Although not a new class of antibiotics, aminoglycosides have continued to prove their clinical value in fighting infections. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity covering aerobic organisms, including gram-negative bacteria and mycobacteria. Because there are several drugs within the aminoglycoside class, including gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, neomycin, plazomicin, and streptomycin, FDA approved indications vary between the different individual aminoglycosides.
In general, indications for aminoglycosides include both empirical or directed treatment. Since this drug class has demonstrated effectiveness in multi-drug resistant Gram-negative pathogens, aminoglycosides are indicated for empiric therapy in patients with severe illness; this includes empiric treatment for patients with infective endocarditis, sepsis, complicated intraabdominal infections, and complicated genitourinary infections. Typically, in these settings, aminoglycosides should not be used for more than two days, due to toxicity to the patient.
For directed treatment, aminoglycoside use for longer than 48 hours is acceptable. They are part of directed combination treatment for brucellosis, listeriosis, CNS nocardiosis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Aminoglycosides monotherapy is for tularemia, resistant mycobacteria, bacteremia caused by Campylobacter and Yersinia, and drug-resistant gram-negative pathogens. The Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines should be referenced to see if an aminoglycoside is a correct agent to use for a particular patient.
Aminoglycosides have bactericidal activity in which they bind to the bacteria ribosomal 30S subunit. Specifically, they are believed to bind to the A-site on the 16S rRNA, a component of the ribosomal 30S subunit. Through this binding, the genetic code gets misread, and the translation is disrupted, leading to the bacteria being unable to carry out protein synthesis.
Depending on the aminoglycoside chosen, the administration can be oral, parenteral, inhalation, intraperitoneal, or intraventricular. Administration of these agents is most commonly parenteral; gentamicin, amikacin, and tobramycin are the most frequently used aminoglycosides administered via the parenteral route. Tobramycin may be inhaled using a nebulizer for cystic fibrosis patients experiencing pulmonary exacerbation from infection. Aminoglycosides taken orally are paromomycin and neomycin because they are not able to be absorbed systemically; these two aminoglycosides demonstrate intraluminal activity in the bowel. In addition, gentamicin is an aminoglycoside which can be administered intraperitoneally and intraventricularly. Intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin is useful in peritoneal dialysis patients who develop peritonitis. Gentamicin administration intraventricularly has proved helpful in central nervous system infections.
The main noted adverse effects of aminoglycosides are ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and neuromuscular blockade. Therefore, patients should be educated to look out for warning signs of these adverse effects before the initiation of aminoglycoside therapy.
Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity has been reported to occur in 2 to 45% of adults. The ototoxicity can be vestibular and/or cochlear and is typically dose-dependent. Gentamicin, streptomycin, and tobramycin more commonly cause vestibular damage, while amikacin and kanamycin result in more cochlear damage. Studies have found that aminoglycosides seem to create reactive oxygen species within the inner ear; this, in turn, causes damage to the vestibular and cochlear sensory cells along with cochlear neurons. Often the vestibular loss is salvageable while hearing loss is irreversible.
Nephrotoxicity due to aminoglycosides may appear in up to 10 to 25% of patients. In patients receiving aminoglycoside therapy, renal tubular toxicity decreased blood flow to the kidneys, and reduced GFR most commonly causes the nephrotoxicity seen. Renal effects with aminoglycosides generally are reversible. Furthermore, there are risk factors associated with the development of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity, including dehydration, pregnancy, and hepatic dysfunction. Taking other medications concurrently with aminoglycosides that can cause nephrotoxicity, such as NSAIDs, cyclosporine, and diuretics, also put a patient at risk for renal problems. It is important to monitor patient renal function when taking aminoglycosides.
Aminoglycosides have also demonstrated correlations with neuromuscular blockade. Although this is less common than ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity, patients with diseases affecting the neuromuscular junction and patients using medications prolonging neuromuscular blockade, most notably calcium channel blockers, should be cautious when using aminoglycosides.
Aminoglycosides should be avoided in patients with myasthenia gravis because of the risk of prolonged neuromuscular blockade.
Therapeutic drug monitoring is necessary with aminoglycosides to optimize patient outcomes and limit toxicity. However, there is no universal agreement on the method of monitoring. Therapeutic drug monitoring has shown to reduce hospital stay duration and toxicities. Studies also suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring reduces mortality. It is important to note that monitoring clearance should be considered in critically ill, burn, and obese patients due to their abnormal distribution volume.
For toxicity purposes, renal function and cochlear function require monitoring. Serial audiometry may be considered to prevent irreversible hearing loss. Additionally, monitoring serum creatinine must be done to assess for nephrotoxicity in patients requiring aminoglycoside therapy.
There is no antidote for toxicities of aminoglycosides. However, agents with protective effects on the ear and kidney may help prevent aminoglycoside-induced toxicity. In particular, N-acetylcysteine demonstrates promising protective effects on patients using aminoglycosides.
