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Physical Medicine

Physical Medicine

Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with this Physical Medicine activity. In this online self-assessment activity, you'll read our reference articles and test your knowledge with 443 activities in Physical Medicine for 405.25 total CME hours.


6 Month Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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1 Year Unlimited Physician MD/DO/PA CME

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Access to all the Physician MD/DO/PA CME activities in all specialties.

Featured Article Activities

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Morton Neuroma

Morton neuroma is a compressive neuropathy of the interdigital nerve in forefoot due to compression and constant irritat ...
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Hours: 1

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Lumbar Disc Herniation

Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime ...
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Hours: 1

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Morton Neuroma

Morton neuroma is a compressive neuropathy of the interdigital nerve in forefoot due to compression and constant irritat ...
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Hours: 1

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Mechanical Back Strain

Mechanical back strain is a prevalent disease in the medical field. Most patients who develop a mechanical back strain h ...
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Calcaneus Fractures

Calcaneus fractures are rare but potentially debilitating injuries. The calcaneus is one of seven tarsal bones and is pa ...
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Hours: 1

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Clonus

Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is gene ...
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Hours: 1

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Physical Medicine Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
5th Metatarsal Fracture Fractures of the fifth metatarsal are common injuries that must be recognized and treated appropriately to avoid poor clinical outcomes for the patien ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Accessory Nerve Injury Cranial nerve XI is also known as the accessory nerve. It is prone to injury due to its long and superficial nature. Injury to the accessory nerve can ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acetaminophen Many diseases and conditions list pain as a component of their presentation; as a result, pain management is of great importance to both clinicians an ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Achilles Tendonitis The Achilles tendon ranks as the strongest tendon in the human body connecting the plantaris, gastrocnemius, and soleus to the calcaneus bone. This ac ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromioclavicular Joint Injection The most frequently encountered causes of non-traumatic pain in the AC joint are overuse, degenerative changes, and distal clavicle osteolysis. Conser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury Acromioclavicular joint injuries account for more than forty percent of all shoulder injuries. Mild injuries are not associated with any significant ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Activities of Daily Living Activities of daily living (ADLs) are essential and routine tasks that most young healthy individuals can perform without assistance. The inability to ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acupuncture Acupuncture is a system of medical treatment and ideology that is based on the principle of applying small needles or pressure to specific points in t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Nerve Injury Peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) can present in approximately 3% of trauma patients. They vary in severity and complexity, necessitating different app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 1.75 26 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Adductor Strain An adductor strain or injury to the adductor muscle group of the thigh is a common cause of medial leg and groin pain, especially among athletes. This ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Alexia Alexia is a rare condition in which reading comprehension is nonexistent or significantly limited due to brain injury, damage, or trauma. It can be as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anesthetic Gases Anesthetic gases (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane), also known as inhaled anesthetics, are administered as primary thera ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Arthrocentesis Acute arthritis, particularly monoarthropathy, is a common acute presentation. In regards to the ankle, there is not always a clear etiology for the m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Dislocation An ankle dislocation occurs when there is an abnormal separation between the talo-tibial joint. This most often occurs concomitantly with an ankle fra ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankle Splinting Splinting is primarily used to immobilize a joint to allow for pain control, injury stabilization, and ultimately tissue healing. In the acute setting ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2 34 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Annular Disc Tear An annular fissure or tear is a deficiency of one or more layers of the annulus fibrosus. Most annular fissures are asymptomatic, but some may be pain ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anorexia and Cachexia Cachexia is a significant loss of muscle and adipose tissue. It occurs in patients with advanced cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anosognosia Anosognosia is a neurological condition in which the patient is unaware of their neurological deficit or psychiatric condition. It is associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Antalgic Gait In Children Antalgic gait is common in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis is broad and includes both benign and more serious etiologies. A careful his ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the two cruciate ligaments which aids in stabilization of the knee joint. It is the most commonly injured li ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Elbow Dislocation The elbow is one of the most common large joints to be dislocated. Anterior elbow dislocations are a rare injury due to the high force and position ne ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Interosseous Syndrome Anterior interosseus syndrome is an isolated palsy of flexor pollicus longus, the index and long fingers of the flexor digitorum profundus, and the pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Shoulder Instability Anterior shoulder instability is defined as soft-tissue or bony insult of the shoulder that causes the humeral head to sublux or dislocate from the gl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Spinal Artery Syndrome The anterior spinal artery syndrome refers to ischemic infarction of the spinal cord resulting from direct occlusion of the anterior spinal artery, ar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Anterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome occurs due to compression or entrapment of the deep peroneal nerve. Most commonly, the deep peroneal nerve becomes ent ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Apley Grind Test The Apley grind test, also known as the Apley compression test or the Apley test, is a maneuver performed to evaluate for meniscus injury. Clinicians ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arachnoiditis Arachnoiditis is a persistent inflammation of the arachnoid mater as well as subarachnoid space due to mechanical, chemical, and infectious injuries. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure that is performed to obtain synovial fluid from within a joint capsule, both for diagnostic and for therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ataxia Ataxia is a neurological sign that manifests in a lack of coordination in the movement of different muscles in the body. It is a clinical finding and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which there is a build up of plaques inside arteries. These plaques are principally composed of l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Atlantoaxial Instability The atlantoaxial segment consists of the atlas (C1) and axis (C2) and forms a complex transitional structure bridging the occiput and cervical spine. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Avulsion Fractures Avulsion fractures can happen anywhere in the body where soft tissue attaches to the bone. The failure of bone most commonly results from an acute eve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common causes for patients to seek emergency care. It has a broad range of potential etiologies for both adult and pediat ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Back Safety Low back pain (LBP) is common among healthcare professionals with prevalence of low back pain among health care workers being greater than among those ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Baker's Cyst A Baker's cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the popliteal fossa, which is located on the posterior aspect of the knee. In adults, Baker's cysts ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bekhterev Jacobsohn Reflex The Bekhterev-Jacobsohn reflex is also known as the Jacobsohn finger flexion sign. Dr. Vladimir Bekhterev (a Russian neurologist) and Dr. Louis Jacobs ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Below Knee Amputation A below the knee amputation (BKA) is a transtibial amputation that involves removing the foot, ankle joint, distal tibia, fibula, and corresponding so ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved for the treatment of postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by ne ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Dislocation and Instability The long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) is a common source of pain in the shoulder. Biceps tendon pathology is often associated with rotator ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Rupture of the Lower Limb Rupture of the biceps femoris tendon can be treated conservatively or surgically, depending on the severity of the tendon retraction. Most of the pati ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biceps Tendon Sheath Injection Shoulder pain is a common patient complaint encountered both by primary care physicians and orthopedic surgeons. Many structures in the shoulder can a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Biofeedback Biofeedback is a technique to augment the normal sensory feedback and allow better control of body functions that are usually considered involuntary. ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Neuritis Brachial neuritis, also called neuralgic amyotrophy, has two major clinical symptoms, pain and muscle weakness from atrophy. It is a multifocal, immun ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexitis Brachial plexitis is a condition characterized by acute onset of shoulder pain followed by weakness and/or sensory loss of the shoulder and/or upper e ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brachial Plexus Injuries The earliest written description of a brachial plexus injury (BPI) is attributed to Homer circa 800 BC in his depiction of a battle during which Hecto ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Breast Lymphatics Breast cancer is the most commonly seen cancer diagnosis in women worldwide. Lymph node involvement is one of the most important prognostic factors in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Broca Aphasia Broca’s aphasia is a non-fluent aphasia in which the output of spontaneous speech is markedly diminished and there is a loss of normal grammatical str ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Buprenorphine Buprenorphine, a synthetic opioid, treats pain and opioid use syndrome. It was developed in the late 1960s. It is a synthetic analog of thebaine, whic ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Calcaneus Fractures Calcaneus fractures are rare but potentially debilitating injuries. The calcaneus is one of seven tarsal bones and is part of the hind-foot which incl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiac Rehabilitation Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and the leading cause of death in the United States. Cardiac rehabilitati ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carisoprodol Carisoprodol is an FDA-approved drug indicated for the relief of discomfort associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Although market ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Injection Carpal tunnel injections are performed because of the extremely high prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome in the general population. Carpal tunnel syn ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is an entrapment neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist's carpal tunnel. It ... Read the Article 1.25 18 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Pain Syndrome Central sensitization of pain occurs when the patient's nervous system is persistently in a state of high activity. This state decreases sensitivity t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease Degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine typically develops in the aging population equally in terms of sexes. Patients are most commonly prese ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Herniation Cervical disc herniation is a common cause of neck pain in adults. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe, and even life-threatenin ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Discogenic Syndrome Cervical discogenic pain syndrome is a common source of neck pain. The presentation can vary and may be caused by degenerative changes in the interver ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Myelopathy Cervical myelopathy is a condition describing a compression at the cervical level of the spinal column resulting in spasticity (sustained muscle contr ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Myofascial Pain Cervical myofascial pain is a musculoskeletal disorder that causes pain in the area of a muscle in the body and its surrounding connective tissue. Pro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Radiculopathy Neck pain is widespread and causes significant pain and disability. Workers with a history of neck pain account for up to 40% of work absenteeism. In ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Spondylosis Cervical spondylosis is a natural age-related disease process that is associated with degenerative changes within the intervertebral disc. It most com ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Subluxation Subluxation is an essential entity of traumatic subaxial cervical spinal injuries. There is a varying degree of slippage of the body of one vertebra r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervical Traction Cervical traction is a non-invasive procedure used to provide symptomatic relief for a variety of cervical pathologies. Though it can lead to temporar ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cervicogenic Headache A cervicogenic headache (CGH) presents as unilateral pain that starts in the neck. It is a common chronic and recurrent headache that usually starts a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chaddock Reflex The Babinski reflex is part of the routine neurological examination to evaluate the integrity of the corticospinal tract. However, in settings where p ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cheiralgia Paresthetica Cheiralgia paresthetica is a compression neuropathy of the superficial radial nerve. It manifests as sensory disturbances, such as paresthesias, to th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chondromalacia Patella Chondromalacia is an affliction of the hyaline cartilage coating of the articular surfaces of the bone. It results in the softening and then subsequen ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chorea According to the Committee on Classification of the World Federation of Neurology, chorea is defined as "a state of excessive, spontaneous movements, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Headaches Chronic headaches are headaches that occur for at least 15 days of a month for at least three months. There are a variety of causes and ways to manage ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Inflammation Chronic inflammation is also referred to as slow, long-term inflammation lasting several months to years. Generally, the extent and effects of chronic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.5 41 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clinical Frailty Scale Frailty is a multidimensional geriatric syndrome, which is characterized by an increased vulnerability to various external stressors into a serious he ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cluster Headache Cluster headaches are the most common of the primary headache type known as trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. They are fairly rare, plaguing 0.1% of the ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coccyx Pain Coccyx pain is known by multiple synonyms, including coccydynia, coccygodynia, and tailbone pain. There are many causes of coccygeal pain, ranging fro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Commotio Cordis Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is an important cause of sudden ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neuropathic pain disorder defined by the presence of distinct clinical features including allodynia, hypera ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Comprehensive Shoulder Evaluation Strategies Shoulder pathology is very common. A comprehensive history should be acquired by clinicians evaluating patients with acute or chronic shoulder dysfunc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conduction Aphasia Conduction aphasia is a rare form of aphasia in which both expression and comprehension remain intact, but the patient shows an isolated impairment in ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Congenital muscular dystrophy is one of the variants of muscle weakness disorders presenting early in life during infancy and soon after birth. The di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Conversion Disorder Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder characterized by signs and symptoms affecting sensory or motor function that are inconsistent with patte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Coronoid Fractures Coronoid fractures are believed to occur due to a shearing force when excess stress is placed on the elbow. They are often the result of an associate ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Corticosteroid Adverse Effects Corticosteroids are hormone mediators produced by the cortex of adrenal glands that further categorize into glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Costochondritis Costochondritis is a benign cause of chest wall pain that results from inflammation of the costal cartilage, the cartilage that connect the ribs to th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Crutches Crutches are medical devices designed to aid in ambulation, by transferring body weight from the legs to the torso and arms. They are mainly used to a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cubitus Varus Malunion of supracondylar fractures often leads to cubitus varus, or "gunstock deformity." This condition is a triplanar malalignment of the elbow, ch ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cuboid Stress Fractures Overuse injuries are a common entity in medical practice. Stress reactions and fractures make up a significant portion of patients in a typical sports ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Cupping Therapy Cupping therapy can generally be described as a technique that uses cups placed over the skin to create negative pressure through suction. Cupping th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation or presence of a thrombus in the deep veins. DVT occurs mostly in the lower extremities and to a lesser ex ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dejerine Roussy Syndrome Central post-stroke pain, also known as Dejerine Roussy syndrome or thalamic pain syndrome, is a rare central neuropathic pain syndrome occurs after i ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dentatorubral Pallidoluysian Atrophy Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is a progressive, autosomal dominant disorder with symptoms and severity that vary with the age of onset. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Amyotrophy Diabetic amyotrophy, better known as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), is a rare disorder englobed in the diabetic neuropathy sp ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Care Proper diabetic foot care is an essential part of limb preservation. Patients with diabetes are at increased risk for foot ulceration secondary to neu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diabetic Foot Ulcer Diabetic foot ulcers are among the most common complications of patients who have diabetes mellitus which is not well controlled. It is usually the re ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Disc Herniation A herniated disc is a condition affecting the spine in which the annulus fibrosus is damaged enabling the nucleus pulposus (which is normally located ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Discectomy Lumbar disc herniation is a common pathology and leads to a significant healthcare burden. Patients with low back pain and related conditions may seek ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Discoid Meniscus Menisci are two crescent-shaped structures in the knee that act as shock absorbers between the femur and tibia, dissipating stress and dispersing comp ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Diskitis Discitis is a serious but uncommon medical diagnosis. It is an infection of the intervertebral disc space. The role of the intervertebral discs is to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distal Humerus Fractures Distal humerus fractures in the adult population represent about 2% of all fractures and 33% of all humerus fractures. They typically present in a bim ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Distal Radius Fractures Emergency Department and primary care clinics are frequently called on to evaluate orthopedic complaints. It is essential for most providers to feel c ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Unfortunately, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not only one of the most severe forms of inherited muscular dystrophies but also the most common h ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysbaric Osteonecrosis Dysbaric osteonecrosis is a type of avascular necrosis of the bone that is most commonly found in undersea divers and workers that breathe compressed ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dysbarism Dysbarism describes any condition resulting from changes in ambient pressure that occur at a rate outpacing the body's ability to adapt safely. Exampl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Dystonia Dystonia is defined by involuntary maintained contraction of agonist and antagonist muscles yielding abnormal posturing, twisting and repetitive movem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Elbow Dislocation Elbow dislocations are a common large joint dislocation experienced in children and adults. They can occur with associated fractures or damage to surr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Electrodiagnostic testing is an important tool for the diagnosis of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). This activity describes th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Brachial Plexopathies Brachial plexus injuries, also known as brachial plexopathies, occur via a variety of mechanisms. Patient presentation is highly variable. Electrodiag ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome As the most common cause of clinic visits due to nerve entrapment, carpal tunnel syndrome affects a significant portion of the population. Often, hist ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Cervical Radiculopathy A strong clinical diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy can be made with a thorough history and physical exam; however, findings are confirmed definitiv ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Critical Illness Myopathy As medicine advances, more critically ill patients are surviving longer ICU admission. Many of these patients will have difficulty weaning off the ven ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Critical Illness Neuropathy Although not often performed, the gold standard for the diagnosis of critical illness neuropathy remains electrodiagnostic testing, which includes ner ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Lumbosacral Radiculopathy Electrodiagnostic testing can aid the clinician in deciphering between numerous neurologic conditions that may present similarly to lumbosacral radicu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Motor Neuron Disease Motor neuron diseases are neurological disorders that affect the nerves in the brain and spinal cord. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Neuromuscular Junction Disorder Although not often performed, the gold standard for the diagnosis of neuromuscular disorders remains electrodiagnostic testing, which includes nerve c ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Peripheral Neuropathy The diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy can be supported by electrodiagnostic testing, which includes nerve conduction studies (NCS) and needle electro ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Peroneal Neuropathy The gold standard for diagnosing peroneal neuropathies is electrodiagnostic testing, which includes both nerve conduction studies and needle electromy ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Spinal Stenosis Electrodiagnostic studies are performed especially in spinal stenosis because it helps the clinician to exactly localize and rule out other differenti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Electrodiagnostic Evaluation Of Tarsal Tunnel Neuropathy Tarsal tunnel syndrome is a relatively rare mononeuropathy of the lower extremities that can be difficult to diagnose. Clinical evaluation, electroneu ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
EMS Pneumothorax The majority of emergency medical service (EMS) providers in the United States have protocols for rapid assessment and treatment of pneumothorax. Ther ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Enthesopathies Enthesopathies encompass a broad range of pathologies that include ligamentous and tendinous injuries. They are relatively common and can be the initi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Abscess An epidural abscess is an infection within the epidural space anywhere in the brain or spinal cord. Epidural abscesses occur as a result of infections ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroid Injections Epidural steroid injections have been utilized for pain relief since 1952. When indicated, they are an invaluable non-surgical treatment for low-back ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epidural Steroids Epidural steroids injections (ESI) have been utilized for the treatment of pain due to lumbar disc injuries since the 1950s. They are frequently used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epilepsia Partialis Continua Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a rare condition involving recurrent and sometimes intractable focal onset seizures associated with retained awa ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Epstein Barr Virus Epstein Barr virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus in which over 90% of the population worldwide has been infected. EBV infection can range from asymptomatic t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Erythromelalgia Erythromelalgia is a rarely occurring disease entity characterized by a triad of erythema, warmth, and recurrent burning pain, most notably affecting ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Exertional Compartment Syndrome Exertional compartment syndrome is a commonly underdiagnosed entity which occurs secondary to elevated intra-compartmental pressures in the absence of ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facet Arthritis Facet joints are formed by the articulations of the superior and inferior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae. Except for the atlantooccipital a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Facet Joint Disease Facet joint disease is a condition in which the joints of the spine become a source of pain. This is a very common disease process and its prevalence ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Female Athlete Triad Female athletes often complain of low energy availability, which is defined as energy from oral nutrition less energy used for exercise. As such, low ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a type of osteonecrosis due to disruption of blood supply to the proximal femur. There are approximately 100 ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Femoroacetabular Impingement Femoroacetabular impingement is an increasingly recognized source of hip pain, particularly in the young adult population. This condition is a known r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fentanyl Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid, which, similar to morphine, produces analgesia but to a greater extent. This robust pharmacologic agent is typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. This activity illustrates the evaluation and management of fibro ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fibula Tissue Transfer Fibular grafts are used for no of indicqation e.g. mandibular defects, LLD, pseduarthrosis etc. Graft is harvested through either postrolateral or lat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Fine Motor Disability Fine motor disability is an inability or impairment of an individual to perform tasks that require a degree of manual dexterity. Fine motor ability is ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Finkelstein Sign Harry Finkelstein, an American surgeon, described the Finkelstein's test or Finkelstein's sign in 1930. It is a provocative test for diagnosis of De Q ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Flexor Tendon Lacerations Flexor tendon injury is frequently seen in household accidents involving knives, glass, or mirror injuries, but also can be due to chainsaw injuries, ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foot Dislocation Foot dislocations are uncommon injuries that can occur at multiple different joints of the foot. The three most common joints involved include the sub ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Foot Drop Foot drop is a clinical entity that is not frequently seen in primary care settings. There are multiple etiologies of foot drop. Careful neurological ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Frozen Shoulder Adhesive capsulitis (AC), is also known as frozen shoulder an insidious painful condition of the shoulder persisting more than 3 months. This inflamma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Functional Voice Disorders Functional voice disorders are caused by insufficient or improper use of vocal mechanisms without any anatomic and neurological abnormalities. The mos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gabapentin Gabapentin is an anticonvulsive medication that originally saw use as a muscle relaxer and anti-spasmodic medication, but later it was discovered it h ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gait Disturbances Gait disturbances are described as any deviations from normal walking or gait. These disturbances stem from numerous etiologies. Due to their differen ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gamekeepers Thumb The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint of the thumb plays an important role in functional hand movements such as gripping and pinching. The radial and ul ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gastrocnemius Strain The gastrocnemius muscle consists of two heads. The medial head originates from the posterior medial femoral condyle while the lateral head arises fro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Geriatric Cervical Spine Injury According to the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, there are 12 injury-related emergency department visits for every 100 persons over ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Glucosamine Sulfate Glucosamine sulfate is an oral supplement used in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. This activity outlines the indications, hypothesized ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gordon Reflex Gordon reflex, also called the paradoxical flexor reflex, is a clinical sign utilized to detect upper motor neuron lesions. Evaluation of this reflex ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Greater Trochanteric Syndrome Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is a degenerative condition that affects the gluteal tendons and bursa. Repetitive friction between the grea ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hallux Valgus A hallux valgus is a complex deformity of the first ray of the forefoot. This deformity is, at times, red and painful and can disrupt daily activities ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamate Fractures Fractures of the hamate are rare, under-reported injuries. They can be divided anatomically into two groups: body or hook. While conventional X-rays m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hammertoe Hammertoes are among the most common deformities of the forefoot. This activity outlines the evaluation and management of hammertoe deformity and expl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hamstring Injury Hamstring muscles comprise the three major muscles of the posterior aspect of the thigh. These include the semimembranous as the medial most, long and ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand and Wrist Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated multisystem inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the synovial joints. This activity provide ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Nerve Compression Syndromes Nerve compression syndrome is a common complaint in the general population. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe. This activity w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hand Splint There are many different indications for hand splinting. These include phalanx fractures, conditions requiring immobilization of the metacarpophalange ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heat Stroke Heat stroke is a severe heat-related illness that involves an elevation in body temperature which typically, but not always, is greater than 40C. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Height Assessment Height assessment is important from a clinical, anthropological, forensic as well as medico-legal standpoint. This chapter describes the significance ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Heterotopic Ossification Heterotopic ossification is frequently observed in the rehabilitation population. It consists of the formation of mature, lamellar bone in extraskelet ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hip Fracture Overview Hip fractures are fractures of the proximal femur and are commonly seen in the elderly population following a fall. This type of injury has a high rat ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hip Joint Injection Hip pain is a common clinical complaint and a source of disability with an incidence of 12 to 15 percent among all adults over the age of 60 years. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
HLA B27 Syndromes The human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are gene loci in the major histocompatibility complex class I of genes on chromosome 6, present on all nucleated ce ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyaluronic Acid Hyaluronic acid is a high-molecular-weight polysaccharide, which is widely distributed in the connective tissue extracellular matrix. Several preparat ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hydromorphone Hydromorphone is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate to severe acute pain as well as severe chronic pain. It is in the opioi ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperbaric Therapy For Wound Healing The international body that sets the standards for hyperbaric medicine is The Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. There are currently 14 approved ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.5 21 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome Iliotibial band syndrome is a common cause of lateral knee pain in athletes. Iliotibial band syndrome is often successfully treated with nonoperative ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Gluteal Nerve Injury The inferior gluteal nerve supplies the gluteus maximus muscle. The inferior gluteal nerve provides motor function to gluteus maximus, a major muscle ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inferior Shoulder Dislocations The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is the most commonly dislocated joint in the body and accounts for approximately 50% of all major dislocations ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Inflammatory Back Pain Inflammatory back pain (IBP) is a condition of pain localized to the axial spine and sacroiliac joints that is chronic and is differentiated from mech ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intention Tremor An intention, rubral, cerebellar, or course tremor is defined as a rhythmic, oscillatory, and high amplitude tremor during a directed and purposeful m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interlaminar Epidural Injection Interlaminar epidural injection refers to a procedure that involves the delivery of injectate to the epidural space by directing a needle between the ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intermittent Claudication Intermittent claudication (IC) typically refers to lower extremity skeletal muscle pain that occurs during exercise. IC presents when there is insuffi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Interscalene Block An interscalene nerve block anesthetizes most of the territory innervated by the brachial plexus, sparing the inferior trunk. This block is generally ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intersection Syndrome Intersection syndrome is a condition that affects the first and second compartments of the dorsal wrist extensors. The condition is thought to occur a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intradiscal Electrothermal Therapy Intradiscal electrothermal therapy is a procedure of applying heat to the annulus in cases of low back pain due to discogenic conditions that fail to ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Intrathecal Catheter The placement of an intrathecal catheter is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at releasing drugs directly into the subarachnoid space for the contr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Iontophoresis Analgesic Medications Analgesic iontophoresis is the administration of analgesic medications via iontophoresis used in the management and treatment of pain. The technique m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ischial Bursitis Ischial bursitis (ischio-gluteal bursitis) is a condition of inflammation of the bursa, which lies between the ischial tuberosity and the gluteus maxi ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Isthmic Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis occurs when there is an anterior subluxation or “slippage” of the vertebral body above on the vertebral body below. In most cases, s ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Jersey Finger This activity aims to review "jersey finger" injuries. Jersey finger is a distal avulsion of the flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) tendon from its inse ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), a heterogeneous group of chronic arthritis, is the most common chronic rheumatological condition in children. The ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Klippel Trenaunay Weber Syndrome Klippel Trenaunay syndrome is cutaneous vascular malformation syndrome involving a triad of capillary and venous malformation and limb hypertrophy. Th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure performed to aspirate synovial fluid from a joint cavity. It has both diagnostic and therapeutic utilization. While arth ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Arthroplasty Knee arthroplasty is the reconstruction of the knee joint. It is more commonly referred to as a total knee replacement and is a very reliable procedur ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Dislocation A knee dislocation is a potentially devastating injury and is often a surgical emergency. This injury requires prompt identification, evaluation with ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Extensor Mechanism Injuries Knee extensor mechanism injuries are a group of morbidities that involve the quadriceps muscles, quadriceps tendon, patella, and patellar ligament. Th ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Meniscal Tears The lateral and medial menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures that collectively cover approximately 70% of the articular surface of ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Osteoarthritis Knee osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease of the knee, is typically the result of wear and tear and progressive loss of artic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Knee Osteochondritis Dissecans Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the knee is a somewhat rare cause of knee dysfunction and pain that has been recognized for over one hundred years, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Kyphosis Kyphosis is defined as an increase in the forward curvature of the spine that is seen along the sagittal plane, whereas lordosis is an increase in the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lachman Test The Lachman test is a specific clinical exam technique used to evaluate patients with a suspected anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The test re ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lacunar Syndromes Lacunar syndromes are clinical manifestations of lacunar infarctions, which are defined as small subcortical lesions less than 15 millimeters in diame ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Legg Calve Perthes Disease Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is idiopathic osteonecrosis or idiopathic avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis of the femoral head. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Li Fraumeni syndrome, also known as sarcoma, breast, leukemia, and adrenal gland (SBLA) syndrome, is a rare inherited autosomal dominant disorder asso ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lisfranc Dislocation A Lisfranc dislocation or injury describes a spectrum of injuries involving the tarsometatarsal joints of the foot. The Lisfranc joint is comprised of ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Low Carbohydrate Diet Low carbohydrate (low-carb) diets are a strategy for weight loss. Today, there continues to be an interest in low-carb approaches. While all low car ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lower Extremity Blocks The lumbosacral plexus (L1 to S4 nerve roots) innervates the lower extremity. Unlike the brachial plexus in the upper extremity, the lumbosacral plexu ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Degenerative Disk Disease Between each vertebral body of the spine are pads of fibrocartilage-based structures that provide support, flexibility, and minor load-sharing known a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Facet Arthropathy The lumbar zygapophysial joint, otherwise known as facet joint, is a common generator of lower back pain. The facet joint is formed via the posterolat ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Lumbar spinal stenosis is a common source of leg and back pain. It refers to a narrowing in the vertebra, in the areas of the central canal, lateral ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Spondylolysis And Spondylolisthesis Spondylolysis refers to a posterior defect in the vertebral body at the pars interarticularis. Usually, this defect is due to trauma or from a chronic ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbar Stabilization Lumbar stabilization is the natural ability of the spinal column to maintain its anatomical structure on physiological loading. The stability is maint ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Discogenic Syndrome Lumbosacral discogenic syndrome is a common cause of axial low back pain (ABP), which can arise from structures such as facet joints, spinal muscles, ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Plexopathy Lumbosacral plexopathy is a relatively uncommon occurrence that can be difficult to diagnose and manage. When an injury occurs to the lumbosacral plex ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Radiculopathy Low back pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints encountered in clinical practice. It is the leading cause of disability in the deve ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lumbosacral Spondylolisthesis Lumbosacral spondylolisthesis is a forward translation of the fifth lumbar vertebrae over the first sacral vertebrae. Untreated, it may be associated ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lunotriquetral Instability Lunotriquetral joint instability is often misdiagnosed and if left untreated can result in lunotriquetral dissociation. Although patients may lack sym ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Lymphedema Lymphedema is a chronic disease marked by the increased collection of lymphatic fluid in the body, causing swelling, which can lead to skin and tissue ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mallet Finger Injuries Mallet finger is the term usually applied to extensor avulsion fractures. However, this entity may also be caused by distal extensor tendon ruptures. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mandible Dislocation This activity reviews the evaluation and management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the role of the healthcare team in the evaluation ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
MAO Inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO Inhibitors) are medications used in the management and treatment of depression, among other neurological and psychia ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Marcus Gunn Jaw Winking Syndrome Marcus Gunn Jaw winking syndrome (MGJWS) is one of the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDD) and these individuals have variable degrees ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
McKenzie Back Exercises The McKenzie back exercises belong to an exercise protocol pioneered by physiotherapist Robin Anthony McKenzie in the 1950s and popularized around 198 ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Mechanical Back Strain Mechanical back strain is a prevalent disease in the medical field. Most patients who develop a mechanical back strain have a benign course; however, ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medial Epicondyle Injection Medial epicondylitis, commonly known as golfer’s elbow, is an overuse injury that occurs from tendinosis of the medial elbow at the origin of the flex ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medial Epicondylitis Medial epicondylitis refers to the chronic tendinosis of the wrist flexors and pronators that attach to the medial epicondyle. Medial epicondylitis oc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome (MTSS) is a common overuse injuries of the lower extremity, often seen in athletes and military personnel. It involves e ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Injury This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of an injury to the median nerve and highlights the role of the healthcare team in managing patien ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Median Nerve Palsy This activity addresses the topic of median nerve palsy in great detail. The median nerve is a critical neurological structure in the upper extremity ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meniere Disease Meniere disease is an inner ear disorder characterized by tinnitus, vertigo and hearing loss. This is thought to occur due to the accumulation of endo ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meniscectomy Meniscectomy is a procedure commonly performed for degenerative or traumatic meniscal tears as a method of pain relief. It is typically done in an out ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Meralgia Paresthetica Meralgia paresthetica is a clinical condition that includes pain and dysesthesia in the anterolateral thigh associated with lateral femoral cutaneous ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Methotrexate Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite most commonly used in chemotherapy and also as an immunosuppressant in auto-immune diseases. This activity d ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Microdiscectomy Microdiscectomy with its smaller incision, less traumatic approach, and better visualization of the operative field compared to standard open discecto ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common artery involved in acute stroke. It branches directly from the internal carotid artery and consist ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Migraine Headache Migraine is a genetically influenced complex disorder characterized by episodes of moderate-to-severe headache, most often unilateral and generally as ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Morton Neuroma Morton neuroma is a compressive neuropathy of the interdigital nerve in forefoot due to compression and constant irritation at the plantar aspect of t ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multidirectional Shoulder Instability Multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder was first described in 1980 as a complex condition of the shoulder defined by instability in 2 or m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Multiple Sclerosis Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by chronic inflammation, demyelination, gliosis, an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps result in continuous, involuntary, painful, and localized contraction of an entire muscle group, individual single muscle, or select mus ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Muscular Hematoma Muscular Hematomas are a common source of extravasated blood from within a muscle group, most commonly occurring in the abdominal waist. Muscular hema ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myofascial Pain The fascia is made up of a solid (muscles) and liquid (blood, lymph) elements and components. The myofascial system comprises contractile muscle tissu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myofascial Pain Syndrome Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is common among patients with musculoskeletal pain problems. MPS is a pain condition originating from muscle and surrou ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myopathy Myopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders primarily affecting the skeletal muscle structure, metabolism or channel function. They usually pres ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Myotonia Congenita Myotonia congenita (MC) is a genetic neuromuscular channelopathy which usually presents in early childhood resulting in a delay of skeletal muscle rel ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Naproxen Naproxen is FDA-approved for the treatment of acute gout, ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, osteoarthriti ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nerve Stimulation Chronic pain conditions, including low back pain, neck pain, and neuropathic pain states like chronic regional pain syndrome, causalgia, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuropathy About 2.4 percent of the population is affected by peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence increases to 8 percent in older populations. Peripheral neuro ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neuroplasticity Neuroplasticity, also known as neural plasticity or brain plasticity, is a process that involves adaptive structural and functional changes to the bra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Neurotmesis Neurotmesis is a complete transection of a peripheral nerve. The severity of peripheral nerve injury can be classified as neurapraxia, axonotmesis, or ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Niacin Toxicity Niacin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperlipidemia. It is in the vitamin supplement class of drugs. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDs are a class of medications used to treat pain, fever, and other inflammatory processes. This activity describes the indications, mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Normal pressure hydrocephalus characteristically presents with progressive gait impairment, cognitive deficits, and urinary urgency and/or incontinenc ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Notalgia Paresthetica Notalgia paresthetica is a chronic neuropathic dysesthesia typically seen in older females that is unilateral and characterized by pruritus over the m ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Nucleus Pulposus Herniation This activity describes the etiology, epidemiology, clinical presentation and treatment of a nucleus pulposus herniation, which is a condition charact ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Olecranon Fracture The olecranon is the proximal articular portion of the ulna. Along with the coronoid process, it forms the greater sigmoid notch which articulates wi ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid Induced Constipation Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) accounts for between 40 and sixty percent of patients without cancer receiving opioids. Laxatives must be started at ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opioid-induced Endocrinopathy Hormone replacement therapy is a mainstay of treatment for those suffering from opioid-induced endocrinopathy (OIE), which can have a significant impa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Opisthotonus Opisthotonus is defined as a dramatic abnormal posture due to spastic contraction of the extensor muscles of the neck, trunk, and lower extremities th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Orthostatic Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing from a sitting or supine position. Clinically, this is diagnosed b ... Read the Article 1.5 20 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osgood Schlatter Disease Osgood Schlatter disease, also known as osteochondrosis, tibial tubercle apophysitis, or traction apophysitis of the tibial tubercle, is a common caus ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteitis Condensans Ilii This activity outlines the evaluation and management of osteitis condensans ilii and reviews the role of the healthcare team in evaluating patients fo ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteitis Pubis Osteitis pubis (OP) is a noninfectious, chronic inflammatory state of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues with multiple etiologies, all r ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis in the world. It can be classified into two categories: primary osteoarthritis and secondary ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoarthropathy Hypertrophic Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA), consists of the presence of digital clubbing, increased periosteal activity of the tubular bones, arthralgias, an ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a serious infection of the bone that can be either acute or chronic. It is an inflammatory process involving the bone and its structu ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Muscle Energy and Counterstrain Procedure - Psoas Muscle Procedures Psoas syndrome is a disorder of the iliopsoas muscle leading to back pain, groin pain, snapping hip, buttock up, or difficulty standing. Psoas dysfunc ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is defined as low bone mineral density caused by altered bone microstructure ultimately predisposing patients to low-impact, fragility fr ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoporosis In Females Osteoporosis is commonly encountered in older women with no underlying risk factors. This activity provides an overall basic and specialist knowledge ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoporosis In Males Osteoporosis is a silent disease characterized by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone microarchitecture leading to fragility and increa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Osteoporosis in Spinal Cord Injuries Osteoporosis is a condition describing a spectrum of overall compromised skeletal microarchitecture with clinical manifestations related to decreasing ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Paget Schroetter Syndrome Paget Schroetter syndrome (PSS) is effort-induced thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins associated with compression of the subclavian vein a ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Parkinson Disease Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly presents in later life with generalized slowing of movements (bradykinesia) and at least ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pars Interarticularis Defect Pars interarticularis defects also referred to as spondylolysis, are a common cause of axial back pain in adolescents, especially young athletes. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pars Interarticularis Injury Pars interarticularis injury, a condition characterized by a fracture in the pars isthmus, is a common cause of low back pain, mainly among young athl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patella Fractures The patella is the largest sesamoid bone in the human body. The posterior aspect of the patella contains a thick cartilage layer, which is the thickes ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patellar Instability Patellar dislocations are common and represent 3 percent of all knee injuries. Additionally, they are a leading cause of knee hemarthrosis. Patellar d ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patellar Tendon Rupture A patellar tendon rupture involves a complete tear of the tendon that runs from the patella's inferior pole to the tibial tubercle. It is typically se ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Patellofemoral Syndrome Patellofemoral syndrome (PFS) is one of the most common causes of anterior knee pain. It is commonly known as runner's knee, patellofemoral pain syndr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pectoralis Major Tear Injuries of the pectoralis major muscle are rare. Although the injury typically occurs while lifting weights, specifically while performing a bench pr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pellegrini Stieda Disease Pellegrini-Stieda disease can be diagnosed when ossifications of the medial collateral ligament at or near its proximal insertion on the medial femora ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pentoxifylline Pentoxifylline is a drug used in the management of peripheral vascular disease. It is a xanthine derivative. This activity outlines the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube Parenteral and enteral feedings are considered in patients with insufficient oral intake or contraindications to anything by mouth. Nutritional suppor ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy (PN) encompasses a broad range of clinical pathologies potentially presenting with peripheral nervous system dysfunction. Patien ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peroneal Nerve Injury The common peroneal nerve is a major nerve that innervates the lower extremity. There are numerous traumatic and non-traumatic causes of peroneal nerv ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Peroneal Tendon Syndromes Peroneal tendon disorders are a cause of hindfoot and lateral foot pain. There are three primary disorders of the tendons; Peroneal tendonitis, perone ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pes Anserine Bursitis The pes anserine describes a region where tendinous structures of the semitendinosus, gracilis, and sartorius muscles join to insert at the medial kne ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pes Cavus Pes cavus is an orthopedic condition that manifests in both children and adults. It is defined primarily by the elevation of the longitudinal arch of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pes Planus Pes planus is a relatively common foot deformity that refers to the loss of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, resulting in this region of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Phantom Limb Pain Phantom limb pain is the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that is no longer there. PLP most commonly presents as a sequela of amputation. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Piriformis Injection Piriformis syndrome is an infrequent cause of entrapment neuropathy. A diagnosis of exclusion, piriformis syndrome occurs secondary compression or en ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Piriformis Syndrome Piriformis syndrome occurs due to sciatic nerve entrapment at the level of the ischial tuberosity. While there are multiple factors that may contribut ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plantar Fasciitis Plantar fasciitis is the result of degenerative irritation of the plantar fascia origin at the medial calcaneal tuberosity of the heel as well as the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plantar Heel Pain Plantar heel pain is a common problem among adults. It can lead to severe pain which causes significant disability and impairment of activities of dai ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Plica Syndrome A plica is a band of thick, fibrotic tissue that extends from the synovial capsule of a joint. The knee is the joint most commonly affected by plica t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Polymyalgia Rheumatica Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a rheumatic disorder characterized by pain and stiffness around the neck, shoulder and hip area. This disorder is more ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome The rare clinical manifestation of Popliteal Artery Entrapment Syndrome (PAES) was defined approximately 40 years ago. It has a preference for young t ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Knee Injuries The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee joint that functions to stabilize the tibia on the femur. It orig ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postherpetic Neuralgia Post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common long-term complication of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation. This reactivation of the dormant ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Post-op Urinary Retention Postoperative urinary retention is the inability to urinate after a surgical procedure despite having a full bladder. It is a relatively common compli ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Postural Instability Postural instability is the inability to maintain equilibrium under dynamic and static conditions such as preparation of movements, perturbations, and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Primary Osteoarthritis Primary osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis that affects adults and the elderly. All providers, but especially primary care physicians ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pronator Teres Syndrome Pronator teres syndrome (PTS), first described by Henrik Seyffarth in 1951, is caused by a compression of the median nerve (MN) by the pronator teres ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Provocative Discography Provocative discography is an invasive diagnostic spine procedure that involves the administration of contrast into the nucleus pulposus of an interve ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Proximal Biceps Tendinitis and Tendinopathy The main function of the biceps muscle is forearm supination and elbow flexion. The biceps also contribute 10 percent of the total power in shoulder a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Proximal Humeral Epiphysiolysis Proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, colloquially termed Little League shoulder, is a stress injury of the epiphyseal cartilage of the proximal humerus th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Proximal Humerus Fracture Proximal humerus fractures (PHFs) account for 5 to 6 percent of all adult fractures and often occur in elderly individuals who experience low-energy f ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Psoas Syndrome Psoas syndrome is a rare injury to the iliopsoas muscle, commonly seen in athletes, often runners, dancers, and high jumpers. It usually results from ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pudendal Nerve Entrapment Syndrome Pudendal neuralgia caused by pudendal nerve entrapment is chronic, severely disabling, neuropathic pain in the distribution of the pudendal nerve in b ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pudendal Neuralgia Pudendal neuralgia (PN) is a chronic pelvic pain syndrome that originates from damage or irritation to the pudendal nerve. Few providers examine speci ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Pulmonary Rehabilitation Chronic respiratory disorders are a group of respiratory ailments with significant morbidity. Pulmonary rehabilitation is a comprehensive intervention ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Quadriceps Tendon Rupture The quadriceps tendon is derived from the muscular junction of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius muscles a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Head Dislocation Radial head dislocations are very