Schizoaffective disorder is one of the most misdiagnosed psychiatric disorders in clinical practice. In fact, some researchers have proposed revisions to the diagnostic criteria, and others have suggested removing the diagnosis all together from the DSM-5. There were significant concerns regarding the reliability and utility of the diagnosis when it was first introduced in the DSM. The challenges lie within the diagnostic criteria itself since the disorder is part of a spectrum that shares criteria with many other prominent psychiatric disorders found in clinical practice.
The term schizoaffective disorder first appeared as a subtype of schizophrenia in the first edition of the DSM. It eventually became its own diagnosis despite lack of evidence for unique differences in etiology or pathophysiology. Therefore, there have been no conclusive studies on the etiology of the disorder. However, investigating the potential causes of mood disorders and schizophrenia as individual disorders allows for further discussion.
Some studies show that as high as 50% of people with schizophrenia also have comorbid depression. The pathogenesis of both mood disorders and schizophrenia is multifactorial and covers a range of risk factors including genetics, social factors, trauma, and stress. Among people with schizophrenia, there is a possible increased risk for first-degree relatives for schizoaffective disorder and vice-versa; there may be increased risk among individuals for schizoaffective disorder who have a first-degree relative with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder.
The diagnostic criteria for the schizoaffective disorder have been reworded and addended since its inclusion in the DSM, which made it difficult to subsequently conduct appropriate epidemiological studies. Thus, there have been no large-scale studies on the epidemiology, incidence, or prevalence of the schizoaffective disorder. Research shows that 30% of cases occur between the ages of 25 and 35, and it occurs more frequently in women. Schizoaffective disorder occurs about one-third as commonly as schizophrenia and the lifetime prevalence appears to be around 0.3%. Estimates are that schizoaffective disorder comprises 10 to 30% of inpatient admissions for psychosis.
The exact pathophysiology of schizoaffective disorder is currently unknown. Some studies have shown that abnormalities in dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin may play a role. Also, white matter abnormalities in multiple areas of the brain, particularly the right lentiform nucleus, left temporal gyrus and right precuneus are associated with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Researchers have also found reduced hippocampal volumes and distinct deformations in the medial and lateral thalamic regions in those with schizoaffective disorder in comparison to controls.
The first step in evaluation is obtaining a complete medical history while focusing on the diagnostic criteria for schizoaffective disorder.
The specific DSM-5 criteria for schizoaffective disorder are as follows:
A. An uninterrupted duration of illness during which there is a major mood episode (manic or depressive) in addition to criterion A for schizophrenia; the major depressive episode must include depressed mood.
Criterion A for schizophrenia is as follows:
Two or more of the following presentations, each present for a significant amount of time during a 1-month period (or less if successfully treated). At least one of these must be from the first three below.
B. Hallucinations and delusions for two or more weeks in the absence of a major mood episode (manic or depressive) during the entire lifetime duration of the illness.
C. Symptoms that meet criteria for a major mood episode are present for the majority of the total duration of the active as well as residual portions of the illness.
D. The disturbance is not the results of the effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of misuse or a medication) or another underlying medical condition.
The following are specifiers based on the primary mood episode as part of the presentation.
Bipolar type: includes episodes of mania and sometimes major depression.
Depressive type: includes only major depressive episodes.
Please note the patient must meet the criteria for A-D above to be diagnosed with schizoaffective disorder. It is not enough to symptoms of schizophrenia while meeting the criteria for a major mood episode. Please see differential diagnoses and pearls sections below for more information.
The next step of evaluation is the objective and physical portion. A thorough mental status examination (MSE), physical examination, and neurologic examination should be completed to aid in ruling out other differential diagnoses.
The following workup is optional and typically not needed to make the diagnosis. The history and physical are the mainstays of diagnosis. However, some elect to include additional tests, or imaging to aid in the diagnosis such as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), EEG (electroencephalography) or CT (computed tomography).
Laboratory studies are tailored to the patient’s history, especially for those who have an atypical presentation.
If the patient's neurologic exam is found to be aberrant, performing a brain MRI or CT to rule out any suspected intracranial abnormalities may be considered.
The treatment of schizoaffective disorder typically involves both pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. The mainstay of most treatment regimens should include an antipsychotic, but the choice of treatment should be tailored to the individual. A study which reported obtained data on treatment regimens for schizoaffective showed that 93% of patients received an antipsychotic. 20% of patients received a mood-stabilizer in addition to an antipsychotic, while 19% received an antidepressant in along with an antipsychotic. Prior to initiating treatment, if a patient with schizoaffective disorder is a danger to themselves or others, inpatient hospitalization should be considered; this includes patients who are neglecting activities of daily living or those who are disabled well below their baseline in terms of functioning.
