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The field of oncology is in a constant state of evolution and is driven by ongoing research discoveries and advancements in treatment approaches. Paclitaxel belongs to the category of chemotherapeutic agents and is utilized as a treatment for various types of cancer.  Indications for using paclitaxel encompass a range of cancers, including breast, ovarian, bladder, lung, prostate, melanoma, esophageal, Kaposi sarcoma, and various other solid tumors. This therapeutic review provides an overview of paclitaxel's indications, mechanisms of action at the cellular level, role in inhibiting cancer cell growth, essential information on dosing regimens, infusion protocols, methods of administration, and contraindications, as well as the importance of monitoring patients undergoing paclitaxel therapy.

A comprehensive understanding of paclitaxel's potential adverse effects is crucial to managing hematological toxicities, peripheral neuropathy, gastrointestinal disturbances, and hypersensitivity reactions to ensure patient safety and quality of life. Essentially, this approach will aid healthcare practitioners in staying up-to-date with the latest clinical trials and research findings related to paclitaxel. Understanding new formulations and emerging indications and adopting a patient-centered approach, considering factors such as patient characteristics, disease stage, and coexisting conditions, are essential when administering paclitaxel.


  • Differentiate between the mechanisms of action of paclitaxel and other chemotherapeutic agents, allowing for informed treatment selection.

  • Apply knowledge of emerging indications and resistance mechanisms to optimize paclitaxel-based treatment strategies for cancer patients.

  • Identify appropriate indications for paclitaxel therapy in treating various malignancies, considering cancer type, stage, and patient-specific factors.

  • Collaborate with an interprofessional healthcare team to coordinate paclitaxel therapy, evaluate treatment response, and enhance comprehensive cancer care plans for patients.


Paclitaxel, initially named taxol, is a naturally occurring diterpenoid compound extracted from the Pacific yew tree, Taxus brevifolia. The discovery of paclitaxel can be credited to the research endeavors of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Scientists were conducting screenings of plant extracts in search of potential anticancer agents when they discovered the distinctive cytotoxic properties of paclitaxel against cancer cells. The compound's ability to inhibit microtubule depolymerization, leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, intrigued researchers and paved the way for extensive investigation. 

History of Paclitaxel's Phases of Clinical Trials and Development

During the mid-1980s, early-phase clinical trials were conducted to evaluate paclitaxel's safety, dosing, and pharmacokinetics in cancer patients. Encouraging positive outcomes led to the advancement into subsequent phases of clinical development. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, phase 2 trials demonstrated promising antitumor activity of paclitaxel in various solid tumors, including ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Large-scale randomized phase 3 trials compared paclitaxel-based treatment regimens with standard chemotherapy or best supportive care across various cancer types. The results revealed significant improvements in response rates, progression-free survival, and overall survival among patients receiving paclitaxel-based therapies. 

FDA-Approved Indications

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted accelerated approval for paclitaxel in 1992 to treat refractory ovarian cancer. Subsequently, paclitaxel also received complete approval as the first-line treatment option for ovarian cancer. Over the years, the FDA extended paclitaxel's indications to include breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and Kaposi sarcoma. 

FDA-Approved Indications  Treatments
Ovarian cancer
  • First-line treatment: Paclitaxel, when combined with cisplatin or carboplatin, is approved for treating advanced ovarian cancer after initial surgery.[1][2]
  • Recurrent or refractory disease: Paclitaxel can be used either as a standalone treatment or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents for recurrent or refractory ovarian cancer.[3][4]
Breast cancer
  • Adjuvant treatment: Paclitaxel is recommended as an adjuvant treatment for individuals with early-stage breast cancer after completing standard chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide.[5]
  • Metastatic breast cancer: Paclitaxel is approved for treating metastatic breast cancer either as a standalone treatment or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents such as trastuzumab or bevacizumab.[6][7][8][6]
  • First-line treatment: Paclitaxel, in combination with cisplatin or carboplatin, is used as a first-line treatment option for individuals with NSCLC who are not suitable candidates for surgery.[9]
  • Second-line treatment: Paclitaxel can be considered a second-line treatment option for individuals with advanced NSCLC after failure of initial therapy.
AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma
  • Second-line treatment: Paclitaxel is used as a second-line therapy for patients experiencing disease progression despite prior systemic chemotherapy or for those unable to tolerate other treatments.[10]

Off-Label Uses

In addition to its established indications, paclitaxel has demonstrated versatility in various off-label uses, showcasing its potential in addressing challenging malignancies, some of which are mentioned below.

