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Surgery-Otolaryngology

Surgery-Otolaryngology

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Surgery-Otolaryngology activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 514 activities in Surgery-Otolaryngology for 468.75 total CME hours.


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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Featured Article Activities

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Haemophilus Influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae is a bacteria characterized as a small, facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, and capnophilic gra ...
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Hours: 1

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Adenoid Cystic Cancer

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising from the secretory glands, most commonly seen involving the ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Syphilis

Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinica ...
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Hours: 2.5

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Unilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis

Unilateral vocal cord paralysis (UVCP) presents with dysphonia, shortness of breath and swallowing difficulty. It occurs ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

Upper respiratory tract infections can be defined as self-limited irritation and swelling of the upper airways with asso ...
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Hours: 1

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Deep Plane Facelift

A deep plane facelift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the aging face. This activity reviews th ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Surgery-Otolaryngology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
131 I Sodium Iodide Radioiodine-131 is a therapeutic agent used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. This activity describes the ind ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
3-3-2 Rule The airway is one of the most critical elements of patient safety, and difficult intubations commonly cause morbidity and mortality. To decrease morbi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ablative Nerve Block Ablation procedures have been used to treat chronic back pain and sciatica of unknown etiology as an alternative to surgical severing the dorsal rami. ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tis ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinic Cheilitis Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous lesion that forms most commonly on the lower lip. Similar to actinic keratosis, actinic cheilitis can undergo mali ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinomycosis Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that typically colonize the human mouth, urogenital trac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) is a rapidly destructive, non-communicable microbial disease of the gingiva in the context of an impair ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoid Cystic Cancer Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy arising from the secretory glands, most commonly seen involving the salivary glands. Although unco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoid Hypertrophy Adenoid hypertrophy is an obstructive condition due to enlarged adenoids. This can occur with or without an acute or chronic infection of the adenoids ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoidectomy Adenoidectomy is a common surgical procedure primarily performed in children for infectious or obstructive reasons. This activity details the indicati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoiditis Adenoiditis occurs when there is inflammation of the adenoid tissue resulting from infection, allergies, or irritation from stomach acid. Adenoiditis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenopathy Lymphadenopathy is a common abnormal finding during the course of the physical exam in general medical practice. Adenopathy can be caused by neoplasm, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoviruses The adenoviruses are DNA viruses common in animals and humans, occurring frequently in both adults and children. There are more than 100 serologically ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ageusia Ageusia is a symptom reflecting various underline pathological conditions. It is a rare condition that is characterized by complete loss of the taste ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Glottic Insufficiency Glottic insufficiency is characterized by incomplete closure of the vocal folds with phonation, which causes an increased risk of aspiration. Glottic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in the inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an abnormal exces ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alport Syndrome Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, loss of hearing, and eye abnormalities. It takes place due to an abnormality o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alternobaric Facial Paresis Alternobaric facial paresis, facial baroparesis, baroparesis facialis, or alternobaric facial nerve palsy is a neurapraxia of the seventh cranial nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alternobaric Vertigo Alternobaric vertigo is a benign condition that affects individuals traveling in environments with changing ambient pressures, such as scuba diving or ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ameloblastoma Ameloblastomas are rare, odontogenic tumors derived from odontogenic ectoderm. Ameloblastomas represent about 1% of all jaw tumors, but they are the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, also known as undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor accounting for 2 to 3 per ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia With Eosinophilia Angiolymphoid hyperplasia with eosinophilia (ALHE), also known as epithelioid hemangioma, is an uncommon, benign vasoproliferative disorder. The patho ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angular Chelitis Angular cheilitis describes an inflammatory skin process of variable etiology occurring at the labial commissure, the angle of the mouth. It is usuall ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankyloglossia Ankyloglossia, also known as tongue-tie, is a short lingual frenum that interferes with normal tongue movement. It is an uncommon congenital oral anom ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosmia Anosmia is the inability to perceive smell/odor. It can be temporary or permanent and acquired or congenital. There are many causes. Neurological caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Epistaxis Nasal Pack Among the nasal emergencies, epistaxis is one of the most common chief complaints in patients presenting to the emergency department. Typically, anter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Mediastinal Mass The most common anterior mediastinal masses in the adult population are thymoma, teratoma, thyroid goiter, and lymphoma. This activity describes the e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apert Syndrome Apert syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited craniosynostosis syndrome. Males and females are equally affected. The incidence of the disease sign ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apnea In Children Apnea can be defined as the cessation of respiratory effort lasting more than 20 seconds, or lasting a shorter duration but accompanied by bradycardia ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arytenoid Subluxation Arytenoid subluxation or dislocation is a rare laryngeal injury that occurs as a result of airway instrumentation or direct trauma to the cricoaryteno ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Mycobacterial Disease Atypical mycobacteria or nontuberculous mycobacteria are organisms that cause a variety of diseases such as skin and soft tissue infection, lymphadeni ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axial Flaps Trauma and resection of tumors often leave large defects requiring coverage, which have historically meant multi-stage procedures. However, axial patt ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antibiotic medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and sexu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Pharyngitis Pharyngitis, more commonly described as sore throat, represents inflammation or irritation of the posterior oropharynx. While the majority of cases ar ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Tracheitis Bacterial tracheitis, also known as bacterial croup, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, or membranous croup, is a potentially lethal infection of the sub ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balloon Sinuplasty Balloon sinuplasty for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) refractory to conservative medical therapy has greatly risen over the last decade ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barium Swallow The barium swallow study, also known as a barium esophagogram or esophagram, is a contrast-enhanced radiographic study commonly used to assess structu ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barosinusitis Barosinusitis is an uncommon entity that is rarely described within the otolaryngology literature. It is generally affiliated with pilots and scuba di ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barotrauma Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damag ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting close to one in five Americans. Although rarely fatal, basal cell carcinoma ca ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Vertigo is the perception of motion in the absence of motion, which may be described as a sensation of swaying, tilting, spinning, or feeling unbalanc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bezold Abscess Bezold's abscess is a rare deep neck abscess and is an intratemporal complication of a coalescent mastoiditis via direct extension into the peri-masto ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilobed Flaps The bilobed flap is a local flap used primarily for the reconstruction of small to moderate cutaneous nasal defects. It was first described in 1918 by ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blastomycosis Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents as a pulmonary infection after the inhalation of spores, and it ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoplasty Ptosis Surgery Blepharoplasty is the general term for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids either for functional reasons, cosmetic reas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common site of piercings are the ears, mouth, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Therapeutic uses include chronic migraine, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Abscess Brain abscess is a localized zone of necrosis with a surrounding membrane within the brain parenchyma, usually resulting from an infectious or traumat ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cyst Branchial cleft cysts, also known as branchial cleft anomalies, are congenital anomalies arising from the first through fourth pharyngeal pouches. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cysts Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts that comprise approximately one-third of congenital neck masses. They are benign lesions and can ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brown Syndrome True Brown syndrome is due to congenital causes, with a constant limitation of elevation and a positive traction test secondary to a tight superior ob ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bruxism Management Bruxism can be defined as the involuntary, unconscious, and excessive grinding of teeth. Bruxism may occur while awake, and it is then called wakeful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Myringitis Bullous myringitis (BM) is a relatively common infectious condition characterized by bullae or vesicles on the tympanic membrane without affecting the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by extremely painful burning sensation of the tongue and mucosal tissue of the mouth, lips, and/or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caloric Testing Caloric testing is a useful clinical tool that can assess and quantify the functional status of the individual vestibular systems. The test utilizes t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antimicrobials used to manage a wide range of infections from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The five genera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerumen Impaction Production of cerumen (earwax) is a normal and naturally occurring process. It protects the ear from infection and provides a barrier to insects and w ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cetuximab Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with the following FDA-approved indications: colorectal cancer, metastatic, KRAS wil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
