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PLAS Assessment

PLAS Assessment

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this PLAS Assessment activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 3333 activities in PLAS Assessment for 2992.5 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.
1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Thoracic and Lung Ultrasound

Thoracic ultrasound has rapidly gained popularity over the past 10 years. This is in part because ultrasound equipment i ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or abs ...
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Hours: 1

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Botfly

Bot fly is a term referring to any member of the Oestridae family of flies. To reproduce, these flies rely on myiasis, t ...
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Hours: 0.75

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Torticollis

Torticollis is a common diagnosis, and estimates are that 90 percent of individuals will exhibit at least one episode of ...
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Hours: 1

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Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or abs ...
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Hours: 1

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Measles

Measles, also known as rubeola, is a preventable, highly contagious, acute febrile viral illness. It remains an importan ...
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Hours: 1

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PLAS Assessment Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
131 I Sodium Iodide Radioiodine-131 is a therapeutic agent used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. This activity describes the ind ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
21 Hydroxylase Deficiency 21-hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in one of the enzymes required for the synthesis of cortisol in th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine This activity reviews the class 1 drug 3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA, Ecstacy or Molly. The drug is known to promote a sens ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
5 Alpha Reductase Deficiency This activity reviews 5-alpha-reductase deficiency, an important cause of ambiguous genitalia in children. Initially, the phenotype of children with 5 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
5 Alpha Reductase Inhibitors The 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (finasteride and dutasteride) are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hype ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
A Review Of Hereditary Colorectal Cancers Colorectal cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the world. Many cases of colorectal cancer are associated with lifestyle factors such as obe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abacavir Abacavir is an approved nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in combination with ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Abscess Abdominal abscesses contain cellular debris, enzymes, and liquid and can be from an infectious or non-infectious source. They are a common and serious ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aorta Repair Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is performed because the mortality rates are as high as 78% following rupture. Open and endovascular surgery are the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition which requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or sym ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Imaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAAs) are a relatively common pathology. Ruptured aneurysms have an exceptionally high mortality rate. Early diagnosis an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Neonatal EEG Electroencephalogram of a newborn shows unique features compared to older children and adults. The principles employed in the identification of abnorm ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Spontaneous Electromyographic Activity The muscle is normally electrically silent outside the end-plate zone. Therefore, abnormal spontaneous activity is considered when there is the persis ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Abnormal Uterine Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding is a broad term that describes irregularities in the menstrual cycle involving frequency, regularity, duration, and volume o ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acalculous Cholecystitis Acalculous cholecystitis is a hypokinetic condition of gallbladder emptying. It often presents as an acute ailment (acute cholecystitis), but it can a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acanthamoeba Keratitis Acanthamoeba is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed cause of corneal infection. Acanthamoeba keratitis most often occurs in contact lens wearers. This ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acanthosis Nigricans Acanthosis nigricans is a cutaneous manifestation of an underlying condition. It usually develops in in skin folds, such as the back of the neck, axil ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Accessory Nerve Injury Cranial nerve XI is also known as the accessory nerve. It is prone to injury due to its long and superficial nature. Injury to the accessory nerve can ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen Many diseases and conditions list pain as a component of their presentation; as a result, pain management is of great importance to both clinicians an ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen/Aspirin/Caffeine The FDA recognized the combination of acetylsalicylic acid (250 mg), acetaminophen (250 mg), and caffeine (65 mg) as safe and effective in treating ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetazolamide Acetazolamide is a diuretic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication that is used to treat several illnesses. FDA-approved indications include glau ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Toxicity Nerve agents are some of the most deadly and easily employed chemical warfare agents. Given the global threat of terrorism, it is prudent to have a ba ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achalasia Achalasia is an esophageal smooth muscle motility disorder that occurs due to a failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. This conditio ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achlorhydria Achlorhydria is a condition in which the stomach does not produce hydrochloric acid, one of the components of gastric acid. Hydrochloric acid plays an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia found in humans, accounting for 90% of cases of disproportionate short stature. It is caused by a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acinetobacter Acinetobacter is a gram-negative, nonmotile organism that is often found in soil and water and is known to colonize intravenous fluids. In general, Ac ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Fulminans Acne fulminans or acne maligna is a rare skin disorder presenting as an acute, painful, ulcerating, and hemorrhagic clinical form of acne. It may or m ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acne Vulgaris Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of pilosebaceous unit, which runs a chronic course and it is self-limiting. Acne vulgaris is triggered by pr ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuromas are tumors that develop from the sheath of Schwann cells. They tend to occupy the cerebellopontine angle and are usually found adjac ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Angioedema Angioedema is characterized by one or more areas of well-demarcated, non-pitting edema of deep subcutaneous tissues. It is primarily known to involve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Digital Fibrokeratoma Acquired digital fibrokeratoma (ADFK) is a rare, benign, fibrous tumor. It usually occurs in adults as a solitary lesion on fingers and toes. Since AD ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Hemophilia Acquired hemophilia is an uncommon but severe bleeding disorder. It is caused by the development of autoantibodies directed against one of the antihem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted sexually, via blood transfusions, sharing intravenous needles, and from the mother to a child during the b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Antiretroviral Therapy Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a significant health problem worldwide. Advances in treatment have made this disease not only manageable but ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acral Lentiginous Melanoma Acral lentiginous melanoma is a subtype of cutaneous malignant melanoma. It is comprised of malignant melanocytes, which can become invasive with time ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrochordon Acrochordons (fibroepithelial polyps, skin tags, papillomas) are common benign neoplasms of the skin, often associated with obesity. These small pedun ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodermatitis Chronica Atrophicans Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) is a late and chronic manifestation of Lyme borreliosis. If untreated, ACA progresses from an early inflamma ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodermatitis Papular Papular acrodermatitis of childhood (Gianotti-Crosti syndrome) is a benign rash that occurs in childhood associated with multiple viral illnesses and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acrodynia Acrodynia is a rare disorder caused due to chronic mercury poisoning or idiosyncrasy to mercury. It is a Greek term that means 'painful extremities.' ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive production of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tis ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinic Keratosis Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant cutaneous lesions that may progress to squamous cell carcinoma. They are a common skin condition and develop ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Actinic Purpura Actinic purpura, also known as solar purpura, Bateman purpura, senile purpura, or Bateman disease is a common disorder of dermal connective tissue due ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Activated Charcoal An oral suspension of activated charcoal should be considered in poisonings when gastrointestinal decontamination of an ingested toxin is indicated. A ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Active Tuberculosis Active tuberculosis is a condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection; typically in the lungs, although many systems can be involved ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Anemia Acute anemia occurs when there is an abrupt drop in red blood cells, usually due to acute hemorrhage or hemolysis. This activity reviews the presentat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchi. It is a common presentation in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and in p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 22 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma Acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ocular emergency that results from a rapid increase in intraocular pressure due to outflow obstruction of aqueous h ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Diverticulitis Acute diverticulitis is inflammation of a diverticulum, a sac-like protrusion from the colon wall, due to micro-perforation. Diverticulitis presents i ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Eclampsia Eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder that manifests as new onset generalized tonic colonic seizures. Typically eclampsia occurs after gestational ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Febrile Neutrophilic Dermatosis Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, also known as Sweet syndrome, consists of erythematous plaques and papules along with constitutional symptoms s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Laryngitis Laryngitis refers to inflammation of the larynx. This is often due to an acute viral infection, which is typically a mild and self-limiting condition ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mastitis Mastitis can be broken down into lactational and non-lactational causes. While non-lactational causes of mastitis are less common, lactational mastiti ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Acute mesenteric ischemia is caused by a sudden decline in blood flow through the mesenteric vessels. Diagnosis can be difficult because symptoms are ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Necrotizing Ulcerative Gingivitis Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG) is a rapidly destructive, non-communicable microbial disease of the gingiva in the context of an impair ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 35 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pneumothorax Evaluation and Treatment A pneumothorax is an accumulation of gas in the pleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the chest cavity), which can imp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a distinguished subset of acute myeloid leukemia which is characterized by fusion gene transcript PML-RAR-alpha and hi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Renal Colic Acute renal colic is severe pain resulting from the presence of a stone in the urinary system. The stone can be present anywhere along the path betwee ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Renal Tubular Necrosis The most common intrinsic cause of acute kidney injury is acute tubular necrosis. Acute tubular necrosis is most common in hospitalized patients and c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stress Disorder Acute stress disorder (ASD) was first outlined in 1994 at the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) as a new ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Transplantation Rejection Acute transplant rejection occurs days to months after a transplant when the immune system identifies a grafted organ as foreign and attacks it. Acute ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adalimumab Adalimumab is a fully human, high-affinity, recombinant anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha monoclonal antibody, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Addisonian Crisis An Addisonian crisis, or adrenal crisis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that results from an acute insufficiency of adrenal hormones (glu ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenocarcinoma Adenocarcinomas are malignant tumors formed from glandular structures in epithelial tissue. They can arise from a variety of tissues. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoid Hypertrophy Adenoid hypertrophy is an obstructive condition due to enlarged adenoids. This can occur with or without an acute or chronic infection of the adenoids ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoidectomy Adenoidectomy is a common surgical procedure primarily performed in children for infectious or obstructive reasons. This activity details the indicati ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoiditis Adenoiditis occurs when there is inflammation of the adenoid tissue resulting from infection, allergies, or irritation from stomach acid. Adenoiditis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenopathy Lymphadenopathy is a common abnormal finding during the course of the physical exam in general medical practice. Adenopathy can be caused by neoplasm, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adenoviruses The adenoviruses are DNA viruses common in animals and humans, occurring frequently in both adults and children. There are more than 100 serologically ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adhesiolysis Intra-abdominal adhesions are commonly formed after surgery, but can also be congenital. They are the most common cause of bowel obstruction. The majo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adie Syndrome Adie syndrome, also known as the Holmes-Adie syndrome, is a neurological disorder of unknown etiology comprising unilateral or bilateral tonically dil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adiposis Dolorosa Adiposis dolorosa is a rare disorder of multiple painful subcutaneous growths of adipose tissue most commonly affecting the proximal extremities, trun ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Adenoma Adrenal adenomas are benign neoplasms of the adrenal cortex. Non-secreting adrenal adenomas secrete low levels of hormones, are usually asymptomatic a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Cortical Nodular Hyperplasia A number of heterogeneous disorders can result in adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasia. Cortical hyperplasia is a benign enlargement of the gland. Nor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones which are necessary for normal body functioning, deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenal Metastasis Adrenal metastases are the most common malignant lesions involving the adrenal gland and the second most common tumor of the adrenal gland after benig ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenalectomy Adrenalectomy is performed to adrenal tumors that secret excess hormone and for those that are concerning for malignancy. There are many approached to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adrenoleukodystrophy Adrenoleukodystrophy is a peroxisomal disorder resulting from abnormal metabolism of the very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA). It is classified into di ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentration. It is a life- ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult Inguinal Hernia Inguinal hernia is one of the most common surgical pathologies encountered by a general surgeon. Worldwide, there are more than 20 million inguinal he ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adult T Cell Leukemia Adult T- cell leukemia (ATL) is a rare and aggressive peripheral T-cell neoplasm associated with human T-cell leukemia virus type -1 (HTLV-1) infectio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adverse Effects Of Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy causes DNA break and subsequent cell death. This affects the cancer cells more severely than the normal cells. However, with the growing ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aerospace Decompression Illness Decompression sickness in aviation is most commonly seen following flights in nonpressurized aircraft, in flights with cabin pressure fluctuations, or ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aflatoxin Toxicity Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by toxigenic strains of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus which grow in soil, hay, decaying vege ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