  • Metastatic bladder cancer: Paclitaxel is used in combination therapy with gemcitabine to treat metastatic or advanced bladder cancer.[11][12]
  • Advanced cervical cancer: In combination with topotecan, bevacizumab, and/or cisplatin, paclitaxel is used to treat advanced cervical cancer.[13][14][15]
  • Esophageal and gastric cancers: Paclitaxel plays a crucial role in preoperative management when combined with carboplatin and radiation therapy for patients with esophageal and gastric cancers.[16]
  • Advanced head and neck cancer: Paclitaxel is utilized in combination with cisplatin for the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer.[17]
  • Neoadjuvant treatment in penile cancer: Paclitaxel is considered for neoadjuvant therapy in cases of penile cancer with bulky regional lymph node metastases.[18]
  • Relapsed or refractory small-cell lung cancer: Paclitaxel is used to treat small-cell lung cancer that has relapsed or proven refractory to other therapies.[19][20]
  • Advanced or unresectable angiosarcoma: Paclitaxel may be administered to treat advanced or unresectable angiosarcoma.[21][22]
  • Relapsed or refractory testicular germ cell tumors: Paclitaxel is used in combination with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin or ifosfamide and cisplatin for the treatment of relapsed or refractory testicular germ cell tumors.[23][24][25]
  • Advanced thymoma/thymic carcinoma: Paclitaxel is combined with carboplatin to treat advanced thymoma/thymic carcinoma.[26]
  • Unknown primary adenocarcinoma: Paclitaxel, often combined with carboplatin and/or etoposide, is used to treat unknown primary adenocarcinoma cases.[27][28]
  • Endometrial carcinoma: Paclitaxel finds application in the treatment of endometrial carcinoma.[29]
  • Metastatic or unresectable esophageal and gastric cancers: Paclitaxel is utilized to address metastatic or unresectable esophageal [30] and gastric cancers.[31]
  • Melanoma: Paclitaxel is considered in the treatment of melanoma.[32]
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer: Paclitaxel may be used in managing anaplastic thyroid cancer.[33]

These diverse off-label uses underscore paclitaxel's potential as a therapeutic option in various challenging clinical scenarios.

Mechanism of Action

As an antimicrotubule agent, paclitaxel promotes the assembly of microtubules, enhances the activity of tubulin dimers, and stabilizes existing microtubules while concurrently inhibiting their disassembly. The increased stability of microtubules in the presence of paclitaxel results in cell cycle arrest at the late G2 phase, leading to inhibition of cell replication. Furthermore, paclitaxel can distort mitotic spindles and lead to chromosome fragmentation.[34]

Microtubules and cell division: Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal structures composed of tubulin protein subunits. They are essential in several cellular processes—including cell division—mitosis and meiosis. During mitosis, microtubules form a spindle apparatus that separates duplicated chromosomes, ensuring the accurate distribution of genetic material to the resulting daughter cells. This process is essential for maintaining normal cell growth and facilitating tissue repair.

Microtubule stabilization: Paclitaxel functions by binding to the β-tubulin subunits within microtubules. Specifically, paclitaxel binds to the inner surface of microtubules in proximity to the nucleotide-binding site on β-tubulin. This binding promotes the assembly of tubulin subunits into stable, non-dynamic microtubules, effectively impeding their typical disassembly or depolymerization.

Mitotic spindle formation: By stabilizing microtubules, paclitaxel disrupts the dynamic equilibrium of microtubule assembly and disassembly, a critical process for the formation and functionality of the mitotic spindle. As a result, the spindle apparatus cannot properly segregate chromosomes during mitosis.

