptan Almotriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraines. It is in the triptan 5-HT class of drugs. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alopecia Areata Alopecia areata (AA) is a form of alopecia that impacts hair follicles, nails, and rarely, the retinal pigment epithelium. It typically presents with ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used to manage and treat severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of 5-HT receptor a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Thalassemia Hemoglobin H disease (alpha-thalassemia) can be found in patients that live in areas with a high incidence of malaria. Symptoms at presentation, such ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alprazolam Alprazolam, known by various trade names, is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication in the United States. Alprazolam is frequently presc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acid indigestion. It is in the antacid class of drugs. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amatoxin Mushroom Toxicity Amatoxin containing mushrooms are a rare but significant cause of acute fulminant liver failure. However, not all Amanita species have this toxin, and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Amblyopia Amblyopia (lazy eye) is a disorder of the sight due to the eye and brain not working together resulting in decreased vision in an eye that typically a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amebiasis Amebiasis or amoebic dysentery is a parasitic intestinal infection caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. It may be asymptomatic or pres ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amebic Colitis Amebic colitis results from invasive infection of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Losch first reported disease due to E. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amebic Liver Abscess Amebic liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The life cycle involves consumption of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Amebic Meningoencephalitis Amebic encephalitis is a rare but lethal central nervous system infection caused by free-living amoebae found in freshwater, lakes, and rivers. There ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation during the reproductive years of a woman's life. Physiological states of amenorrhea are seen, mos ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ammonia Toxicity Ammonia toxicity occurs when susceptible individuals suffer exposure to external sources of ammonia via ingestion, inhalation, direct contact with ski ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Amniotic Band Syndrome Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises various congenital anomalies, which include disruption, deformation, and malformations of organs that were inte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in the primary care setting. It is an amino-penicillin, created by adding an extra amino grou ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amphetamine Amphetamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. It is classified as a central nervous system stimulant. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders Amphetamines belong to a class of compounds called phenethylamines which induce catecholaminergic effects in the CNS and peripheral circulation. Recre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the name conventional amphotericin B and has been used fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ampicillin Ampicillin is a medication used in the management and treatment of certain bacterial infections. It is in the penicillin class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anabolic Steroid Toxicity Anabolic steroids such as testosterone are produced naturally and enhance protein synthesis at the cellular level. There are also synthetic analogs av ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anabolic Steroid Use Disorder Androgen use has become a major public health concern due to the transition of use of androgens from strictly sports to a much wider spectrum of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anal Fissures An anal fissure is a superficial tear in the skin distal to the dentate line. Anal fissures are common in those with a history of constipation or hard ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a common etiology of sexual developmental disorders and results in varying phenotypes. These disorders of and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aneurysmal Bone Cysts Aneurysmal bone cysts are non-malignant, tumor-like, vascular lesions that can grow aggressively, be locally destructive, and weaken bones to the poin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Anhidrosis Anhidrosis is the inability to sweat. It is important to recognize anhidrosis as it can be potentially life-threatening due to heat-related illnesses. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Aniridia Aniridia is defined as a partial or complete absence of the iris. It may be associated with various systemic disorders and multiple ocular morbidities ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Ankyloglossia Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a short lingual frenum that interferes with normal tongue movement. It is an uncommon congenital oral anom ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Annular Pancreas Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by encasement of the duodenum by a band of pancreatic tissue. AP is not commonly enco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Anosmia Anosmia is the inability to perceive smell/odor. It can be temporary or permanent and acquired or congenital. There are many causes. Neurological caus ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Anovulatory Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction causes irregular and often heavy menses. This condition, if left untreated, can have a signific ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Antalgic Gait In Children Antalgic gait is common in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both benign and more serious etiologies. A careful his ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments that aids in stabilizing the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured ligament ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Anterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow is one of the most common large joints to be dislocated. Anterior elbow dislocations are a rare injury due to the high force and position ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Epistaxis Nasal Pack Among the nasal emergencies, epistaxis is one of the most common chief complaints in patients presenting to the emergency department. Typically, anter ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anterior Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations are the most commonly encountered joint dislocations. They can be the result of low or high energy trauma. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anthrax Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by an encapsulated, spore-forming, gram-variable bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This commonly presents wi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antibody Deficiency Disorder Antibody deficiency disorders may present soon after birth with recurrent infections. Normal individuals have 5 classes of immunoglobulins and several ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Toxicity Anticholinergic toxicity is commonly seen in the emergency department but is rarely fatal. According to the 2015 annual American Association of Poison ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anticonvulsants Toxicity Anticonvulsants, or antiepileptics, are an ever-growing class of medications that act through multiple different mechanisms to control seizures. Antie ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antifungal Antibiotics Fungi are unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that exist in all environments worldwide. While most fungi do not play a significant role ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Antihistamine Toxicity In 1943, as the planet was engulfed in WWII and the United States was officially announcing the end of The Great Depression, the most common modern an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Antimalarial Medications When treating patients suspected of having malaria, it is essential that treatment does not initiate until the diagnosis of malaria has been establish ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiparasitic Drugs Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ect ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Medications Over time, numerous antiplatelet agents have been developed with a multitude of indications. Antiplatelet medications divide into oral and parenteral ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antisocial Personality Disorder This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). ASPD is a deeply ingrained and dysfunctional thought pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aortopulmonary Window Aortopulmonary Window is a rare congenital cardiac malformation that can lead to congestive cardiac failure if left untreated. To avoid the high morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
APGAR Score In 1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at Columbia University, developed the Apgar score. Serendipitously, APGAR is also a useful mnemonic t ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Apley Grind Test The Apley grind test, also known as the Apley compression test or the Apley test, is a maneuver performed to evaluate for meniscus injury. Clinicians ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Apnea In Children Apnea can be defined as the cessation of respiratory effort lasting more than 20 seconds, or lasting a shorter duration but accompanied by bradycardia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Appendix Testes Torsion Torsion of testicular appendages is considered one of, if not the most common cause of acute scrotal pain in the prepubertal children and should be in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Appropriate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Ordering Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic imaging technique useful for the detailed characterization of the soft tissues without ionizing radia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a rare infectious pathogen that principally causes pharyngitis in adolescents and soft-tissue infections in immunocomp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Arnold Chiari Malformation Arnold-Chiari or Chiari malformations describe a group of deformities of the posterior fossa and hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and m ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Aromatic Toxicity Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Toluene and benzene can be found in products such as gasoline, nail polis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose, and initiate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arterial Lines Arterial catheterization is a procedure that is common to the intensive care and the operating room settings. It involves placement of a catheter into ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal fistulas between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary bed. High arterial flow directly ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure that is performed to obtain synovial fluid from within a joint capsule, both for diagnostic and for therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis, is the most common parasitic worm in humans. Ascariasis can be asymptomatic causing only maln ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aseptic Meningitis Aseptic meningitis is an umbrella term for all of the causes of inflammation of the brain meninges that have negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aspart Insulin Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting, human insulin analog that is FDA approved for the treatment of type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Asperger Syndrome Asperger syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder within the large family of autism spectrum disorder. It is characterized by impaired social communi ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Asplenia Asplenia means the absence of a spleen. Asplenia can occur in a variety of clinical settings, and it can refer to an anatomic absence of the spleen or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Asthma Medication in Children Asthma typically presents with a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, and is characterize ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Asthma Medications Asthma is a wide-reaching, chronic, inflammatory illness that impacts millions of people daily. It is frequently responsible for unscheduled healthcar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ataxia Ataxia is a neurological sign that manifests in a lack of coordination in the movement of different muscles in the body. It is a clinical finding and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ataxia Telangiectasia Ataxia telangiectasia (Louis-Bar Syndrome) is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by cutaneous telangiectasias, cerebellar atrophy with ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy Athetoid cerebral palsy, also known as dyskinetic cerebral palsy, is the second most common subtype of cerebral palsy. It is a non-progressive, perman ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atomoxetine Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children over the age of 6. Although atomo ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a specific form of eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Atopic dermatitis has a complex etio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Atopy Atopy is a predisposition to an immune response against diverse antigens and allergens leading to CD4+ Th2 differentiation and overproduction of immun ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Nodal Reentry Tachycardia Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia that results due to the presence of a re-ent ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder The diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been surrounded by controversy over the last century. Over the past 30 years, how ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection, specifically involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Atypical Mycobacterial Disease Atypical mycobacteria or nontuberculous mycobacteria are organisms that cause various diseases such as skin and soft tissue infection, lymphadenitis, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Auditory Hallucinations Auditory hallucinations are the sensory perceptions of hearing noises without an external stimulus. This symptom is particularly associated with schiz ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of rapidly growing disabilities. They are characterized by repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Autoimmune And Chronic Neutropenia Neutropenia is a decreased number of neutrophils less than 1500/microliter and can be idiopathic, congenital, autoimmune, and cyclic types. Those last ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Avian Influenza Avian influenza is a deadly disease caused by infection from an influenza virus native to birds. While often not fatal in birds, it can carry a high m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antimicrobial medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Babesiosis Babesiosis is an infection caused by the parasitic protozoa Babesia. This parasite is carried and transferred by ticks and primarily infects erythrocy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Baby Bottle Syndrome Baby bottle syndrome, now known as early childhood caries (ECC), is defined as the presence of 1 or more decayed teeth or missing teeth (resulting fro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bacillus Calmette Guerin Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the live attenuated vaccine form of Mycobacterium bovis used to prevent tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infecti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bacitracin Topical Bacitracin is a topical antibiotic ointment widely used by both medical professionals and the general public to treat minor skin injuries including cu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Bacterial Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also informally known as "pink eye," makes up the majority of ophthalmologic disorders seen at primary care clinics. Patients present ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Diarrhea Diarrhea consists of the passage of watery and loose stools multiple times a day (usually more than 3), though specific definitions may vary when appl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bacterial Endophthalmitis The word "endophthalmitis" can be broken down in greek to "interior-eye-inflammation" and is used to describe an infection of the vitreous or the aque ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease characterized by an increase in bowel movement frequency with or without fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. T ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Bacterial Pharyngitis Pharyngitis, more commonly described as sore throat, represents inflammation or irritation of the posterior oropharynx. While the majority of cases ar ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Bacterial Tracheitis Bacterial tracheitis, also known as bacterial croup, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, or membranous croup, is a potentially lethal infection of the sub ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a condition caused by an overgrowth of normal vaginal flora. Most commonly, this presents clinically with increased vaginal dis ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Balanoposthitis Balanoposthitis is a common disease process involving the glans penis and prepuce. It affects up to 12% to 20% of pediatric and adult males. This acti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bancroftian Filariasis Bancroftian filariasis is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a significant public health problem. The chronic sequelae of the disease are cri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Bartonellosis Bartonellosis is the term used to describe any infectious disease produced by the bacteria Bartonella. These include trench fever, Oroya fever, Carrio ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Basilar Migraine A migraine with predominant brainstem aura symptoms is known as a basilar migraine. Bickerstaff first described it in 1961. Other names for it are bas ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bedbug Bites There are as many as 90 species of "bugs" (bed bugs are true bugs with specialized elongated mouthparts) within the family Cimicidae; however, few bit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a psychotherapeutic intervention primarily used to eliminate or reduce maladaptive behavior in children or adults. While some ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Behcet Disease Behcet disease, also known as an oculo-orogenital syndrome, is a chronic remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Benazepril Benazepril is a drug used in the management of hypertension. It is in the ACE inhibitor class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benign Occipital Seizure Benign occipital seizures are classified as an occipital onset epilepsy syndrome, which occurs in children with normal developmental milestones, norma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide and shortly thereafter diazepam, benzodiazepines quickly became popular medications secondar ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Benzoyl Peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is an over-the-counter topical medication and is also an FDA-approved prescription medication for the treatment of acne vulgaris. It ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Berger Disease Berger disease is a common cause of primary glomerulonephritis and it involves the deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium. It is a cause of pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta 2 Agonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of medications used in the frontline management and treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antimicrobials to prevent antimicrobial resistance by inhibiting serine ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta Thalassemia Thalassemias are a common cause of microcytic anemia and are due to impaired synthesis of the globin protein component of hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biliary Atresia Biliary atresia is a disease of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts with an unknown etiology. It presents in neonates with jaundice, clay colo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Bilirubinuria Bilirubinuria is the presence of bilirubin in the urine, usually detected while performing a routine urine dipstick test. Its presence is abnormal and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Biologic Warfare Agent Toxicity Biological warfare agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and biological toxins. Some agents are frequently lethal while others are intended to caus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Biotin Biotin is an alternative medication used in the management and treatment of pathological hair conditions. It is in the vitamin class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Biotin Deficiency Biotin is a B-complex vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases: pyruvate carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, prop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Biotinidase Deficiency Biotin acts as a coenzyme for four carboxylation enzymes in the body: 3-methylcrontonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), acetyl-CoA c ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Birth Asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is a lack of blood flow or gas exchange to or from the fetus in the period immediately before, during, or after the birth process. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Birth Trauma This activity reviews common birth-related injuries. The mechanism of injury, clinical features, and management of various birth-related traumatic eve ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bisacodyl Bisacodyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic or functional constipation. This activity outlines the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Black Piedra Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of hair shafts, which presents with small nodules stuck-on to the shaft. Black piedra, caused by Piedraia hor ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Blepharitis Blepharitis is an ophthalmologic condition where there is inflammation of the eyelid margins. The diagnosis is clinical and based on irritation of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blistering Distal Dactylitis Blistering distal dactylitis (BDD) is a bacterial infection of the fingers presenting as multiple fluid-filled lesions. This condition is common in ch ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blue Nevus Blue nevi are melanotic dermal lesions that commonly presents as a blue nodule on the scalp, extremities, sacrococcygeal region, or buttocks. Its char ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Blunt Eye Trauma Blunt injury to the eye can lead to various intrinsic eye injuries. Globe rupture and retrobulbar hematoma are two emergent entities that are of impor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Body Dysmorphic Disorder Body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, formally known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric condition defined in the DSM 5 as a preoccupation with a perceiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Body Image Distortion Body image is a complex construct. Body image distortion and body dissatisfaction are common in both clinical and nonclinical populations. Distortions ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common site of piercings are the ears, mouth, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bone Age Bone age assessment can be of utmost importance in various complicated situations involving medical, surgical, forensic, and legal issues. Apart from ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bone Cyst A simple bone cyst is a solitary, benign, fluid-filled, cyst that may be a single chamber or septated. The most common sites are the proximal humerus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Failure Bone marrow failure (BMF) refers to the decreased production of one or more major hematopoietic lineages which leads to diminished or absent hematopoi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Borrelia Burgdorferi Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete responsible for Lyme disease via a tick vector. This spirochete causes a characteristic annular rash, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Botfly Bot fly is a term referring to any member of the Oestridae family of flies. To reproduce, these flies rely on myiasis, the infestation of host skin fo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Botulism Botulism is a rare, potentially fatal syndrome of diffuse, flaccid paralysis caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) which is elaborated by the bacteriu ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Botulism Antitoxin Botulinum antitoxin, also known as botulism antitoxin, is comprised of antibodies or antibody antigen-binding fragments that block the neurotoxin prod ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bowel Adhesions Bowel adhesions are irregular bands of scar tissue that form between bowel loops, which are normally not bound together. The bands of tissue can devel ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bowel Obstruction A bowel obstruction can either be a mechanical or functional obstruction of the small or large intestines. Obstruction frequently causes abdominal pai ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brain Abscess Brain abscess is a localized zone of necrosis with a surrounding membrane within the brain parenchyma, usually resulting from an infectious or traumat ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Branchial Cleft Cyst Branchial cleft cysts, also known as branchial cleft anomalies, are congenital anomalies arising from the first through fourth pharyngeal pouches. The ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Branchial Cleft Cysts Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts that comprise approximately one-third of congenital neck masses. They are benign lesions and can ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Breast Milk Jaundice Breast milk jaundice is a type of jaundice that occurs in neonates due to breastfeeding. It happens within the first week of life due to the abnormal ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Breath Holding Spells Breath holding spells might be a frightening experience for children and consequently for their parents. Breath holding spells may occur in children w ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brief Psychotic Disorder Brief psychotic disorder (BPD) according to DSM-5 is the sudden onset of psychotic behavior that lasts less than 1 month followed by complete remissio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Brief Resolved Unexplained Event In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended replacing the term apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) with brief resolved unexplained even ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brucellosis Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella species. It is known by many other names, including remitting fever, undulant fever, Mediterra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Bullous Myringitis Bullous myringitis (BM) is a relatively common infectious condition characterized by bullae or vesicles on the tympanic membrane without affecting the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bullying Bullying is common in our society and has become a public health emergency. It is a form of repeated peer aggression which is intentional and involves ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Burn Fluid Management In the United States, approximately 500,000 people seek care for burn injuries each year. For civilians, these injuries are typically sustained in hou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cadmium Toxicity Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes direct harm to humans in several forms. It is regularly found with other heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cafe Au Lait Macules Cafe-au-lait macules (CALMs) are common pigmented lesions found in the general population. They can be described as well-circumscribed, pigmented macu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Caffeine Withdrawal Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Unlike other p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Campylobacter Campylobacter is a bacterial species that represent one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. This infection is associated with th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cannabidiol (CBD) CBD is a medication used in the management and treatment of the seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. This activity describes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cannabinoid Toxicity Cannabinoids are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. They include plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cannabis Use Disorder Cannabis use can cause intoxication, withdrawal, and biopsychosocial issues. This activity describes the evaluation and management of cannabis use dis ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market. Dronabinol and nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Capillary Infantile Hemangiomas Capillary hemangiomas (infantile hemangiomas, juvenile hemangiomas, hemangioblastomas or strawberry nevi of infancy), are common benign orbital neopla ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an important agent for multiple purposes, such as cleaning purposes, industrial agents, etc. But it can cause several a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carboxyhemoglobin Toxicity Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-irritating gas formed with the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels). It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cardiac Fibroma Cardiac fibromas are the second most common primary cardiac tumor after rhabdomyoma in children. They are primarily composed of connective tissue and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cardioactive Steroid Toxicity Cardioactive steroids (CAS) are medically important compounds historically used for conditions like edema and "dropsy." They are available in several ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Children Unlike in adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in rare in children and less likely to be a primary cardiac event. Early onset of effective, high-quality CPR ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Fitness Cardiopulmonary fitness testing is a durable and versatile tool that provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information regarding patients with c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Care Of A Central Line Central venous catheters (CVC) are frequently used in critical care units, hemodialysis units, and oncology units for the administration of intravenou ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Carotenemia First described in 1919 by Hess and Meyers, carotenemia is the medical terminology describing yellow-orange skin pigmentation due to high levels of ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cat Scratch Disease Cat scratch disease is an illness caused by an intracellular gram-negative rod known as Bartonella henselae. It affects the lymph nodes draining the a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cataplexy Cataplexy, a physical feature of narcolepsy, is characterized by transient episodes of voluntary muscle weakness precipitated by intense emotion. Subj ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cataract A cataract is a disease of the eye in which the normally clear lens has opacified which obscures the passage of light. It is a gradually progressive d ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Catatonia Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by abnormal movements, behaviors, and withdrawal, is a condition that is most often seen in mood ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Catatonic Schizophrenia Catatonic schizophrenia is one of the classical clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. The concept of catatonic symptoms in schizophrenia has changed thr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Caterpillar and Moth Bites “Lepidopterism” refers to various skin & systemic reactions secondary to contact with moth and butterfly larvae or caterpillars (order Lepidoptera). I ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Celiac Disease Celiac disease, also known as gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is an autoimmune disease of the small intestine. Celiac disease is a condition in which th ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Centipede Envenomation Centipede bites are uncommon but can be clinically significant in regards to patient discomfort, morbidity, and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Central and Peripheral Cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the distal extremities (Hands, fingertips, toes), and can sometimes involve circumoral and periorbi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antimicrobials used to manage a wide range of infections from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The five genera ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cerebellar Dysfunction The cerebellum maintains our coordination and balance. Cerebellar dysfunction causes difficulty with coordination, imbalance, and gait disorders. Poss ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which includes thrombosis of the cerebral veins and the dural sinuses, is a rare disorder that can lead to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cetirizine Cetirizine is a medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. This activity reviews th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Chancroid Chancroid is an exceedingly rare sexually transmitted infection, both in the United States and globally. Knowledge regarding its true prevalence is ma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
CHARGE Syndrome CHARGE syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the DNA-binding protein-7 CHD7 gene. CHARGE syndrome is an acronym for coloboma, hear ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cheilitis Cheilitis is an inflammation of the lips. It may be acute or chronic, involving the vermilion and/or surrounding skin of one or both lips. It is a fre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cherry Red Spot A cherry-red spot refers to a red-tinted region at the center of macula surrounded by retinal opacification. Cherry-red spots may be present in a vari ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chest Wall Deformities Chest wall deformities are a set of congenital diseases; these can manifest as; an isolated feature, with other congenital anomalies, or as part of a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chigger Bites Chigger is the common name for species of the Trombiculid family of mites. Bites from the larva of these mites can cause local pruritus and irritation ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Child Abuse and Neglect The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and explo ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Child Development The stages through which a child goes through from birth until he or she becomes an adult is child development. Children are first newborns, and durin ... Read the Article 3.25 60 Activity Info