uncommon. Most commonly seen in children as a radial head subluxation. Radial head dislocations most commonly occur ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Nerve Entrapment Radial nerve entrapment is an uncommon diagnosis that is prone to under-recognition. Compression or entrapment can occur at any location within the co ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Nerve Injury The radial nerve stems from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and supplies the upper limb. It also supplies the triceps brachii muscle of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radial Tunnel Syndrome Radial tunnel syndrome refers to a compressive neuropathy of the posterior interosseus nerve (PIN) in the radial tunnel. Symptoms include pain without ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radicular Back Pain Radicular back pain is a common type of low backache. The definition of acute lumbosacral radiculopathy is a diffuse disease process that affects more ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Radius and Ulnar Shaft Fractures The forearm provides the bony structure and muscular origins that allow the hand to operate in many orientations. The two bones of the forearm (the ra ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ranchos Los Amigos The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), also known as the Ranchos Scale, is a widely accepted medical scale used to describe the cognitive and behavioral ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Recurrent Ankle Sprain Ankle sprains are one of the most common recurrent injuries of the lower extremity. Up to 40% of ankle sprains go on to develop chronic symptoms, incl ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Relapsing Fever Relapsing fever typically refers to malaria-like illnesses caused by various spirochetes belonging to Borrelia species and characterized by recurrent ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Relapsing Polychondritis Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune condition which presents as recurrent episodes of cartilaginous inflammation of the auricular, nasa ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Relaxation Techniques Relaxation techniques are therapeutic exercises designed to assist individuals by decreasing tension and anxiety. Relaxation therapy has been a part o ... Read the Article 0.75 3 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Repetitive Head Injury Syndrome Repetitive head injury syndrome, which is now known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting individ ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common viruses to infect children worldwide and increasingly is recognized as an important ... Read the Article 1 11 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rheumatoid Arthritis And Ankylosing Spondylitis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are among the most common rheumatic diseases. These chronic progressive inflammatory disease ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rolando Fractures The term Rolando fracture was described for the first time in 1910 by Silvio Rolando, an Italian surgeon. The eponym is used to describe a comminuted ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotator Cuff Injury Rotator cuff pathology is a commonly encountered condition, and the natural history suggests tears increase with increasing age. This activity will di ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotator Cuff Syndrome The rotator cuff is made up of the muscle bellies and tendons of the infraspinatus, supraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis muscles. Rotator cuf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis Rotator cuff tendonitis is an inflammation of the tendons that make up the rotator cuff, i.e., supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Injection Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a common etiology of low back pain. Studies have shown that 10 to 27 percent of mechanical low back pain is secondary to ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Injury Sacroiliac joint injury is a common type of low back pain. Differentiating SI joint pain from mechanical low back pain is essential. This activity out ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliac Joint Pain The sacroiliac (SI) joint lies between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis. There are two joints, one on each side of the sacrum. The joint s ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sacroiliitis Sacroiliitis is inflammation of the sacroiliac joint (SI), the joint that connects the ilium to the sacrum. The SI joint is one of the largest joints ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Salter Harris Fractures The Salter-Harris classification system is a method used to grade fractures that occur in children and involve the growth plate, which is also known a ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sarcopenia Sarcopenia is a musculoskeletal disease in which muscle mass, strength, and performance are significantly compromised with age. Sarcopenia most common ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scapholunate Advanced Collapse Scapholunate advanced collapse (SLAC) is a characteristic degenerative clinical wrist condition of progressive deformity, instability, and arthritis t ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Scheuermann Disease Scheuermann kyphosis, also known as Scheuermann disease, juvenile kyphosis or juvenile discogenic disease, is a condition involving an abnormal, exces ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Seating And Wheelchair Evaluation The wheelchair (WC) is one of the most important examples of mobility-assistive equipment (MAE) available to patients with impaired mobility. Proper e ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Second Impact Syndrome Second impact syndrome (SIS), also known as repetitive head injury syndrome, describes a condition in which individual experiences a second head injur ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Secondary Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a bone disorder which is characterized by a decrease in bone strength, resulting from reduced bone mineral density, microarchitectural ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sever Disease Sever disease, or calcaneal apophysitis, is an overuse injury in young athletes that causes heel pain. This overuse injury is thought to be caused by ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Dislocations Overview Shoulder dislocations represent 50 percent of all major joint dislocations, with anterior dislocation being most common. The shoulder is an unstable j ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Impingement Syndrome Shoulder impingement syndrome is a painful condition of the upper extremity resulting from a structural narrowing of the subacromial space. It is prim ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Joint Injection Shoulder pain is a common clinical complaint with an annual incidence of 14.7 per 1000 patients per year. Lifetime prevalence is reportedly as high as ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Shoulder Subluxation Shoulder subluxation is defined as partial or incomplete dislocation of the glenohumeral joint or translation between the humeral head and glenoid fos ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Singultus Hiccups can be acute, lasting less than 48 hours, persistent, lasting over 2 days, or intractable, lasting more than one month. They can result from a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Snapping Hip Syndrome Snapping hip syndrome (dancer’s hip or coxa saltans) is a clinical condition characterized by a palpable or audible snapping sensation that is heard d ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spasticity Spasticity, which is sometimes referred to as tightness or stiffness, is a motor disorder marked by a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone or to ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spatial Neglect Spatial Neglect is a neuropsychological condition that occurs mainly due to damage to the right cerebral hemisphere after the right middle cerebral ar ... Read the Article 1.25 15 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition, which often results in severe morbidity and permanent disability. It occurs when the axons of ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant Spinal cord stimulator implantation is an essential procedure for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In select patient's spinal stimulators ca ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis is a common condition involving articular surfaces that can develop gradually over time into a debilitating condition, which causes pai ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Stenosis Spinal stenosis is a condition characterized by the compression of the nerve roots by a number of pathologic factors, leading to symptoms such as pain ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spinal Stenosis And Neurogenic Claudication Approximately 90 percent of the population will present with low back pain at some point in their lifetime. Spinal stenosis is a condition that is cau ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spine Sagittal Balance The spine and the body function within a cone of equilibrium with the focus of maintaining sagittal and coronal alignment with minimum energy expendit ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spondylolisthesis Spondylolisthesis is a condition that occurs when one vertebral body slips with respect to the adjacent vertebral body causing radicular or mechanical ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Spondylolysis Spondylolysis is a unilateral or bilateral defect in the region of the pars interarticularis, (isthmus or bone bridge between the inferior and superio ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stellate Ganglion Blocks Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is used for the treatment of many medical conditions including complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral vascular di ... Read the Article 1 10 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stener Lesion A Stener lesion occurs when a complete distal, thumb ulnar collateral ligament tear results in the interposition of the aponeurosis of the adductor po ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Steppage Gait Steppage gait is an entity that is not too commonly seen in primary care settings. The etiology of this disorder is multifactorial. The pathology and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stiff Elbow Elbow stiffness is a relatively common condition and represents a significant disability. There are multiple causes of loss of elbow range of motion. ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Straight Leg Raise Test The straight leg raise test, also called the Lasegue test, is a fundamental maneuver during the physical examination of a patient with lower back pain ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stress Fractures Stress fractures occur when bone, typically in the lower extremities, is subjected to repeated mechanical stress that results in microscopic fractures ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Stress Incontinence Stress urinary incontinence is the sudden, involuntary loss of urine secondary to increased intraabdominal pressure that is affecting the patient’s qu ... Read the Article 1.25 16 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Subacromial Bursitis Subacromial bursitis is an inflammatory condition that is a common cause of shoulder pain. It is typically caused by repetitive overhead activities a ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sulindac Sulindac is a medication used in a host of conditions. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, activity, adverse events, and other k ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Labrum Anterior Posterior Lesions Shoulder pain is the third most common musculoskeletal complaint seen in outpatient clinics. A systematic approach to diagnosis is essential to exclud ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Superior Labrum Lesions Superior labrum lesions, or frequently referred to as superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, are a subset of injuries of the labrum in th ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supracondylar Humerus Fractures Supracondylar fractures of humerus are the most common type of elbow fractures in children accounting for up to 60% of elbow fractures. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Supraspinatus Tendonitis This activity describes the spectrum of supraspinatus tendonitis. This activity discusses information relevant to all portions of clinical care by an ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sural Nerve Biopsy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition present in a wide range of etiologies. Of these etiologies, diabetes remains the most common cause of peripheral ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Swimmer's Shoulder Swimmers have significant susceptibility for shoulder injuries due to the involvement of the shoulders required for various strokes and the high volum ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Sympathetic Nerve Block Sympathetic blocks are widely used to treat visceral, ischemic, neuropathic, and sympathetically mediated pain, as well as many other conditions. Most ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Syringomyelia Syringomyelia is a neurologic condition caused by the presence of a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord parenchyma or central canal. It typical ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tabes Dorsalis Tabes dorsalis, one of two manifestations of late neurosyphilis, is a slowly progressive parenchymatous degenerative disease of the dorsal column and ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Talar Neck Fractures Talar neck fractures are relatively uncommon, but potentially devastating injuries that are often associated with life-altering sequelae. They are ass ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Talocalcaneal Coalition Talocalcaneal coalition or peroneal spastic foot or subtalar coalition is an anomalous connection between the talus and the calcaneum that can present ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tarsal Navicular Fractures Fractures of the tarsal navicular bone are most commonly the result of either traumatic injury or undue stress, with the latter having a higher incide ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Tarsal tunnel syndrome is sometimes referred to as tibial nerve dysfunction or posterior tibial nerve neuralgia. It is an entrapment neuropathy that i ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Temporomandibular Joint Syndrome Temporomandibular joint syndrome is also known as temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is a common type of musculoskeletal disorder in the orofacial regio ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tennis Elbow Lateral epicondylitis, also commonly referred to as tennis elbow, describes an overuse injury that occurs secondary to eccentric overload of the commo ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thalamic Pain Syndrome Thalamic pain syndrome is a chronic and disability neuropathic pain disorder seen following a cerebrovascular accident of the thalamus. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Therapeutic Exercise This activity outlines the modalities, underpinnings, anatomy, and physiology of exercise as a tool for treating various illnesses such as musculoskel ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) manifests when pressures in the thoracic outlet increase to the point of impinging vessels or nerves. TOS presents in a ... Read the Article 1 12 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Thoracolumbar Spine Fracture The T10-L2 thoracolumbar region is the most common area of injury to the spine from trauma due to the specific biomechanics of this segment of the spi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tibia Nonunion The four major factors that influence bone healing are biomechanics, osteogenic cells, scaffolds, and growth factors. In some circumstances, this proc ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tibial Plateau Fractures Tibial plateau fractures account for 1 percent of all fractures and are typically sustained with high-energy mechanisms. Tibial plateau fractures may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Tibial Tubercle Avulsion Tibial tubercle avulsion fractures are an uncommon cause of knee pain in jumping adolescent athletes. Tibial tubercle fractures are a fairly uncommon ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Total Hip Arthroplasty Techniques Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most cost-effective and consistently successful surgeries performed in orthopaedics. It provides reliable o ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Total Knee Arthroplasty Techniques Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is one of the most cost-effective and consistently successful surgeries in orthopedics. It provides reliable outcomes fo ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Total Knee Replacement Techniques Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a viable treatment for symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee refractory to conservative measures. In those with end- ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, known by its acronym TENS, is a modality that uses electric current to activate nerves in order to decrea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trauma Neurological Exam The neurological examination in the setting of trauma is a systematic evaluation of important clinical signs that provide evidence to help determine f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Traumatic Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Traumatic lumbar spondylolisthesis, also known as traumatic lumbar locked facet syndrome, is an acute anterior shift of a lumbar vertebral body (L1 an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trendelenburg Gait A trendelenburg gait is an abnormal gait resulting from a defective hip abductor mechanism. The primary musculature involved is the gluteal musculatur ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex The triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) is a load-bearing structure between the lunate, triquetrum, and ulnar head. The function of the TFCC is t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigger Finger Trigger finger, or stenosing tenosynovitis, is tenosynovitis of the flexor sheaths that typically occurs in the 4th finger and thumb as a result of re ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trigger Point Injection Myofascial trigger points are focal "knots" located in a taut band of skeletal muscle first described by Dr. Janet Travell in 1942. Trigger points may ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Trochanteric Bursitis Trochanteric bursitis is a common cause of lateral hip pain that occurs when the bursa of the hip becomes inflamed. This can be due to repetitive micr ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury Ulnar collateral ligament injury of the thumb, also known as skier's thumb or gamekeeper's thumb, is an injury of the ulnar collateral ligament of the ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ulnar Nerve Entrapment Ulnar nerve entrapment is a common condition presenting in patients of all ages that can result in discomfort, weakness, and loss of function. This ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ultrasound Therapy Ultrasound has expanded from the diagnostic realm into alternative therapies for breast, uterine, and even cardiac soft tissue abnormalities. Understa ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Upper Limb Amputation Upper extremity amputations are a procedure commonly done in a variety of circumstances including infection, trauma, cancer, disease progression or co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Venous Insufficiency Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common condition that typically involves lower extremity edema, trophic skin changes, and discomfort secondary ... Read the Article 0.75 4 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ventral Cord Syndrome This activity educates the healthcare professionals on the etiology, epidemiology, evaluation, and treatment of Ventral Cord Syndrome. The goal of thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vertebral Compression Fractures Vertebral compression fractures of the spinal column occur secondary to an axial/compressive load with resultant biomechanical failure of the bone, re ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is derived from animal products such as red meat, dairy, and eggs. Intrinsic fac ... Read the Article 1.75 28 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Waddell Sign Professor Gordon Waddell first described a group of eight clinical physical signs in 1980 known as Waddell signs. As an orthopedic surgeon, Waddell in ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Arthrodesis Wrist arthrodesis, also known as wrist fusion, is a procedure in which the wrist joint is immobilized by fusing the radius to the carpal bones. It may ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Drop The radial nerve is responsible for innervating the extensor muscles of the wrist and digits. Consequently, injury to the radial nerve results in the ... Read the Article 0.75 6 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Splint The wrist is one of the most frequently splinted parts of the body, often after injury or surgery. Wrist splints provide rigid support to allow proper ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Wrist Sprain A wrist sprain is a common injury, particularly in work and athletic environments. An acute wrist sprain is an injury to a ligament often due to an ac ... Read the Article 0.75 5 Activity MD/PA Activity DO
Ziconotide Ziconotide is a newer, intrathecal analgesic medication used for the treatment of chronic pain. Its FDA indication is for the treatment of chronic sev ... Read the Article 1 9 Activity MD/PA Activity DO

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