Cell cycle arrest: The disruption of proper spindle function triggers a cell cycle checkpoint response, primarily activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) within the cell cycle. The SAC is a surveillance mechanism that ensures correct alignment and attachment of chromosomes to the spindle before the progression of cell division. In the presence of paclitaxel, the SAC detects anomalies in the spindle formation caused by the stabilized microtubules. This detection results in the cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, effectively preventing the cell from advancing into mitosis.

Induction of apoptosis: Prolonged arrest in the G2/M phase activates cellular signaling pathways that promote apoptosis. Cells recognize their inability to complete mitosis and, as a protective mechanism, initiate programmed cell death to eliminate damaged or aberrant cells. Consequently, paclitaxel induces apoptosis in cancer cells that have accumulated due to defective cell division.

Impact on cancer cells: Cancer cells, especially those that divide rapidly, exhibit heightened sensitivity to paclitaxel's effects because of their heavy dependence on microtubule dynamics for sustained growth and division. By stabilizing microtubules and disrupting mitotic spindle formation, paclitaxel specifically targets cancer cells and reduces their ability to proliferate.


The pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel involve rapid intravenous (IV) administration, extensive plasma protein binding, hepatic metabolism, and biliary excretion. A comprehensive understanding of these aspects of paclitaxel's pharmacokinetics is essential for the safe and effective application of this drug in cancer treatment. This knowledge empowers healthcare professionals to customize dosing regimens and effectively manage potential drug interactions or adverse effects.

Absorption: Paclitaxel is available in IV formulations, and its absorption phase is bypassed through direct administration into the bloodstream. The IV infusion ensures rapid and complete distribution of paclitaxel into the systemic circulation.

Distribution: After IV administration, paclitaxel undergoes extensive distribution throughout the body, with a volume of distribution of approximately 182 L/m². Paclitaxel demonstrates a significant degree of plasma protein binding, with approximately 89% to 98% of the drug being bound to plasma proteins, primarily to albumin. The protein binding feature of paclitaxel plays a pivotal role in both its distribution within the body and its elimination from the system.

Metabolism: Approximately 90% of paclitaxel is primarily metabolized in the liver by the cytochrome (CYP) P450 enzyme system, particularly involving the CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 isoenzymes. The major metabolic pathway involves hydroxylation of the side chain at the C13 position, forming several metabolites, including 6α-hydroxy paclitaxel and 3'-p-hydroxy paclitaxel. These metabolites are less pharmacologically active than the parent drug.

Elimination: The primary route of paclitaxel elimination is hepatic metabolism and biliary excretion. Only a minor fraction of the drug, typically less than 10%, is excreted unchanged in the urine. Paclitaxel and its metabolites undergo elimination from the body with a biphasic decline in plasma concentration. The initial rapid elimination phase has a half-life of about 3 to 14 minutes, followed by a slower terminal phase with a half-life of approximately 13 to 52 hours.


Dosage Form

Patients can receive paclitaxel in an IV formulation.


The strength of paclitaxel in its IV formulation is 6 mg/mL.

Adult Dosage

The infusion duration for paclitaxel typically ranges from 3 to 24 hours, which varies based on the specific indication or treatment protocol. Certain off-label protocols incorporate a 1-hour infusion, and there are also instances of off-label intraperitoneal use. During paclitaxel infusion, it is recommended to use a 0.22-µm in-line filter and a polyethylene-lined administration set (non-polyvinyl chloride).[35] When paclitaxel is included in a combination chemotherapy regimen, the specific order of administration may vary depending on the regimen being used. Therefore, referring to a protocol for the recommended sequence in such cases is important. Patients may also receive premedication before the infusion, which can include dexamethasone 20 mg PO 12 and 6 hours prior, diphenhydramine 50 mg via IV route 30 to 60 minutes prior, cimetidine 300 mg via IV route, or ranitidine 50 mg via IV route.[36][37][38] Due to paclitaxel's potency as an irritant, caution should be exercised to prevent extravasation. Proper needle and catheter positioning are essential during the administration of this medication. 