Child Intussusception Intussusception is a condition in which part of the intestine folds into the section next to it. Intussusception usually involves the small bowel and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Child Physical Abuse And Neglect Approximately one in four children experience child abuse or neglect in their lifetime. Of maltreated children, 18 percent are abused physically, 78 p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Child Sexual Abuse And Neglect Sexual abuse of children is the involvement of children or adolescents in sexual activities that he or she does not fully comprehend and can include e ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chlamydia Pneumonia Three species of Chlamydia namely, C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. They are one of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a medication used in the management and treatment of superficial eye infections such as bacterial conjunctivitis, and otitis extern ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chloroquine Chloroquine is a medication used in the management and treatment of malaria and inflammatory diseases. It is in the sulfonamides class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, can cause pathologic ocular damage unless strict prescribing and screening ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cholera Cholera is an acute secretory diarrheal illness caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. It is estimated to cause upwards of four million cases per yea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cholestatic Jaundice Cholestasis is defined as stagnation, or at least a marked reduction, in bile secretion and flow. Cholestasis can be due to a functional impairment of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholinergic Crisis A cholinergic crisis develops as a result of overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions. This is usually sec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Chordoma A chordoma is a low-grade, slow-growing but locally invasive and locally aggressive tumor that is a type of sarcoma. Chordomas arise from remnants of ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chorioamnionitis Chorioamnionitis is an infection that can occur before labor, during labor, or after delivery. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Chorioamnionitis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chorioretinitis Chorioretinitis is a type of uveitis affecting the posterior segment of the eye. It is a vision-threatening condition that is associated with many sys ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Aspiration Chronic aspiration is a common condition that occurs in the elderly population, pediatric patients with certain neurological conditions, and chronical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Cough Cough is a natural defense mechanism that allows clearance of bronchial tree secretions and the elimination of inhaled foreign particles. It is a comm ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chronic Granulomatous Disease Chronic granulomatous diseases (CGD) are a group of recurrent life-threatening infections due to a hereditary defect in forming reactive oxygen specie ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Chronic Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the United States affecting about one-third of the general population. According to the third edition of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL1-positive, is classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm predominantly composed of proliferating granulocytes ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chronic Sinusitis Chronic sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus or nasal passages occurring for more than 12 weeks at a time. It may present as chronic sinusitis wi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Suppurative Otitis Chronic suppurative otitis media continues to be an important disease in the pediatric population and a significant cause of hearing problems leading ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Urticaria Chronic spontaneous urticaria is defined as the occurrence of wheals and/or angioedema for a total duration of six weeks or more. Synonymous with "chr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ciguatera Toxicity Ciguatera toxicity is a food-borne illness caused by eating fish contaminated with Ciguatoxin. This toxin is a potent neurotoxin, and it is produced b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cinchonism Cinchonism is a collection of symptoms described as hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, flushing, and blurry vision stemming from the ingestion of quin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cisplatin Cisplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. It is in the alkylating agent class of cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Claustrophobia Claustrophobia is the fear of enclosed spaces. About 12.5% of the population have this fear, with the majority of them being females. This activity re ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Clavicle Fractures Fractures of the clavicle are quite common, accounting for up to 10% of all fractures. It is the most common fracture of childhood. A fall onto the la ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clinodactyly Clinodactyly is defined as a congenital curvature of a digit distal to the metacarpal phalangeal joint in the coronal plane. Curvatures with an angula ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clomipramine The only FDA approved use for clomipramine is for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in ages 10 and older. For the treatment of OCD, clomipr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clonazepam Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug used for the acute management of panic disorder, epilepsy, and non-convulsive status epilepticus. It also has many ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Clonidine Toxicity Clonidine is a commonly prescribed biochemical derivative of imidazoline with a variety of clinical uses. It was originally developed as a nasal decon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Clonorchis Sinensis Clonorchis sinensis is also known as the Chinese liver fluke. These are most commonly found in Eastern Asia but are also commonly found in Russia. The ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clubfoot Clubfoot is a congenital deformity of the foot, otherwise known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is one of the most common congenital malformatio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Coccidioidomycosis The dimorphic fungus coccidioides causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, which is endemic to the arid regions of the Weste ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cochlear Implants A Cochlear Implant (CI) is a medical device that uses electricity to stimulate the spiral ganglion cells of the auditory nerve to restore sensorineura ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cognitive Behavior Therapy In the 1960s, Aaron Beck developed cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) or cognitive therapy. Since then, it has been extensively researched and found to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colchicine Colchicine has FDA approval for gout prophylaxis and treatment of acute gouty flares. It also has approval for the treatment of familial Mediterranean ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colic Infant colic is estimated to affect 20% of all infants. Despite its prevalence, a clear cause for infantile colic remains elusive. There have been man ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Colles' Fracture This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injuries that require medical manag ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Commotio Cordis Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is an important cause of sudden ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization, mortality, and incurs significant health care costs. As disease presentation varie ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Complement Deficiency The immune system is the body’s defense mechanism against infections and is made of two pathways - the innate and adaptive pathway. The innate pathway ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Complex Partial Seizure Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, refers to focal seizures that st ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Concussion A concussion is a "traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function." Concussions are a subset of the neurologic injuries known as trauma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Conductive Hearing Loss Conductive hearing loss encompasses a wide range of pathologies that affect patients of all ages. It can be the result of a defect anywhere from the e ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Congenital Herpes Simplex Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in newborn infants can show up as the following: Disseminated disease involving multiple organs, most prominentl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of intellectual disability. This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Congenital Melanocytic Nevi Congenital melanocytic nevi are benign skin lesions that usually present at birth and vary from small to large in size. Larger lesions are rarer and h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congenital Nevus Congenital melanocytic nevi are pigmented lesions that are usually present a birth. They are generally benign, but a small percentage (especially the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis (CS) is caused by transmission of the spirochete Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus, resulting in diverse clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Congenital Torticollis Torticollis, also known as a twisted neck, is the contraction or contracture of the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt to one side. It i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is usually secondary to hepatocellular disease or cholestasis (intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ). Early workup and diagno ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Constipation Functional constipation is a prevalent condition in childhood, about 29.6% worldwide. In the United States, represents 3% to 5% of pediatric visits an ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Constitutional Growth Delay Short stature is defined as height at least two standard deviations below the age and sex-matched mean. Ideally, this should be matched to people of t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Constrictive Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that covers the heart. Besides acting as a protective barrier, it also affects cardiac hemodynamics. Constrict ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of positive airway pressure that is used to deliver a set pressure to the airways that is maintai ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function that are inconsistent with patte ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cooling Techniques For Hyperthermia Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In sepsis, the immunologic reaction to the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Copper Toxicity Copper metabolism plays an important role in physiologic homeostasis. Copper toxicity, however, induces several pathologic processes that are detrimen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coprolalia Coprolalia comes from the greek "kopros," which means "dung, feces" and "lalein," which means "to babble." It's a tic-like occurrence that involves no ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cornea Foreign Body Removal A corneal foreign body can be the cause of agonizing eye pain and loss of vision. This activity reviews the safe removal of a corneal foreign body and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corneal Abrasion A corneal abrasion (also called scratched eye or scratched cornea) is an eye injury that causes significant discomfort, photophobia, and erythema. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Corticosteroid Adverse Effects Corticosteroids are hormone mediators produced by the cortex of adrenal glands that further categorize into glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and a ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Pharyngitis is defined as the inflammation of pharyngeal tissue. Based on etiology, it can be divided into infectious and non-infectious sources. Vira ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Cow Milk Allergy Cow's milk allergy is an allergic reaction to the protein found in cow’s milk. Diagnosis can be difficult as it is primarily based on history and phys ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coxiella Burnetii Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, which is a zoonotic disease. Q fever can present as a febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cradle Cap Cradle cap, or pityriasis capitis, is a subset of infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). It is a very common, mostly self-limiting, chronic non-inflam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis results from the premature closure of one or more sutures of the skull. Depending on the number of sutures involved, and the range of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Crigler Technique For Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction leading to epiphora is a common condition that may be seen in up to 20% of infants. The management ranges fro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn sodium is a medication used in the management of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and certain allergic eye conditions such as vernal conj ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Crotalidae Envenomation Crotalid envenomations cause a spectrum of disease, with both localized and systemic toxicity, which can result in both prolonged morbidity and rarely ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Cryptorchidism Cryptorchidism is the absence of at least one testicle from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect involving the male genitalia. About 3% of ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium is the second major cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children younger than two and an important cause of mortality worldwide. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that are frequently used in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first choice for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Cubital tunnel syndrome is neuropathy of the ulnar nerve causing symptoms of numbness and shooting pain along the medial aspect of the forearm, also i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Cushing Disease Cushing disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by the anterior pituitary, leading t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Cutaneous Larva Migrans Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), also having been termed for the clinical sign of creeping eruption, is an infectious syndrome caused by multiple types ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cutis Laxa Cutis laxa (CL) is a group of rare diseases of connective tissue characterized by redundant skin with loss of elasticity and premature aging. Heritabl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cyanotic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease (CHD) are structural abnormalities of the heart or intrathoracic great vessels occurring during fetal development. CHD is the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized by recurrent episodes of nausea and vomiting lasting from hours to days in the absence of identifiable patho ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide is a medication primarily used in the management and treatment of neoplasms, including multiple myeloma, sarcoma, and breast cancer. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis And Liver Disease Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive (AR) disorder that commonly affects the White population with an annual incidence of approximately 1 in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is an extrapulmonary complication of cystic fibrosis. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes is the result of abnormal gluc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cystic Kidney Disease Cystic kidney diseases are multisystemic disorders that can develop due to genetic or non-genetic causes in children and adults. These can be a seriou ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cystitis Cystitis refers to infection of the lower urinary tract, or more specifically the urinary bladder. It may be broadly categorized as either uncomplicat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Dacryoadenitis Dacryoadenitis refers to acute or chronic inflammation of the lacrimal gland and can be due to infectious, inflammatory, or idiopathic causes. Acute d ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is characterized as an inflammatory state of the nasolacrimal sac. It is typically caused by an obstruction within the nasolacrimal duc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dakin Solution Dakin solution, also called Dakin fluid or Carrel-Dakin fluid, is a dilute sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution that is commonly known as bleach. The ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dapsone Dapsone is indicated for a variety of conditions, both dermatologic and non-dermatologic. The FDA-approved indications are leprosy and dermatitis herp ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dawn Phenomenon The "dawn phenomenon" refers to periodic episodes of hyperglycemia experienced by patients with diabetes in the early morning hours before, and to som ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
De Quervain Thyroiditis In general, thyroiditis is defined as an inflammation of the thyroid gland. There are several kinds of thyroiditis, and they can be associated with ei ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Deadly Single Dose Agents Although the basics of evaluating and treating most unknown ingestants are well known, many overdoses require very specific treatment if the patient i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Death and Dying Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers e ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Deep Neck Infections Deep neck infections are a serious but treatable group of infections affecting the deep cervical space and characterized by rapid progression and life ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Defense Mechanisms Anna Freud defined defense mechanisms as "unconscious resources used by the ego" to ultimately decrease internal stress. Patients often devise these u ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Deferoxamine Deferoxamine is a medication used in Iron and aluminum toxicity. It is in the chelator class of drugs. This activity reviews the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to devel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Delayed Puberty Delayed puberty not infrequently occurs in the pediatric population and a common reason for referral to a pediatric endocrinologist. While it is usual ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Delusions Of Parasitosis This activity reviews delusions of parasitosis, a rare psychiatric disorder. Communicating and evaluating patients with this condition can be complex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dengue Fever Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus and the leading cause of arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. It is also known as breakbone fever due to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dental Caries Dental caries is a common chronic infectious, transmissible disease resulting from tooth-adherent specific bacteria, primarily Streptococci Mutans th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Depression Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic Stat ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Depression In Children Depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) include diagnoses of different disorders, for example, major ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Dermal Melanocytosis This activity outlines the evaluation & management of congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spot). It explains the role of the interprofessional ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dermatitis Artefacta Dermatitis artefacta or factitious dermatitis is a psychocutaneous disorder in which the patients consciously create lesions in skin, hair, nail, or m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis herpetiformis is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease that causes an extremely pruritic rash that predominantly affects the extensor s ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Dermatofibroma Dermatofibromas are referred to as benign fibrous histiocytomas of the skin, superficial/cutaneous benign fibrous histiocytomas, or common fibrous his ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dermatographism