Benediction Sign


Benediction sign (or Benediction posture) is a clinical sign of ulnar neuropathy of the hand. It results in the functional impairment of the intrinsic muscles of the hand that act on the metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal joints.[1][2][3][4] The intrinsic muscles that will be affected are the interossei and lumbrical muscles. The interossei muscles normally adduct and abduct the second, third, and fourth fingers, whereas the lumbricals flex the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints.[5] As a result of ulnar neuropathy, these intrinsic muscles will lose their function, producing the Benediction sign (as seen in the image present at the end of the article).[1][2][3]

This sign has also been referred to by other names in literature, such as the Preacher’s hand and “main-en-griffe.” The papal benediction sign was first recognized in the historical artwork of Saint Peter, who presumably suffered from ulnar neuropathy. After him, other popes imitated his hand gesture in preaching.[1][6]

Issues of Concern

Although the benediction sign has existed in historical images dating back to the second and third centuries, the exact neurological cause of this pathology has been under debate. Some clinicians and anatomists have attributed this clinical sign with median neuropathy, while others have favored ulnar neuropathy as its etiology. However, the final hand postures, in either case, are almost similar, as discussed below.[1][7]

Anatomically, the median nerve arises from the lateral and medial cords of the brachial plexus that originate from the nerve roots C5-T1. The median nerve does not have a branch in the arm. In the forearm, the median nerve mainly supplies to flexors of the forearm and the wrist. In hand, the median nerve supplies the lateral two lumbrical muscles supplying the second and third fingers and the thenar muscles. Lumbricals flex the metacarpophalangeal joints and extend the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints. The median nerve normally flexes the wrist, proximal interphalangeal joints, as well as the metacarpophalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of the index and middle finger. Therefore, a lesion of the median nerve will affect the flexors of the second and third fingers resulting in the benediction sign when trying to make a fist.[2][3] It is worth noting that the medial two lumbrical muscles supplied by the ulnar nerve will be normal. Therefore, when making a fist in these patients, the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fourth and fifth fingers will be flexed. 

The ulnar nerve is derived from the medial cord of the brachial plexus, incorporating nerve roots C8-T1. When it reaches the forearm, it gives rise to motor branches that innervate the flexor carpi ulnaris and the medial half of flexor digitorum profundus. In the hand, the ulnar nerve innervates medial two lumbricals supplying the fourth and fifth fingers, the interossei muscles, and the hypothenar muscles.[8][9][10] When relating the injury to the ulnar nerve, the benediction sign would present if a person tries to open their hand and extend the fingers. Due to the loss of function of the medial two lumbricals, the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fourth and fifth fingers will be in extension, while the interphalangeal joints will be in flexion.

In summary, the difference between the Benediction signs produced by ulnar and median neuropathies are:

  1. In median neuropathy, the Benediction sign will be present when making a fist. The metacarpophalangeal joints and interphalangeal joints of the second and third fingers will be in an extended position due to the loss of action of their flexor muscles. In ulnar neuropathy, the Benediction sign will be present when opening the hand and extending the fingers. Due to the loss of function of the medial two lumbricals, the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fourth and fifth fingers will remain extended, while the interphalangeal joints will be in a flexed position.
  2. In median neuropathy, the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fourth and fifth fingers will appear flexed due to the normal medial two lumbricals supplied by the ulnar nerve. In ulnar neuropathy, the metacarpophalangeal joints of the fourth and fifth fingers will be in extension.

Careful examination of the position of the fingers and consideration to the intention of the Pope was taken into account, as an open hand during blessing was a customary means of indicating peaceful motives.[1] For these reasons, the ulnar nerve is regarded as the cause of the benediction sign based on observations of the history, culture, and artwork done on the papal lineage. 

Clinical Significance

The presence of a benediction sign indicates ulnar neuropathy. However, the diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy depends initially on the relevant clinical history and examination. On physical examination, other clinical signs of ulnar neuropathy are also usually observable.

  • Froment sign: It is due to the weakness of the adductor pollicis muscle, which normally adducts the thumb. Therefore, when the clinician asks a patient to pinch a piece of paper between thethumb and index fingers, the distal phalanx of the thumb flexes due to involuntarily activation of the flexor pollicis longus, a median nerve–innervated muscle.
  • Wartenberg sign: It is due to the weakness of the third palmar interosseous muscle. It results in the inability to adduct the little finger. Therefore, the little finger remains abducted and gets caught when the patient tries to put the hand in a pocket.[2]
  • Atrophy of the intrinsic muscles, particularly the hypothenar muscles, may develop in more progressed cases. Therefore, prevention and prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for a favorable prognosis.[11][12]

Since clinical history and physical examination are subjective and imprecise. Accordingly, electromyography and nerve conduction studies, and ultrasound studies are also used to confirm the diagnosis.[13][12]

Nursing, Allied Health, and Interprofessional Team Interventions

A neurologist often diagnoses the condition and further evaluates for neuropathy. An interprofessional team that includes a neurologist, neurosurgeon, physical therapist, hand surgeon, nurse practitioner, and specially trained nursing staff should be involved in further managing this condition. The specific management depends upon the underlying cause if present. Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and extensive rehabilitation with strength training are necessary for all individuals to ensure good clinical outcomes. Interprofessional sharing of information and collaborative effort in diagnosis and treatment will bring about optimal patient outcomes. [Level 5]

(Click Image to Enlarge)
Benediction Hand
Benediction Hand
Contributed by Katherine Humphries
Article Details

Article Author

Raghad M. Aldossari

Article Editor:

Sajid Hameed


4/5/2022 11:28:56 PM



Futterman B, Analysis of the Papal Benediction Sign: The ulnar neuropathy of St. Peter. Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.). 2015 Sep;     [PubMed PMID: 26118346]


Murphy KA,Morrisonponce D, Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Median Nerve 2020 Jan;     [PubMed PMID: 28846302]


Patel M,Varacallo M, Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Arm Nerves 2019 Jan;     [PubMed PMID: 31613515]


Sharrak S,M Das J, Hand Nerve Compression Syndromes . 2020 Jan     [PubMed PMID: 31613463]


Dawson-Amoah K,Varacallo M, Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Hand Intrinsic Muscles . 2020 Jan     [PubMed PMID: 30969632]


Zdilla MJ, The Hand of Sabazios: Evidence of Dupuytren's Disease in Antiquity and the Origin of the Hand of Benediction. The journal of hand surgery Asian-Pacific volume. 2017 Sep;     [PubMed PMID: 28774258]


Hakan T, Median Nerve Injury from the Eye of an Artist: Gladiators. Turkish neurosurgery. 2019;     [PubMed PMID: 30829383]


Becker RE,Manna B, Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Ulnar Nerve 2019 Jan;     [PubMed PMID: 29763067]


Okwumabua E,Thompson JH, Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Nerves 2020 Jan;     [PubMed PMID: 30252312]


Mitchell B,Whited L, Anatomy, Shoulder and Upper Limb, Forearm Muscles 2019 Jan;     [PubMed PMID: 30725660]


Schuppe V, Ulnar claw: A kinder, gentler solution. Journal of hand therapy : official journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists. 2019 Mar 8;     [PubMed PMID: 30857894]


Lleva JMC,Chang KV, Ulnar Neuropathy 2019 Jan;     [PubMed PMID: 30480959]


Aswani Y,Saifi S, Atraumatic Main-En-Griffe due to Ulnar Nerve Leprosy. Polish journal of radiology. 2016;     [PubMed PMID: 26788223]