Ovarian cancer

Previously treated patients: The recommended dosage may range between 135 and 175 mg/m² of paclitaxel administered via IV route over 3 hours every 3 weeks.

Previously untreated patients: The recommended dosage options of paclitaxel via IV route are 175 mg/m² administered over 3 hours every 3 weeks to be followed by cisplatin, or 135 mg/m² administered over 24 hours every 3 weeks and also followed by cisplatin.

NSCLC The recommended dosage is 135 mg/m² of paclitaxel administered via IV route over a 24-hour period every 3 weeks to be followed by cisplatin.
Breast cancer

Adjuvant treatment: The recommended dosage is 175 mg/m² of paclitaxel administered via IV route over 3 hours every 3 weeks for a total of 4 cycles.

Metastatic treatment: The recommended dosage is 175 mg/m² of paclitaxel administered via IV route over 3 hours every 3 weeks.

AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma The recommended dosage options of paclitaxel administered via IV route are either 135 mg/m² over 24 hours every 3 weeks or 100 mg/m² over 3 hours every 2 weeks.

Specific Patient Populations

Renal impairment: Paclitaxel and its metabolites are predominantly eliminated through hepatic metabolism, with only a minor portion excreted unchanged in the urine. Consequently, dosage adjustments are typically unnecessary for patients with mild-to-moderate renal impairment.

Hepatic impairment: Hepatic impairment can influence the metabolism and elimination of paclitaxel, which may result in elevated exposure to the drug and its metabolites. As a result, dosage adjustments may be necessary for patients with moderate-to-severe hepatic impairment. In patients with solid carcinomas, excluding Kaposi sarcoma, paclitaxel dosage should be adjusted according to the patient's aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase (AST/ALT) and bilirubin levels. For instance, in the case of a 24-hour infusion, when the patient's AST/ALT is less than 10 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) and their bilirubin falls within the range of 1.6 to 7.5 mg/dL, the suggested paclitaxel dose is 50 mg/m² administered over 24 hours.

3-Hour Infusion 24-Hour Infusion
  • AST/ALT <10 x ULN and bilirubin <1.25 x ULN: 175 mg/m² over 3 h
  • AST/ALT <10 x ULN and bilirubin 1.26-2 x ULN: 135 mg/m² over 3 h
  • AST/ALT <10 x ULN and bilirubin 2.01-5 x ULN: 90 mg/m² over 3 h
  • AST/ALT ≥10 x ULN or bilirubin >5 x ULN: Do not administer.
  • AST/ALT <2 x ULN and bilirubin ≤1.5 mg/dL: 135 mg/m² over 24 h
  • AST/ALT 2-<10 x ULN and bilirubin ≤1.5 mg/dL: 100 mg/m² over 24 h
  • AST/ALT <10 x ULN and bilirubin 1.6 to 7.5 mg/dL: 50 mg/m² over 24 h
  • AST/ALT ≥10 x ULN or bilirubin >7.5 mg/dL: Do not administer.

Pregnancy considerations: Paclitaxel is categorized as a pregnancy category D drug, which signifies a potential risk to the fetus, as inferred from the data obtained from animal and human studies. The use of the drug during pregnancy should only be considered when the potential benefits outweigh the possible risks to the fetus. Notably, insufficient data is available for this specific human population.

Breastfeeding considerations: The use of paclitaxel during breastfeeding is not recommended due to the potential for the drug to be excreted into breast milk, which could potentially harm the nursing infant.

Pediatric patients: Paclitaxel is infrequently utilized in pediatric populations due to the limited clinical data and the availability of alternative cancer treatments. The safety and efficacy of paclitaxel in children have not been firmly established.

Older patients: Using paclitaxel in elderly patients requires careful assessment of their comprehensive health status, organ function, and any existing comorbidities. Older patients may exhibit increased susceptibility to drug-related toxicities due to age-related changes in drug metabolism and clearance. Dosage adjustments and individualized treatment plans may be essential to mitigate potential adverse effects, including myelosuppression, while preserving treatment effectiveness.