Antipsychotics: Used to target psychosis and aggressive behavior in schizoaffective disorder. Other symptoms include delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, disorganized speech, and behavior. Most first and second generation antipsychotics block dopamine receptors. While second-generation antipsychotics have further actions on serotonin receptors. Antipsychotics include, but are not limited to paliperidone (FDA approved for schizoaffective disorder), risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, aripiprazole, and haloperidol. Clozapine is a consideration for refractory cases, much like in schizophrenia.
Mood-stabilizers: Patients who have periods of distractibility, indiscretion, grandiosity, a flight of ideas, increased goal-directed activity, decreased need for sleep, and who are hyperverbal fall under the bipolar-specifier for schizoaffective disorder. Consider the use of mood-stabilizers if the patient has a history of manic or hypomanic symptoms. These include medications such as lithium, valproic acid, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, and lamotrigine which target mood dysregulation.
Antidepressants: Used to target depressive symptoms in schizoaffective disorder. Selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are preferred due to lower risk for adverse drug effects and tolerability when compared to the tricyclic antidepressants, and selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. SSRIs include fluoxetine, sertraline, citalopram, escitalopram, paroxetine, and fluvoxamine. It is vital to rule out bipolar disorder before starting an antidepressant due to risk for exacerbating a manic episode.
Patients who have schizoaffective disorder can benefit from psychotherapy, as is the case with most mental disorders.
Treatment plans should incorporate individual therapy, family therapy, and psychoeducational programs. The aim is to develop their social skills and improve cognitive functioning to prevent relapse and possible rehospitalization. This treatment plan includes education about the disorder, etiology, and treatment.
Individual therapy: This type of treatment aims to normalize thought processes and better help the patient understand the disorder, to reduce the burden of symptoms. Sessions focus on everyday goals, social interactions, and conflict' this includes social skills training and vocational training.
Family and/or group therapy: Family involvement is crucial in the treatment of this schizoaffective disorder. Family education aids in compliance with medications and appointments, and helps provide structure throughout the patient's life given the dynamic nature of the schizoaffective disorder. Supportive group programs can also help if the patient has been in social isolation and provides a sense of shared experiences among participants.
ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy)
ECT is usually a last resort treatment. However, not only has it been used in urgent cases and treatment resistance, but it should also merit consideration in augmentation of current pharmacotherapy. The most common indicated symptoms are catatonia and aggression. ECT is safe and effective for most chronically hospitalized patients.
Due to having criteria that encompass both psychotic and mood symptoms, schizoaffective disorder is easy to mistake for other mental disorders. Disorders that must be ruled out during the workup of schizoaffective disorder include schizophrenia, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, and bipolar disorder.
Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder: There has to be a definite period of at least two weeks in which there are only psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations) without mood symptoms to diagnose schizoaffective disorder. However, a major mood episode (depression or mania) is present for the majority of the total duration of the illness. Once the psychotic symptoms predominate the majority of the total duration of the illness, the diagnosis leans towards schizophrenia. Also, schizophrenia requires 6 months of prodromal or residual symptoms; schizoaffective disorder does not require this criterion.
Major Depressive Disorder Psychotic Features and Schizoaffective Disorder: Patients with major depression with psychotic features (MDD with PF), only experience psychotic features during their mood episodes. In contrast, schizoaffective requires at least 2 weeks in which there are only psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations) without mood symptoms. Patients with MDD with PF do not meet criterion A of schizoaffective disorder.
Bipolar Disorder and Schizoaffective Disorder: Similar to the contrasts with MDD w/ PF, patients with bipolar disorder with psychotic features only experience psychotic features (delusions and hallucinations) during a manic episode. Again, schizoaffective requires a period of at least 2 weeks in which there are only psychotic symptoms without mood symptoms. Psychotic features in bipolar disorder do not meet criterion A of schizoaffective disorder.
Given that the diagnostic criteria of schizoaffective disorder change periodically, prognostic studies have been challenging to conduct. However, a study by Harrison et al., 2001 on the overall prognosis of those with psychotic illness showed that 50% of cases showed favorable outcomes. The defined favorable as minimal or no symptoms, and/or employment. These outcomes were highly reliant on early initiation of treatment and optimized treatment regimens as outlined above.