CHARGE Syndrome CHARGE syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the DNA-binding protein-7 CHD7 gene. CHARGE syndrome is an acronym for coloboma, hear ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheilitis Cheilitis is an inflammation of the lips. It may be acute or chronic, involving the vermilion and/or surrounding skin of one or both lips. It is a fre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheilitis Granulomatosa Cheilitis granulomatosa (CG) is a rare granulomatous disorder characterized by a recurrent firm swelling of one or both lips. This is called the cheil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondrodermatitis Nodularis Helicis Chondrodermatitis nodularis chronica helicis (CNH) is a benign inflammatory condition that affects the skin and cartilage of the pinna. CNH, also know ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Aspiration Chronic aspiration is a common condition that occurs in the elderly population, pediatric patients with certain neurological conditions, and chronical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cough Cough is a natural defense mechanism that allows clearance of bronchial tree secretions and the elimination of inhaled foreign particles. It is a comm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Sinusitis Chronic sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus or nasal passages occurring for more than 12 weeks at a time. It may present as chronic sinusitis wi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Suppurative Otitis Chronic suppurative otitis media continues to be an important disease in the pediatric population and a significant cause of hearing problems leading ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cicatricial Pemphigoid Cicatricial pemphigoid is a rare, chronic autoimmune blistering disorder which can produce scarring. It can affect the skin, the mucous membranes, or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciliary Dysfunction The majority of newborns with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), formerly known as immotile cilia syndrome, develop neonatal respiratory distress with ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic agent in the fluoroquinolone class used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections and pneumonia. C ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cisplatin Cisplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. It is in the alkylating agent class of cy ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cochlear Implants A Cochlear Implant (CI) is a medical device that uses electricity to stimulate the spiral ganglion cells of the auditory nerve to restore sensorineura ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Ear Lacerations Facial lacerations are a common patient presentation, and the ear presents a unique challenge due to its structure. The ear is particularly susceptibl ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conductive Hearing Loss Conductive hearing loss encompasses a wide range of pathologies that affect patients of all ages. It can be the result of a defect anywhere from the e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis (CS) is caused by transmission of the spirochete Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus, resulting in diverse clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Unilateral Lower Lip Palsy Congenital unilateral lower lip palsy is a congenital anomaly that is caused by agenesis or hypoplasia of depressor anguli oris muscle. Unilateral dep ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function that are inconsistent with patte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Pharyngitis is defined as the inflammation of pharyngeal tissue. Based on etiology, it can be divided into infectious and non-infectious sources. Vira ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis Craniofacial distraction osteogenesis is a technique to elongate the bones of the mandible, midface, and cranial vault. It is successful in treating a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cribiform Plate Fractures A fracture of the cribriform plate is a potentially serious injury that can be easily overlooked. When present, it is indicative of severe head or fac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cricothyrotomy Today, the emergency cricothyroidotomy is the surgical rescue technique of choice for the failed airway in adults. It is considered a more straightfor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crocodile Tears Syndrome The term “crocodile tears” is derived from the ancient belief that crocodiles weep after killing their victims. “crocodile tears syndrome,” also known ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crouzon Syndrome Crouzon syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of coronal sutures) resulting in the skull an ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryocystorhinostomy Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) often results in intractable, bothersome epiphora. In longstanding NLDO, mucus can accumulate, resulting in a muc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
De Quervain Thyroiditis In general, thyroiditis is defined as an inflammation of the thyroid gland. There are several kinds of thyroiditis, and they can be associated with ei ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decompression Sickness Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when dissolved gasses (usually nitrogen or helium, used in mixed gas diving) exit solution and form bubbles inside ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Neck Infections Deep neck infections are a serious but treatable group of infections affecting the deep cervical space and characterized by rapid progression and life ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Plane Facelift A deep plane facelift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the aging face. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dental Abscess Dental infections, while relatively straightforward regarding diagnosis and access, can be challenging to manage acutely. Dental abscesses or periapic ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of or response to antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasop ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Difficult Airway The difficult airway algorithm has been outlined by the American Society of Anesthesiology and provides a basic pathway for difficult intubation. It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma, accounting for about 25% to 30% of all the non-Hodgkin lymphomas. It typically pres ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a toxin-mediated infection caused by Corynebacterium species, primarily Corynebacterium diphtheria. It causes skin and mucosal infection ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dix Hallpike Maneuver Vertigo can be challenging to evaluate and treat. It can arise from a slew of vastly different pathophysiologies, with acuity ranging from minimally c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysphagia Dysphagia is defined as objective impairment or difficulty in swallowing, resulting in an abnormal delay in the transit of a liquid or solid bolus. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eagle Syndrome Eagle syndrome, also known as stylohyoid syndrome, styloid syndrome, or styloid–carotid artery syndrome, is a rare condition caused by an elongated or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Foreign Body Removal The management of foreign bodies located in the external auditory canal can be nuanced, and for some medical professionals may be intimidating if not ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Irrigation The American Academy of Otolaryngology defines cerumen impaction as "an accumulation of cerumen that is associated with symptoms, prevents the necessa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Microtia Microtia is a congenital ear deformity in which the external ear is malformed and underdeveloped. In more severe cases, it is usually associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ear Nerve Block Patients frequently present to the emergency department with a variety of external ear complaints ranging from traumatic injuries (lacerations and avu ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EBV Positive Mucocutaneous Ulcer Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) are a spectrum of diseases that range from self-limiting, localized cond ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectopic Thyroid The thyroid gland is the first endocrine gland that develops during fetal embryology, which starts between the third and fourth gestational weeks. The ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ectropion Lower Eyelid Reconstruction Ectropion is an eversion or outward turning of the eyelid margin leading to loss of the natural apposition of the eyelid to the globe. Ectropion may b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eczema Herpeticum Eczema herpeticum (EH) is a disseminated cutaneous infection with herpes simplex virus that develops in a patient with atopic dermatitis. EH typically ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrical Burns Electrical injuries are when high-energy current travels through the body due to contact with an electrical source. Injuries occur due to either the f ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Encephalocele Encephalocele is usually a congenital type of neural tube defect, where a sac containing brain/meninges/cerebrospinal fluid forms outside the skull du ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endoscopic Brow Lift An endoscopic brow lift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of patients underg ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermal Inclusion Cyst Epidermal inclusion cysts are the most common cutaneous cysts and can occur anywhere on the body. These cysts typically present as fluctuant nodules u ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidermoid Cancer Epidermoid tumors are congenital lesions that arise from ectodermal cells misplaced during the closure of the neural tube in the process of embryogene ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epistaxis Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency room or primary care. There are ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epley Maneuver Patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo often present with recurrent symptoms of dizziness, lightheadedness, nausea, or vomiting. The follo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epstein Barr Virus Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus in which over 90% of the population worldwide has been infected. EBV infection can range from asymptomatic t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epstein Pearls Epstein pearls are small, benign, self-resolving nodules commonly found in the oral cavities of newborns. This activity describes the evaluation and m ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Cyst Esophageal cysts are rare congenital malformations that categorize as being epithelial-lined or duplication in nature. They are usually diagnosed in c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Diverticula An esophageal diverticulum is a relatively rare disease in which there is an outpouching of the esophageal mucosa. Patients typically present if they ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esophageal Trauma Esophageal injury (EI) is a rare but challenging clinical finding in the setting of trauma. Esophageal injuries or perforations are transmural disrupt ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Esthesioneuroblastoma Esthesioneuroblastoma, or olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant neoplasm of the sinonasal tract originating from the olfactory neuroepithelium ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) is the failure of the Eustachian tube in maintaining pressure equalization or mucociliary transport. This is categor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exercise Induced Laryngeal Obstruction Inducible laryngeal obstruction (ILO) describes a narrowing or inappropriate obstruction of the true vocal fold and/or the supraglottic structures in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
External Ear Aural Atresia Aural atresia is the absence of a patent ear canal that may be acquired or congenital. To preserve hearing and allow normal speech and language develo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extrapyramidal Symptoms Extrapyramidal side effects (EPS), commonly referred to as drug-induced movement disorders are among the most common adverse drug effects patients exp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Extubation Extubation is the removal of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is the last step in liberating a patient from the mechanical ventilator. To discuss the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Chin Augmentation The chin represents an often underappreciated aesthetic component of the face; however, the chin remains an essential facial subunit that plays a sign ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Intratemporal Trauma Temporal bone fractures are uncommon but involve many important structures resulting in various diagnostic and therapeutic issues. A large amount of f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Palsy Facial nerve palsies are a common and essential presentation specifically to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons but also in general medical practice ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Repair Facial paralysis is a condition that has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals. The social and psychological implications of faci ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facial Nerve Trauma Facial nerve palsy is a common presentation to family doctors, the emergency department, and otolaryngologists. Trauma accounts for 10% to 23% of all ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Filler Rhinoplasty The nonsurgical rhinoplasty technique using injectable filler material serves to mainly correct the shape and overall appearance of the nose. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Needle Aspiration Fine-needle aspiration is a minimally invasive way to obtain a cell sample to confirm a diagnosis or to guide treatment. Fine-needle aspiration is an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flexible Nasopharyngoscopy Flexible nasopharyngoscopy (also called fiberoptic nasendoscopy/flexible nasolaryngoscopy/flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy) is an essentia ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fluticasone Fluticasone is a medication used in the management and treatment of asthma, allergic rhinitis, emphysema, and atopic dermatitis. It is in the corticos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Follicular Adenoma Follicular adenomas are a common benign neoplasm encountered in clinical practice. They usually present as a solitary thyroid nodule, but other presen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Follicular Thyroid Cancer The thyroid is an endocrine gland located just below the cricoid cartilage in the neck, and it is composed of both the right and the left lobes separa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Forehead Flaps Forehead flaps are 2-stage tissue flaps in which a forehead-based pedicle flap is used to repair more distal nasal defects. This type of flap is gener ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frey Syndrome Frey syndrome usually occurs with auriculotemporal nerve injury secondary to surgical intervention or trauma in the parotid region. Prevention of this ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frontal Sinus Fractures Fractures of the frontal sinus are most commonly seen in the emergency department after motor vehicle accidents (MVA's), falls, assaults, falling obje ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Functional Voice Disorders Functional voice disorders are caused by insufficient or improper use of vocal mechanisms without any anatomic and neurological abnormalities. The mos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fungal Sinusitis There are several types of fungal sinusitis. The classification depends on the degree of invasion of the sinuses. The overarching categories are non-i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fusiform Incision Fusiform incision is commonly used to remove lesions that are roughly round or oval. Fusiform incisions involve the surgical removal of tissue in a ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gender Dysphoria Gender dysphoria (previously gender identity disorder), according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental disorders are defined as a “marked in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
General Anesthesia for Surgeons The primary goal of general anesthesia is rendering a patient unconscious and unable to feel painful stimuli while controlling autonomic reflexes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Geographic Tongue Geographic tongue is a benign chronic relapsing recurring inflammatory condition of the oral cavity of unknown etiology. This activity reviews the eva ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gingivitis Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of the gingival tissue or the gums most commonly due to a bacterial infection. It is inflammation of the gingi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glomus Jugulare Glomus jugulare is a slow-growing paraganglioma of the head and neck that arises within the jugular foramen and localized to the jugular fossa. Paraga ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glossectomy Glossectomy is a term used to describe a variety of procedures resulting in the surgical extirpation of part, or all, of the tongue. Glossectomy is mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia Glossopharyngeal neuralgia is a rare painful condition characterized by brief paroxysmal painful attacks in the glossopharyngeal nerve distribution. P ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glottic Cancer Laryngeal cancers are one of the most common head and neck malignancies. Glottic cancers arise from true vocal cords and similarly to other laryngeal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glottic Stenosis Glottic stenosis describes a narrowing of the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and glottic opening, otherwise known as the glottis. Gl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Goiter Patients with goiter commonly present to outpatient facilities with a variety of complaints. Goiter encompasses many different causes and morbidities, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gorlin Syndrome Gorlin syndrome, also called Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS), or nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gram Positive Bacteria Gram-positive organisms have highly variable growth and resistance patterns. The SCOPE project (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare vasculitis affecting small vessels. Hallmark features include necrotizing granulomas and pauci-immune ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Graves Disease Orbital Decompression Thyroid eye disease (TED), also known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO), thyroid orbitopathy, Graves’ orbitopathy, or Graves’ ophthalmopathy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Griseofulvin Griseofulvin is FDA approved for and the drug of choice in tinea capitis. Other indications include onychomycosis as well as superficial fungal infect ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Haemophilus Influenzae Haemophilus influenzae is a bacteria characterized as a small, facultatively anaerobic, pleomorphic, and capnophilic gram-negative coccobacillus of th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hair Transplantation Hair transplantation aims to restore a more youthful appearance for those distressed by hair loss, particularly androgenetic alopecia. This activity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hairy Leukoplakia Hairy leukoplakia (HL) was first described in 1984 and is a disease of the mucosa. It is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also known as human ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Halitosis Halitosis is a term coined from the merger of the Latin halitus (breath) and Greek osis (pathological process) to describe a condition that meant an u ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hashimoto Thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which thyroid cel ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hearing Loss The management of hearing loss is challenging and complex. To achieve good outcomes, the goals and objectives of hearing loss management must be defin ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemifacial Microsomia Hemifacial microsomia is the second most common congenital craniofacial defect after cleft lip and palate. It can present with a spectrum of deformiti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemifacial Spasm Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a disorder characterized by paroxysmal, involuntary twitching of facial muscles of one side of face innervated by ipsilatera ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemolacria Hemolacria or bloody epiphora is the presence of blood in tears. Multiple disorders can cause hemolacria. This activity reviews the evaluation and man ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hemophilia A Hemophilia encompasses a group of inherited disorders that alter blood coagulation. Classical hemophilia, also known as hemophilia A, is a hereditary ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hereditary Angioedema Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by either a lack of C1-inhibitor protein or by dysfunctional C1-inhibitor protein. ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpangina Herpangina is a viral infection that is manifested clinically as an acute febrile illness with small ulcerative or vesicular lesions in the posterior ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs due to the reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus. It is a variation of herpes zoster that can cause a va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Herpetic Gingivostomatitis Herpetic gingivostomatitis is a manifestation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and is characterized by high-grade fever and painful oral lesions ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hodgkin Lymphoma Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare monoclonal lymphoid neoplasm characterized by the following four features: HL usually presents in young adults, common ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil) a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperacusis Hyperacusis is a rare hearing disorder characterized by a decreased tolerance to sound where patients report excessive loudness or pain, often leading ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Soft Tissue Radionecrosis Soft tissue radionecrosis refers to the delayed effects of radiation therapy which result in tissue breakdown from the impaired blood supply radiation ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Delayed Radiation Injury There will be 1.2 million cases of invasive cancer diagnosed in the United States this year. Half of those patients will receive radiation therapy as ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Treatment Of Sensorineural Hearing Loss Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is defined as hearing loss of at least 30 decibels occurring over at least three consecutive audiometric fre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Zygomycotic Infections Invasive zygomycosis, or mucormycosis, are a group of infections caused by fungi in the order Mucorales. The most common species that cause infection ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypertrophic Scarring Hypertrophic scarring represents an undesirable variant in the wound healing process. In hypertrophic scars, excess connective tissue is deposited in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypoparathyroidism Parathyroid hormone deficiency, also called hypoparathyroidism, results in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased neuromuscular irritability. ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis Infantile cortical hyperostosis (ICH), also known as Caffey disease, was first reported by Roske in 1930 and described by Caffey and Silverman in 1945 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Influenza Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, including upper and lower respiratory passages. A wide spectrum of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Infraorbital Nerve Block Nerve blocks are useful for providing anesthesia to a specific area of the body. Regional nerve blocks offer many advantages over local tissue infiltr ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inhalation Injury Inhalation injury is a broad term that includes pulmonary exposure to a wide range of chemicals in various forms including smoke, gases, vapors, or fu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inner Ear Decompression Sickness Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is an incompletely understood condition observed in compressed-gas divers likely resulting from precipitation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Innominate Artery Injury Innominate artery injuries can present either by penetrating or blunt force. A provider must make a quick decision on treatment to avoid the feared mo ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Internal Jugular Vein Thrombosis Internal jugular vein thrombosis occurs when a thrombus develops in the lumen of the internal jugular vein (IJV). Hereditary and acquired risk factors ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interpolated Flaps An interpolated flap is a 2-stage tissue flap in which the base of the flap is not directly adjacent to the recipient defect, and the flap bridges ove ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iodine Toxicity Although the consequences of iodine deficiency have been recognized for years, there has not been much emphasis on the prevalence or the consequences ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jervell and Lange Nielsen Syndrome Jervell and Lange Nielsen syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and a prolonged QTc in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jugular Foramen Syndrome The jugular foramen syndrome (JFS) (Vernet syndrome) refers to paralysis of the IX, X, and XI cranial nerves traversing the jugular foramen. Safe rese ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma is an interesting soft tissue tumor occurring in several distinct populations with a variety of presentations and courses. In its most ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kikuchi Disease Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease is a rare benign self-limiting inflammatory lymphadenitis that develops in young patients, initially described in Asian popul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Labyrinthectomy Labyrinthectomy is performed to treat intractable vertigo. It ablates the abnormal signals from a diseased vestibular system in order to facilitate ce ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Labyrinthitis Labyrinthitis is an inflammation of the membranous labyrinth of the inner ear and typically presents with vertigo, nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, and/or ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Landau Kleffner Syndrome Landau-Kleffner syndrome is a rare age-related epileptic encephalopathy that usually manifests itself in children aged 3 to 8 years with previously no ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Cancer Laryngeal cancers represent one-third of head and neck cancers and may be a significant source of morbidity and mortality. They are most often diagnos ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Fracture A laryngeal fracture requires a considerable impact force. The most common cause of laryngeal trauma is a motor vehicle accident or sports injury, fol ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Mask Airway Laryngeal mask airways (LMA) are supraglottic airway devices. They may be used as a temporary method to maintain an open airway during the administrat ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngeal Papillomas Laryngeal papilloma is a benign lesion caused by a viral infection of epithelial cells leading to an overgrowth in one or different segments of the re ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngomalacia Laryngomalacia ranks as the most prevalent cause of stridor in an infant. It is crucial to make the diagnosis in early infancy as it may affect multip ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Laryngopharyngeal reflux typically results from the effects of reflux on the glottis and vocal cords. Patients may present with a multitude of symptom ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngotracheal Stenosis Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a narrowing of the upper airway between the larynx and the trachea with potentially devastating consequences, includ ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Laryngotracheobronchitis Laryngotracheobronchitis, as the name implies, refers to inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi. Cases of laryngotracheobronchitis can be mo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Le Fort Fractures Le Fort injuries are complex fractures of the midface, named after Rene Le Fort who studied cadaver skulls that were subjected to blunt force trauma. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Leech Bite Leeches are hermaphroditic parasites of phylum Annelida and class Hirudinea. There are over 600 species of leeches. A minority of these are sanguinivo ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lemierre Syndrome Lemierre syndrome (LS) is a rare complication of bacterial pharyngitis/tonsillitis and involves an extension of the infection into the lateral pharyng ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lip Implants A lip implant aims to restore a more youthful and aesthetically pleasing look to the perioral region. This activity reviews the evaluation and manage ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Liposarcoma Liposarcomas arise from lipocytes found in soft tissues as diverse as the esophagus, retroperitoneum, and popliteal fossa. The cellular subtypes of li ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ludwig Angina Ludwig's angina is life-threatening cellulitis of the soft tissue involving the floor of the mouth and neck. It involves two compartments on the floor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread by ticks. Lyme disease is divided into three stages: early local ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphangioma Lymphangiomas are uncommon, benign malformations of the lymphatic system that can occur anywhere on the skin and mucous membranes. Lymphangiomas can b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphoproliferative Disorders Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled production of lymphocytes that cause mono ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Macroglossia Macroglossia is usually seen in association with genetic syndromes. Macroglossia can be congenital or acquired. Congenital macroglossia is an uncommon ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant Hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Otitis Externa Malignant otitis media is a serious infection of the ear canal and temporal bone. It can lead to severe complications if not treated urgently. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Malignant Salivary Gland Tumors Salivary gland tumors are a rare group of complex, heterogenous histologies that are located in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gla ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Body Fracture The fracture of the body of mandible accounts for almost 11% to 36% among all the mandibular fractures. This activity describes the evaluation and man ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Dislocation This activity reviews the evaluation and management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the role of the healthcare team in the evaluation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Fracture Mandible is one of the most commonly fractured facial bone and is frequently seen in the emergency department. This activity reviews the anatomy of th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Osteoradionecrosis Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is a severe iatrogenic disease of devitalized bone caused by radiation therapy of oral and oropharyngeal canc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Reconstruction Surgical reconstruction of a damaged or resected mandible is performed to restore functional mastication, the oral phase of swallowing, dental occlusi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandibulofacial Dysostosis Treacher Collins syndrome is a congenital disorder of craniofacial development that has variable phenotypic expression. It can be inherited in an auto ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marfan Syndrome One of the most common inherited disorders affecting connective tissue, Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal dominant condition with a reported incid ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mastoidectomy Mastoidectomy is a surgical procedure of the temporal bone that opens postauricular air cells by removing the thin bony partitions between them. Each ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mastoiditis Mastoiditis is a common complication of acute otitis