Adverse Effects

Paclitaxel can cause a range of adverse effects. The most prevalent adverse effects of paclitaxel use are alopecia, nausea and vomiting, mucositis, neutropenia, leukopenia, anemia, hypersensitivity reactions, arthralgia, myalgia, and weakness. Peripheral neuropathy is another common adverse effect, and patients with preexisting neuropathies may have an increased risk. A 20% reduction in the dose should be considered for patients who develop severe neuropathy.[39]

Less frequently reported adverse effects include flushing, edema, hypotension, skin rash, stomatitis, thrombocytopenia, hemorrhage, increased serum alkaline phosphatase and AST, local injection site reaction, and increased serum creatinine. Injection site reactions are typically mild and characterized by symptoms such as erythema, tenderness, skin discoloration, or swelling. Extended infusion durations, such as 24 hours, increase the likelihood of their occurrence. Notably, delays of injection site reactions can extend from 7 to 10 days. Patients may also experience infusion-related hypotension, bradycardia, and hypertension. Consequently, it is advisable to regularly monitor the patient's vital signs, particularly during the initial hour of the infusion.[40] 

Drug-Drug Interactions

Paclitaxel can interact with several other medications. Paclitaxel has 422 known drug interactions, categorized as 49 major, 356 moderate, and 17 minor. The essential details on the drug-drug interactions associated with paclitaxel are mentioned below.

Cytochrome P450 enzymes: Paclitaxel undergoes primary metabolism through the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme system, specifically CYP2C8 and CYP3A4. Drugs that either inhibit or induce these enzymes can alter the metabolism and clearance of paclitaxel.

  • Inhibitors of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4: Drugs such as ketoconazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, fluoxetine, and grapefruit juice can inhibit CYP2C8 and CYP3A4. This inhibition can result in elevated plasma concentrations, potentially increasing the risk of paclitaxel-related toxicities.

  • Inducers of CYP2C8 and CYP3A4: Drugs such as rifampin, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and St John's wort can induce CYP2C8 and CYP3A4. This induction can lead to diminished paclitaxel plasma concentrations, potentially compromising its efficacy.

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and other efflux transporters: Paclitaxel is a substrate of P-gp, an efflux transporter present in various tissues, including the blood-brain barrier and the gastrointestinal tract. Drugs that either inhibit or induce P-gp can alter the distribution and elimination of paclitaxel.

  • Inhibitors of P-gp: Drugs such as verapamil, quinidine, and amiodarone can inhibit P-gp, resulting in heightened systemic exposure to paclitaxel and the potential for toxicities.
  • Inducers of P-gp: Drugs such as rifampin and carbamazepine can induce P-gp, potentially reducing paclitaxel plasma concentrations and efficacy.


Paclitaxel should not be administered to patients who have experienced a severe hypersensitivity reaction to paclitaxel or any of its excipients.

For patients with solid tumors, paclitaxel should be avoided if their baseline neutrophil count is below 1500 cells/mm³. In the case of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma, paclitaxel is not recommended if the baseline neutrophil count falls below 1000 cells/mm³. Bone marrow suppression depends on the paclitaxel dose and represents a limitation in dosing due to its potential for toxicity. In the event of bone marrow suppression, subsequent doses should be decreased by 20%, especially for severe neutropenia, and supportive therapy should be considered, such as growth factor treatment.[41]

Black Box Warnings and Precautions

Paclitaxel has a black box warning for hypersensitivity reactions and bone marrow suppression. Before the infusion, patients should receive premedication with corticosteroids, diphenhydramine, and H2 antagonists to prevent anaphylaxis and severe hypersensitivity reactions. The suggested regimen includes dexamethasone at 20 mg administered via IV route or orally 12 and 6 hours before the paclitaxel dose, with a reduced dosage of 10 mg for patients with advanced HIV. Diphenhydramine, at a dosage of 50 mg IV, should be administered 30 to 60 minutes before the paclitaxel dose. Cimetidine 300 mg, famotidine 20 mg, or ranitidine 50 mg are all suitable options for IV administration 30 to 60 minutes before the paclitaxel dose. Severe hypersensitivity reactions include dyspnea requiring bronchodilators, hypotension requiring treatment, angioedema, and/or generalized urticaria. In situations involving a severe hypersensitivity reaction, stopping the infusion and discontinuing paclitaxel is imperative. Minor hypersensitivity reactions, which include flushing, dyspnea, hypotension, skin reactions, or tachycardia, generally do not necessitate interruption or discontinuation of the treatment.[42][43]