African Trypanosomiasis African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness is transmitted via the bite of the tsetse fly and is predominantly seen in subsaharan Africa. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ageusia Ageusia is a symptom reflecting various underline pathological conditions. It is a rare condition that is characterized by complete loss of the taste ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aggression Aggression has been treated by both medications and psychotherapy, but relapses are common. Aggressive patients frequently run into legal problems bec ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agnosia Agnosia is a rare disorder whereby a patient is unable to recognize and identify objects, persons, or sounds using one or more of their senses despite ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agranulocytosis Agranulocytosis is a condition in which the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is less than 100 neutrophils per microlitre of the blood. Agranulocytosis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Agraphia Agraphia is an impairment or loss of a previous ability to write and can result from a number of etiologies. When agraphia results from disruptions to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that under normal circumstances do not contain air. The term air leak synd ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airborne Precautions An airborne disorder is any disease that is caused by a microorganism that is transmitted through the air. There are many airborne diseases that are o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Glottic Insufficiency Glottic insufficiency is characterized by incomplete closure of the vocal folds with phonation, which causes an increased risk of aspiration. Glottic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in the inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akathisia Akathisia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can occur as an adverse effect of antipsychotic medications and manifests as psychomotor restlessness. I ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ala Dehydratase Deficiency Porphyria ALA dehydratase porphyria is an extremely rare type of acute porphyria that follows a chronic course punctuated by acute attacks. To avoid multiple re ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alagille Syndrome Alagille syndrome (ALGS) is a multisystem autosomal dominant disorder with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. It is also known as arteriohepat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albinism Albinism is a group of heritable conditions associated with decreased or absent melanin in ectoderm-derived tissues (most notably the skin, hair, and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Albuterol Albuterol is used for the treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (acute or severe) in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. It also h ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcohol Related Psychosis Psychosis associated with alcohol can occur with acute intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, and chronic alcoholism. Alcohol-related psychosis is also kno ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a cardiac disease caused by chronic alcohol consumption. It is characterized by ventricular dilation and impairment ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a condition seen commonly in patients with alcohol use disorder or after a bout of heavy drinking. It is a clinical di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Liver Disease The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is hepatic steatosis, which involves the accumulation of small fat droplets under liver cells approaching t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alcoholic Neuropathy Alcoholic neuropathy is one of the most common adverse effects of chronic alcohol consumption. There is damage to the nerves due to the direct toxic e ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alfentanil Alfentanil is a short-acting opioid analgesic commonly compared to fentanyl, a medication that is ubiquitous in the hospital setting along with remife ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aliskiren Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor medication that is FDA approved to treat hypertension in adults and children six years and older. It may be used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alkaptonuria Alkaptonuria is a rare genetic inborn error of protein metabolism. It is the result of the deficiency of an enzyme (homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase - HG ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common fungal infection in uncontrolled asthmatics, cystic fibrosis patients, and immunocompromise ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Contact Dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type 4 or delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) by an individual’s immune system to a small molecule (le ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an abnormal exces ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allgrove Syndrome Allgrove syndrome (AS) or 3A syndrome (AAA) is characterized by a triad of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resistant adrenal insufficiency, alacri ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Allodynia Allodynia is defined as "pain due to a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain." An example would be a light feather touch (that should only prod ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alogliptin Alogliptin was first approved by the FDA in January 2013 and is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alopecia Areata Alopecia areata (AA) is a form of alopecia that impacts hair follicles, nails, and rarely, the retinal pigment epithelium. It typically presents with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a clinically under-recognized genetic disorder that causes the defective production of alpha-1 antitrypsin pro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Blockers Alpha-blockers are medications used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and pheochromocytom ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a group of antidiabetic drugs used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This activity outlines the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alpha Receptor Agonist Toxicity Alpha-adrenergic agonist toxicity is due to a broad group of pharmaceutical agents known as alpha agonists, which can be further broken down into cent ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alport Syndrome Alport syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by kidney disease, loss of hearing, and eye abnormalities. It takes place due to an abnormality o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alternobaric Facial Paresis Alternobaric facial paresis, facial baroparesis, baroparesis facialis, or alternobaric facial nerve palsy is a neurapraxia of the seventh cranial nerv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amantadine Amantadine is an antiviral agent with mild antiparkinsonian activity. Amantadine was used in the early 2000s for Influenza A treatment. However, high ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amantadine Keratopathy Amantadine keratopathy is a rare dose-dependent disease process in which the drug amantadine causes damage to corneal endothelial cells through unknow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amatoxin Mushroom Toxicity Amatoxin containing mushrooms are a rare but significant cause of acute fulminant liver failure. However, not all Amanita species have this toxin, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amaurosis Fugax The term amaurosis fugax is often used interchangeably to describe transient visual loss (TVL). However, it is employed widely in medicine to refer to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ambiguous Genitalia And Disorders of Sexual Differentiation Infants born with a disorder of sex development (DSD) prompt multiple medical, surgical, ethical, psychosocial, and physical issues for patients and t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebiasis Amebiasis or amoebic dysentery is a parasitic intestinal infection caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. It may be asymptomatic or pres ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amebic Liver Abscess Amebic liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The life cycle involves consumption of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation during the reproductive years of a woman's life. Physiological states of amenorrhea are seen, mos ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amikacin Amikacin is an antimicrobial with activity against more resistant gram-negative bacilli such as Acinetobacter baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is the aspiration of amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity and is the most common invasive fetal testing procedure. It is usually perf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amniotic Fluid Embolism Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare entity, but one which has very high mortality and morbidity rates. This article will explain the clinical pres ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxapine Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. Generally, it is reserved for ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxicillin Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in the primary care setting. It is an amino-penicillin, created by adding an extra amino grou ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Amphetamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. It is classified as a central nervous system stimulant. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders Amphetamines belong to a class of compounds called phenethylamines which induce catecholaminergic effects in the CNS and peripheral circulation. Recre ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous acquired or hereditary disease that results from the abnormal deposition of beta-sheet fibrillar protein aggregates in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroid Toxicity Anabolic steroids such as testosterone are produced naturally and enhance protein synthesis at the cellular level. There are also synthetic analogs av ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (also known as androgenic steroids) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Legal, as well as the illegal use of anabolic steroid ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anagen Effluvium Anagen effluvium is a form of nonscarring alopecia commonly associated with chemotherapy. In this disorder, affected anagen hairs suffer a toxic or in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Cancer Anal cancer is a rare tumor comprising only 2.5% of all digestive system malignancies in the United States. The pathophysiology of the development of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Fissures An anal fissure is a superficial tear in the skin distal to the dentate line. Anal fissures are common in those with a history of constipation or hard ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anal Fistulotomy Seton placement for anal fistulas is an accepted procedure in the treatment of anal fistulas that are deep to the sphincter complex. This activity rev ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.5 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a gram-negative intracellular bacteria that causes an acute febrile illness known as anaplasmosis or human granulocytic a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, also known as undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma, is a rare, highly aggressive malignant tumor accounting for 2 to 3 per ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anasarca Anasarca is a serious condition in which there is a generalized accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space. This accumulation of fluid occurs whe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ancylostoma Ancylostoma duodenale, the human hookworm, is the most common parasitic infection in countries with poor access to adequate water, sanitation, and hyg ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Androgen Replacement Testosterone is FDA-approved as replacement therapy in men who have low testosterone levels and those with symptoms of hypogonadism. It is essential t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Androgenetic Alopecia Androgenetic alopecia is a genetically predetermined disorder due to an excessive response to androgens. This condition affects up to 50 percent of ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anembryonic Pregnancy A blighted ovum, also known as an anembryonic pregnancy, occurs when a fertilized egg implants and a gestational (embryonic) sac forms and grows, but ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angelman Syndrome Angelman syndrome is a rare disorder caused by loss of function of the maternal UBE3A. It presents in childhood with psychomotor delay, absent speech, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiodysplasia Angiodysplasia is an abnormal, tortuous, dilated small blood vessel in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the GI tract. It is the most common vascul ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiography Angiography is performed to image the anatomical and structural details of the vascular system, including the cardiac chambers. Initially used for str ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioid Streaks Angioid streaks occur due to breaks in a degenerated and mineralized Bruch's membrane, that typically radiate outward from the optic disc. Angioid st ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angioneurotic Edema Angioneurotic edema is a relatively common presentation in the emergency department. It presents as unpredictable frequent edematous episodes of cutan ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.5 24 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade has is a common and successful strategy in the treatment of several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart fa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Angular Chelitis Angular cheilitis describes an inflammatory skin process of variable etiology occurring at the labial commissure, the angle of the mouth. It is usuall ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anifrolumab Anifrolumab is a novel investigational agent used in the management and treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is a fully humanized IgG1k ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anisocoria Anisocoria is a condition characterized by unequal pupil size. The etiology of anisocoria is complex, ranging from benign to potentially life-threaten ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Arthrocentesis Acute arthritis, particularly monoarthropathy, is a common acute presentation. In regards to the ankle, there is not always a clear etiology for the m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Pancreas Annular pancreas (AP) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by encasement of the duodenum by a band of pancreatic tissue. AP is not commonly enco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorectal Fistula An anorectal fistula is a connection between the anorectal canal and perianal area. It is a morbid condition that commonly occurs following perianal a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia and Cachexia Cachexia is a significant loss of muscle and adipose tissue. It occurs in patients with advanced cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoscopy Anoscopy is a bedside procedure that is inexpensive and can be performed quickly without bowel preparation or sedation. With this method, the examiner ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosmia Anosmia is the inability to perceive smell/odor. It can be temporary or permanent and acquired or congenital. There are many causes. Neurological caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anovulatory Bleeding Abnormal uterine bleeding due to ovulatory dysfunction causes irregular and often heavy menses. This condition, if left untreated, can have a signific ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxia Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from inade ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antacids Antacids are a group of drugs that have been on the market for many years. They were initially first-line defense against peptic ulcer disease; howeve ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antalgic Gait in Adults Antalgic gait is one of the most common forms of altered gait in patients presenting to the emergency department and primary care offices. It refers t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antalgic Gait In Children Antalgic gait is common in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both benign and more serious etiologies. A careful his ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments which aids in stabilization of the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured li ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow is one of the most common large joints to be dislocated. Anterior elbow dislocations are a rare injury due to the high force and position ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations are the most commonly encountered joint dislocations. They can be the result of low or high energy trauma. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Hip Dislocation Anterior hip dislocations are usually caused by forceful abduction with external rotation of the thigh and most commonly following a motor vehicle acc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Myocardial Infarction Anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common heart disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Advancement in diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Shoulder Instability Anterior shoulder instability is defined as soft-tissue or bony insult of the shoulder that causes the humeral head to sublux or dislocate from the gl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction Anteroseptal myocardial infarctions are commonly caused by rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the left anterior descending artery. Delay ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthrax Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by an encapsulated, spore-forming, gram-variable bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This commonly presents wi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anthrax Infection Anthrax is a spore-forming rod that is readily found in soil in tropical environments. Anthrax has many features that make it an optimal biologic weap ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticholinergic Medications Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticholinergic Toxicity Anticholinergic toxicity is commonly seen in the emergency department but is rarely fatal. According to the 2015 annual American Association of Poison ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticoagulation Safety One class of drugs that has been implicated in serious adverse drugs reactions for many decades are the oral anticoagulants, especially warfarin. Ther ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anticonvulsants Toxicity Anticonvulsants, or antiepileptics, are an ever-growing class of medications that act through multiple different mechanisms to control seizures. Antie ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antidepressants While antidepressants may be the drug of choice for depression, they also have FDA approval as treatments for other medical disorders. For example, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antidotes Overdoses and accidental ingestions or exposures are common throughout the world. With more than 2.4 million toxic exposures each year, poisoning is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiemetic Serotonin-5-HT3 Receptor Blockers Select serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antifungal Antibiotics Fungi are unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that exist in all environments worldwide. While most fungi do not play a significant role ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihistamine Toxicity In 1943, as the planet was engulfed in WWII and the United States was officially announcing the end of The Great Depression, the most common modern an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antimalarial Medications When treating patients suspected of having malaria, it is essential that treatment does not initiate until the diagnosis of malaria has been establish ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis In Children Anti NMDA receptor encephalitis is commonly confused with schizophrenia. Most of the available data on this illness is through published case reports. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiparasitic Drugs Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antiplatelet Drug Toxicity Antiplatelet medications are primarily used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related events. Currently, there are fou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antitubercular Medications Antitubercular medications: rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are FDA approved for the treatment of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antitu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anxiety Fear is an automatic neurophysiological state of alarm characterized by a fight or flight response to a cognitive appraisal of present or imminent dan ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anxiolytics and Sedative-Hypnotics Toxicity Anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics are widely consumed at home and in a hospital setting. This activity reviews the most commonly used agents of these ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Arch Aneurysm An isolated aortic arch aneurysm represents the less frequent cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms but poses a significant surgical challenge as it invo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 1.75 27 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is performed to treat aortic valve insufficiency with outcomes comparable to the valve replacement. When performed in a high volum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease Aortoiliac occlusive disease is defined by atherosclerotic blockage of the distal abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. Patients commonly present with c ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Window Aortopulmonary Window is a rare congenital cardiac malformation that can lead to congestive cardiac failure if left untreated. To avoid the high morbi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aphasia Aphasia is an impairment of language caused by damage to the language area of the brain, primarily Broca and Wernicke areas. Injury to the brain can b ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aplastic Anemia Aplastic anemia refers to the syndrome of chronic primary hematopoietic failure from injury leading to diminished or absent hematopoietic precursors i ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apley Grind Test The Apley grind test, also known as the Apley compression test or the Apley test, is a maneuver performed to evaluate for meniscus injury. Clinicians ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apnea In Children Apnea can be defined as the cessation of respiratory effort lasting more than 20 seconds, or lasting a shorter duration but accompanied by bradycardia ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Cancer Appendiceal malignancies are a rare group of tumors often found incidentally during surgical removal of the appendix. Histologically, this malignancy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendix Testes Torsion Torsion of testicular appendages is considered one of, if not the most common cause of acute scrotal pain in the prepubertal children and should be in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apraxia of Lid Opening Apraxia of eyelid opening is defined as a non-motor abnormality characterized by the patient's difficulty in eyelid elevation bilaterally. There is an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
APUDoma APUDomas, currently known as neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), are a group of heterogeneous tumors that arise from the diffuse neuroendocrine system. They ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoid Cysts Arachnoid cysts are common incidental findings on cross-sectional neuroimaging of the brain. When they are present in the appropriate location and of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoiditis Arachnoiditis is a persistent inflammation of the arachnoid mater as well as subarachnoid space due to mechanical, chemical, and infectious injuries. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arbovirus Encephalitides Arboviruses refer to a diverse group of viruses that are transmitted via mosquitos, ticks, or sandflies and are capable of causing a wide range of dis ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a rare infectious pathogen that principally causes pharyngitis in adolescents and soft-tissue infections in immunocomp ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia(HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of heparin ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argyll Robertson Pupil Argyll Robertson pupil describes the physical exam finding of bilaterally small pupils that do not constrict when exposed to bright light but do const ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Argyria Argyria is a dermatologic condition that is acquired by exposure to or ingestion of silver, and it presents with the insidious onset of gray or blue m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aripiprazole Aripiprazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, mania associated with bipolar I disorder, irritability associated ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arnold Chiari Malformation Arnold-Chiari or Chiari malformations describe a group of deformities of the posterior fossa and hindbrain, which includes the cerebellum, pons, and m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aromatic Toxicity Hydrocarbons are organic compounds consisting of carbon and hydrogen atoms. Toluene and benzene can be found in products such as gasoline, nail polis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arsenic Toxicity Arsenic poisoning is a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide through environmental and occupational exposure, as well as intentio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arsenical Keratosis Arsenical keratosis is an important cutaneous manifestation of chronic arsenic toxicity (CAT). As it is a common presenting complaint of CAT and a pre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arterial Lines Arterial catheterization is a procedure that is common to the intensive care and the operating room settings. It involves placement of a catheter into ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Fistula Arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between arteries and veins. AVFs can be surgically created, can occur as a result of a congenital or g ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformation Of The Brain Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a developmental anomaly of the vascular system, consisting of tangles of poorly formed blood vessels in which t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arteriovenous Malformations Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal fistulas between arteries and veins without an intervening capillary bed. High arterial flow directly ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure that is performed to obtain synovial fluid from within a joint capsule, both for diagnostic and for therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asbestosis Asbestosis is an interstitial lung disease caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers. Asbestos fibers have been historically chosen for construction, sh ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ascariasis Ascaris lumbricoides, the causative agent of ascariasis, is the most common parasitic worm in humans. Ascariasis can be asymptomatic causing only maln ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aseptic Meningitis Aseptic meningitis is an umbrella term for all of the causes of inflammation of the brain meninges that have negative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bacter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asherman Syndrome Asherman syndrome (intrauterine adhesions or intrauterine synechiae) occurs when scar tissue forms inside the uterus and/or the cervix. These adhesion ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ashman Phenomenon Ashman phenomenon was initially described by Dr. Gouaux and Dr. Ashman in 1947. They described that the earlier in the cycle a premature atrial contra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspart Insulin Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting, human insulin analog that is FDA approved for the treatment of type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycem ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asperger Syndrome Do not edit. Saved in progress JH Asperger syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder within the large family of autism spectrum disorder. It is charac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillosis Aspergillosis is a disease caused by the fungus Aspergillus. It mostly occurs in the form of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), aspergilloma or al ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspergillus Fumigatus Aspergillus is a ubiquitous saprophyte in nature found in air, soil and organic matter. Humans normally inhale the spore form of the fungi. However, t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aspiration Risk Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized ba ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astereognosis Astereognosis is the inability to identify objects by feel only, in the absence of input from the visual system. It may also be defined as the impairm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asthma Medication in Children Asthma typically presents with a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, and is characterize ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Astrocytoma Astrocytoma originates in astrocytes, which are a kind of glial cells in the cerebrum which are star-shaped. It is the most common glioma, usually aff ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the properly collected urine of a patient that has no signs or symptoms of a urinary tract inf ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ataxia Ataxia is a neurological sign that manifests in a lack of coordination in the movement of different muscles in the body. It is a clinical finding and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which there is a build up of plaques inside arteries. These plaques are principally composed of l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Athetoid Cerebral Palsy Athetoid cerebral palsy, also known as dyskinetic cerebral palsy, is the second most common subtype of cerebral palsy. It is a non-progressive, perman ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atomoxetine Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children over the age of 6. Although atomo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a specific form of eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Atopic dermatitis has a complex etio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atorvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrial Tachycardia A focal atrial tachycardia is an arrhythmia with electrical impulses originating and confined within the atria. Focal tachycardia typically occurs in ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Block Second-Degree A delay in conduction between the atria and ventricles results in an atrioventricular conduction block. This is indicated by a prolongation of the PR ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Canal Defects Atrioventricular canal defects comprise a spectrum of defects such as exclusive ventricular or atrial defects, septal defects, atrioventricular anomal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Dissociation Atrioventricular dissociation is a cardiac conduction defect where the atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. It can occur due to vari ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atrophic Gastritis Gastric atrophy (GA) and intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa (GIM) are collectively known as chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG). These early con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection, specifically involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Breast Hyperplasia Atypical hyperplasia of the breast is defined as abnormal epithelial proliferative lesions of the breast which are not qualitatively or quantitatively ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Mole A dysplastic nevus is a transition between benign moles and melanoma and is characterized by junctional melanocytic skin lesions showing dysplastic or ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a category of cervical epithelial cell abnormalities described by the Bethesda system ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auditory Hallucinations Auditory hallucinations are the sensory perceptions of hearing voices without an external stimulus. This symptom is particularly associated with schiz ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Auricular Hematoma An auricular hematoma is a collection of blood underneath the perichondrium of the ear and typically occurs secondary to trauma. Auricular deformity, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune And Chronic Neutropenia Neutropenia is a decreased number of neutrophils less than 1500/microliter and can be idiopathic, congenital, autoimmune, and cyclic types. Those last ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Myopathies Idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) is classified into four subtypes based on clinical and histopathological features. Polymyositis (PM) and dermat ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autoimmune Pancreatitis Autoimmune pancreatitis is a clinical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas from an autoimmune etiology. It is an uncommon cause of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysfunction The autonomic nervous system (ANS) includes all regions implicated in the control of autonomic, unconscious, and involuntary functions in total body h ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autotransfusion Autotransfusion has not always been a safe procedure. The first known documented procedure of autotransfusion was performed in 1818 by Dr. James Blund ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avascular Necrosis Osteonecrosis is a degenerative bone condition characterized by death of cellular components of bone secondary to an interruption of the subchondral b ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avoidant Personality Disorder Avoidant personality disorder is a chronic and pervasive maladaptive behavioral pattern. The onset is insidious and affects all aspects of the individ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Axillary Lymphadenectomy Axillary lymphadenectomy is a procedure performed most commonly for breast cancer lymph node metastasis, and this activity focuses on breast cancer sp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antibiotic medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and sexu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Babesiosis Babesiosis is an infection caused by the parasitic protozoa Babesia. This parasite is carried and transferred by ticks and primarily infects erythrocy ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baby Bottle Syndrome Baby bottle syndrome, now known as early childhood caries (ECC), is defined as the presence of 1 or more decayed teeth or missing teeth (resulting fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacillary Angiomatosis Bacillary angiomatosis (epithelioid angiomatosis) is an uncommon disease characterized by neovascular proliferation in the skin or the internal organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Safety Low back pain (LBP) is common among healthcare professionals with prevalence of low back pain among health care workers being greater than among those ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baclofen Baclofen is used to treat muscle spasticity; it is FDA-approved for the management of reversible spasticity, particularly for the relief of flexor spa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteremia Bacteremia, in the strictest sense, refers to viable bacteria in the blood. Asymptomatic bacteremia can occur in normal daily activities such as condu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Acute Prostatitis Bacterial prostatitis (BP) is an infection of the prostate gland occurring in a bimodal distribution in younger and older men. It can be acute (ABP) o ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Diarrhea Diarrhea consists of the passage of watery and loose stools multiple times a day (usually more than 3), though specific definitions may vary when appl ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease characterized by an increase in bowel movement frequency with or without fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. T ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacterial Tracheitis Bacterial tracheitis, also known as bacterial croup, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, or membranous croup, is a potentially lethal infection of the sub ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics The term "bacteriostatic antibiotics" is used to describe medications whose mechanism of action stalls bacterial cellular activity without directly ca ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bacteruria Bacteruria is the presence of bacteria in the urine and can be classified as symptomatic or asymptomatic. A patient with asymptomatic bacteruria is de ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanitis Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis. Men with balanitis often present with penile pain and erythema. This