Left untreated, schizoaffective disorder has many ramifications in both social functioning and activities of daily living. These include unemployment, isolation, impaired ability to care for self, etc. Untreated mental disorders have more than just social and functional consequences. Some studies show that as many as 5% of people with a psychotic illness will commit suicide over their lifetime. Research has shown that among all completed suicides, ten percent are attributable to those with a psychotic illness.
Working through the differential of schizoaffective disorder is often a daunting task, and many clinicians continue to have trouble making the diagnosis. A few considerations when working through the differential diagnosis include:
As with most mental disorders, schizoaffective disorder is best managed by an interprofessional team including psychiatric specialty nurses and pharmacists and clinicians that practice close interprofessional communication. [Level V] Pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, skills training, and vocational training work in tandem to create a holistic treatment plan. In addition to what the information alluded to in previous sections, psychotherapy strongly influences medication compliance. An ideal treatment course to improve outcomes around patient-centered care may include:
It is critical to determine if the patient is competent to make healthcare decisions on their own - otherwise, a proxy must be a consideration.
|||Malaspina D,Owen MJ,Heckers S,Tandon R,Bustillo J,Schultz S,Barch DM,Gaebel W,Gur RE,Tsuang M,Van Os J,Carpenter W, Schizoaffective Disorder in the DSM-5. Schizophrenia research. 2013 Oct; [PubMed PMID: 23707642]|
|||Wilson JE,Nian H,Heckers S, The schizoaffective disorder diagnosis: a conundrum in the clinical setting. European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience. 2014 Feb; [PubMed PMID: 23625467]|
|||Buckley PF,Miller BJ,Lehrer DS,Castle DJ, Psychiatric comorbidities and schizophrenia. Schizophrenia bulletin. 2009 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 19011234]|
|||Kendler KS,Gardner CO,Prescott CA, Toward a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in men. The American journal of psychiatry. 2006 Jan; [PubMed PMID: 16390898]|
|||Laursen TM,Munk-Olsen T,Nordentoft M,Bo Mortensen P, A comparison of selected risk factors for unipolar depressive disorder, bipolar affective disorder, schizoaffective disorder, and schizophrenia from a danish population-based cohort. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2007 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 18052560]|
|||Marneros A,Deister A,Rohde A, Psychopathological and social status of patients with affective, schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders after long-term course. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1990 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 2281805]|
|||Abrams DJ,Rojas DC,Arciniegas DB, Is schizoaffective disorder a distinct categorical diagnosis? A critical review of the literature. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2008 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 19337453]|
|||Azorin JM,Kaladjian A,Fakra E, [Current issues on schizoaffective disorder]. L'Encephale. 2005 May-Jun; [PubMed PMID: 16142051]|
|||Meltzer HY,Arora RC,Metz J, Biological studies of schizoaffective disorders. Schizophrenia bulletin. 1984; [PubMed PMID: 6422546]|
|||Antonius D,Prudent V,Rebani Y,D'Angelo D,Ardekani BA,Malaspina D,Hoptman MJ, White matter integrity and lack of insight in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Schizophrenia research. 2011 May; [PubMed PMID: 21429714]|
|||Radonić E,Rados M,Kalember P,Bajs-Janović M,Folnegović-Smalc V,Henigsberg N, Comparison of hippocampal volumes in schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder. Collegium antropologicum. 2011 Jan; [PubMed PMID: 21648342]|
|||Smith MJ,Wang L,Cronenwett W,Mamah D,Barch DM,Csernansky JG, Thalamic morphology in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Journal of psychiatric research. 2011 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 20797731]|
|||Tandon R,Gaebel W,Barch DM,Bustillo J,Gur RE,Heckers S,Malaspina D,Owen MJ,Schultz S,Tsuang M,Van Os J,Carpenter W, Definition and description of schizophrenia in the DSM-5. Schizophrenia research. 2013 Oct; [PubMed PMID: 23800613]|
|||Vieta E, Developing an individualized treatment plan for patients with schizoaffective disorder: from pharmacotherapy to psychoeducation. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2010; [PubMed PMID: 21190648]|
