Grief is a natural and universal response to the loss of a loved one. The grief experience is not a state but a process. Most individuals recover adequately within a year after the loss; however, some individuals experience an extension of the standard grieving process. This condition has been identified as complicated grief or prolonged grief disorder, and it results from failure to transition from acute to integrated grief. Symptoms of acute grief include tearfulness, sadness, and insomnia and typically require no treatment. Intense grief over the loss of a significant person may trigger the acute onset of myocardial infarction (MI). The impact may be higher with cardiovascular risk. Complicated grief has prolonged symptoms of painful emotions and sorrow for more than one year. Complicated grief has also been termed as, 'prolonged grief disorder', 'persistent complex bereavement disorder', 'pathological grief' and 'traumatic grief'. All of these conditions depict intense, impaired and prolonged grief. Patients show a preoccupation with the deceased and feel inner emptiness, no interest in life, and sleep poorly. There is a correlation between complicated grief and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). It has been estimated that 7-10% of those bereaved do not adapt to the loss and inturn develop complicated grief.
The terms grief, mourning, and bereavement have slightly different meanings:
Five Stages of Grief
Cardiac Outcomes of Grief
Factors Increasing Risk After Bereavement
Traumatic circumstances such as the death of a spouse or a child, the death of a parent in early childhood or adolescence, sudden, unexpected, and untimely deaths ( particularly if associated with horrific circumstances), multiple deaths (particularly disasters), deaths by murder or manslaughter.
Vulnerable people such as those with low self-esteem, low trust in others, previous psychiatric disorder, previous suicidal threats or attempts, and/or absent or unhelpful family are more likely to experience increased symptoms.
These factors also specifically include an ambivalent attachment to deceased people, dependent or interdependent attachment to the deceased person, insecure attachment to parents in childhood (particularly learned fear or learned helplessness).
The loss of a spouse typically causes greater negative consequences in men than women. Mortality rates for both men and women who have lost a loved one are increased when compared to nonbereaved people, with the mortality rate higher for males as compared to females. Men experience greater depression and a higher overall health consequence than women.
Younger bereaved persons have more consequences following a loss than older people, including more severe psychological and physical health consequences. These age-related symptoms may be because younger people often experience sudden and unexpected loss. Younger bereaved persons may have more difficulty in the initial period after a loss but may recover sooner because they have access to more social resources.
Grief related stress can lead to high blood pressure, tachycardia, and increased levels of cortisol. It can disrupt cholesterol-filled plaques that line coronary arteries and constrict blood vessels. These changes can increase the risk of myocardial infarction. Increased levels of stress lead to catecholamine surge, which increases the platelet aggregation. If a plaque ruptures, platelets form a blood clot on top of the ruptured plaque obstruct blood supply.
Takosubo cardiomyopathy is caused by grief or fear that leads to stimulation of adrenal glands and progresses to elevated levels of adrenaline, which creates reduced blood flow to the heart.
Common grief reactions: Reactions to loss are called grief reactions and vary from person to person and within the same person over time. Grief reactions lead to complex somatic and psychological symptoms.
Feelings: The person who experiences a loss may have a range of feelings, including shock, numbness, sadness, denial, anger, guilt, helplessness, depression, and yearning. A person may cry for no reason.
Thoughts: Grief can cause feelings of disbelief, confusion, difficulty concentrating, preoccupation, and hallucinations.
Physical sensations: Grief can cause physical sensations like tightness and heaviness in the chest or throat, nausea or stomach upset, dizziness, headaches, numbness, muscle weakness, tension, or fatigue. It will make the person vulnerable to illness.
Behaviors: Difficulty sleeping, loss of interest in daily activities, and becoming more aggressive or irritable.
Somatic symptoms: Chest tightness and choking, shortness of breath, abdominal distress, decreased muscle power, and lethargy.
Psychological symptoms: Guilt, anger, hostility, restlessness, inability to concentrate, lack of capacity to initiate and maintain an organized pattern of activities.
Takosubo cardiomyopathy: Chest pain and shortness of breath after severe stress (emotional or physical), ECG changes that mimic heart attack with no coronary artery occlusion, movement abnormalities of left ventricle and ballooning of left ventricle.
Screening questionnaires such as the Brief Grief Questionnaire (BGQ) and the Inventory of complicated grief (ICG) can reliably identify complicated grief.  There are some screening tools designed to predict complicated grief in the spouses of cancer patients. These two scales, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES III), and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) assess family functioning, psychological functioning, and grief reaction.
The grief evaluation measure (GEM) can also assist in identifying the development of complicated grief symptoms in a mourning adult. It assesses both qualitative and quantitative risk factors including mourner's loss and medical history, financial resources both before and after the loss, and circumstances surrounding the death. It provides in-depth information on bereaved the individuals' subjective grief symptoms and associated experience.
In the majority of the patients with Takosubo cardiomyopathy, a coronary angiogram may be inconspicuous. Cardiac imaging plays an important role and shows left ventricular dysfunction.
Normal Grief: Most bereaved persons adapt over six months to 2 years.
Complicated grief is best-managed by complicated grief therapy. Complicated grief therapy removes the impediment and promotes the adaptation to the loss. This therapy is more effective than citalopram and interpersonal therapy.  Patients experiencing complicated grief may require psychological treatment in the form of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacological bereavement-related depression.
Takosubo cardiomyopathy (TCM): Patients with TCM will require inpatient cardiology service. Treatment options are empiric and supportive; however, beta-blockers can be helpful when hemodynamics permit. Serial imaging studies may be necessary. These patients should follow-up with a cardiologist within one week of diagnosis to resolve cardiomyopathy with echocardiograms.
Complicated grief should be differentiated from major depressive disorder(MDD) and post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD). Complicated grief's classic symptom presentation of yearning and sorrow, along with the preoccupied thoughts of the deceased and the inability to accept the reality of death, help in differentiating this from MDD and PTSD.
Deterrence and Patient Education
It is important to consider the following before disclosing bad news: 
Preparedness for End-of-Life Care
It is important to prepare spouses of terminally ill patients mentally. Preparedness for death and coping with bereavement play a crucial role in complicated grief.
Management of the grieving patient is optimal with an interprofessional team that includes a mental health nurse, palliative care team, psychiatrist, primary care provider, social worker, and other support teams. Even temporary grieving can affect patients both physically and mentally, and it is best to have a mental health nurse involved in the care early on. For most patients, time will help heal the grieving process, but some patients may benefit from counseling or temporary use of pharmacotherapy.
|||[Influential Factors of Complicated Grief of Bereaved Spouses from Cancer Patient]., Kim SM,Kown SH,, Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 2018 Feb [PubMed PMID: 29535285]|
|||Emotional triggers in myocardial infarction: do they matter?, Edmondson D,Newman JD,Whang W,Davidson KW,, European heart journal, 2013 Jan [PubMed PMID: 23178642]|
|||Iglewicz A,Shear MK,Reynolds CF 3rd,Simon N,Lebowitz B,Zisook S, Complicated grief therapy for clinicians: An evidence-based protocol for mental health practice. Depression and anxiety. 2020 Jan [PubMed PMID: 31622522]|
|||Mauro C,Reynolds CF,Maercker A,Skritskaya N,Simon N,Zisook S,Lebowitz B,Cozza SJ,Shear MK, Prolonged grief disorder: clinical utility of ICD-11 diagnostic guidelines. Psychological medicine. 2019 Apr [PubMed PMID: 29909789]|
|||Zisook S,Iglewicz A,Avanzino J,Maglione J,Glorioso D,Zetumer S,Seay K,Vahia I,Young I,Lebowitz B,Pies R,Reynolds C,Simon N,Shear MK, Bereavement: course, consequences, and care. Current psychiatry reports. 2014 Oct [PubMed PMID: 25135781]|
|||Guilt in bereavement: Its relationship with complicated grief and depression., Li J,Tendeiro JN,Stroebe M,, International journal of psychology : Journal international de psychologie, 2018 Mar 5 [PubMed PMID: 29508381]|
|||Lathrop D, Disenfranchised Grief and Physician Burnout. Annals of family medicine. 2017 Jul; [PubMed PMID: 28694277]|
|||When a broken heart is real: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy., Pore N,Burley M,, The Nurse practitioner, 2012 Oct 10 [PubMed PMID: 23014180]|
|||Depression, Hopelessness, and Complicated Grief in Survivors of Suicide., Bellini S,Erbuto D,Andriessen K,Milelli M,Innamorati M,Lester D,Sampogna G,Fiorillo A,Pompili M,, Frontiers in psychology, 2018 [PubMed PMID: 29568278]|
|||Ito M,Nakajima S,Fujisawa D,Miyashita M,Kim Y,Shear MK,Ghesquiere A,Wall MM, Brief measure for screening complicated grief: reliability and discriminant validity. PloS one. 2012 [PubMed PMID: 22348057]|
|||Prigerson HG,Maciejewski PK,Reynolds CF 3rd,Bierhals AJ,Newsom JT,Fasiczka A,Frank E,Doman J,Miller M, Inventory of Complicated Grief: a scale to measure maladaptive symptoms of loss. Psychiatry research. 1995 Nov 29 [PubMed PMID: 8771222]|
|||The grief evaluation measure (GEM): an initial validation study., Jordan JR,Baker J,Matteis M,Rosenthal S,Ware ES,, Death studies, 2005 May [PubMed PMID: 15849881]|
|||Shear MK,Wang Y,Skritskaya N,Duan N,Mauro C,Ghesquiere A, Treatment of complicated grief in elderly persons: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA psychiatry. 2014 Nov [PubMed PMID: 25250737]|
|||Shear MK,Reynolds CF 3rd,Simon NM,Zisook S,Wang Y,Mauro C,Duan N,Lebowitz B,Skritskaya N, Optimizing Treatment of Complicated Grief: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA psychiatry. 2016 Jul 1 [PubMed PMID: 27276373]|
|||Primary Care for the Elderly Bereaved: Recommendations for Medical Education., Morris S,Schaefer K,Rosowsky E,, Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, 2018 Mar 2 [PubMed PMID: 29500657]|
|||Anticipatory Grief, Proactive Coping, Social Support, and Growth: Exploring Positive Experiences of Preparing for Loss., Rogalla KB,, Omega, 2018 Jan 1 [PubMed PMID: 29516784]|
|||Meeting the needs of carers of people at the end of life., Hardy B,, Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987), 2018 Apr 28 [PubMed PMID: 29583171]|
|||Screening to predict complicated grief in spouses of cancer patients., BrintzenhofeSzoc KM,Smith ED,Zabora JR,, Cancer practice, 1999 Sep-Oct [PubMed PMID: 10687592]|