media. This activity reviews the pathophysiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Maxillary Sinus Fracture Maxillary sinus fractures (MSFs) are most commonly caused by blunt force trauma to the face. Depending on the magnitude and location of the direct inj ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medullary Thyroid Cancer Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a tumor arising from the parafollicular cells, or C cells, of the thyroid gland. Medullary thyroid cancer produces c ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor Of Infancy Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rapidly growing benign tumor arising from the neural crest cells. It typically affects infants ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meniere Disease Meniere disease is an inner ear disorder characterized by tinnitus, vertigo and hearing loss. This is thought to occur due to the accumulation of endo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mental Nerve Block The mental nerve supplies sensation to the lower teeth, the skin over the chin and lower lip, and the buccal mucosa. Mental nerve blocks allow for exc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Merkel Cell Carcinoma Of The Skin Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare, aggressive neuroendocrine tumor of the skin with increasing incidence. It most frequently presents on the head ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Middle Ear Barotrauma Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEBT) remain the two most common complications of SCUBA diving, commercial diving, and cl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Middle Ear Cholesteatoma There are two major types of middle ear cholesteatomas, congenital and acquired. Congenital cholesteatomas are derived from remnants of epithelium tha ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migraine-Associated Vertigo Patients often describe vertigo as the sensation of motion that occurs in the absence of motion or an altered sensation of motion that occurs with nor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Motion Sickness Motion sickness is a common and complex syndrome that occurs in response to either real or perceived motion. Its presentation can be diverse and may i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
M-plasty An M-plasty is an excisional technique used to remove standing cutaneous deformities, also known as dog ears, from the end of a linear repair. Dog ear ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucocele And Ranula Mucoceles and ranulas result when there is a disruption of the flow of secretions of the salivary glands mostly due to trauma and present as asymptoma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mucormycosis Mucormycosis results from a variety of fungi that may be typically innocuous environmental fungi and primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1), also known as Wermer syndrome, is a rare hereditary endocrine tumor syndrome. The most common tumors seen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias Type 2 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a hereditary cancer syndrome associated primarily with tumors of the adrenal gland, thyroid and parathy ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycoplasma Mucositis Mucocutaneous eruptions are rashes that have both mucous membrane and cutaneous distribution. Differences between the history and physical exam patter ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mycotic Aneurysm A mycotic aneurysm is an infection of vessel wall which can be bacterial, fungal, or viral in origin; they are a rare but severe complication of syste ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Foreign Body Nasal foreign bodies are commonly seen in the emergency department mostly in the pediatric population but also in those with psychiatric illness or de ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Fractures of the naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) complex resulting from high impact trauma to the face can have significant ramifications due to the NOE co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Reduction Nasal bony fractures are the most common type of facial bone fractures, representing 40 to 50 percent of cases. Nasal fractures are commonly associate ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Polyps Nasal polyps are a ubiquitous diagnosis that can manifest in a variety of diseases, the most common being chronic rhinosinusitis. Although benign, nas ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Septal Fracture Nasal bone and septal fractures are the most commonly fractured bone in the facial skeleton. These injuries can affect not only the cosmetic appearanc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasal Septal Hematoma The nose is the most commonly injured facial structure. Most nasal injuries do not require immediate intervention, but trauma is resulting in septal h ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO) or dacryostenosis is the most common disorder of the lacrimal system, and approximately 6 to 20 percent of newbor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Airway A nasopharyngeal airway device (NPA) is a hollow plastic or soft rubber tubes that a healthcare provider can utilize to assist with patient oxygenatio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare highly vascular tumor within the posterior nasal cavity found almost exclusively in adolescent boys. This activi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Cancer The nasopharynx is a small, tubular structure above the soft palate that connects the nose to the oropharynx. Cancers that arise from this area are us ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC, Lymphoepithelioma) Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), previously known as lymphoepithelioma, is a malignancy arising from the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Endemic to Chin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nasotracheal Intubation Nasotracheal intubation (NTI) involves passing an endotracheal tube through the naris into the nasopharynx and the trachea; most commonly after induct ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Abscess Neck abscesses in the deep neck tissues are difficult to diagnose, localize, access, and manage. The anatomy of the neck is complex and contains sever ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Cancer Resection and Dissection Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The single most important factor affecting prognosis for squamous cell carcinoma is th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neck Trauma The management of neck trauma can be challenging and sometimes overwhelming, as this anatomical region contains many vital structures. These structure ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Block Anesthesia The purpose of peripheral nerve blocks is to inhibit impulse transmission distally in a nerve terminal, thus terminating the pain signal perceived by ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibroma Neurofibromas are the most common peripheral nerve sheath tumor and are often found either by patients or during routine skin exams. These lesions app ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurofibromatosis Type 2 Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the development of multiple tumors involving the central nervous sys ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurosarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease that results in the formation of granulomas which classically are non-caseating granulomas, that may be found throug ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurothekeoma Neurothekeomas are rare, benign, superficial cutaneous tumors with variable histologic patterns, including myxoid, cellular, or mixed-type based prima ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neutropenia Neutrophils play an essential role in immune defenses because they ingest, kill, and digest invading microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria. Fai ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-depolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers (nNMBs) are administered as primary therapy in facilitating endotracheal intubations and adjuvant therapy in t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms originating from the lymphoid tissues, mainly the lymph nodes. These tumors may result due to c ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nontoxic Goiter Goiter is the enlargement of the thyroid gland. Nontoxic goiter is thyroid gland enlargement with no disturbance in the thyroid function. It is not du ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normocalcemic Hyperparathyroidism Normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism (nHPT) is a condition characterized by normal serum calcium in the face of elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). It ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by episodes of complete collapse of the airway or partial collapse with an associated decrease in oxyge ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Obstructive Sleep-disordered Breathing Obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a syndrome of upper airway dysfunction during sleep that is characterized by snoring and/or increased ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Occipital Neuralgia Occipital neuralgia (ON) is a painful condition affecting the posterior head in the distributions of the greater occipital nerve (GON), lesser occipit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Open Rhinoplasty The open rhinoplasty technique is used to correct both the cosmetic and functional deficits of the nose. Rhinoplasty remains among the most challengi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Candidiasis This activity illustrates the evaluation and treatment of oral candidiasis. It highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and tre ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Cutaneous Fistula Oral cutaneous fistulas (OCF) are an infrequent condition in which there is a pathologic communication between the oral cavity and the skin. Chronic d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Hemangiomas Oral hemangiomas are benign tumors that develop in and around the oral cavity due to endothelial cell proliferation. The majority of oral hemangiomas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oral Leukoplakia Oral leukoplakia is a white patch or plaque that develops in the oral cavity. The condition is potentially malignant and is strongly associated with t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is defined as a serious infection that involves the muscle and fat located within the orbit. It is also sometimes referred to as po ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orbital Floor Fracture Fractures of the orbital floor and the medial orbital wall (blowout fractures) are common midface injuries. Orbital fractures have a distinct trauma m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oropharyngeal Airway Acute respiratory failure is caused by a wide range of etiologies. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest and ultimately death is likely in the absenc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, commonly known as throat cancer or tonsil cancer, is a type of head and neck cancer that refers to the cancer o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osler-Weber-Rendu Disease Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is also known as Osler–Weber–Rendu disease. It is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ossicular-Chain Dislocation Ossicular chain dislocation occurs following trauma. It usually results in conductive hearing loss, which persists for more than 6 months. Management ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ossiculoplasty Ossiculoplasty is the surgical restoration of the sound transmitting mechanism of the middle ear. A myriad of prosthetics and surgical techniques have ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteofibrous Dysplasia Osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) is a rare disease. It is considered a benign non-neoplastic condition of unknown cause, characterized by a fibrovascular ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoid Osteoma An osteoid osteoma is a benign bone-forming tumor that has no potential to become malignant. It classically causes severe pain at night and is relieve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoradionecrosis Treatment of malignancies with ionizing radiation has saved countless lives in the past 50 years. However, a small percentage of patients treated with ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Otalgia Otalgia is ear pain and breaks down into two categories of primary otalgia and secondary otalgia. Primary otalgia is pain coming directly from the ea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Otitis Externa Otitis externa (OE) is an inflammation, infectious or non-infectious, of the external auditory canal. In some cases, inflammation can extend to the ou ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Otitis Media With Effusion Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a condition in which there is fluid in the middle ear, but no signs of acute infection. As fluid builds up in the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Otoplasty Otoplasty is a cosmetic procedure used to change the position, shape, or size of the ear using permanent sutures. The primary indication for otoplasty ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Otosclerosis Otosclerosis, also called otospongiosis, is an abnormal bone remodeling in the middle ear in which a normal dense endochondral layer of bony otic caps ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paget Disease Paget disease is a skeletal growth disorder in which abnormalities such as unusual bone growth can occur in several multifactoral ways. This is often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an epithelial malignancy showing evidence of follicular cell differentiation and a set of distinctive nuclear fea ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Papilloma A papilloma is a benign non-cancerous epithelial proliferation caused by the Human Papillomavirus. Most papillomas are caused by low-risk HPV forms, a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paraganglioma Paragangliomas are benign tumors, and a small percentage may become malignant and metastasize; hence, early identification leading to complete surgica ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parainfluenza Virus The human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) is an enveloped, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the family of Paramyxoviridae. HPIV ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paramedian Forehead Flaps Often referred to as a workhorse in facial reconstruction, the paramedian forehead flap is the most common interpolated flap harvested from the face. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parathyroid Adenoma A parathyroid adenoma is part of a spectrum of parathyroid disease that also includes parathyroid hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma. History of ra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parathyroid Cancer Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare, malignant neoplasm originating from the parathyroid gland. The clinical presentation can mimic primary parathyroid ad ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parathyroid Minimally Invasive Surgery Historically, a bilateral exploration was performed for treatment of hyperparathyroidism. However, in 85% of cases of hyperparathyroidism, a single ad ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parathyroidectomy Parathyroidectomy is the surgery to remove one or more of the parathyroid glands in the patient who has hyperparathyroidism with a varies of etiology. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parotid Cancer Salivary gland tumors are characterized by diverse histological appearances and variable biological behavior. The distinction between tumor types can ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parotidectomy Parotidectomy is a common procedure in head and neck surgery. An appropriate incision and identification of multiple anatomical landmarks are necessar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parotitis Parotitis is caused by duct obstruction (such as sialolithiasis), infectious organisms (viruses or bacteria), or inflammatory conditions (such as Sjog ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vessel that allows the oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the fetal lungs in utero. At birth, a newborn inh ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Facial Fractures Trauma is a significant cause of morbidity and death in children. Trauma to the head is the most common anatomic site, and while facial fractures are ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestion Children commonly swallow foreign bodies. Coins are the most commonly swallowed foreign body that comes to medical attention in the USA; in other coun ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Hearing Loss Pediatric hearing loss is a broad category that covers a wide range of pathologies. Early detection and prompt management are essential, as the develo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an essential topic in pediatrics that is frequently overlooked, especially in the context of children with neurodevel ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Physeal Injuries Overview This activity describes the evaluation and management of physeal injuries in the pediatric population. It explains the role of the interprofessional t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pediatric Tracheostomy Tracheostomy has been increasingly performed in children with complex medical conditions for the management of upper airway obstruction, prolonged ven ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pemphigus Vulgaris Pemphigus vulgaris is a rare disease that causes blisters. It is the most common type of pemphigus. The mean age of onset is 50 to 60 years of age, an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pendred Syndrome Pendred syndrome is characterized by the combination of sensorineural hearing loss and thyroid goiter with or without hypothyroidism. This activity is ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perilymphatic Fistula Labyrinthine fistula is an abnormal communication between the inner ear and the surrounding structures. It can be caused by mechanical insults or cong ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Periodontal Abscess Periodontal abscesses are a common and painful dental emergency as a result of bacterial accumulation or foreign body impaction in periodontal pockets ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Perioral Dermatitis Perioral dermatitis is a benign eruption that occurs most commonly in young, female adults, consisting of small inflammatory papules and pustules or p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Vertigo Approximately 80 percent of vertigo is peripheral, whereas approximately 20 percent is central. Peripheral vertigo is most commonly due to a benign pr ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peritonsillar Abscess Peritonsillar abscesses are localized collections of pus in peritonsillar space between the tonsillar capsule and superior constrictor muscle. Since t ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pfeiffer Syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome is an inherited craniofacial disorder that is associated with primary craniosynostosis, midface hypoplasia, broad thumbs and great t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oropharynx. In most cases, it is caused by an infection, either bacterial or viral. Oth ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pickwickian Syndrome The management of Pickwickian syndrome is challenging and complex. The clinical presence of disease should be suspected and defined to achieve good ou ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pierre Robin Syndrome Pierre Robin sequence is a constellation of micrognathia, glossoptosis, and upper airway obstruction. It is a clinical diagnosis that can range in sev ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Piezogenic Pedal Papule Piezogenic pedal papules are small papular herniations of subcutaneous tissue on the heel that occur only upon standing or with application of pressur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary adenomas are tumors of the anterior pituitary. Most pituitary tumors are slow-growing and benign. They are classified based on size or cell ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pituitary Cancer Pituitary gland tumors are rarely cancerous and mostly benign. The pituitary tumors may be functioning with hormone production or non-functioning with ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Platysmaplasty Facelift This activity reviews various types of platysmaplasty used in the rejuvenation of the aging face and neck and reviews the role of the interprofessiona ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pleomorphic Adenoma Pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumor, is also known as benign mixed tumors (BMT's), because of its dual origin from epithelial an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plummer Vinson Syndrome Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS) is a rare condition characterized by the classic triad of dysphagia, iron-deficiency anemia, and esophageal webbing. Plu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pneumocephalus Pneumocephalus, also known as pneumatocele or intracranial aerocele, is defined as the presence of air in the intracranial space. Pneumocephalus can o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polymyxin Polymyxins are a class of medications used in the management and treatment of systemic infections caused by susceptible strains of multidrug-resistant ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post Intubation Laryngeal Edema Post intubation laryngeal edema is common after endotracheal intubation and clinically manifests after extubation. Though most cases of post-intubatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Potassium Iodide Potassium Iodide (KI) has effects in the production of thyroid hormone and is useful in treating conditions related to thyroid hormone, especially sev ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pott Puffy Tumor Pott puffy tumor is a subperiosteal abscess due to associated frontal skull osteomyelitis. This usually occurs as a rare complication of frontal sinus ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is the administration of antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infectio ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Presbycusis Presbycusis refers to bilateral age-related hearing loss. In literal terms, presbycusis means 'old hearing' or 'elder hearing. It is the most common c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming rod that is capable of causing a variety of infections in both immunocompetent a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulsatile Tinnitus Pulsatile tinnitus is a relatively rare type of tinnitus with a complex differential diagnosis. Practitioners need to know how to work-up these patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pyogenic Granuloma Pyogenic granuloma, sometimes known as granuloma pyogenicum, refers