activity explains the risk facto ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Balanitis Circumscripta Plasmacellularis Balanitis circumscripta is a chronic idiopathic reactive balanoposthitis that can occur in uncircumcised men and is caused by a dysfunctional foreskin ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barium Swallow The barium swallow study, also known as a barium esophagogram or esophagram, is a contrast-enhanced radiographic study commonly used to assess structu ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Barrett Esophagus Barrett esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium into metaplastic columnar ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bartonellosis Bartonellosis is the term used to describe any infectious disease produced by the bacteria Bartonella. These include trench fever, Oroya fever, Carrio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bartter Syndrome Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of salt reabsorption resulting in extracellular fluid volume depletion with low/normal blood press ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basal Cell Carcinoma Basal cell carcinoma is the most common cutaneous malignancy, affecting close to one in five Americans. Although rarely fatal, basal cell carcinoma ca ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Artery Thrombosis The basilar artery is formed by the convergence of the vertebral arteries at the junction of the pons and medulla. It provides oxygen-rich blood to th ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basilar Migraine A migraine with predominant brainstem aura symptoms is known as a basilar migraine. Bickerstaff first described it in 1961. Other names for it are bas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Basophilia Basophils are typically the least numerous myeloid cells seen in a peripheral blood smear. Their numerous dark azurophilic granules easily distinguish ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Becker Muscular Dystrophy Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is an X-linked recessive disorder due to mutation in the Dystrophin gene that results in progressive muscle degenerati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bedbug Bites There are as many as 90 species of "bugs" (bed bugs are true bugs with specialized elongated mouthparts) within the family Cimicidae; however, few bit ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beeturia Beeturia is the discoloration of urine following the consumption of beets or foods colored with beetroot. The typical color can range from pink to dee ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a psychotherapeutic intervention primarily used to eliminate or reduce maladaptive behavior in children or adults. While some ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benedikt Syndrome Benedikt syndrome is an eponymously named neurological condition secondary to specific damage in the midbrain that causes ipsilateral oculomotor nerve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Breast Calcifications Benign breast calcifications are common. If benign breast calcifications are not appropriately identified, unnecessary intervention and use of finite ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Essential Blepharospasm Benign essential blepharospasm is a focal cranial dystonia, characterized by involuntary contractions of orbicularis oculi muscle contractions, result ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Mesothelioma Mesotheliomas represent a proliferative neoplasm made up of epithelial and mesenchymal cells of the mesothelium which make up part of the serosal cove ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Occipital Seizure Benign occipital seizures are classified as an occipital onset epilepsy syndrome, which occurs in children with normal developmental milestones, norma ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Vertigo is the perception of motion in the absence of motion, which may be described as a sensation of swaying, tilting, spinning, or feeling unbalanc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition encountered in aging men and a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms. Histological pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide (Librium) and shortly thereafter diazepam (Valium), benzodiazepines quickly became mainstrea ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benzoyl Peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is an over-the-counter topical medication and is also an FDA-approved prescription medication for the treatment of acne vulgaris. It ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Benztropine Benztropine is FDA approved as adjunctive therapy of all forms of parkinsonism. It is also used for drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and the preve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Berger Disease Berger disease is a common cause of primary glomerulonephritis and it involves the deposition of IgA in the glomerular mesangium. It is a cause of pro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bernard Soulier Syndrome Bernard-Soulier syndrome is a rare inherited blood clotting disorder that is characterized by unusually giant platelet cells, thrombocytopenia, and pr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta 2 Receptor Agonists/Antagonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are cell-surface receptors clinically taken advantage of in the management of bronchospasm as in patients with bronchial a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antibiotics to prevent antibiotic resistance by inhibiting serine beta-l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta Thalassemia Thalassemias are a common cause of microcytic anemia and are due to impaired synthesis of the globin protein component of hemoglobin. Beta-thalassemia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in the management and treatment of open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bezold Abscess Bezold's abscess is a rare deep neck abscess and is an intratemporal complication of a coalescent mastoiditis via direct extension into the peri-masto ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicornuate Uterus A bicornuate uterus is a uterine malformation that is produced due to impairment in the fusion of Mullerian ducts. The bicornuate uterus is a rare ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bier Block The Bier block, also known as intravenous local anesthesia (IVRA), is a safe, effective, and cost-efficient way to provide short-term anesthesia and a ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Injury Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed over 750,000 times in the United States annually. As laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been increasingly used ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bile Duct Stricture Bile duct strictures are segments of the narrowing of the intrahepatic and/or extrahepatic biliary ductal system. The narrowing impedes the normal ant ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Atresia Biliary atresia is a disease of the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts with an unknown etiology. It presents in neonates with jaundice, clay colo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Colic Biliary colic is defined as pain in the abdomen, due to obstruction usually by stones in the cystic duct or common bile duct of the biliary tree. It t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Duct Hamartoma Biliary duct hamartomas, otherwise known as Von Meyenburg complexes, are dilated cystic bile ducts, which are embryologic remnants that failed to invo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Obstruction Biliary obstruction refers to blockage of the bile duct system preventing bile from flowing from the liver into the intestinal tract. Bile obstructio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cancer Biliary tract cancer consists of tumors that arise from epithelial cells lining the biliary tract, which consists of the intrahepatic bile duct, extra ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliary Tract Cholangiocarcinoma The diagnosis and management of cholangiocarcinoma are challenging and complex. To achieve good results and provide appropriate patient care, the trea ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biliopancreatic Diversion With Duodenal Switch The biliopancreatic diversion was first described by Scorpinaro in 1979. This procedure combined a horizontal gastric resection with the closure of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bilirubinuria Bilirubinuria is the presence of bilirubin in the urine, usually detected while performing a routine urine dipstick test. Its presence is abnormal and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Binge Eating Disorder Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder associated with various psychological and non-psychological issues with some degree of impairment of daily ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs) Biologic response modifiers (BRMs), also known as immunomodulators, are the class of medications that target the disease-causing mechanism. They are u ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biologic, Chemical, and Radiation Terrorism Review Terrorism is the intentional use of indiscriminate violence to create fear and terror as a means to achieve an ideological, financial, religious, or p ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bipolar Affective Disorder The bipolar affective disorder is a chronic and complex disorder of mood that is characterized by a combination of manic (bipolar mania), hypomanic an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Birth Asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is a lack of blood flow or gas exchange to or from the fetus in the period immediately before, during, or after the birth process. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bishop Score In 1964, Edward Bishop set forth criteria for elective induction of labor which included parity, gestational age, fetal presentation, obstetric histor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bismuth Subsalicylate Bismuth subsalicylate is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of gastrointestinal discomfort and traveler's diarrhea. It is in th ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs that are widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Cohosh Black Cohosh, or Cimicifuga racemosa, is a perennial dicot of the Buttercup family native to the Eastern half of the United States and Canada. It is a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Black Widow Spider Toxicity The black widow spider species, also known by its biological nomenclature as the Latrodectus species is one of more than 40,000 different species of s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Cancer Bladder cancer is any neoplasm that arises from the urinary bladder. It is the most common urinary tract neoplasm with urothelial carcinoma (UC) being ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization is a commonly performed procedure in all hospitals. It can be performed by external, urethral, and suprapubic techniques. It i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Exstrophy Bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a spectrum of anomalies involving the ventral body wall, urinary tract, genitalia, bon ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Sphincter Dyssynergia Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in a patient with spinal cord injury and various other neurological d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bladder Trauma Bladder injury is broadly divided into extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal injuries. Extraperitoneal bladder injuries generally occur with pelvic frac ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blastomycosis Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents as a pulmonary infection after the inhalation of spores, and it ma ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bleomycin Bleomycin has approval for adult use in the treatment of squamous cell cancer of head and neck regions, Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma. It i ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blepharoconjunctivitis Blepharoconjunctivitis is an ocular condition involving the inflammation of the eyelid and conjunctiva. It is a common chronic condition that can lead ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blistering Distal Dactylitis Blistering distal dactylitis (BDD) is a bacterial infection of the fingers presenting as multiple fluid-filled lesions. This condition is common in ch ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Donation Blood donation is a vital part of worldwide healthcare. It allows for blood transfusion as a life-sustaining and life-saving procedure. Over one hundr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Product Safety Transfusion of blood products is one of the most commonly performed clinical procedures in healthcare today. Blood product safety has been an improvin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bloom Syndrome Bloom syndrome, also called Bloom-Torre-Machacek syndrome or congenital telangiectatic erythema, is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder char ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Cardiac Injury A cardiac contusion is a misnomer used to indicate injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spect ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Eye Trauma Blunt injury to the eye can lead to various intrinsic eye injuries. Globe rupture and retrobulbar hematoma are two emergent entities that are of impor ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Dysmorphic Disorder Body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, formally known as dysmorphophobia, is a psychiatric condition defined in the DSM 5 as a preoccupation with a perceiv ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Fluid Exposures Health care workers have serious concerns about exposures to bodily fluids. Accidental exposures to bodily fluids present a wide variety of issues to ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common site of piercings are the ears, mouth, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Age Bone age assessment can be of utmost importance in various complicated situations involving medical, surgical, forensic, and legal issues. Apart from ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Metastasis The skeleton is the third most common site of metastatic disease after lung and liver. Eighty percent of bone metastases originate from prostate, brea ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Borrelia Burgdorferi Borrelia burgdorferi is a pathogenic spirochete responsible for Lyme disease via a tick vector. This spirochete causes a characteristic annular rash, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bortezomib Bortezomib is FDA-approved for use in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. It is also FDA ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botfly Bot fly is a term referring to any member of the Oestridae family of flies. To reproduce, these flies rely on myiasis, the infestation of host skin fo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Therapeutic uses include chronic migraine, ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boutonneuse Fever Boutonneuse fever is a disease caused by the rickettsia genus and is of the spotted fever group classification. This disease classically causes fever, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Boutonniere Deformity Boutonniere deformity describes a medical condition in which the finger is flexed at the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP), and there is hyperexten ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bouveret Syndrome Bouveret syndrome is caused by a large stone passing through a bilioduodenal fistula causing gastric outlet obstruction. Morbidity and mortality rates ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bowel Obstruction A bowel obstruction can either be a mechanical or functional obstruction of the small or large intestines. Obstruction frequently causes abdominal pai ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Metastasis Brain metastases are a common complication of cancer and the most common type of brain tumor. Anywhere from 10% to 26% of patients who die from their ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brainstem Death The revised memorandum in 1979 correlated the brain stem death with death itself. This activity outlines current recommendations set for diagnosing br ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brainstem Infarction Brainstem infarcts are a collection of difficult to diagnose syndromes affecting the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata. They can cause a v ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Branchial Cleft Cysts Branchial cleft cysts are congenital epithelial cysts that comprise approximately one-third of congenital neck masses. They are benign lesions and can ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