Evaluating the need for aminoglycoside therapy requires a holistic approach by an interprofessional team of professional individuals, including but not limited to physicians, specialists, nurses, pharmacists, laboratory technologists, audiometric technicians, and social workers, to achieve optimal outcomes. [Level V]
Physicians and pharmacists have a critical role in determining the need for empiric treatment or directed treatment with an aminoglycoside. Both healthcare professionals need to utilize communication and their expertise to determine if and which aminoglycoside is necessary, what is the correct dosing, and what is the optimal duration of therapy. Therapeutic dose monitoring should also be done for the patient to achieve the best results with aminoglycoside treatment. In many institutions, the clinician initiates aminoglycoside therapy, and the clinical pharmacist handles all the dosing and subsequent adjustments, using kinetic dosing criteria. When in the hospital, nurses must assess for any potential toxicities developing in a patient. Because toxicity outcome typically depends on early detection, healthcare professionals need to monitor patients for any adverse signs and communicate with the team for the next step in therapy. The nursing staff will adminsiter the drug, and should be alert to signs of toxicity, interactions, and therapeutic effectiveness. Laboratory technologists and audiometric technicians are essential for checking serum creatinine in all patients and performing audiometry. Lastly, the role of a social worker is significant in preparing a patient for discharge while still on aminoglycoside therapy. All healthcare disciplines working as part of the interprofessional teams have their roles to play, making communication and collaboration key in providing patients with the best outcome care leading to optimal outcomes. [Level V]
|||Avent ML,Rogers BA,Cheng AC,Paterson DL, Current use of aminoglycosides: indications, pharmacokinetics and monitoring for toxicity. Internal medicine journal. 2011 Jun; [PubMed PMID: 21309997]|
|||Pagkalis S,Mantadakis E,Mavros MN,Ammari C,Falagas ME, Pharmacological considerations for the proper clinical use of aminoglycosides. Drugs. 2011 Dec 3; [PubMed PMID: 22085385]|
|||Kotra LP,Haddad J,Mobashery S, Aminoglycosides: perspectives on mechanisms of action and resistance and strategies to counter resistance. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2000 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 11083623]|
|||Krause KM,Serio AW,Kane TR,Connolly LE, Aminoglycosides: An Overview. Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine. 2016 Jun 1; [PubMed PMID: 27252397]|
|||Smith S,Rowbotham NJ,Charbek E, Inhaled antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbations in cystic fibrosis. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2018 Oct 30; [PubMed PMID: 30376155]|
|||Ranganathan D,Varghese JM,Fassett RG,Lipman J,D'Intini V,Healy H,Roberts JA, Optimising intraperitoneal gentamicin dosing in peritoneal dialysis patients with peritonitis (GIPD) study. BMC nephrology. 2009 Dec 16; [PubMed PMID: 20003546]|
|||LeBras M,Chow I,Mabasa VH,Ensom MH, Systematic Review of Efficacy, Pharmacokinetics, and Administration of Intraventricular Aminoglycosides in Adults. Neurocritical care. 2016 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 27043949]|
|||Leis JA,Rutka JA,Gold WL, Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne. 2015 Jan 6; [PubMed PMID: 25225217]|
|||Selimoglu E, Aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity. Current pharmaceutical design. 2007; [PubMed PMID: 17266591]|
|||Guthrie OW, Aminoglycoside induced ototoxicity. Toxicology. 2008 Jul 30; [PubMed PMID: 18514377]|
|||Wargo KA,Edwards JD, Aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity. Journal of pharmacy practice. 2014 Dec; [PubMed PMID: 25199523]|
|||Lopez-Novoa JM,Quiros Y,Vicente L,Morales AI,Lopez-Hernandez FJ, New insights into the mechanism of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity: an integrative point of view. Kidney international. 2011 Jan; [PubMed PMID: 20861826]|
|||Del Pozo E,Baeyens JM, Effects of calcium channel blockers on neuromuscular blockade induced by aminoglycoside antibiotics. European journal of pharmacology. 1986 Aug 22; [PubMed PMID: 3758187]|
|||Barrons RW, Drug-induced neuromuscular blockade and myasthenia gravis. Pharmacotherapy. 1997 Nov-Dec; [PubMed PMID: 9399604]|
|||Roberts JA,Norris R,Paterson DL,Martin JH, Therapeutic drug monitoring of antimicrobials. British journal of clinical pharmacology. 2012 Jan; [PubMed PMID: 21831196]|
|||Vural A,Koçyiğit İ,Şan F,Eroğlu E,Ketenci İ,Ünal A,Tokgöz B,Ünlü Y, Long-Term Protective Effect of N-Acetylcysteine against Amikacin-Induced Ototoxicity in End-Stage Renal Disease: A Randomized Trial. Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 2018 Jan-Feb; [PubMed PMID: 29097487]|