to a common, acquired, benign, vascular tumor that arises in tissues such as the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Forearm Tissue Transfer he radial forearm free flap (RFFF) has gained tremendous popularity since its introduction in 1978 as a reconstructive option. This flap's relative ea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy In The Treatment Of Keloids Keloids are benign raised scars that are formed after cutaneous insult. Normally, cutaneous injury results in wound closure and a flat scar. Some in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radiation Therapy Induced Skin Ulcer Management of acute or chronic skin injuries due to ionizing radiation is a complex challenge with injuries ranging from acute redness to chronic woun ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radical Neck Dissection Head and neck cancers most commonly metastasize to the cervical nodal basins. As a result, removal of the cervical lymph nodes is the standard of care ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radioactive Iodine Therapy Radioactive iodine therapy is used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism. This activity describes the indications, actions, and contraind ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Ramsay Hunt syndrome, also known as geniculate zoster, is a rare condition that manifests as a complication of Varicella zoster virus (VZV) that arise ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Acute Rhinosinusitis Sinusitis, also referred to as rhinosinusitis, is defined as the symptomatic inflammation of paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity mucosa. This inflammat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are a common cause of vocal cord paresis and resulting in voice changes or hoarseness. The etiology, history, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Relapsing Polychondritis Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune condition which presents as recurrent episodes of cartilaginous inflammation of the auricular, nasa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retrognathia Retrognathia is a term used to describe a mandible that is posterior to and behind where it should be when viewed from a lateral vantage point. Retrog ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Retropharyngeal Abscess Retropharyngeal abscesses are uncommon but potentially life-threatening diagnosis. They can occur at any age, although are most commonly found in chil ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhinitis Medicamentosa Rhinitis medicamentosa (RM), also known as; rebound congestion is inflammation of the nasal mucosa caused by the overuse of topical nasal decongestant ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhinocerebral Mucormycosis Rhinocerebral mucormycosis, also called zygomycosis, is a rare disease caused by filamentous fungi involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, and brain. I ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhino-orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis Rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis in an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales and has high morbidity ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhinophyma Rhinophyma is a disfiguring nasal deformity due to the proliferation of sebaceous glands and underlying connective tissue. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhinoplasty Rhinoplasty is one of the most popular surgeries worldwide. In the United States alone, more than 200.000 were performed in 2018, rendering it the thi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhombic Flaps Rhombic flaps are highly versatile flaps based on their unique mechanical characteristics with a wide range of potential applications. This activity r ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rhytidectomy Rhytidectomy is performed to rejuvenate the face, mitigating the effects of aging. An overview of its history, and some of the surgical approaches and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Riedel Thyroiditis Riedel thyroiditis (also known as Riedel struma, chronic invasive fibrous thyroiditis, or ligneous struma), is a rare fibrotic condition which involve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rinne Test The Rinne test differentiates sound transmission via air conduction from sound transmission via bone conduction. It can serve as a quick screen for co ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotation Flaps A flap is used when simpler closure techniques, such as secondary intention, primary closure, or skin grafts, will produce a result that is functional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rubeola (Measles) This activity reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of measles to further understand its epidemiological situation. This will hopefully lead to ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Saphenous Vein Grafts In 1967 Dr. Rena Favaloro first described the use of an autologous reversed greater saphenous vein (GSV) graft as a bypass graft. The GSV continued t ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in organs. This condition mostly af ... Read the Article 1.75 29 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scarlet Fever Scarlet fever is a blanching, papular rash, commonly described as a sandpaper rash. It is usually associated with Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scrofula Scrofula (historically known as the king's evil) is the tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis caused by hematogenous or lymphatic dissemination of pulmon ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sensory and Perceptual Alterations Sensory-perceptual alteration can be defined as when there is a change in the pattern of sensory stimuli, followed by an abnormal response to such sti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septal Perforation Nasal septal perforation is a full-thickness defect of the nasal septum. Bilateral mucoperichondrial leaflets and a structural middle layer comprise t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sialolithiasis Sialolithiasis is the most frequent cause of salivary gland swelling and primarily affects the major salivary glands, which include the parotid glands ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Endoscopic Surgery Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has been in a race with technology since it was first introduced; the advances in the equipment offer a massive playgro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinus Squeeze Sinus squeeze, also known as barosinusitis or aerosinusitis, is irritation of the mucosal lining in the sinuses as a result of the failure to equalize ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sinusitis One of the most common reasons for clinical visits in the United States is sinusitis, also known as rhinosinusitis. It is also one of the top reasons ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sjogren Syndrome Primary Sjogren syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disorder commonly presenting with dryness involving the eyes and mouth due to inflammation and resul ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Cancer Types Vascular tumors include tufted angiomas, pyogenic granulomas, hemangiomas, and hemangiopericytomas. Vascular malformations include venous, lymphatic, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Skin Grafting Skin grafting is a closure technique used in dermatology most commonly to close wounds created by the removal of skin cancer. Although currently less ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial parasympathetic ganglion found within the pterygopalatine fossa of the skull. Since it was first descri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sphenopalatine Ganglion Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation Sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neuralgia is a complex disease characterized by chronic head and neck pain which often accompanied by autonomic features ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer, is caused by the cumulative exposure of skin to UV light. This condition has prec ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stapedectomy The goal of any stapes procedure is to restore the vibration of fluids within the cochlea; increasing communication secondary to increasing sound ampl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stereotactic Radiosurgery Stereotactic radiosurgery is a type of radiation therapy that is increasingly an option within neurosurgery in the treatment of tumors, vascular patho ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Streptococcal Pharyngitis Group A streptococcus is a gram-positive, non-motile bacteria that is the most common etiology for acute pharyngitis accounting for 5 to 15 percent of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Streptococcus Pyogenes Streptococcus pyogenes is a major human-specific bacterial pathogen that causes a wide array of manifestations ranging from mild localized infections ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subcutaneous Emphysema Subcutaneous emphysema is the de novo generation or infiltration of air underneath the dermal layers of skin. The development of subcutaneous air may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subglottic Stenosis Subglottic stenosis can be defined as the narrowing of the upper airway, which lies between the vocal folds and the lower border of the cricoid cartil ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Submandibular Sialadenitis And Sialadenosis Sialadenitis and sialadenosis are common causes of submandibular gland swelling. Submandibular sialadenitis is inflammation of the submandibular gland ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Substernal Goiter Substernal goiter is defined as thyroid tissue in the thoracic cavity and is caused by an enlarging thyroid gland passing through thoracic inlet. Subs ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraglottic Airway Obstruction Supraglottic obstruction is a medical or surgical emergency. It can result in increased work of breathing and respiratory distress and can progress to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Surfer's Ear Surfer’s ear or external auditory exostoses (EAE) is a slowly progressive disease caused by benign bone growth resulting from chronic cold water expos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syndromic Sensorineural Hearing Loss Congenital hearing loss affects 1 to 3 per 1000 newborns. For many children born with hearing loss, it is an isolated finding known as a non-syndromic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syphilis Syphilis is a systemic, bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Due to its many protean clinical manifestations, it has been ... Read the Article 2.5 46 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporal Arteritis Temporal arteritis (TA), also called giant cell arteritis (GCA) or cranial arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of medium and large-sized ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporal Fracture The temporal bone is the thickest bone in the body, requiring significant force to fracture. Such high-velocity head injuries carry the risk of signif ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporoparietal Fascia Flaps This activity reviews the temporoparietal fascia flap and highlights the background, indications, and technique of this surgical approach. This techni ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tensor Tympani Syndrome Tensor tympani syndrome, also known as the tensor tympani myoclonus, is a rare form of objective pulsatile tinnitus which includes tensor tympani-asso ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common congenital cervical anomaly. They can form anywhere along the thyroid's route of migration between the ton ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroid Adenoma Thyroid adenoma is a benign lesion of the thyroid gland. There are two types of thyroid adenomas, follicular and papillary. Thyroid adenoma usually pr ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroid Lymphoma Thyroid lymphoma is classified as primary and secondary thyroid lymphoma. Primary thyroid lymphoma affects the thyroid gland first, followed by spread ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroid Nodule Although more than 90 percent of identified thyroid nodules are clinically insignificant benign lesions, 4 to 6.5 percent of cases these nodules are d ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroid Nodule Biopsy Fine needle aspiration (FNA) dates back to the 1930s when Martin and Ellis first described the procedure and its potential implications in the medical ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroidectomy This activity describes indications and techniques of thyroidectomy and reviews the role of the healthcare team in evaluating and treating patients wh ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyroiditis This activity reviews the different types of thyroiditis, their presentation, evaluation, diagnosis and treatment and highlights the role of the inter ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a sporadic form of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, which most commonly presents as sudden onset weakness in the proxi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thyrotoxicosis Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical state associated with excess thyroid hormone activity, usually due to inappropriately high-circulating thyroid hormones ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tinnitus Tinnitus is classicaly described as the presence of high pitched ringing or buzzing that is usually only audible to the affected individual. Most tinn ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tongue Cancer Tongue cancer is one of the most common sites of head and neck malignancy. Smoking, drinking alcohol, and, more recently, human papilloma virus infect ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tongue Laceration The tongue is a muscular organ that plays a central role in a person’s ability to communicate and to experience food via taste, chewing and swallowing ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tonsil Cancer Tonsil cancer is the most common form of oropharyngeal malignancy, and its incidence is sharply rising due to the increasing prevalence of human papil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, a tonsillectomy is a “surgical procedure performed with or without adenoide ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tonsillitis Tonsillitis, or inflammation of the tonsils, is a common disease and makes up approximately 1.3% of outpatient visits. It is predominantly the result ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Total Laryngectomy The primary goal for the treatment of laryngeal cancer is the control of the disease. Preservation of speech, swallowing functions, and avoidance of t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is an acute-onset illness characterized by fever, hypotension, sunburn-like rash, and end-organ damage. TSS was classically ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Bronchus The tracheal bronchus is a congenital anomaly defined as abnormal bronchus arising anywhere from the cricoid cartilage to the carina. This activity re ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Cancer Primary tracheal neoplasms are very uncommon but are usually malignant in adults and benign in children. They present with symptoms that mimic other c ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Injury Tracheal injury is an uncommon occurrence seen primarily after healthcare procedures, blunt and penetrating trauma, and caustic inhalations. Damage to ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Resection Tracheal resection is performed when tracheal stenosis is unresponsive to conservative management, such as balloon dilation and scar excision. Trachea ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheal Trauma Tracheal trauma may be penetrating or blunt and acute or subacute. A blow or stab wound to the neck or crush injuries to the upper chest may cause acu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheo Innominate Artery Fistula Tracheoinnominate fistulas (TIFs) are life-threatening complications most frequently described as occurring after tracheostomy. They are associated wi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheobronchial Tear Tracheobronchial tears are uncommon injuries or lacerations or puncture occurring anywhere in the tracheobronchial tree resulting from penetrating or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheomalacia Tracheomalacia is a condition that is characterized by excessive collapsibility of the trachea. Depending on the severity of the disease, patients’ sy ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this art ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transposition Flaps Transposition flaps recruit noncontiguous donor tissue that is incised and lifted over intact skin and placed into a surgical wound. This allows the u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy This activity describes transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, a surgical procedure for resection of tumors of the pituitary gland, along with the relevant a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Care Principles Trauma care principles outline fundamental concepts that providers should be aware of when treating various injuries in a trauma setting. The content ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Triamcinolone Triamcinolone is a medication used in the management and treatment of various conditions such as atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis (e.g., poison i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigeminal Neuralgia Trigeminal neuralgia is one of the most painful neurological condition and is often described as 'lightning bolt' stuck on the face or a stabbing sens ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigeminal Neuropathy Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also known as tic douloureux, is the most common neuropathic pain involving the craniofacial region. It is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trismus Trismus is commonly referred to as lockjaw and is usually due to sustained tetanic spasm of the muscles of mastication. Although it was initially desc ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trypanosomiasis Trypanosomiasis is generally used to refer to African human trypanosomiasis, also known as African sleeping sickness. African sleeping sickness is an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tympanic Membrane Perforations Tympanic membrane perforation is when there is a tear in the tympanic membrane leading to a connection between the external auditory canal and the mid ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tympanocentesis Tympanocentesis is a very important minor surgical procedure in the diagnostic arsenal and management of otitis media (OM) and a host of other ear con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Type III Hypersensitivity Reaction A hypersensitivity reaction is an inappropriate or overreactive immune response to an antigen resulting in undesirable effects. The symptoms typically ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Unilateral vocal cord paralysis (UVCP) presents with dysphonia, shortness of breath and swallowing difficulty. It occurs secondary to damage to the re ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis Vocal fold immobility is a broad term that can be used to describe the abnormal movement of the true vocal folds. It can be unilateral, where only one ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection Upper respiratory tract infections can be defined as self-limited irritation and swelling of the upper airways with associated cough and no signs of p ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vasomotor Rhinitis Vasomotor rhinitis affects millions of Americans and costs billions of dollars annually in healthcare costs. Vasomotor rhinitis is the most common fo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Velocardiofacial Syndrome Velocardiofacial syndrome, also known as Di George syndrome or chromosome 22q11.2 syndrome, is the most common microdeletion syndrome in humans. Thoug ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Velopharyngeal Insufficiency Velopharyngeal dysfunction (VPD) is a disorder of the velopharyngeal (VP) sphincter or valve, which functions to separate the nasal and oral cavities ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertigo Vertigo is a common presenting complaint in primary care and emergency departments. It is a symptom of vestibular dysfunction and has been described a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vestibular Dysfunction Vestibular dysfunction is a disturbance in the body's balance system due to peripheral or central causes. The symptoms of peripheral and central vesti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vestibular Neuronitis Vestibular neuritis is thought to be the result of inflammation of the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve and classically presents with ve ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vidian Neurectomy This activity describes vidian neurectomy, a surgical procedure aimed to treat refractory vasomotor rhinitis, along with the relevant anatomy, the ind ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vohwinkel Syndrome Vohwinkel syndrome, also known as keratoderma hereditarian mutilans, is classified as a type of hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK). Classicall ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Waardenburg Syndrome Waardenburg syndrome is a group of genetic conditions inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. During embryogenesis, there is an abnormal distribut ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Warthin Tumor Warthin tumor is a relatively frequent and benign neoplasm of the major salivary glands. It is histologically characterized by a dense lymphoid stroma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Weber Test The Weber test is a useful, quick, and simple screening test for the evaluation of hearing loss. The test can detect unilateral conductive and sensori ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wound Closure Techniques Wound management is an essential part of emergency medicine practice. The clinicians care for wounds ranging from minor and simple lacerations or abra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Xerostomia Xerostomia is defined as "a subjective feeling of oral dryness." These symptoms might present as dry mouth, difficulty swallowing or dry oral mucosa/s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Young Syndrome Young syndrome, also known as sinusitis-infertility syndrome, is a rare inherited syndrome similar to Kartagener syndrome. Individuals born with this ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zenker Diverticulum Zenker diverticulum develops in the hypopharynx, typically between the cricopharyngeus muscle and the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle at the le ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Zygomatic Arch Fracture The zygoma is the second most common fracture of the face, just behind nasal fractures, which can cause significant cosmetic and functional deformity. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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