The infusion site should be monitored for extravasation. In case of extravasation, healthcare providers should promptly halt and disconnect the infusion but retain the needle or cannula in its position. The extravasated solution should be gently aspirated while avoiding flushing the line. Following this, the healthcare provider should remove the needle or cannula, administer the antidote, discard the used needle or cannula, and elevate the extremity. However, conflicting data exist regarding the use of warm or cold compresses.[44] Patients should also be monitored for developing a severe hypersensitivity reaction. Although every patient should receive premedication to prevent the occurrence of a hypersensitivity reaction, some patients may still experience one that necessitates the discontinuation of treatment.

Monitoring Paclitaxel Resistance 

Paclitaxel resistance is a significant cause of treatment failure and tumor progression. Several mechanisms have been associated with paclitaxel resistance, as mentioned below.

Overexpression of drug efflux pumps: One of the primary mechanisms of paclitaxel resistance involves the upregulation of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-gp, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). These transporters actively pump paclitaxel out of the cancer cells, reducing its intracellular concentration and, consequently, its cytotoxic effect.

Alteration of microtubule structure: Paclitaxel exerts its cytotoxic effect by stabilizing microtubules, which results in mitotic arrest and eventual cell death. Resistance can arise due to modifications in tubulin expression or mutations in tubulin genes, resulting in alterations in microtubule structure that render them less responsive to paclitaxel's stabilizing properties.

Enhanced DNA repair mechanisms: Paclitaxel-induced DNA damage can trigger cell death pathways. However, cancer cells that have developed resistance may upregulate DNA repair mechanisms, allowing them to repair the DNA damage caused by the drug and survive the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel.

Activation of survival pathways: The cellular stress induced by paclitaxel can activate survival pathways, including PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK, which promote cell survival and reduce sensitivity to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis in resistant cancer cells.

Altered apoptosis signaling: Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis is a crucial mechanism of cancer cell death. Paclitaxel resistance may arise from alterations in the apoptotic signaling pathway, preventing cancer cells from undergoing programmed cell death in response to the drug. Numerous critical genes in this context include bcl-2, bcl-x, and p53.


Currently, no known antidote for paclitaxel overdosage exists. The primary expected complications of overdosage would typically involve bone marrow suppression, peripheral neurotoxicity, and mucositis. However, it is noteworthy that hyaluronidase is commonly utilized as an antidote for addressing paclitaxel extravasation. If the needle or cannula is still in place, it is advised to administer 1 to 6 mL of hyaluronidase into the existing IV line. If the needle or cannula is no longer inserted, healthcare providers may inject the hyaluronidase subcutaneously, encircling the area of extravasation clockwise. This procedure may be repeated several times over the next 3 to 4 hours.[45]

Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes

Effective interprofessional teamwork and communication are vital to ensure that all patients receive their prescribed dose and regimen in accordance with FDA guidelines or hospital protocols. Oncologists should comprehensively evaluate a patient and choose an appropriate treatment regimen based on the specific guidelines and patient-specific factors. The nursing staff should receive proper training on recognizing the signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity reactions to paclitaxel, and they should be well versed in the management of extravasation incidents. Pharmacists should assess the patient's current and complete drug regimen. They should also ensure there are no drug interactions, as paclitaxel has many potential interactions that could necessitate treatment modifications. These are just a few examples of healthcare professionals who may have responsibilities when caring for patients receiving paclitaxel. Notably, each healthcare professional contributes significantly toward a patient's overall well-being, despite some overlap in their roles and across various interprofessional healthcare professions.



Tibb F. Jacobs


11/18/2023 10:49:54 AM



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Level 2 (mid-level) evidence


Bokemeyer C, Oechsle K, Honecker F, Mayer F, Hartmann JT, Waller CF, Böhlke I, Kollmannsberger C, German Testicular Cancer Study Group. Combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, and paclitaxel in patients with cisplatin-refractory or multiply relapsed germ-cell tumors: a study of the German Testicular Cancer Study Group. Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology. 2008 Mar:19(3):448-53     [PubMed PMID: 18006893]


Kondagunta GV, Bacik J, Donadio A, Bajorin D, Marion S, Sheinfeld J, Bosl GJ, Motzer RJ. Combination of paclitaxel, ifosfamide, and cisplatin is an effective second-line therapy for patients with relapsed testicular germ cell tumors. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2005 Sep 20:23(27):6549-55     [PubMed PMID: 16170162]


Einhorn LH, Brames MJ, Juliar B, Williams SD. Phase II study of paclitaxel plus gemcitabine salvage chemotherapy for germ cell tumors after progression following high-dose chemotherapy with tandem transplant. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2007 Feb 10:25(5):513-6     [PubMed PMID: 17290059]


Lemma GL, Lee JW, Aisner SC, Langer CJ, Tester WJ, Johnson DH, Loehrer PJ Sr. Phase II study of carboplatin and paclitaxel in advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma. Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2011 May 20:29(15):2060-5. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2010.32.9607. Epub 2011 Apr 18     [PubMed PMID: 21502559]


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Rose PG, Ali S, Moslemi-Kebria M, Simpkins F. Paclitaxel, Carboplatin, and Bevacizumab in Advanced and Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma. International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society. 2017 Mar:27(3):452-458. doi: 10.1097/IGC.0000000000000891. Epub     [PubMed PMID: 28187088]

Level 2 (mid-level) evidence


Noronha V, Patil V, Bhosale B, Joshi A, Purandare N, Prabhash K. Metronomic weekly paclitaxel in advanced unresectable esophageal cancer. Indian journal of cancer. 2013 Apr-Jun:50(2):128-34. doi: 10.4103/0019-509X.117020. Epub     [PubMed PMID: 23979204]


Bozkurt M, Amlashi FG, Blum Murphy M. The role of chemotherapy in unresectable or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach and gastroesophageal junction. Minerva chirurgica. 2017 Aug:72(4):317-333. doi: 10.23736/S0026-4733.17.07357-6. Epub 2017 Apr 14     [PubMed PMID: 28415835]


Zheng AW, Jia DD, Xia LM, Jin G, Wu H, Li T. Impact of carboplatin plus paclitaxel combined with endostar against A375 melanoma cells: An in vitro and in vivo analysis. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2016 Oct:83():1321-1326. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2016.08.047. Epub 2016 Aug 27     [PubMed PMID: 27571875]


Onoda N, Sugino K, Higashiyama T, Kammori M, Toda K, Ito K, Yoshida A, Suganuma N, Nakashima N, Suzuki S, Tsukahara K, Noguchi H, Koizumi M, Nemoto T, Hara H, Miyauchi A, Sugitani I. The Safety and Efficacy of Weekly Paclitaxel Administration for Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Prospective Study. Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association. 2016 Sep:26(9):1293-9. doi: 10.1089/thy.2016.0072. Epub     [PubMed PMID: 27484330]


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Cheng H, An SJ, Zhang XC, Dong S, Zhang YF, Chen ZH, Chen HJ, Guo AL, Lin QX, Wu YL. In vitro sequence-dependent synergism between paclitaxel and gefitinib in human lung cancer cell lines. Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology. 2011 Mar:67(3):637-46. doi: 10.1007/s00280-010-1347-4. Epub 2010 May 22     [PubMed PMID: 20495920]


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Level 3 (low-level) evidence


Ding D, Kong WM. [Analysis of relative factors of bone marrow suppression after chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel on the patients with ovarian cancer]. Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi. 2011 Mar:46(3):188-92     [PubMed PMID: 21575452]


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Level 1 (high-level) evidence


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