|||Cascade E,Kalali AH,Buckley P, Treatment of schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatry (Edgmont (Pa. : Township)). 2009 Mar; [PubMed PMID: 19724749]|
|||Kane JM,Carson WH,Saha AR,McQuade RD,Ingenito GG,Zimbroff DL,Ali MW, Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole and haloperidol versus placebo in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2002 Sep; [PubMed PMID: 12363115]|
|||Addington DE,Pantelis C,Dineen M,Benattia I,Romano SJ, Efficacy and tolerability of ziprasidone versus risperidone in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, double-blind, multicenter trial. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2004 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 15641867]|
|||Ciapparelli A,Dell'Osso L,Bandettini di Poggio A,Carmassi C,Cecconi D,Fenzi M,Chiavacci MC,Bottai M,Ramacciotti CE,Cassano GB, Clozapine in treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic bipolar disorder: a naturalistic 48-month follow-up study. The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 2003 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 12716249]|
|||Ghaemi SN,Goodwin FK, Use of atypical antipsychotic agents in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders: review of the empirical literature. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 1999 Aug; [PubMed PMID: 10440464]|
|||Gunasekara NS,Spencer CM,Keating GM, Spotlight on ziprasidone in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. CNS drugs. 2002; [PubMed PMID: 12153335]|
|||Baethge C,Gruschka P,Berghöfer A,Bauer M,Müller-Oerlinghausen B,Bschor T,Smolka MN, Prophylaxis of schizoaffective disorder with lithium or carbamazepine: outcome after long-term follow-up. Journal of affective disorders. 2004 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 15023479]|
|||Bogan AM,Brown ES,Suppes T, Efficacy of divalproex therapy for schizoaffective disorder. Journal of clinical psychopharmacology. 2000 Oct; [PubMed PMID: 11001235]|
|||Dietrich DE,Kropp S,Emrich HM, [Oxcarbazepine in the treatment of affective and schizoaffective disorders]. Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie. 2003 May; [PubMed PMID: 12740757]|
|||Leucht S,McGrath J,White P,Kissling W, Carbamazepine for schizophrenia and schizoaffective psychoses. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2002; [PubMed PMID: 12137621]|
|||Koenig AM,Thase ME, First-line pharmacotherapies for depression - what is the best choice? Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej. 2009 Jul-Aug; [PubMed PMID: 19776688]|
|||McInerney SJ,Kennedy SH, Review of evidence for use of antidepressants in bipolar depression. The primary care companion for CNS disorders. 2014; [PubMed PMID: 25667812]|
|||Fitzgerald P,de Castella A,Arya D,Simons WR,Eggleston A,Meere S,Kulkarni J, The cost of relapse in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Australasian psychiatry : bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists. 2009 Aug; [PubMed PMID: 19585288]|
|||Pharoah FM,Rathbone J,Mari JJ,Streiner D, Family intervention for schizophrenia. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2003; [PubMed PMID: 14583908]|
|||Phutane VH,Thirthalli J,Kesavan M,Kumar NC,Gangadhar BN, Why do we prescribe ECT to schizophrenia patients? Indian journal of psychiatry. 2011 Apr; [PubMed PMID: 21772648]|
|||Iancu I,Pick N,Seener-Lorsh O,Dannon P, Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results. Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment. 2015; [PubMed PMID: 25848283]|
|||Harrison G,Hopper K,Craig T,Laska E,Siegel C,Wanderling J,Dube KC,Ganev K,Giel R,an der Heiden W,Holmberg SK,Janca A,Lee PW,León CA,Malhotra S,Marsella AJ,Nakane Y,Sartorius N,Shen Y,Skoda C,Thara R,Tsirkin SJ,Varma VK,Walsh D,Wiersma D, Recovery from psychotic illness: a 15- and 25-year international follow-up study. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. 2001 Jun; [PubMed PMID: 11388966]|
|||Hor K,Taylor M, Suicide and schizophrenia: a systematic review of rates and risk factors. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 2010 Nov; [PubMed PMID: 20923923]|
|||Suominen K,Isometsä E,Heilä H,Lönnqvist J,Henriksson M, General hospital suicides--a psychological autopsy study in Finland. General hospital psychiatry. 2002 Nov-Dec; [PubMed PMID: 12490343]|
|||Stentzel U,van den Berg N,Schulze LN,Schwaneberg T,Radicke F,Langosch JM,Freyberger HJ,Hoffmann W,Grabe HJ, Predictors of medication adherence among patients with severe psychiatric disorders: findings from the baseline assessment of a randomized controlled trial (Tecla). BMC psychiatry. 2018 May 29; [PubMed PMID: 29843676]|