Dermatographism, also known as dermographism urticaria, or urticaria factitia, is an urticarial eruption upon pressure or trauma to the skin. The lite ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Desmopressin Desmopressin is a drug which acts on the vasopressin receptors of the body. It has many relevant clinical uses, ranging from nocturnal enuresis to hem ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Development Milestones Developmental milestones are markers of a child’s development from infancy on into childhood. They are used to help determine if a child is undergoing ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Developmental Delay Delay in development occurs when the child fails to attain developmental milestones as compared to peers from the same population. It is caused by imp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Developmental Stages of Social Emotional Development In Children To apply knowledge regarding human growth and development, healthcare professionals need to be aware of 2 areas: (1) milestone competencies, for examp ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Dextroamphetamine-Amphetamine Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine belongs to a class of drugs known as central nervous system stimulants. The Drug Enforcement Administration/Food and Dru ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dextromethorphan Dextromethorphan received FDA approval in 1958 for its use as a cough suppressant. It is one of the most common compounds found in the majority of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin or AVP) ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 In Children Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition that leads to the destruction of pancreatic beta cells which in turn causes insufficient insulin production ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diaper Dermatitis Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen i ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Diaphragm Eventration Diaphragm eventration is the permanent elevation of a hemidiaphragm and can be due to congenital or acquired causes. Diaphragm eventration can become ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diaphragmatic Hernia A diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is a protrusion of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity as a result of a defect within the diaphragm. It is most co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diarrhea Diarrhea is a common condition that varies in severity and etiology. The evaluation of diarrhea varies depending on duration, severity, and presence o ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Diazepam Diazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is FDA approved for the management of anxiety disorders, short-term relief of anxiety symptoms, spasticit ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diet and Nutrition To Prevent Dental Problems Dental caries is a dynamic process that involves susceptible tooth surfaces, cariogenic bacteria like Streptococcus mutans or Lactobacillus and a ferm ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
DiGeorge Syndrome DiGeorge syndrome (DGS) is a congenital disorder with a broad phenotypic presentation, which results predominantly from the microdeletion of chromosom ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Digital Nerve Block Digital nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed to provide immediate anesthesia for a multitude of injuries and procedures, such as fr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Toxicity Diphenhydramine is most often used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, allergic rhinitis, mild to severe allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a toxin-mediated infection caused by Corynebacterium species, primarily Corynebacterium diphtheria. It causes skin and mucosal infection ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diphtheria Tetanus Pertussis (DTaP) Vaccine The DTaP vaccine is administered to children from 6 weeks to 6 years of age to provide immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diphyllobothrium Latum Diphyllobothriasis is a zoonotic infection that suffers from a lack of awareness in the medical field but has seen a recent resurgence in cases global ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are a class of drugs indicated for the treatment of several inflammatory arthritides including rheumato ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disk Battery Ingestion Disk batteries (or button batteries) are found in many consumer electronics. The last few decades have seen an increase in demand for compact electron ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diskitis Discitis is a serious but uncommon medical diagnosis. It is an infection of the intervertebral disc space. The role of the intervertebral discs is to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Distal Radius Fractures Emergency Department and primary care clinics are frequently called on to evaluate orthopedic complaints. It is essential for most providers to feel c ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Docusate Docusate is a medication used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the stool softener class of drugs. This activity reviews the i ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Dornase Alfa Dornase alfa is a medication used in the management and treatment of cystic fibrosis. It is in the category B class of drugs. This activity outlines t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Doxepin Doxepin is a medication used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety, insomnia as well as in the management of skin pruritus. It is in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Doxycycline Hyclate Doxycycline hyclate is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of infections. It is in the tetracyclines class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dracunculiasis Dracunculiasis, also known as Guinea-worm disease is a parasitic disease caused by the nematode Dracunculus medinensis. The infection is transmitted t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Drug Induced Esophagitis Drugs can be damaging to the esophageal wall by having a direct toxic effect on the esophageal mucosa. They may produce a caustic effect by creating a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is an acute or chronic liver injury secondary to drugs or herbal compounds. It is difficult to diagnose because the presen ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drug Metabolism Most drugs undergo chemical alteration by various bodily systems as a way to create compounds that are more easily excreted from the body. These chemi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Drug Testing Broadly defined, drug testing is the process of using a biological sample to detect the presence or absence of a drug or its metabolites. This process ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Unfortunately, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not only one of the most severe forms of inherited muscular dystrophies but also the most common h ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal life ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Dust Mite Allergy Dust mite allergy is an IgE mediated Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to dust mite allergens, commonly found in household dust. The prevalence of atop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dwarfism Dwarfism is the medical terminology for short-stature. It is defined as height-vertex below two standard deviations (-2SD) or in the third percentile ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dyslexia Reading is a skill unique to humans and is crucial for living in the world today. Learning to read is one of the first teaching points of elementary s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dysmenorrhea Dysmenorrhea can be classified as primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. Primary dysmenorrhea is a lower abdominal pain happening during the menstrual cy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dystonia Dystonia is defined by involuntary maintained contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles yielding abnormal posturing, twisting and repetitive movem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dystonic Reactions An acute dystonic reaction is characterized by involuntary contractions of muscles of the extremities, face, neck, abdomen, pelvis, or larynx in eithe ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ear Foreign Body Removal The management of foreign bodies located in the external auditory canal can be nuanced, and for some medical professionals, may be intimidating if not ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ear Irrigation The American Academy of Otolaryngology defines cerumen impaction as "an accumulation of cerumen that is associated with symptoms, prevents the necessa ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Echolalia Echolalia is a meaningless repetition of words or phrases heard by someone. This activity reviews echolalia and highlights different conditions that m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Ectropion Ectropion is an outward turning of the eyelid margin. This typically occurs on the lower eyelids. When the globe is not protected properly, the eye ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Eczema Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a common chronic skin condition that can lead to recurrent infections and poor quality of life if left unt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Eczema Herpeticum Eczema herpeticum (EH) is a disseminated cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus that develops in a patient with atopic dermatitis. EH typically ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Egg Allergy Egg allergy is IgE-mediated and healthy individuals are capable of generating antigen-specific IgE upon exposure to egg allergens. It is believed tha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ehrlichiosis The genus Ehrlichia consists of several species of obligate intracellular gram-negative bacteria that infect humans and a variety of other mammals via ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Elbow Fractures Overview The most common type of fracture in the pediatric population is elbow fractures. Most commonly, individuals fall on their outstretched hand. Prompt a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Elbow Trauma Elbow trauma is a common occurrence in children and athletes and can cause a broad array of injury patterns ranging from mild soft tissue injuries and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Electrical Burns Electrical injuries are when high-energy current travels through the body due to contact with an electrical source. Injuries occur due to either the f ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Electrical Injuries Electrical injuries are a complex form of trauma that is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. The severity of the injuries depends upon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Electronic Vaping Delivery Of Cannabis And Nicotine This activity outlines the current scientific literature and knowledge of the risks and benefits of inhaling nicotine through proprietary devices. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Elevated Hemidiaphragm Elevated hemidiaphragm occurs most commonly from direct or indirect injury to the phrenic nerve. It is often found as an incidental finding on diagnos ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Emicizumab Emicizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of hemophilia A. It belongs to the bispecific monoclonal antibody class of medications ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Empyema Empyema is defined as a collection of pus in the pleural cavity, gram-positive, or culture from the pleural fluid. Empyema is usually associated with ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Encopresis Encopresis or fecal incontinence is defined as the involuntary passing of stool into inappropriate places such as the underwear in children older than ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Endocardial Fibroelastosis Endocardial fibroelastosis (EFE) is primarily a disease of infants and children, but can rarely present in adulthood as well. In 1943, Endocardial fib ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents despite new advantages in management and prophyla ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Entamoeba Histolytica Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan that causes intestinal amebiasis as well as extra-intestinal manifestations. Although 90 percent of E. histolytic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Enterobius Vermicularis Enterobius vermicularis, also called pinworm, is one of the most common helminth infections in the world, with most cases occurring in children. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a bacterial infection resulting in bloody dysentery and an increased risk of hemolytic uremic syndrome (H ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Enterovirus Enteroviruses are a class of viruses comprising over 300 serotypes. These ubiquitous viruses cause a wide spectrum of diseases with heterogeneous pres ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Enuresis Enuresis is a common childhood disorder seen in outpatient settings. Enuresis can be promptly treated if cases are identified early. In this activity, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Eosinophilic Esophagitis The esophagus physiologically lacks eosinophils, and when present, the condition is considered to be pathologic. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was on ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis Eosinophilic gastroenteritis belongs to the group of eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, which comprise of eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Eosinophilic Granuloma Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is a rare and mildest form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The presentation of EG can be monostotic, polyostotic, or can ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Epidermal inclusion cysts are the most common cutaneous cysts and can occur anywhere on the body. These cysts typically present as fluctuant nodules u ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Epidermoid Cyst Epidermoid cysts, also known as a sebaceous cysts, are encapsulated subepidermal nodules filled with keratin. Although most commonly located on the fa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epididymitis Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis, a tubular structure on the testis where sperm mature. Epididymitis is a relatively common condition ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Epinastine Epinastine is a medication used in the treatment and management of allergic conjunctivitis. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in a variety of settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved f ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Epistaxis Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency room or primary care. There are ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Epstein Barr Virus Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus in which over 90% of the population worldwide has been infected. EBV infection can range from asymptomatic t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Epstein Pearls Epstein pearls are small, benign, self-resolving nodules commonly found in the oral cavities of newborns. This activity describes the evaluation and m ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erb Palsy Erb's palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is for ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Erysipelas Erysipelas is a skin infection involving the dermis layer of the skin, but it may also extend to the superficial cutaneous lymphatics. It is character ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythema Infectiosum Erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, is a common viral exanthem caused by parvovirus B19. It is commonly seen in children between five a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Erythema Marginatum Erythema marginatum is reactive inflammatory erythema seen most commonly in association with acute rheumatic fever. Although a rare cutaneous manifest ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erythema Multiforme Erythema multiforme (EM) is a cutaneous and mucosal hypersensitivity reaction with characteristic lesions in target triggered by certain antigenic sti ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Erythema Nodosum Erythema nodosum (EN) is a common acute nodular septal panniculitis, characterized by the sudden onset of erythematous, firm, solid, deep nodules or p ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Erythema Toxicum Erythema toxicum neonatorum is a condition that has been described (rash) as early as the 15th century by a pediatrician named B. Metlinger. It has be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythrasma Erythrasma is a common skin disorder caused by bacteria. It was first described in 1859 by Burchardt. He thought the etiology was fungal. In 1862, Bur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is also known as alloimmune HDFN or erythroblastosis fetalis. It is caused by the destruction of neo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Erythromelalgia Erythromelalgia is a rarely occurring disease entity characterized by a triad of erythema, warmth, and recurrent burning pain, most notably affecting ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Erythromycin Erythromycin has traditionally; it has been used for various respiratory infections (i.e., community-acquired pneumonia, Legionnaires disease), prophy ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Escherichia Coli Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a gram-negative bacillus that is a causative organism of many diarrheal illnesses, including traveler’s diarrhea and dys ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Escherichia Coli (E Coli 0157 H7) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157: H7, is an enterohemorrhagic bacterial strain that is an important food and a waterborne pathogen that cau ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Escitalopram Escitalopram is a medication used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. It is in the selectiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Esophagial Foreign Body Most patients who present for evaluation of a foreign body in the esophagus do so after accidental ingestion of a known object, and the patient has mi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Esophagitis Esophagitis refers to inflammation or injury to the esophageal mucosa. One of the most common causes is gastroesophageal reflux, which can lead to ero ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure used to visualize the oropharynx, esophagus, stomach, and proximal duodenum. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Etanercept Etanercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of autoimmune conditions such as plaque psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic art ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ethambutol Ethambutol is a medication used in the management and treatment of tuberculosis. It is a bacteriostatic drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis. This a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ethosuximide Ethosuximide is a medication used in the management and treatment of absence epilepsy. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely danger ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA) is an uncommon diabetic complication associated with several risk factors such as fasting, surgery, pregnancy, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is the failure of the Eustachian tube in maintaining pressure equalization or mucociliary transport. This is categor ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Euthyroid Sick Syndrome Euthyroid sick syndrome is also known as nonthyroidal illness syndrome and refers to changes in thyroid function tests that were administered in the i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Exchange Transfusion Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a procedure employed to "cleanse" the blood of various pathologic entities including antibodies, immune complexes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Exercise Induced Asthma Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes a transient and reversible contraction of bronchial smooth muscle after physical exertion that ma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Exercise Induced Laryngeal Obstruction Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) describes a narrowing or inappropriate obstruction of the true vocal fold and/or the supraglottic structures in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Exertional Compartment Syndrome Exertional compartment syndrome is a commonly underdiagnosed entity which occurs secondary to elevated intra-compartmental pressures in the absence of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Exophthalmos Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
External Pacemaker External pacing is one of the fastest methods for treating multiple types of conduction abnormalities. It can be applied in the hospital setting or by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Extrapyramidal Symptoms Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), commonly referred to as drug-induced movement disorders are among the most common adverse drug effects patients exp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Extubation Extubation is the removal of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is the last step in liberating a patient from the mechanical ventilator. To discuss the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Exudative Retinitis Coats disease is an idiopathic ocular condition characterized by retinal telangiectasia and exudation. The incidence is quite low, hence recognizing i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Eyelid Papilloma The term papilloma refers to a group of various benign epithelial proliferations that can affect the eyelid skin. These lesions are not necessarily as ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.75 14 Activity Info
Factor XIII Deficiency Factor XIII deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that is challenging to recognize clinically. The lab tests such as the prothrombin time, INR, and a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Failure To Thrive Failure to thrive (FTT) is a common term used to describe lack of adequate weight gain in pediatric patients. Accepted definitions include a weight fo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Famciclovir Famciclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of herpes and varicella-zoster infections. It is in the class of nucleoside analog an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is a group of inherited genetic defects that lead to the severe elevation of serum cholesterol concentrations. Clinicall ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Familial Short Stature Familial short stature (FSS) is the condition characterized by the final adult height below the third percentile of the mean for the patient's age, ge ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Favus Favus is a chronic inflammatory dermatophytosis, characterized by the scutula formation. It used to be highly prevalent worldwide. Nowadays, the infec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Febrile Neutropenia Neutropenic fever is defined as a single oral temperature greater than or equal to 101 F, or a temperature greater than or equal to 100.4 F for at lea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Febrile Seizure Febrile seizures are seizures that are caused by a sudden spike in body temperature with fevers greater than 38C or 100.4F, with no other underlying s ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Fecal Impaction Fecal impaction occurs because of hardened fecal matter retained in the large bowel which cannot be evacuated by regular peristaltic activity. If this ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fecal Incontinence Fecal incontinence is a highly prevalent problem resulting in an inability to control the discharge of bowel contents. Its severity can range from the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Feeding Disability In Children Feeding disability in children is an inadequacy of food intake that results in poor weight gain, failure to thrive, and/or delayed milestones. This ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Felbamate Felbamate is an anti-epileptic drug that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of focal seizures and Lennox-Gastaut syn ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Felon A felon is an infection that occurs within the closed-space compartments of the fingertip pulp. The swelling leads to intense throbbing pain. The sur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Female Athlete Triad Female athletes often complain of low energy availability, which is defined as energy from oral nutrition less energy used for exercise. As such, low ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a type of osteonecrosis due to disruption of blood supply to the proximal femur. There are approximately 100 ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the five disorders that comprise fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These fetal alcohol spectrum disorders clas ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fetal Growth Restriction Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is most often defined as an estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age by prenatal ultras ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fever In A Neonate The World Health Organization categorizes neonatal sepsis as early or late based on the age of onset. Early neonatal sepsis affects infants less than ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fever of Unknown Origin Fever of unknown origin (FUO) was first described by Dr. Petersdorf and Dr. Beesom in 1961. FUO was defined as a temperature of 101 F (38.3 C) or high ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fexofenadine Fexofenadine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic breast disease is the most common benign type of breast disease, diagnosed in millions of women worldwide. Certain hormonal factors underp ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Fibrous Dysplasia Fibrous dysplasia is a typically benign bone lesion characterized by intramedullary fibro-osseous proliferation secondary to altered osteogenesis. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Filariasis Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease that causes significant morbidity in the developing world. This activity reviews the evaluation, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fine Motor Disability Fine motor disability is an inability or impairment of an individual to perform tasks that require a degree of manual dexterity. Fine motor ability is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fingertip Injuries The fingertip is the most distal portion of the finger providing the tactile and sensory functions that are then relayed to the brain. It is anatomica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
First Degree Burn First-degree burns are superficial burns involving the epidermal layer of skin. The skin is the largest organ of the human body, with its weight compr ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Fistula In Ano Fistula-in-ano is a tract connecting the anal canal to the perianal skin. It requires surgical treatment in the majority of cases. Proper management i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Flea Bites Flea bites are common in North America, especially in outdoor or unkempt conditions. Improving the interprofessional team's skills to educate patients ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agent for benzodiazepine overdose an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluorides and Fluorocarbons Toxicity Fluorocarbons are fluorinated carbon chain polymers that are used in an assortment of household and commercial products as waterproofing agents, lubri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is FDA-approved for major depressive disorder (age eight and older), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, binge eating d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluphenazine Fluphenazine is a typical antipsychotic used for the symptomatic management of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. There is a long-acting fluphe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Folliculitis Folliculitis is a common skin condition that usually involves infection of the hair follicle. While this condition is typically benign, prompt recogni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Food Allergies Food allergy is defined as an immune reaction to proteins in the food and can be immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated or non-IgE-mediated. IgE-mediated food ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Forearm Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome is a condition in which increased tissue pressure within a limited space compromises the circulation and function of the contents ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Foreign Body Airway Obstruction According to the National Safety Council’s statistics, foreign-body airway obstruction (FBAO) is the fourth leading cause of unintentional death, resu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fosphenytoin Fosphenytoin is a medication used in the management and prevention of seizures. It is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug with the capability to be used ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome (FXS), also called Martin-Bell syndrome, is a non-Mendelian trinucleotide repeat disorder. FXS is the most prevalent inherited caus ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Functional Abdominal Pain In Children Functional abdominal pain is a common disorder in children. The diagnostic Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain must be fulfilled for at lea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Functional Asplenism As the largest lymphoid organ in the body, the spleen has a crucial function in the immune system. It is responsible for the production and maturatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Functional Voice Disorders Functional voice disorders are caused by insufficient or improper use of vocal mechanisms without any anatomic and neurological abnormalities. The mos ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Galactorrhea Galactorrhea is milk production from the breast unrelated to pregnancy or lactation. Milk production one year after cessation of breastfeeding is non- ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Galeazzi Fractures A Galeazzi fracture is a fracture of the middle to distal third of the radius associated with dislocation or subluxation of the distal radioulnar join ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicity Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is pharmaceutically manufactured as sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy. This formulation is considered a Sched ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gangrene Gangrene is tissue damage secondary to infection, ischemia, or both. It is a relatively uncommon condition, and early recognition is essential. Gangre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Gas Gangrene Gas gangrene is a highly lethal infection of soft tissue, caused by Clostridium species, with Clostridium perfringens being the most common. This is s ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Gastric Outlet Obstruction Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a result of any disease process that causes a mechanical impediment to gastric emptying. It can be caused by mecha ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gastric Volvulus Gastric volvulus is a rare, clinical event that occurs in both adults and pediatric patients. In 1886, Berti was the first to describe a gastric volvu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gastrocnemius Rupture Gastrocnemius injuries are common in both recreational and competitive athletes. This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of g ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding can fall into two broad categories: upper and lower sources of bleeding. The anatomic landmark that separates upper and low ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gastrointestinal Foreign Body Foreign body (FB) and food impaction are one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints seen in the emergency department. Foreign bodies tend to p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gender Dysphoria Gender dysphoria (previously gender identity disorder), according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders are defined as a “marked in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Genital Warts Genital warts (condyloma acuminatum) are a sexually transmitted infection caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) types 6 and 11. These are spread by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Genu Valgum Genu valgum (knocked knees) is part of the coronal plane deformities of the lower extremity. The majority of patients are asymptomatic and have no fun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Geographic Tongue Geographic tongue is a benign chronic relapsing recurring inflammatory condition of the oral cavity of unknown etiology. This activity reviews the eva ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Giardia Lamblia Enteritis Giardia lamblia enteritis is small-intestine gastroenteritis caused by the pathogenic protozoan Giardia lamblia, (Giardia duodenalis or Giardia intest ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Gigantism And Acromegaly Acromegaly and gigantism are disorders of the abnormal excess secretion of growth hormone. Gigantism occurs when growth hormone hypersecretion occurs ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gingivitis Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of the gingival tissue most commonly caused by bacterial infection. Unlike periodontitis, there is no attachme ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ginseng There are many described uses for ginseng. Due to its antioxidative and potential neuromodulating effects, it has become a popular supplement in neuro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glargine Insulin Insulin glargine is used in the management and treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a long-acting in ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition of increased intraocular pressure in the eye that may progress to a loss of vision. This results in a characteristic optic ner ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Glenoid Fractures The glenohumeral joint is a complex joint that lacks innate stability; the humeral head relies heavily on the ligaments of the shoulder and the rotato ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gliomas Glioma is the most common form of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasm that originates from glial cells. In the United States, there are six cases of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Glomerulonephritis The term "glomerulonephritis" encompasses a subset of renal diseases characterized by immune-mediated damage to the basement membrane, mesangium, or t ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Glossitis Glossitis refers to inflammation of the tongue and has numerous potential etiologies. While most causes are benign or idiopathic, glossitis can be the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glottic Stenosis Glottic stenosis describes a narrowing of the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and glottic opening, otherwise known as the glottis. Gl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gonococcal Arthritis Gonococcal arthritis is arthritis that results from the bacteremic spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen. It comprises loca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC), also known as gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum when it occurs in neonates, is an infection that is transmitted by cont ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Graft Versus Host Disease Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurs due to the presence of immunocompetent T lymphocytes in the graft attacking the immunodeficient recipient tiss ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gram Positive Bacteria Gram-positive organisms have highly variable growth and resistance patterns. The SCOPE project (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Granuloma Annulare Granuloma annulare is a cutaneous granulomatous disease that is not caused by an infection. It is the most common non-infectious granulomatous disease ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare vasculitis affecting small vessels. Hallmark features include necrotizing granulomas and pauci-immune ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Gray Baby Syndrome Gray baby syndrome is an adverse reaction to chloramphenicol that is characterized by abdominal distention, hemodynamic collapse, and ashen-gray skin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Greenstick Fracture A greenstick fracture is a partial thickness fracture where only cortex and periosteum are interrupted on one side of the bone, while they remain unin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Griseofulvin Griseofulvin is FDA approved for and the drug of choice in tinea capitis. Other indications include onychomycosis as well as superficial fungal infect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Guttate Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that presents as well-defined, scaly, erythematous plaques, and occasionally, sterile pustules. Guttate ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Guyon Canal Syndrome Guyon canal syndrome is a relatively rare peripheral ulnar neuropathy that involves injury to the distal portion of the ulnar nerve as it travels thro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gynecologic Examination The gynecological exam traditionally includes an examination of the external and internal genitalia. Under some conditions, it may be necessary to per ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gynecomastia Gynecomastia is an increase in male breast volume. This condition most often occurs during times of hormonal change such as at birth, during adolescen ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Gyromitra Mushroom Toxicity Gyromitra esculenta, the false morel mushroom, has a unique toxicity. The mushroom derives its name (esculenta) from the Latin for edible. Certain cul ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
H1N1 Influenza H1N1 influenza is a subtype of influenza A virus, a communicable viral illness which causes upper and in some cases lower respiratory tract infections ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Haemophilus Influenza Type B Vaccine The Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent invasive H. influenzae infections (usually caused by H. influenzae type b ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Haemophilus Influenzae Haemophilus influenzae is a bacteria characterized as a small, facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, and capnophilic gram-negative coccobacillus of th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Halitosis Halitosis is a term coined from the merger of the Latin halitus (breath) and Greek osis (pathological process) to describe a condition that meant an u ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Halo Brace The halo vest immobilizer (halo brace) device is the most rigid form of external immobilization of the upper cervical spine to date. Indications for i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Halobetasol Cream Halobetasol cream is a medication used in the management and treatment of psoriasis. It is in the topical corticosteroid class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hand Foot And Mouth Disease Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness usually affecting infants and children but can affect adults. The infection usually inv ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hand High Pressure Injury High-pressure injection injuries of the hand occur when the hand comes into contact with the nozzle of a high-pressure injecting system such as a pain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hand Infection Hand infections comprise a broad spectrum of pathology, dependent upon which superficial or deep structures are involved. Given the anatomical complex ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hantavirus Cardiopulmonary Syndrome Hantaviruses are single-stranded, negative sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. These viruses are associated with both hantavirus cardiopulmo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hantavirus Syndrome Hantavirus is a rare, life-threatening infection characterized by pulmonary edema, hypoxia, and hypotension. It typically results from exposure to mic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hearing Loss The management of hearing loss is challenging and complex. To achieve good outcomes, the goals and objectives of hearing loss management must be defin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Heat Illness The disorders of hyperthermia (also known as heat-related injury or illness) exist on a continuum, which is marked by dysregulation of the body’s ther ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Heat Stroke Heat stroke is a severe heat-related illness that involves an elevation in body temperature which typically, but not always, is greater than 40C. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Heavy Metal Toxicity Heavy metals are elements found in nature that accumulate in the environment mostly due to anthropogenic activities. Humans are exposed to them by occ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Helminthiasis Helminthiasis causes a significant health problem with increased morbidity and, to some extent, mortality in an underdeveloped and developing country, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemangioma Hemangiomas, colloquially termed "strawberry marks", are the most common benign tumor of infancy and are caused by endothelial cell proliferation. Con ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hemarthrosis Hemarthrosis is a condition of articular bleeding, that is into the joint cavity. This can occur after an injury or, more commonly, in bleeding disord ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Bone marrow transplant, also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HPSCT) involves the administration of healthy hematopoietic stem cells to pa ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hematuria Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria can be gross or microscopic; gross hematuria is visible blood in urine whereas microscopic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hemolytic Anemia Hemolytic anemia is a class of anemia that is caused by the destruction of red blood cells, increased hemoglobin catabolism, decreased levels of hemog ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hemolytic Diseases Of The Newborn Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is a red blood cell mismatch between mothers and their fetus that can cause significant morbidity and morta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is thrombotic microangiopathy characterized by the presence of the triad of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, acute renal im ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Hemophilia A Hemophilia encompasses a group of inherited disorders that alter blood coagulation. Classical hemophilia, also known as hemophilia A, is a hereditary ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Disease Of Newborn Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a life-threatening condition that is caused due to insufficient vitamin K levels in the newborns as a result of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Henoch Schönlein Purpura Henoch-Schönlein purpura is an IgA-mediated immune vasculitis involving the small vessels of the joints, kidneys, gastrointestinal (GI) tract, skin, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hepatitis A The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family Picornaviridae. It replicates primarily within h ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B infection is a serious global healthcare problem. Often transmitted via body fluids like blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, the hepatit ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Hepatitis C Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major public health problem affecting 185 million people worldwide. The percentage of people who are seropositive for ant ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Hepatitis D Hepatitis D virus (HDV) was discovered in 1977 in patients with chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Originally thought to be an unrecognized H ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hepatitis E Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is classified in the genus Orthohepevirus of the Hepeviridae family and is one of the most common causes of hepatitis in the w ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hepatobiliary Iminodiacetic Acid Scan Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is a diagnostic nuclear medicine procedure that uses radiotracers to evaluate the biliary system and indirectly, the liver. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Herald Patch A herald patch is an erythematous, 2 to 10 centimeter, round to oval scaly patch or plaque with a depressed center and raised border that frequently p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hereditary Angioedema Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by either a lack of C1-inhibitor protein or by dysfunctional C1-inhibitor protein. ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hereditary Elliptocytosis Hereditary elliptocytosis is a group of inherited heterogenous red blood cell (RBC) membrane disorders characterized by elliptical-shaped RBCs. The pr ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Hereditary Spherocytosis Hereditary spherocytosis, a type of congenital hemolytic anemia, is the most prevalent cause of hemolytic anemia due to an abnormal red cell membrane. ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Heroin Toxicity Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is a very efficient prodrug and more potent than Morphine. Many deaths are caused by heroin overdoses througho ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Herpangina Herpangina is a viral infection that is manifested clinically as an acute febrile illness with small ulcerative or vesicular lesions in the posterior ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Keratitis Herpes simplex virus can cause infection in the eye. Recurrent infection of the cornea due to this virus causes herpes simplex keratitis. It can easil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Neonatorum Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in the neonatal period continue to be troublesome for practitioners. In the 1970s, the drug vidarabine was intro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Type 1 Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a linear dsDNA virus that is a member of the Alphaherpesviridae subfamily. HSV-1 is responsible for establishin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Type 2 This activity reviews the evaluation and management of herpes simplex type 2 and highlights the role of the primary care provider in managing patients ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Herpes Virus Type 6 Though the most common manifestation of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the rash exanthema subitum, also called roseola infantum, HHV-6 has been known ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Herpes Zoster Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a viral syndrome caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. After an episode of varicella (chicke ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Herpetic Gingivostomatitis Herpetic gingivostomatitis is a manifestation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and is characterized by high-grade fever and painful oral lesions ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Herpetic Whitlow Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is common and is most often transmitted in childhood through direct physical contact. The most common infectious sites are ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hidradenitis Suppurativa Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS), also called acne inversus, is a chronic inflammatory skin condition with lesions including deep-seated nodules and absc ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis High anion gap metabolic acidosis (HAGMA) is a type of metabolic acidosis. Differentiation of acidosis into a particular subtype, whether high anion g ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
High Frequency Ventilation High-frequency ventilation (HFV) is a type of ventilation that is utilized when conventional ventilation fails. It is a technique where the set respir ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hip Pointer Injuries A hip pointer is a contusion of the iliac crest and/or the greater trochanteric region of the femur following a direct impact or collision. The manag ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hirschsprung Disease Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells (GC) at the Meissner's plexus (submucosa) and Auerba ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Histoplasmosis Histoplasma capsulatum is a dimorphic fungus present worldwide in pockets of endemicity particularly associated with river valleys. The endemic region ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Histrionic Personality Disorder A histrionic personality disorder, or commonly known as a dramatic personality disorder, is a psychiatric disorder distinguished by a pattern of exagg ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
HIV Antiretroviral Therapy A typical initial HIV regimen includes 3 HIV medications from a minimum of 2 drug classes. Although this treatment is not curative, it can provide lon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
HIV In Pregnancy Several thousand HIV positive pregnant women give birth in the US annually. With proper management, these women can achieve viral suppression to undet ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
HIV Prophylaxis HIV prophylaxis is divided into two categories: post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PEP is the administration of anti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hodgkin Lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare monoclonal lymphoid neoplasm characterized by the following four features: HL usually presents in young adults, common ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Homonymous Hemianopsia Homonymous hemianopsia (or hemianopia) is a field loss deficit in the same halves of the visual field of each eye, often resulting from cerebrovascula ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hookworm Hookworm infection is one of the common parasitic infestations in developing countries. They are mainly causing iron deficiency anemia in exposed pati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil) a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Horseshoe Kidney Horseshoe kidneys are the most common fusion defect of the kidneys occurring in approximately 1:500 individuals. They are characterized by abnormaliti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Human Bites Human bites account for a relatively low percentage (3%) of the total bites encountered in the ED, but they have the potential for severe morbidity du ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Human Metapneumovirus Human metapneumovirus is an important pathogen that causes upper and/or lower respiratory tract infections. It does require the clinician to be knowle ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Human Papillomavirus The human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded, circular DNA virus that is responsible for causing multiple epithelial lesions and ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Human Trafficking Human trafficking is a pressing public health concern which transcends all races, social classes, demographics, and gender. No population is exempt fr ... Read the Article 2 23 Activity Info
Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase is an enzyme useful in facilitating the management of injectable medications. This activity reviews the indications, action, adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydrocarbon Toxicity Hydrocarbons are compounds containing hydrogen and carbon. These are typically the chief components in many types of fuels. They can come in the form ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hydrocele A hydrocele is a collection of peritoneal fluid between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis, which directly surrounds the testis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity Hydrogen sulfide can be found in many environments, and toxicity can arise from both direct contact and as the chemical enters the bloodstream. At hig ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydronephrosis And Hydroureter Hydronephrosis and hydroureter result from obstruction of urine flow in the urinary system at the renal pelvis and ureter level, respectively. This is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydroxyurea Toxicity Hydroxyurea is an antineoplastic agent used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation in the treatment of resistant leuke ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hymenoptera Stings The Hymenoptera order includes over 150,000 different species of flying and non-flying insects. Some species within this order have modified oviposito ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hyperammonemia Hyperammonemia is a metabolic condition characterized by raised levels of ammonia, a nitrogen-containing compound. Ammonia is a potent neurotoxin. Hyp ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperamylasemia Hyperamylasemia refers to elevated levels of serum amylase. It is most commonly observed and evaluated in patients with acute pancreatitis to confirm ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypercalciuria Hypercalciuria is generally considered to be the most common identifiable metabolic risk factor for calcium nephrolithiasis. It also contributes to os ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperchloremic Acidosis Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a pathological state that results from bicarbonate loss, rather than acid production or retention. Bicarbonate lo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypercholesterolemia Lipoprotein disorders are clinically important due to the of the role of lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the associated risk of atherosclerotic card ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Hypermagnesemia Magnesium is an essential element for the life of plants as it is part of chlorophyll. Moreover, it is abundant in animal tissues, where it is fundame ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypernatremia The human body maintains sodium and water homeostasis by concentrating the urine secondary to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and increased f ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperoxaluria Renal calculi are the products of abnormal crystallization of sediments in the urine. Although the acute interventions for all types of stones are sim ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Hyperphosphatemia This article summarises the basics of Hyperphosphatemia, including its pathophysiology, evaluation, and management. Though this condition is seen more ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperpituitarism The pituitary gland produces and secretes various hormones that play a vital role in regulating endocrine function within the body. The pituitary glan ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Hypertonic Fluids Clinicians use hypertonic fluids to increase intravascular fluid volume. Hypertonic saline can be utilized in the treatment of hyponatremia. Hypertoni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypertrichosis Hypertrichosis is defined as excessive hair growth anywhere on the body in either males or females. It is important to distinguish hypertrichosis from ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a mutation in sarcomere protein genes which effect contraction of the hea ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia is a common disorder that affects patients of all ages and genders. The most common manifestation of hyperuricemia is gout, which can be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyphema Hyphema is the accumulation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the anterior chamber of the eye. By definition, blood must be grossly visible, either on dire ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hypoalbuminemia Hypoalbuminaemia is one of the most prevalent disorders in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Hypoalbuminaemia may be a result of decreased pro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypoaldosteronism Hypoaldosteronism is a clinical condition characterized by a deficiency of aldosterone or its impaired action at the tissue level. The disorder may re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypocarbia Hypocarbia, also known as hypocapnia, is a decrease in alveolar and blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels below the normal reference range of 35 mm Hg. CO ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypogammaglobulinemia Hypogammaglobulinemia is a disorder caused by low serum immunoglobulin or antibody levels. Immunoglobulins are the main components of the humoral immu ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypogonadism Male hypogonadism, acquired or congenital, can be caused by defects that interfere with the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. It is essential to ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Hypokalemia One of the most common electrolyte disturbances seen in clinical practice is hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is more prevalent than hyperkalemia, and most ca ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypomagnesemia Magnesium is an important electrolyte. It is a key part of many reactions that occur in the human body, affecting cellular function, nerve conduction, ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypophosphatemia Given its widespread role in nearly every molecular, cellular function, aberrations in serum phosphate levels can be highly impactful. Hypophosphatemi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypopigmented Macules Hypopigmented macules are one of the most common skin lesions encountered in clinical practice. As the name suggests, these lesions are associated wit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypopituitarism Hypopituitarism is defined as a deficiency of one or more of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland. The presence of hypopituitarism is associat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypospadias Hypospadias is an anatomical congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. It is characterized by abnormal development of the urethral fold ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypotonia Hypotonia is an easily recognizable entity but determining the etiology is a challenging task for a clinician given its vast differential. Systematica ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ibuprofen Ibuprofen is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid disorders, mild to moderate pain, fever, dysmenorr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ibuprofen Toxicity Ibuprofen, 2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionic acid, belongs to the class of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and was discovered b ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy A seizure can be defined as abnormal, hypersynchronous discharge of cortical neurons, and epilepsy defined as a propensity to have seizures. Idiopathi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
IgA Deficiency Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a common primary immunodeficiency characterized by undetectable serum IgA, a concomitant lack of secretory IgA, a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
IgA Nephropathy IgA nephropathy is a common form of glomerulonephritis caused by the deposition of IgA immunoglobulins in the glomerular basement membrane. Immune-med ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Illness Anxiety Disorder Illness anxiety disorder (previously called hypochondriasis) is a psychiatric disorder defined by excessive worry about having or developing a serious ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Imipramine Imipramine is a medication used in the treatment of depression and anxiety. It is a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated or inappropriate immunologic responses occuring in response to an antigen or allergen. Type I, II, and III ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Immune thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) is defined as a low platelet count, usually, less than 100,000 in the presence of a generalized petechial rash, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Immunization Immunization has become a vital part of public health and disease prevention, yet remain a controversial topic. Diseases which were once responsible f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Immunodeficiency Immunodeficiency results from a failure or absence of elements of the immune system, including lymphocytes, phagocytes, and complement system. Immunod ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Immunoglobulin Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are glycoproteins that are produced by plasma cells. B cells are instructed by specific immunogens, for, example, b ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is used to upregulate or downregulate the immune system to achieve a therapeutic effect in immunological mediated disorders including im ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Impaired Bilirubin Conjugation Bilirubin circulates in both the unconjugated and conjugated forms. Disorders of impaired conjugation of bilirubin classically present with elevated l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Imperforate Hymen When the hymen, a thin membrane of stratified squamous epithelium circumscribing the vaginal introitus, does not spontaneously rupture during neonatal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Impetigo Impetigo is a common infection of the superficial layers of the epidermis that is highly contagious and most commonly caused by gram-positive bacteria ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Incision and Drainage Incision and drainage (I&D) is a widely used procedure in various care settings including emergency departments and outpatient clinics. It is the prim ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Indomethacin Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug with broad applications. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infant Apnea Apnea in infants is the term used to describe episodes of cessation of breathing and may be due to many physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Bri ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Infant Head Lag Infant head lag is observed when the head seems to flop around or lags posteriorly behind the trunk. Several articles have maintained that head lag sh ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infant Nutrition Requirements and Options Infancy is a period of rapid growth second only to the fetal period, with a pressing need to optimize nutrition to ensure adequate growth and organ de ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Infantile Acne Acne vulgaris, a common dermatologic condition, is defined by the presence of comedones. Essentially benign in nature, acne vulgaris can, however, res ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infantile and Juvenile Scoliosis Early-onset scoliosis (EOS) occurs in young children and presents a unique and challenging dilemma since the spine, thorax, and lungs are still develo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infantile Botulism Infantile botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum, which is an anaerobic spore-forming, gram-positive bacillus. It can be found in the soil, water ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Infection Control Infection control refers to the policy and procedures implemented to control and minimize the dissemination of infections in hospitals and other healt ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Infectious Colitis The management of infectious colitis is complex, and new approaches have been introduced. The basic and clinical aspects of infectious colitis must be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infectious Endocarditis Infectious endocarditis refers to the colonization of cardiac valve endocardium by virulent microorganisms. It is a rare condition that can lead to r ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Inflammatory Arthritis Inflammatory arthritis includes a group of arthritis accompanied by joint pain, swelling, warmth, and tenderness in the joints and morning stiffness t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract and is divided into Crohn disease and ulcerative coli ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Influenza Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, including upper and lower respiratory passages. A wide spectrum of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Influenza Vaccine Influenza viruses belong to Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus family and classify into three distinct types based on their major antigenic differences; influ ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Inguinal Hernia Inguinal hernia repair is an extremely common operation performed by surgeons. More than 800,000 repairs performed annually. These groin hernias can b ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Inhaled Corticosteroids Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the FDA-indicated treatment of choice in preventing asthma exacerbation in patients with persistent asthma. Persiste ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Innocent Murmur Murmurs are the most common reason for pediatric cardiologist referral and evaluation. There are reports that up to 72% of children will have a murmur ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Insect Bites The term "bug bite" is commonly used to denote both bites and stings inflicted by members of the phylum Arthropoda. Arthropods make up the largest di ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Intellectual Disability Individuals with an intellectual disability have neurodevelopmental deficits characterized by limitations in intellectual functioning and adaptive beh ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Interferon Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune dise ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intertrigo Intertrigo is a superficial inflammatory skin condition of the skin's flexural surfaces, prompted or irritated by warm temperatures, friction, moistur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intestinal Perforation Intestinal perforation, defined as a loss of continuity of the bowel wall, is a potentially devastating complication that may result from a variety of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Intestinal Trauma Intestinal injury is common in both blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Due to the potentially life-threatening nature of these injuries, provider ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Intoeing Deformities and angular variations of the lower extremities are one of the most common reasons for referral to pediatric orthopedics, with in-toeing s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intracerebral Hemorrhage This activity aims to outline the pathophysiology, risk factors, presentation diagnosis, and complications of intracerebral hemorrhages. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Intracranial Hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhage encompasses four broad types of hemorrhage: epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraparenc ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intramuscular Injection This activity outlines and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving care for patients who undergo the intramuscular injection. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intraosseous Vascular Access Obtaining vascular access is often difficult and delays patient care in the prehospital and hospital setting. Intraosseous (IO) access is a fast and r ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a pooled antibody and a biological agent used in the management of various immunodeficiency states and a plethora ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Inverted Nipple An inverted nipple is a condition with a prevalence of 10%-20% in the general population. Though not life-threatening, it is psychologically and physi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron deficiency anemia is the most common cause of anemia worldwide, which results in microcytic and hypochromic red cells on the peripheral smear. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Iron Supplementation Iron is a medication used in the management and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. This activity illustrates the indications, action, and contraind ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Iron Toxicity Iron poisoning is one of the most common toxic ingestion and one of the most deadly among children. Failure to diagnose and treat iron poisoning can h ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. IBS, in the absence of any other causative disease, is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Isoniazid Isoniazid is an antibiotic used in the treatment of mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. This activity describes the indications, action, and contra ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Isoniazid Toxicity Isoniazid (INH) is a potent bactericidal antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Treatment with INH therapy has a risk of toxicity, which ca ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Isopropanol Toxicity Isopropanol, or isopropyl alcohol, is a clear, colorless liquid that emits an odor that resembles acetone. It is a commercially available product main ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Isotretinoin Isotretinoin is an oral prescription medication that affects sebaceous glands and is used in the treatment of severe acne. The drug was approved by th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
ITP-Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune pathology characterized by a low platelet count, purpura, and hemorrhagic episodes caused by an ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Itraconazole Itraconazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the antifungal class of medications. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia Junctional ectopic tachycardia is an arrhythmia usually present in infants but has been seen in older children as well. It can be congenital or postop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Junctional Rhythm The sinoatrial node is the natural cardiac pacemaker located in the upper right atrium. The atrioventricular node is a separate cardiac pacemaker loca ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Juvenile Absence Epilepsy Juvenile absence epilepsy is an idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome that is recognized by the ILAE (International League Against Epilepsy) that t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), a heterogeneous group of chronic arthritis, is the most common chronic rheumatological condition in children. The ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited medium vessel vasculitis that has a predilection for the coronary arteries. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Kayser-Fleischer Ring Kayser–Fleischer (KF) rings are a common ophthalmologic finding in patients with Wilson disease. Initially thought to be due to the accumulation of si ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Keratitis Keratitis is a clinical entity wherein inflammatory cells infiltrate different corneal layers in response to noxious stimuli, either infectious exogen ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Keratosis Pilaris Keratosis pilaris is a chronic condition most common in the adolescent population. The condition characteristically presents with papules with follicu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Kernicterus Kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is bilirubin-induced neurological damage, which is most commonly seen in infants. It occurs when the unconju ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with pathologically high serum and urine concentrations of ketone bodies. Clinically relevant forms of ke ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Ketoconazole Ketoconazole is a drug used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the imidazole antifungal class of medications. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ketorolac Ketorolac is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute moderate to severe pain. It is in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug clas ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Kidney Trauma Renal trauma can result in injury to the parenchyma or the renal vasculature which can cause bleeding or injury to the collecting system with possible ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Kingella Kingae This activity reviews the microbiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology and the clinical manifestations of Kingella kingae infection. It also highlights ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kissing Bug Bite Kissing bug bites and the subsequent development of Chagas disease is under-recognized and frequently go untreated. Chagas disease can be challenging ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Klinefelter Syndrome Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the result of 2 or more X chromosomes in a phenotypic male. The clinical phenotype of KS was first described in males wit ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Klumpke Palsy Klumpke palsy, named after Augusta Dejerine-Klumpke, is a neuropathy involving the lower brachial plexus. In contrast, the more common; the Duchenne p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Knee Effusion The knee is a hinge joint and susceptible to injury from trauma, inflammation, infection, and degenerative changes. A knee effusion may result from ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Knee Extensor Mechanism Injuries Knee extensor mechanism injuries are a group of morbidities that involve the quadriceps muscles, quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Knee Meniscal Tears The lateral and medial menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures that collectively cover approximately 70% of the articular surface of ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a somewhat rare cause of knee dysfunction and pain that has been recognized for over one hundred years, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Kwashiorkor Kwashiorkor is a disease marked by severe protein malnutrition and bilateral extremity swelling. It usually affects infants and children, most often a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Kyphoscoliosis Kyphoscoliosis is a disease of the thoracolumbar spine in which normal curvature is excessively deviated in multiple planes. Its complications are var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kyphosis Kyphosis is defined as an increase in the forward curvature of the spine that is seen along the sagittal plane, whereas lordosis is an increase in the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Labial Adhesions Labial adhesion is the fusion of the labia minora or majora, and it is mostly located near the clitoris. It also may be known as synechia vulvae or la ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lachman Test The Lachman test is a specific clinical exam technique used to evaluate patients with a suspected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The test re ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Lactic Acidosis Lactic acid is produced in physiologically normal processes, and as a common finding in disease states. When increased production is comorbid with dec ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Lactose Intolerance Lactose intolerance is a clinical syndrome that manifests with characteristic signs and symptoms upon the consumption of food substances containing la ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lamivudine Lamivudine is a medication used in the management and treatment of HIV-1 and hepatitis B. It is in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRT ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Laryngeal Fracture A laryngeal fracture requires a considerable impact force. The most common cause of laryngeal trauma is a motor vehicle accident or sports injury, fol ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Laryngeal Injury Laryngotracheal injuries have a high mortality rate although they are infrequently seen. These injuries may be penetrating or blunt and can occur in t ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Laryngeal Papillomas Laryngeal papilloma is a benign lesion caused by a viral infection of epithelial cells leading to an overgrowth in one or different segments of the re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Laryngomalacia Laryngomalacia ranks as the most prevalent cause of stridor in an infant. It is crucial to make the diagnosis in early infancy as it may affect multip ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Laryngotracheobronchitis Laryngotracheobronchitis, as the name implies, refers to inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Cases of laryngotracheobronchitis can be mo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Laxatives Constipation is a common diagnosis that requires proper evaluation and appropriate treatment. The approach to a patient with chronic constipation incl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lead Encephalopathy Lead intoxication is one of the most well described environmental intoxications worldwide and it continues to be a commonly encountered disease both i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lead Toxicity Lead became a common occupational toxin with the birth of the Industrial Revolution, by the end of the 19-century childhood lead poisoning secondary t ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Learning Disability Learning disabilities (LDs) refer to a number of disorders that may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, comprehension, or the use of both ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Leech Bite Leeches are hermaphroditic parasites of phylum Annelida and class Hirudinea. There are over 600 species of leeches. A minority of these are sanguinivo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a condition in which an increase in left ventricular mass occurs secondary to an increase in wall thickness, an ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) can occur at the valvular, subvalvular, or supravalvular level. In general, there is an obstruction ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Legg Calve Perthes Disease Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is idiopathic osteonecrosis or idiopathic avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis of the femoral head. T ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Legionnaires' Disease Legionnaires' disease is a condition of severe pneumonia caused by Legionella, an aerobic gram-negative bacillus. This is a common cause of hospital a ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Leishmaniasis Leishmaniasis is a protozoan disease transmitted by sandflies that is most commonly seen in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As travel pattern ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Leukocoria Leukocoria means ‘white pupil’ or ‘cat’s eye pupil’. Leukocoria is an abnormal pupillary reflex more clearly seen on mydriasis or photography. It is o ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Leukocytosis Leukocytosis has a variety of etiologies with which clinicians of all backgrounds should be familiar. This activity outlines the evaluation of leukocy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists Montelukast and zafirlukast are cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists indicated for the prevention and treatment of chronic asthma. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Leuprolide Leuprolide is a medication used in the management and treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, precocious puberty, and other sex ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Levetiracetam Levetiracetam is a novel, antiepileptic drug used in the treatment of partial seizures, myoclonic seizures, and tonic-clonic seizures. In 2000, the FD ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lichen Planus Lichen planus (LP) is an inflammatory disorder of the skin and mucous membranes with no known cause. It appears as pruritic, violaceous papules and pl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lichen Sclerosus Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon autoimmune condition characterized by skin atrophy and hypopigmentation. It mostly affects the genital skin and occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lionfish, Scorpionfish, And Stonefish Toxicity More than 50 percent of all venomous vertebrates are fish, and which pose a threat to divers around the world. The family Scorpaenidae includes the mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lipodystrophies Lipodystrophies are conditions that share the common finding of a reduction in subcutaneous fat. There are multiple subtypes of lipodystrophy, which m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lipoma Lipomas are common, benign subcutaneous tumors of fat cells (adipocytes) that present as soft, painless nodules that are most commonly seen on the tru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative, intracellular, gram-positive rod that is responsible for causing the infection listeriosis. Listeria causes s ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Lithium Despite the availability of newer mood stabilizers, lithium continues to be a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder. It is often underutilized bec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Loperamide Loperamide is a medication used in the treatment of diarrhea. It classifies as an anti-diarrheal agent. The use of loperamide in high doses has been a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lumbar Spondylolysis And Spondylolisthesis Spondylolysis refers to a posterior defect in the vertebral body at the pars interarticularis. Usually, this defect is due to trauma or from a chronic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis Lumbosacral spondylolisthesis is a forward translation of the fifth lumbar vertebrae over the first sacral vertebrae. Untreated, it may be associated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Lyme Carditis Lyme carditis has been reported in 1% to 5% of diagnosed patients with Lyme disease. The most prominent manifestations are conduction system disturban ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread by ticks. Lyme disease is divided into three stages: early local ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Lymphedema Lymphedema is a chronic disease marked by the increased collection of lymphatic fluid in the body, causing swelling, which can lead to skin and tissue ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Lymphogranuloma venereum is an ulcerative sexually transmitted infection of the genital area caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmittable by ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a classical hallucinogen. No approved indications for LSD-assisted therapy exist today. It has been used in the pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide Toxicity D-lysergic acid diethylamide, or LSD, is a prominent hallucinogenic drug of abuse that can produce profound, dose-dependent subjective effects in thos ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Macrocephaly Macrocephaly is the condition in which the head circumference of an infant is above 2 standard deviations, which is above the 97th percentile. It can ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Macrocytosis Macrocytosis refers to the finding of enlarged red blood cells (RBCs). The measurement of RBC size is reported in the complete blood count (CBC) as me ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Macrolides Macrolides are a class of drugs used in the management and treatment of various bacterial infections. This activity reviews the mechanism of action, i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Macrosomia Macrosomia is commonly encountered during obstetric practice. It is associated with a higher likelihood of obstetric as well as neonatal complications ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Magnesium Magnesium use is indicated for a variety of diseases. This is due to the variety of effects magnesium has within the body. Administration of magnesium ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium sulfate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple clinical conditions and holds several on and off label uses. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Major Depressive Disorder Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been ranked as the third cause of the burden of disease worldwide in 2008 by WHO, which has projected that this di ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Malabsorption Syndromes This activity is a brief overview of malabsorption symptoms as they pertain to fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin, mineral, and trace elements digest ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Malaria Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito that leads to acute life-threatening disease and poses a significant global hea ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Malaria Prophylaxis Malaria is an infection caused by Plasmodium species endemic to most parts of Africa, South America, East Asia, and parts of Europe and the Middle Eas ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Malassezia Furfur Malassezia furfur is a commensal yeast of human skin that has correlates with several common skin conditions. Emerging evidence continually improves t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mallet Finger Injuries Mallet finger is the term usually applied to extensor avulsion fractures. However, this entity may also be caused by distal extensor tendon ruptures. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mallory Weiss Syndrome Mallory-Weiss syndrome is one of the common causes of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is characterized by the presence of longitudinal super ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Manganese Toxicity Manganese (Mn) toxicity is a well-established result of repeated occupational and nutritional exposures. Though this syndrome is relatively uncommon, ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Marasmus Marasmus is a manifestation of severe dietary malnutrition which occurs as a result of a calorie deficiency. Marasmus is associated with a better prog ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Marfan Syndrome One of the most common inherited disorders affecting connective tissue, Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant condition with a reported incid ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Marijuana Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is commonly sought out by patients for various conditions. Conversely, many providers are uncomfortable prescribing ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Marijuana Toxicity The term "marijuana" typically refers to the tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers of the plant cannabis sativa. The active ingredient i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Mastoiditis Mastoiditis is a common complication of acute otitis media. This activity reviews the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Maturity Onset Diabetes in the Young The most commonly recognized forms of diabetes mellitus include type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disorder, and type 2 diabetes, a polygenic disorder inf ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mean Corpuscular Volume Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measure used to determine anemia etiologies. This activity illustrates the categories of anemia with varying MCVs, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Measles Measles, also known as rubeola, is a preventable, highly contagious, acute febrile viral illness. It remains an important cause of global mortality an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mebendazole Mebendazole is a medication used in the treatment of parasitic infection. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, activity, adverse ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Meckel Diverticulum Meckel diverticulum is a common congenital abnormality of the small intestine that is caused by incomplete obliteration of the vitelline (omphalomesen ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Meconium Aspiration Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is the neonatal respiratory distress that occurs in a newborn in the context of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MA ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Medial Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a flat band of connective tissue that runs from the medial epicondyle of the femur to the medial condyle of th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injuries of the lower extremity, often seen in athletes and military personnel. It involves e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Median Nerve Injury This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of an injury to the median nerve and highlights the role of the healthcare team in managing patien ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Medication Overuse Induced Headache Medication overuse headache (MOH) is thought to occur when medications intended to relieve headaches are consumed too frequently. Causal agents are va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Megaloblastic Anemia Megaloblastic anemia (MA) encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by the presence in the bone marrow of large red blood cell precur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Meningioma Meningioma is a known benign central nervous system tumor commonly arising from the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. The rate of recurrence and ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Meningocele Meningocele is one of the common congenital neural tube defects. Meningocele is the simplest form of open neural tube defects characterized by cystic ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Meningococcal Meningitis Meningitis is an infection/inflammation of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges. Meningococcal meningitis is the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Meningococcal Prophylaxis Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the mucosal surface of the nasopharynx in approximately 10% of healthy persons. The ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meningococcal Vaccine Meningococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This activity will describe how to deal with this disease as a serious ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Meningococcemia Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is an important bacterial infection manifesting as meningitis or septicemia, or more often a combination of bot ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Menorrhagia Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the name given to describe any deviation from the normal menstrual cycle. The average cycle lasts 29 days with a ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meralgia Paresthetica Meralgia paresthetica is a clinical condition that includes pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh associated with lateral femoral cutaneous ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mercury Toxicity Mercury has been used for centuries in multiple capacities including medicinal and widespread industrial use. Because of this, it is a common chemical ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mesenteric Adenitis Mesenteric adenitis is a syndrome characterized by right lower quadrant pain secondary to an inflammatory condition of mesenteric lymph nodes. This c ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Metabolic Acidosis Acid-base disorders are disturbances in the homeostasis of hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma. Any process that increases the serum hydrogen ion ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Methamphetamine Toxicity Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug that is a derivative of amphetamine. Methamphetamine can produce euphoria and stimulant eff ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition with life-threatening potential in which diminution of the oxygen-carrying capacity of circulating hemoglobin occurs ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methohexital Methohexital is a medication used in anesthesia for sedation. It is in the barbiturate class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methylene Blue Methylene blue is a medication used in the management and treatment of methemoglobinemia, a condition in which hemoglobin decreases its ability to car ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methylphenidate Methylphenidate is FDA-approved for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults and as a second-line treat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methylxanthines Methylxanthines are drugs primarily employed in the treatment of non-obstructive lung pathology. This activity will highlight the indications, mechani ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Metronidazole Metronidazole is one of the mainstay drugs for the treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections, protozoal infections, and microaerophilic bacterial in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Microcytic Hypochromic Anemia Microcytic, hypochromic anemia, as the name suggests, is the type of anemia in which the circulating RBCs are smaller than the usual size of RBCs (mic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Midazolam Intravenous midazolam is used for the induction of anesthesia and also in the management of acute seizures. Because of its water-soluble nature, midaz ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Middle Ear Cholesteatoma There are two major types of middle ear cholesteatomas, congenital and acquired. Congenital cholesteatomas are derived from remnants of epi