BRCA 1 and 2 Breast cancer genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumor suppressor genes whose mutations significantly increase the likelihood of developing particular types of ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Abscess Breast abscesses are a common problem, especially in lactating women. Most breast abscesses are benign, however when a non-lactating patient presents ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Biopsy With improved screening and diagnostic techniques, the incidence and prevalence of breast cancer are rising worldwide. In 2018 alone, there were 2.2 m ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Cyst Breast cysts are a common diagnosis among women and one of the most common reasons for a referral to a breast clinic. These cysts can be entirely asym ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Examination Techniques The ability to perform a thorough and accurate breast exam is an important skill for medical practitioners of many levels and across many specialties. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fat Necrosis Breast fat necrosis is a non-suppurative inflammation of adipose tissue caused by the disruption of oxygen supply to fat cells, ultimately leading to ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Implant Rupture Breast augmentation is a surgical procedure where a saline or silicone implant is placed retroglandular or retropectoral within the breast. A possible ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Milk Jaundice Breast milk jaundice is a type of jaundice that occurs in neonates due to breastfeeding. It happens within the first week of life due to the abnormal ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Ultrasound Breast ultrasound is performed due to the high incidence rate of breast cancer amongst women globally. Ultrasound is typically used as an adjunct to m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breech Presentation Breech presentation refers to the fetus in the longitudinal lie with the buttocks or lower extremity entering the pelvis first. The three types of bre ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brief Psychotic Disorder Brief psychotic disorder (BPD) according to DSM-5 is the sudden onset of psychotic behavior that lasts less than 1 month followed by complete remissio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bromocriptine Bromocriptine is a medication currently used in the management and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is an ergot alkaloid derivative in the d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiectasis Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterized by persistent and lifelong widening of the bronchial airways and weakening of the function muco ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchiolitis Obliterans Bronchiolitis obliterans is also known as obliterative bronchiolitis or constrictive bronchiolitis. When it occurs after lung transplantation or hemat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Bronchoalveolar Lavage or BAL is a minimally invasive procedure that involves instillation of sterile normal saline into a subsegment of the lung, fol ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchodilators Bronchodilators are indicated for individuals that have lower than optimal air flow through the lungs. The mainstay of treatment is beta-2 agonists th ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchogenic Cyst Bronchogenic cysts are foregut-derived cystic malformations of the respiratory tract. They are usually located within the mediastinum at an early stag ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Despite significant advances in preterm inf ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bronchoscopy A bronchoscopy is an essential tool for clinicians and health care providers treating patients with lung diseases. Since its introduction to clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brow Ptosis Brow ptosis is a common presenting complaint in aging patients; it can affect patients' quality of life because of its cosmetic impact as well as visu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brown Sequard Syndrome Brown-Séquard syndrome is a neurologic syndrome resulting from hemisection of the spinal cord. It manifests with weakness or paralysis and propriocept ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brucellosis Brucellosis is an infectious disease caused by Brucella species. It is known by many other names, including remitting fever, undulant fever, Mediterra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brugada Syndrome Brugada syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening inherited disease that predisposes patients to fatal cardiac arrhythmias. The syndrome is ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bruton Agammaglobulinemia Bruton agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) or Bruton's agammaglobulinemia, is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bruxism Management Bruxism can be defined as the involuntary, unconscious, and excessive grinding of teeth. Bruxism may occur while awake, and it is then called wakeful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budd Chiari Syndrome Hepatic venous outflow obstruction due to any cause except the cardiac ones regardless of the level of obstruction is known as Budd-Chiari syndrome. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buerger Disease Buerger disease is a nonatherosclerotic, progressive, segmental inflammatory disease affecting the small and medium-sized arteries of upper and lower ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Emphysema The definition of a bulla is an air-filled space of 1 cm in diameter within the lung which has developed because of emphysematous destruction of the l ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Pemphigoid Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune subepidermal blistering disorder, representing 80% of subepidermal immunobullous cases. Bullous ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus (BSLE) is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. It has clinical and histological features that ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bumetanide Bumetanide is FDA approved for the management of various edematous conditions secondary to cardiac failure, or hepatic or renal disease, including the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Burning Mouth Syndrome Burning mouth syndrome is a condition characterized by extremely painful burning sensation of the tongue and mucosal tissue of the mouth, lips, and/or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic. Originally the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but found not to be effective for psychosis, but it had anxio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Busulfan Busulfan is a medication used in the management and treatment of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation specifically for patients wi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Byssinosis Following its relatively recent birth in the 1700s from the pioneering work of Dr. Bernardino Ramazzini, occupational medicine has grown to encompass ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, also known as hereditary angioedema, results in the unchecked production of the vasodilator bradykinin. This increas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C2 Fractures Registry study places the incidence of C2 fracture at 6 per 100000 people. In Sweden, across 6370 patients with C2 fractures: 51% were male, and the a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cachexia Cachexia is a complicated metabolic syndrome related to underlying illness and characterized by muscle mass loss with or without fat mass loss that is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cadmium Toxicity Cadmium is a heavy metal that causes direct harm to humans in several forms. It is regularly found with other heavy metals such as zinc, copper, and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cafe Au Lait Macules Cafe-au-lait macules (CALMs) are common pigmented lesions found in the general population. They can be described as well-circumscribed, pigmented macu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caffeine Withdrawal Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Unlike other p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcaneofibular Ligament Injury Isolated calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) injuries are rare. CFL injuries are often described in the lateral ankle compartment, specifically associated ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcitonin Salmon calcitonin (after this referred to as “calcitonin”) is an analog of human calcitonin used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Page ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor CGRP receptor antagonists and monoclonal antibodies against CGRP and its receptor are medications used in the management and treatment of migraine, wh ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcitriol Calcitriol is a hormonally-active, synthetic, vitamin D analog prescribed for the treatment of hypocalcemia, osteoporosis, and prevention of corticost ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Calcium homeostasis is critical and is controlled by three hormones: the parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, and calcitriol. Dysregulation of calcium lev ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate is an inorganic salt primarily used in the management and treatment of low calcium conditions, GERD, CKD, and a variety of other ind ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel antagonists, also known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have been widely used for many indications. These agents are often classif ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcium Gluconate Calcium gluconate is a medication used in the management of hypocalcemia, cardiac arrest and cardiotoxicity due to hyperkalemia or hypermagnesemia. It ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caloric Testing Caloric testing is a useful clinical tool that can assess and quantify the functional status of the individual vestibular systems. The test utilizes t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Campylobacter Campylobacter is a bacterial species that represent one of the most common causes of diarrheal illness worldwide. This infection is associated with th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Canalicular Laceration Canalicular lacerations occur in people of all age groups, with causes ranging from fistfights to dog bites. In order to avoid the high morbidity asso ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Breast Screening In women, breast cancer is number one in incidence and mortality when compared to all cancers. It is the most common non-skin cancer and second deadli ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Prostate Screening This activity describes the current burden of prostate cancer, various expert recommendations on prostate cancer screening, PSA, and other pre-biopsy ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer Screening Cancer screening is pivotal in reducing the mortality and morbidity from cancer. Some of the screening methods, like a pap smear, has been successful ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cancer-associated Thrombosis Cancer-associated thrombosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients. It commonly occurs in patients with clinical ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candesartan Candesartan is an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker. It is available as a pro-drug, candesartan cilexetil, which undergoes hydrolysis in the gastro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candida Auris Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is associated with nosocomial infections and is considered a serious global health threat. It has nu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Candidiasis Candidiasis is an opportunistic infection due to Candida, which can affect the oral cavity, vagina, penis, or other parts of the body. Untreated Candi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannabinoid Toxicity Cannabinoids are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. They include plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market. Dronabinol and nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbamazepine Carbamazepine is used in the management and treatment for epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and acute manic and mixed episodes in bipolar I disorder. In ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an important agent for multiple purposes, such as cleaning purposes, industrial agents, etc. But it can cause several a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is a medication used in the management and treatment of glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, altitude sicknes ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carboxyhemoglobin Toxicity Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-irritating gas formed with the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels). It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Syndrome Carcinoid syndrome refers to a number of symptoms caused by the release of humoral factors such as polypeptides, prostaglandins, and biogenic amines. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Abscess A cardiac abscess is a suppurative infection of the myocardium, endocardium, native or prosthetic valve tissue. Similar to other abscesses, it develop ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Calcifications Cardiac calcifications carry different diagnostic and prognostic significance depending on their location. They can involve the coronary arteries, car ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Cancer Cardiac tumors are uncommon and can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, and the incidence is from 0.001 to 0.3% by autopsy. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Disease In Pregnancy Many cardiac diseases during pregnancy are under investigation, and many others which are still not understood require further inquiry. Some of these ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Imaging As innovative technology has progressed throughout the field of medicine, so too has the ability to visualize the heart and its vasculature noninvasiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Manifestations Of Coronavirus Coronaviruses are a large family of single positive-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that can infect many animal species and humans. Human coronaviruse ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rehabilitation Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in the United States. Cardiac rehabilitati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Stress Imaging Cardiac stress imaging is a noninvasive modality used in evaluating coronary artery disease, myocardium viability, and exercise capacity. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Trauma Cardiac trauma can be categorized as either blunt or penetrating according to the mechanism of injury. Outcomes range from spontaneously-resolving arr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardioactive Steroid Toxicity Cardioactive steroids (CAS) are medically important compounds historically used for conditions like edema and "dropsy." They are available in several ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Adults Cardiopulmonary arrest is the cessation of adequate heart function and respiration and results in death without reversal. Often this condition is foun ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Children Unlike in adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in rare in children and less likely to be a primary cardiac event. Early onset of effective, high-quality CPR ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiovascular Disease The cardiovascular system consists of the heart and its blood vessels. A wide array of problems can arise within the cardiovascular system, a few of w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carnitine Deficiency Carnitine deficiency is a condition characterized by low carnitine levels in the body. Carnitine deficiency could be primary (due to defect in carniti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caroli Disease Caroli disease is a rare inherited disorder involving segmental dilatation of large, intrahepatic bile ducts which appear as cysts on imaging and hist ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotenemia First described in 1919 by Hess and Meyers, carotenemia is the medical terminology describing yellow-orange skin pigmentation due to high levels of ca ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Bruit A carotid bruit is a vascular sound usually heard with a stethoscope over the carotid artery because of turbulent, non-laminar blood flow through a st ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is an exaggerated response to pressure applied to the carotid sinus located in the carotid bifurcation, resulting in br ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carotidynia Carotidynia, also known as Fay syndrome or TIPIC Syndrome, is a rare vascular disorder that presents with atypical pain in the face and neck area. The ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Injection Carpal tunnel injections are performed because of the extremely high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population. Carpal tunnel syn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cat Scratch Disease Cat scratch disease is an illness caused by an intracellular gram-negative rod known as Bartonella henselae. It affects the lymph nodes draining the a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cataract Surgery Cataracts are the world’s leading cause of remediable blindness. While some cataracts, may be congenital, secondary to trauma, or drug-induced, most c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catatonia Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by abnormal movements, behaviors, and withdrawal, is a condition that is most often seen in mood ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Catatonic Schizophrenia Catatonic schizophrenia is one of the classical clinical subtypes of schizophrenia. The concept of catatonic symptoms in schizophrenia has changed thr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caterpillar and Moth Bites “Lepidopterism” refers to various skin & systemic reactions secondary to contact with moth and butterfly larvae or caterpillars (order Lepidoptera). I ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cauliflower Ear Cauliflower ear, also known as wrestler's ear or perichondrial hematoma, is a deformity caused by blunt trauma to the auricle. It occurs as blood accu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cecal Volvulus Volvulus occurs when portions of the bowel get entangled upon a mesenteric axis, which can cause impairment of the blood supply or can result in compl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cefepime Cefepime is a cephalosporin in the beta-lactam class of antibiotics used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime(CTX) is a medication used in the management and treatment of cervicitis/urethritis and pneumonia. Cefotaxime (CTX) is a beta-lactam antibio ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome Celiac artery compression syndrome is also known as Dunbar syndrome or median arcuate ligament syndrome. It is a rare condition characterized by recur ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Celiac Plexus Block First described as a method of providing surgical anesthesia to the upper abdomen, the celiac plexus block (CPB) has been utilized in practice for nea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Centipede Envenomation Centipede bites are uncommon but can be clinically significant in regards to patient discomfort, morbidity, and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central and Peripheral Cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the distal extremities (Hands, fingertips, toes), and can sometimes involve circumoral and periorbi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Cord Syndrome The central cord syndrome is the most common type of incomplete cord injury and almost always occurs as a consequence of a traumatic injury. It result ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection not related to an infection at ano ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Management Central venous access is required for many hospitalized patient. Placement of central line catheters is done for many reasons, including inadequate pe ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Line Placement A central line is a large-bore central venous catheter that is typically placed using a sterile technique unless a patient is unstable, in which case ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is the sudden blockage of the central retinal artery, resulting in retinal hypoperfusion, rapidly progressive ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Access of The Subclavian Vein In the United States, more than 5 million central venous catheters are inserted every year in both hospitalized and surgical patients. Once an indicat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalexin Cephalexin is an FDA approved antibiotic. Cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin utilized in the treatment of urinary tract infections, respir ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Dysfunction The cerebellum maintains our coordination and balance. Cerebellar dysfunction causes difficulty with coordination, imbalance, and gait disorders. Poss ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellar Infarct A cerebellar infarct (or cerebellar stroke) is a type of cerebrovascular event involving the posterior cranial fossa, specifically the cerebellum. Imp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebellopontine Angle Cancer The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an important landmark anatomically and clinically. The most common lesions at the CPA are vestibular schwannoma, m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Aneurysm Cerebral aneurysms are defined as dilations that occur at weak points along the arterial circulation within the brain. The majority of cerebral aneury ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Contusion Traumatic brain injury includes several types of insults to the parenchyma of the brain. One of the most severe forms of damage is a hemorrhagic cereb ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral ischemia is a common mechanism of acute brain injury that results from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cerebral ischemia represents a medic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy is a group of permanent disorders affecting the development of movement and causing a limitation of activity. Non-progressive disturban ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a potential cause of hyponatremia in the setting of disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebral salt wasting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which includes thrombosis of the cerebral veins and the dural sinuses, is a rare disorder that can lead to significa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Cerclage Cervical cerclage is performed as an attempt to prolong pregnancy in certain women who are at higher risk of preterm delivery. Cerclage placement may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine typically develops in the aging population equally in terms of sexes. Patients are most commonly prese ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Discogenic Syndrome Cervical discogenic pain syndrome is a common source of neck pain. The presentation can vary and may be caused by degenerative changes in the interver ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Dysplasia The Pap smear is responsible for decreasing the incidence of and mortality rates from cervical cancer. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a collection of ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Ectropion Cervical ectropion is a benign gynecological condition and is regarded as a normal variant that frequently occurs in women of the reproductive age gro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Epidural Injection Cervical epidural corticosteroids can provide significant benefits in patients experiencing chronic neck pain secondary to cervical radiculopathy. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Incompetence Cervical insufficiency is the inability of the cervix to retain fetus, in the absence of uterine contractions or labor (painless cervical dilatation), ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Cervical cancer incidence and mortality have decreased due primarily to screening programs using the pap smear. As more outcome data has become availa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Intraepithelial Squamous Cell Lesion This article reviews the anatomy, natural history, epidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, evaluation, treatment, compl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Myelopathy Cervical myelopathy is a condition describing a compression at the cervical level of the spinal column resulting in spasticity (sustained muscle contr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Plexus Block Superficial cervical plexus block is an easy block that can be performed either using a landmark-based technique or using the ultrasound-based techniq ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Polyps Cervical polyps are abnormal growths that appear in the cervix. Although cervical polyps are commonly benign, malignant polyps can be seen in 0.2 to 1 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Radiculopathy Neck pain is widespread and causes significant pain and disability. Workers with a history of neck pain account for up to 40% of work absenteeism. In ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spine Fractures Overview The cervical spine is a dynamic structure tasked with protecting nervous innervation to the entire body while also maintaining a range of motion for t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicitis Cervicitis is the inflammation of the ectocervix, which can be infectious or non-infectious. Due to the association of serious complications like infe ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicogenic Headache A cervicogenic headache (CGH) presents as unilateral pain that starts in the neck. It is a common chronic and recurrent headache that usually starts a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cesarean Section This activity reviews the cesarean section, and it highlights ways in which an interprofessional care team can impact the health of women and their ne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cetuximab Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with the following FDA-approved indications: colorectal cancer, metastatic, KRAS wil ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chaddock Reflex The Babinski reflex is part of the routine neurological examination to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract. However, in settings where p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chance Fractures A Chance fracture is an unstable spine fracture that typically occurs at the thoracolumbar junction. It is a horizontal fracture extending from poster ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chancroid Chancroid is an exceedingly rare sexually transmitted infection, both in the United States and globally. Knowledge regarding its true prevalence is ma ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Bouchard Aneurysm The rupture of Charcot Bouchard aneurysms causes intracerebral bleeds in the deep structures of the brain especially in patients predisposed to this c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Marie Tooth Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the commonest inherited neuromuscular disorder. It affects the peripheral nerves and leads to progressive weaknes ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Charcot Neuropathic Osteoarthropathy Charcot neuropathic osteoarthropathy is a destructive joint disorder initiated by trauma to a neuropathic extremity. It can lead to dislocations and f ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
CHARGE Syndrome CHARGE syndrome is an inherited disorder caused by a mutation in the DNA-binding protein-7 CHD7 gene. CHARGE syndrome is an acronym for coloboma, hear ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chediak Higashi Syndrome Chediak Higashi syndrome (CHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder that is characterized by easy bruising, oculocutaneous albinism and recurrent pyogen ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cherry Hemangioma Cherry hemangiomas are the most common type of acquired vascular proliferation of the skin. They present as a dome-shaped, bright, ruby-colored papule ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chest Wall Tumors The chest wall refers to the structures surrounding and protecting the lungs, enclosed by the spine, and separated from the abdomen by the diaphragm. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheyne Stokes Respirations Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a type of breathing disorder characterized by cyclical episodes of apnea and hyperventilation. Although described in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chiari II Malformation Chiari II malformation is a relatively common congenital malformation of the posterior fossa and the spine characterized by beaked midbrain, downward ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chigger Bites Chigger is the common name for species of the Trombiculid family of mites. Bites from the larva of these mites can cause local pruritus and irritation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chikungunya Fever Chikungunya virus is an alphavirus that is arthropod-borne and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. This virus causes a rash, an acute febrile illness, an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Intussusception Intussusception is a condition in which part of the intestine folds into the section next to it. Intussusception usually involves the small bowel and ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Child Physical Abuse And Neglect Approximately one in four children experience child abuse or neglect in their lifetime. Of maltreated children, 18 percent are abused physically, 78 p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Childhood Brain Tumors Pediatric brain tumors are the most common type of solid childhood cancer and only second to leukemia as a cause of pediatric malignancies. They are c ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlamydia Pneumonia Three species of Chlamydia namely, C. pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis are known to cause respiratory infections in humans. They are one of ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a medication used in the management and treatment of superficial eye infections such as bacterial conjunctivitis, and otitis extern ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chlordiazepoxide Chlordiazepoxide is a long-acting benzodiazepine and is an FDA approved medication for adults with mild-moderate to severe anxiety, preoperative anxie ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloroprocaine Chloroprocaine is an ester class local anesthetic and is indicated for neuraxial anesthesia (caudal, epidural and spinal), as well as peripheral nerve ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, can cause pathologic ocular damage unless strict prescribing and screening ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choanal Atresia The nasal choanae are paired openings that connect the nasal cavity with the nasopharynx. Choanal atresia is a congenital condition in which these ope ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholangitis Acute cholangitis, also known as ascending cholangitis, is a life-threatening condition that is caused by an ascending bacterial infection of the bili ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledochal Cyst A choledochal cyst (CC) or biliary cyst is a congenital or acquired anomaly affecting the biliary tree. It involves the dilation of the biliary tree t ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choledocholithiasis Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones within the common bile duct. It is estimated that common bile duct stones are present in anywhere from 1 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholera Cholera is an acute secretory diarrheal illness caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. It is estimated to cause upwards of four million cases per yea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholestatic Jaundice Cholestasis is defined as stagnation, or at least a marked reduction, in bile secretion and flow. Cholestasis can be due to a functional impairment of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholestyramine Resin Cholestyramine is used for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia. The reduction in LDL cholesterol by the resin is dose-dependent. A dose of 8 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholinergic Crisis A cholinergic crisis develops as a result of overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions. This is usually sec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cholinesterase Inhibitors Cholinesterase inhibitors function to decrease the breakdown of acetylcholine. They SEe use in the treatment of Alzheimer and dementia symptoms. This ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondroblastoma Chondroblastoma is a benign, chondroid-producing neoplasm composed of chondroblasts. It accounts for less than 1% of all bone tumors and usually arise ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondromalacia Patella Chondromalacia is an affliction of the hyaline cartilage coating of the articular surfaces of the bone. It results in the softening and then subsequen ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondrosarcoma Chondrosarcomas are malignant cartilaginous neoplasms with diverse morphological features and clinical behavior. They account for about 20 percent of ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorea According to the Committee on Classification of the World Federation of Neurology, chorea is defined as "a state of excessive, spontaneous movements, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorioamnionitis Chorioamnionitis is an infection that can occur before labor, during labor, or after delivery. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Chorioamnionitis ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorionic Villus Sampling Chorionic villus sampling is a prenatal diagnostic test performed between 10 and 13 weeks gestation. This activity reviews the indications, risks, and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Choroidal Folds The choroidal fold is a clinical feature wherein subretinal folds are seen usually over the posterior pole or peripheral retina of the eye. The choroi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chromosome Instability Syndromes Chromosomal instability syndromes are a group of inherited disorders associated with chromosomal instability and breakage either spontaneously or in r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Anemia Anemia, like a fever, is not a diagnosis but a presentation of an underlying disease. Multiple diseases can present as anemia due to various mechanism ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Aspiration Chronic aspiration is a common condition that occurs in the elderly population, pediatric patients with certain neurological conditions, and chronical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Bronchitis Chronic bronchitis is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that is defined as a productive cough of more than 3 months occurring wit ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cholecystitis Chronic cholecystitis is a prolonged, subacute condition caused by the mechanical or functional dysfunction of the emptying of the gallbladder. It pre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Closed Angle Glaucoma Chronic closed-angle glaucoma, also called chronic angle-closure glaucoma, is a condition that can be a cause of permanent vision loss if not diagnose ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Cough Cough is a natural defense mechanism that allows clearance of bronchial tree secretions and the elimination of inhaled foreign particles. It is a comm ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Emphysema Pulmonary emphysema is a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is defined as a pathological, permanent dilatation of distal airways (resp ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Granulomatous Disease Chronic granulomatous diseases (CGD) are a group of recurrent life-threatening infections due to a hereditary defect in forming reactive oxygen specie ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Headaches Chronic headaches are headaches that occur for at least 15 days of a month for at least three months. There are a variety of causes and ways to manage ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Inflammation Chronic inflammation is also referred to as slow, long-term inflammation lasting several months to years. Generally, the extent and effects of chronic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the United States affecting about one-third of the general population. According to the third edition of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Iron Deficiency Chronic iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world and a significant common cause of anemia worldwide. It is mainly caused by ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by monoclonal B cell proliferation. It is the most common adult l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Mesenteric Ischemia Mesenteric ischemia is a manifestation of peripheral vascular disease in which the blood supply fails to meet the metabolic demands of visceral organs ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL1-positive, is classified as a myeloproliferative neoplasm predominantly composed of proliferating granulocytes ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Paroxysmal Hemicrania Chronic paroxysmal hemicrania is a primary headache syndrome characterized by recurrent unilateral episodes of headache associated with cranial autono ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Testicular Pain Chronic orchialgia is defined as 3 months of intermittent or constant testicular pain that is significantly bothersome to the patient. It is the cause ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Thrombo-Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Chronic pulmonary embolism (also known as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is a potentially life-threatening condition and is associated ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Total Occlusion Of The Coronary Artery Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are diagnosed in patients who are undergoing coronary angiography as part of the evaluation of ischemic heart di ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Transplantation Rejection Transplant rejection can be classified as hyperacute, acute, or chronic. Hyperacute rejection is usually caused by specific antibodies against the gra ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) has become increasingly popular in the scientific literature over the past few decades. However, the first ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Urticaria Chronic spontaneous urticaria is defined as the occurrence of wheals and/or angioedema for a total duration of six weeks or more. Synonymous with "chr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Churg Strauss Syndrome Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome, belongs to a group of diseases characterized by necrotizing v ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chylous Ascites Chylous ascites (CA) is defined as a milky appearing, triglyceride-rich peritoneal fluid in the abdominal cavity. It is characterized by the accumulat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciguatera Toxicity Ciguatera toxicity is a food-borne illness caused by eating fish contaminated with Ciguatoxin. This toxin is a potent neurotoxin, and it is produced b ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciliary Dysfunction The majority of newborns with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), formerly known as immotile cilia syndrome, develop neonatal respiratory distress with ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cinacalcet Cinacalcet is a medication used in the management and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (on dialysis population), primary hyperparathyroidism ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cinchonism Cinchonism is a collection of symptoms described as hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, flushing, and blurry vision stemming from the ingestion of quin ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic agent in the fluoroquinolone class used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections and pneumonia. C ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cisatracurium Cisatracurium besylate is an intermediate-acting, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD). Cisatracurium has a benzylisoquinolinium struct ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Citalopram Citalopram hydrobromide is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The primary FDA-approved clinical use for citalopram hydrobromide is for the trea ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cladribine Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, resulting in loss of oligodendrocytes, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Claustrophobia Claustrophobia is the fear of enclosed spaces. There are about 12.5% of the population that have this fear, with the majority of them being females. T ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clavicle Fractures Fractures of the clavicle are quite common, accounting for up to 10% of all fractures. It is the most common fracture of childhood. A fall onto the la ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Claw Hand Ulnar nerve palsy is the loss of sensory and motor function. This can occur after injury to any portion of the ulnar nerve. The ulnar nerve is the ter ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clindamycin Clindamycin is a medication used for the treatment of numerous infections, including but not limited to septicemia, intra-abdominal infections, lower ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonidine Toxicity Clonidine is a commonly prescribed biochemical derivative of imidazoline with a variety of clinical uses. It was originally developed as a nasal decon ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Perfringens Clostridium perfringens is an anaerobic Gram-positive spore-forming bacillus that is associated with acute gastrointestinal infection ranging in sever ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clostridium Tetani Clostridia are variable genera of anaerobic organisms made up of at least 209 species and five subspecies. Clostridium tetani is one of the 4 most wel ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clotrimazole Clotrimazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the imidazole class of drugs. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clozapine Clozapine is an FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is not the first-line drug of choice d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cluster Headache Cluster headaches are the most common of the primary headache type known as trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. They are fairly rare, plaguing 0.1% of the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
CNS Lymphoma Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphoma. It is a rare entity and involves the central nervous system (CN ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccidioidomycosis The dimorphic fungus coccidioides causes coccidioidomycosis, also known as San Joaquin Valley fever, which is endemic to the arid regions of the Weste ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccyx Pain Coccyx pain is known by multiple synonyms, including coccydynia, coccygodynia, and tailbone pain. There are many causes of coccygeal pain, ranging fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cognitive Deficits Cognition is the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses. It encompasses various ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colesevelam Colesevelam is an FDA approved antihyperlipidemic drug. When treating hyperlipidemia, colesevelam should be used in conjunction with restriction of ch ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colic Infant colic is estimated to affect 20% of all infants. Despite its prevalence, a clear cause for infantile colic remains elusive. There have been man ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Collagenous And Lymphocytic Colitis Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea that becomes more common as we age. Two types of microscopic colitis are collagenous ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Collagen-Vascular Disease Associated With Interstitial Lung Collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CVD-ILD) consists of several immunologically-mediated diseases with characteristic pul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common diagnosis and second deadliest malignancy for both sexes combined. The incidence of new cases and mor ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Diverticulitis Diverticulitis has increased in incidence over the past few decades and represents a significant healthcare burden in western countries. In the United ... Read the Article 1.25 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Polyps Colon polyps are protrusions occurring in the colon lumen most commonly sporadic or as part of other syndromes. Polyps are classified as diminutive if ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colon Resection Colon resection is the removal of either a portion of or the entire colon. This activity reviews the indications and contraindications for colon resec ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colonoscopy A colonoscopy is a vital tool utilized in modern medicine today. Its versatility and utility make it a vital life-saving procedure, both in the short ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colostomy Care Colostomy care, as the name suggests, is an all-encompassing term referring to colostomy management, from its creation to peristomal skin management, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Colovesicular Fistula The most common cause of colovesicular fistulas is the sequelae of complicated diverticulitis and accounts for over two-thirds of cases. The second mo ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization, mortality, and incurs significant health care costs. As disease presentation varie ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Competency and Capacity This article reviews the concepts of capacity and competency with regard to clinical practice. More specifically, it discusses the foundational ethica ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complement Deficiency The immune system is the body’s defense mechanism against infections and is made of two pathways - the innate and adaptive pathway. The innate pathway ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Partial Seizure Complex partial seizures, also known as focal impaired awareness seizures or focal onset impaired awareness seizures, refers to focal seizures that st ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common presenting causes of sepsis in hospitals, and urinary tract infections have a wide variety o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Comprehensive Shoulder Evaluation Strategies Shoulder pathology is very common. A comprehensive history should be acquired by clinicians evaluating patients with acute or chronic shoulder dysfunc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Concussion A concussion is a "traumatically induced transient disturbance of brain function." Concussions are a subset of the neurologic injuries known as trauma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conduct Disorder Conduct disorder (CD) lies on a spectrum of disruptive behavioral disorders which also includes oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). In some cases, OD ... Read the Article 0.75 2 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cone Snail Toxicity Both experienced and novice scuba divers are drawn to warm, tropical seas, but when traveling to these areas, divers must take additional precautionar ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease emerging from mutations of genes for enzymes that lead to the production of glu ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition resulting from the herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity resulting in lung hypoplas ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Herpes Simplex Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in newborn infants can show up as the following: Disseminated disease involving multiple organs, most prominentl ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Hypothyroidism Congenital hypothyroidism is one of the most common preventable causes of intellectual disability. This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Lobar Emphysema Congenital lobar emphysema is a rare developmental anomaly of lungs that occurs mostly due to defective bronchial cartilages. It is diagnosed with a c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Melanocytic Nevi Congenital melanocytic nevi are benign skin lesions that usually present at birth and vary from small to large in size. Larger lesions are rarer and h ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Congenital muscular dystrophy is one of the variants of muscle weakness disorders presenting early in life during infancy and soon after birth. The di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Myotonic Dystrophy Congenital myotonic dystrophy (CMD) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder with multisystem involvement. It is a subtype of myotonic dystroph ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Nevus Congenital melanocytic nevi are pigmented lesions that are usually present a birth. They are generally benign, but a small percentage (especially the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Syphilis Congenital syphilis (CS) is caused by transmission of the spirochete Treponema pallidum from mother to fetus, resulting in diverse clinical presentati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Unilateral Lower Lip Palsy Congenital unilateral lower lip palsy is a congenital anomaly that is caused by agenesis or hypoplasia of depressor anguli oris muscle. Unilateral dep ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conization Of Cervix Conization of the cervix or cold knife cone (CKC) is a surgical procedure used to diagnose and treat cervical dysplasia or very early cervical cancer. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjoined Twins Conjoined twins refers to twins that are physically fused in utero and consequently at birth. This type of pregnancy is a complicated phenomenon that ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjugated Hyperbilirubinemia Conjugated hyperbilirubinemia is usually secondary to hepatocellular disease or cholestasis (intrahepatic and extra-hepatic ). Early workup and diagno ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjunctival Concretions A conjunctival concretion is a benign entity characterized by single or multiple discrete yellowish-white deposits of varying size. They may be idiopa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva. It is the most common presentation of eye redness in both primary care and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conn Syndrome Conn syndrome was named after J. W. Conn who first described it in 1955, in a patient who had hypertension with an aldosterone-producing adenoma. The ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constitutional Growth Delay Short stature is defined as height at least two standard deviations below the age and sex-matched mean. Ideally, this should be matched to people of t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that covers the heart. Besides acting as a protective barrier, it also affects cardiac hemodynamics. Constrict ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contact Dermatitis Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory eczematous skin disease. It is caused by chemicals or metal ions that exert toxic effects without inducing a T-c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is one of the renal replacement methods that include intermittent hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Iodine contrast medium is essential in invasive and interventional cardiac procedures. Because of an increasing number of coronary angiography and cor ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Contrecoup Brain Injury Contrecoup brain injury occurs at sites remote to the actual impact site on the head. The etiology and significance of this type of injury have been d ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conus And Cauda Equina Tumors Primary spinal cord tumors are less common than metastatic spinal tumors. Tumors of the spinal canal may be classified in three ways depending on the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function that are inconsistent with patte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cooley Anemia Thalassemia major or Cooley anemia is one of the common monogenic hereditary hemoglobin disorders. It results from the absence of a beta-globin chain ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cooling Techniques For Hyperthermia Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In sepsis, the immunologic reaction to the ... Read the Article 0.75 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cor Pulmonale Cor pulmonale is a Latin word that means "pulmonary heart," its definition varies, and presently, there is no consensual definition. Cor pulmonale can ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coral Toxicity Corals are invertebrates that fall within the class Anthozoa of the phylum Cnidaria. They are one of the important reef builders in tropical oceans. M ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cordotomy Cordotomy is the name of a surgical procedure aimed at destroying the pain-conducting tracts of the spinal cord. The cordotomy to be effective at decr ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Abrasion A corneal abrasion (also called scratched eye or scratched cornea) is an eye injury that causes significant discomfort, photophobia, and erythema. Thi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Foreign Body Corneal foreign bodies account for the second most common form of ocular trauma, with corneal abrasions being number one. In general, major morbidity ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Imaging Corneal topography evaluates the anterior curvature of the cornea while corneal tomography includes the posterior curvature and corneal thickness. Thi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Injury Approximately 3 percent of all visits to the emergency department are due to eye trauma, with the vast majority of these presentations involving corne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Mucous Plaque Corneal mucous plaques are most commonly associated with dry eye syndrome. They are made of a collection of mucin, corneal epithelial cell debris admi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corneal Ulcer A corneal ulcer is a defect in the surface epithelium of the cornea that involves the underlying stroma. It is common in contact lens wearers and pres ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corns A corn, also known as a "heloma" or "focal intractable plantar hyperkeratosis," is a type of callosity. This latter is a common, uncomfortable, thicke ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Arterial Pressure Evaluation Coronary artery pressure measurement is fundamental in treating angiographically intermediate lesions. Inappropriate percutaneous coronary interventio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Dissection Coronary artery dissection is the separation of the coronary arterial wall and can be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. This activity will focus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Fistula Coronary artery fistulas are aberrant connections between coronary arteries and other structures, such as other branches of arteries or heart chambers ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Artery Vasospasm Coronary artery vasospasm (CAVS) is a constriction of the coronary arteries that can cause complete or near-complete occlusion of the vessel. In 1959, ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cortical Blindness Cortical blindness is an important cause of blindness due to damage to the occipital cortex. It is commonly associated with posterior circulation stro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corticosteroid Induced Myopathy Corticosteroid induced myopathy is an iatrogenic myopathy caused by chronic high to moderate systemic corticosteroid use. This is a common condition w ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas in medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Pharyngitis is defined as the inflammation of pharyngeal tissue. Based on etiology, it can be divided into infectious and non-infectious sources. Vira ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Costochondritis Costochondritis is a benign cause of chest wall pain that results from inflammation of the costal cartilage, the cartilage that connect the ribs to th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cow Milk Allergy Cow's milk allergy is an allergic reaction to the protein found in cow’s milk. Diagnosis can be difficult as it is primarily based on history and phys ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cowden Disease Cowden disease, also known as Cowden syndrome or multiple hamartoma syndrome, is an uncommon autosomal dominant genodermatosis and is a member of the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coxiella Burnetii Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever, which is a zoonotic disease. Q fever can present as a febrile illness, pneumonia, or hepatitis. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cradle Cap Cradle cap, or pityriasis capitis, is a subset of infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). It is a very common, mostly self-limiting, chronic non-inflam ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniopharyngioma Craniopharyngioma is a rare, virtually benign tumor of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a partly cystic embryonic malformation that can occur i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis results from the premature closure of one or more sutures of the skull. Depending on the number of sutures involved, and the range of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Craniotomy A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to expose the brain and perform an intracranial procedure. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cri Du Chat Syndrome Cri du chat syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by a deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5. The name of the syndrome means the cry of the cat an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cribiform Plate Fractures A fracture of the cribriform plate is a potentially serious injury that can be easily overlooked. When present, it is indicative of severe head or fac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cricothyrotomy Today, the emergency cricothyroidotomy is the surgical rescue technique of choice for the failed airway in adults. It is considered a more straightfor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crigler Najjar Syndrome Crigler-Najjar syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder that leads to congenital non-hemolytic jaundice. Crigler-Najjar syndrome is cause ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crigler Technique For Congenital Nasolacrimal Duct Obstruction Congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction leading to epiphora is a common condition that may be seen in up to 20% of infants. The management ranges fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are two conditions commonly referred to as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are immunologically m ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crohn Disease Stricturoplasty Stricturoplasty is a surgical procedure performed to alleviate bowel narrowing due to scar tissue that has built up in the intestinal wall from an inf ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn sodium is a medication used in the management of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and certain allergic eye conditions such as vernal conj ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crotalidae Envenomation Crotalid envenomations cause a spectrum of disease, with both localized and systemic toxicity, which can result in both prolonged morbidity and rarely ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crouzon Syndrome Crouzon syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of coronal sutures) resulting in the skull an ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryoglobulinemia Cryoglobulins are proteins that precipitate from an individual’s serum or plasma at temperatures lower than 37°C. They can be a mixture of immunoglobu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryotherapy Cryosurgery was first described in the 1800s and has since evolved into a mainstay of therapy within dermatology. Cryosurgery is an effective alternat ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptococcus Cryptococcus is an invasive fungus, transmitted through the inhalation of spores and causes cryptococcosis, an infection commonly associated with immu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptorchidism Cryptorchidism is the absence of at least one testicle from the scrotum. It is the most common birth defect involving the male genitalia. About 3% of ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium is the second major cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children younger than two and an important cause of mortality worldwide. I ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that find frequent use in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first-line choice ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cubital Tunnel Syndrome Cubital tunnel syndrome is neuropathy of the ulnar nerve causing symptoms of numbness and shooting pain along the medial aspect of the forearm, also i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Curling Ulcer Stress ulcers is a well-known clinical entity described as stress-induced gastritis or gastropathy where the gastric and sometimes esophageal or duode ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cushing Disease Cushing disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the anterior pituitary leading ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutanea Tarda Porphyria Porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT) is a part of a spectrum of diseases that arise as a result of abnormal enzymes in the biosynthesis of heme. It is caused ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR), also known as toxidermia, are skin manifestations resulting from systemic drug administration. These reaction ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Angiofibroma Cutaneous angiofibroma is a term used to define a group of lesions with different clinical presentations but with the same histologic findings. Both ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Endometriosis Cutaneous endometriosis can be divided into primary and secondary lesions. They comprise less than 1% of the total cases of endometriosis. However, wi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Horn A cutaneous horn is usually evident upon physical examination and can be described as a white or yellow exophytic protrusion in the shape of an animal ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Larva Migrans Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), also having been termed for the clinical sign of creeping eruption, is an infectious syndrome caused by multiple types ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Leiomyomas Piloleiomyomas are a type of cutaneous leiomyoma. Patients with one or more piloleiomyomas should be evaluated for Reed syndrome, also known as Heredi ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cutaneous Melanoacanthoma Cutaneous melanoacanthoma is a rare benign epithelial lesion that typically presents as a solitary black plaque or nodule, usually on either the head ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanocobalamin Cyanocobalamin is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiencies. This activity reviews the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyanotic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease (CHD) are structural abnormalities of the heart or intrathoracic great vessels occurring during fetal development. CHD is the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclic Neutropenia Cyclic neutropenia is a very rare hematological condition characterized by regular fluctuations in blood neutrophil counts, leading to periodic neutro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized by recurrent episodes of nausea and vomiting lasting from hours to days in the absence of identifiable patho ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide is a medication primarily used in the management and treatment of neoplasms, including multiple myeloma, sarcoma, and breast cancer. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cyclothymic Disorder Cyclothymia is an affective disorder characterized by mood instability and mood changes that do not fit the criteria for other mood disorders such as ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cystoscopy Cystourethroscopy is one of the most common procedures performed by a urologic surgeon. It allows for direct visualization of the urethra, urethral sp ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytarabine Cytarabine is a medication used in the management and treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It belongs to the anthracycline group of medications. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is characterized as an inflammatory state of the nasolacrimal sac. It is typically caused by an obstruction within the nasolacrimal duc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dacryostenosis Dacryostenosis is an acquired or congenital condition that can cause epiphora but can progress to dacryocystitis in children and in adults. This activ ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dakin Solution Dakin solution, also called Dakin fluid or Carrel-Dakin fluid, is a dilute sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution that is commonly known as bleach. The ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dantrolene Dantrolene sodium is a postsynaptic muscle relaxant with multiple indications in the fields of anesthesiology and neurology. While there are many indi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Daunorubicin Daunorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic mainly used to treat various types of cancers, especially leukemias. It can be used to treat both acute an ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dawn Phenomenon The "dawn phenomenon" refers to periodic episodes of hyperglycemia experienced by patients with diabetes in the early morning hours before, and to som ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
De Quervain Thyroiditis In general, thyroiditis is defined as an inflammation of the thyroid gland. There are several kinds of thyroiditis, and they can be associated with ei ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deadly Single Dose Agents Although the basics of evaluating and treating most unknown ingestants are well known, many overdoses require very specific treatment if the patient i ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Death and Dying Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers e ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decerebrate And Decorticate Posturing Decorticate and decerebrate posturing are abnormal posturing responses typically to noxious stimuli. They involve stereotypical movements of the trunk ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decompression Sickness Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when dissolved gasses (usually nitrogen or helium, used in mixed gas diving) exit solution and form bubbles inside ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first approved in the 1990s for the treatment of movement disorders. DBS has the potential to offer symptom resolutio ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Neck Infections Deep neck infections are a serious but treatable group of infections affecting the deep cervical space and characterized by rapid progression and life ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Plane Facelift A deep plane facelift aims to restore a more youthful and rested appearance to the aging face. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Defense Mechanisms Anna Freud defined defense mechanisms as "unconscious resources used by the ego" to ultimately decrease internal stress. Patients often devise these u ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deferoxamine Deferoxamine is a medication used in Iron and aluminum toxicity. It is in the chelator class of drugs. This activity reviews the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Degloving Injuries Internal degloving injuries are usually associated with high energy trauma and can be devastating. This injury occurs when a tangential shearing occur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dejerine Roussy Syndrome Central post-stroke pain, also known as Dejerine Roussy syndrome or thalamic pain syndrome, is a rare central neuropathic pain syndrome occurs after i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to devel ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusional Disorder A delusion is a fixed false belief based on an inaccurate interpretation of an external reality despite evidence to the contrary. The diagnosis of a d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusions Delusions can precipitate in isolation or as psychiatric sequelae of ongoing disease. Delusions must be appropriately identified and managed as they c ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Delusions Of Parasitosis This activity reviews delusions of parasitosis, a rare psychiatric disorder. Communicating and evaluating patients with this condition can be complex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dementia Dementia describes an overall decline in memory and other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. I ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dengue Fever Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus and the leading cause of arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. It is also known as breakbone fever due to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Denosumab Denosumab is a bone anti-resorptive drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone-related disorders. FDA-approved indications include pre ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dental Abscess Dental infections, while relatively straightforward regarding diagnosis and access, can be challenging to manage acutely. Dental abscesses or periapic ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dentatorubral Pallidoluysian Atrophy Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a progressive, autosomal dominant disorder with symptoms and severity that vary with the age of onset. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depression Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic Stat ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depression In Children Depressive disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5) include diagnoses of different disorders, for example, major ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Depressive Cognitive Disorders Depressive cognitive disorders, also called pseudodementia (a term founded by Kiloh in the year 1961), is defined as the cognitive and functional impa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermal Melanocytosis This activity outlines the evaluation & management of congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spot). It explains the role of the interprofessional ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatitis Artefacta Dermatitis artefacta or factitious dermatitis is a psychocutaneous disorder in which the patients consciously create lesions in skin, hair, nail, or m ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatitis Herpetiformis Dermatitis herpetiformis is a chronic, autoimmune, blistering disease that causes an extremely pruritic rash that predominantly affects the extensor s ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatofibroma Dermatofibromas are referred to as benign fibrous histiocytomas of the skin, or superficial/cutaneous benign fibrous histiocytomas, or common fibrous ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatographism Dermatographism, also known as Dermographism urticaria, or urticaria factitia, is an urticarial eruption upon pressure or trauma to the skin. The lite ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatomyositis Dermatomyositis is a rare condition that causes muscle inflammation. It presents with symmetric proximal muscle weakness, skin rash, and extramacular ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatoses of Pregnancy Skin changes during pregnancy may be physiological. However, some dermatoses are specific to pregnancy, while others are altered by pregnancy. These c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermatosis Papulosa Nigra Dermatosis papulosa nigra (DPN) is a benign epidermal growth that presents as hyperpigmented or skin-colored papules that develop on the face and neck ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dermoid Cyst A dermoid cyst is a benign cutaneous developmental anomaly that arises from the entrapment of ectodermal elements along the lines of embryonic closure ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Development Milestones Developmental milestones are markers of a child’s development from infancy on into childhood. They are used to help determine if a child is undergoing ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Delay Delay in development occurs when the child fails to attain developmental milestones as compared to peers from the same population. It is caused by imp ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Developmental Stages of Social Emotional Development In Children To apply knowledge regarding human growth and development, healthcare professionals need to be aware of 2 areas: (1) milestone competencies, for examp ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
DeWinter Pattern Acute coronary syndromes are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis has a central role, as to allow a timely reperfusion strategy. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dexamethasone Dexamethasone has a wide variety of uses in the medical field. As a treatment, dexamethasone has been useful in the treatment of acute exacerbation of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dexrazoxane Dexrazoxane is a medication used in the management and treatment of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and extravasation injuries. It is in the clas ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextran Dextran is a medication used in the management and treatment of various clinical conditions, including during hemorrhage, shock, surgical procedures, ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextrocardia Dextrocardia is a congenital condition in which the heart is located in the right side of the thorax. This activity reviews the evaluation and managem ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dextromethorphan Dextromethorphan received FDA approval in 1958 for its use as a cough suppressant. It is one of the most common compounds found in the majority of the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Intraoperative Management According to CDC data, the incidence of diabetes in the United States in the year 2015 was 30.3 million and predicted to increase yearly with an alrea ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus And Exercise Diabetes mellitus leads to macrovascular and microvascular complications, resulting in life-threatening conditions. Exercise is considered an importan ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Amyotrophy Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed in the diabetic neuropathy sp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Embryopathy Maternal diabetes has several adverse effects on embryogenesis and fetal development and causes multiple congenital anomalies, and secondary medical c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Infections There are approximately 29 million people with diabetes in the United States, and approximately 25% of people older than age of 65 have diabetes. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in developed countries, including the United States. It is consider ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Retinopathy is the leading cause of visual loss in adults of working age group in the western population. It is the most common microvascular ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Ulcer Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic endocrine disorder due to an overall deficiency of insulin (Type 1) or defective insulin function (Type 2) which caus ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Catheter Dialysis catheters are artificial indwelling transcutaneous conduits used to access the intravascular space or intraperitoneal space for renal replace ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Disequilibrium Syndrome Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS) refers to an array of neurological manifestations that are seen during or following dialysis. The symptoms can ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dialysis Fistula Dialysis fistula creation is a commonly performed procedure for patients with end-stage renal disease who require permanent vascular access for hemodi ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA