Ophthalmic Trauma CME

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All of our activities are approved by AMA PRA Category 1 (MD or PA) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the American Society of Ophthalmic Trauma┬« content outlines. 116 authors and 4 editors have contributed to the development of the Ophthalmic Trauma content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Ophthalmic Trauma Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Blunt Eye Trauma Blunt injury to the eye can lead to various intrinsic eye injuries. Globe rupture and retrobulbar hematoma are two emergent entities that are of impor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Blunt Eye Trauma Blunt injury to the eye can lead to various intrinsic eye injuries. Globe rupture and retrobulbar hematoma are two emergent entities that are of impor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Canalicular Laceration Canalicular lacerations occur in people of all age groups, with causes ranging from fistfights to dog bites. In order to avoid the high morbidity asso ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Canalicular Laceration Canalicular lacerations occur in people of all age groups, with causes ranging from fistfights to dog bites. In order to avoid the high morbidity asso ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Carotid Cavernous Fistula Carotid cavernous fistula (CCF) is an abnormal shunt from the carotid artery to the cavernous sinus. The symptomatology of CCFs is mainly a result of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Compressive Optic Neuropathy Compressive optic neuropathy can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic compression anywhere along the optic nerve. In addition to damage by compression, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Contracted Socket The contracted socket is a dreaded complication of anophthalmos, which leads to the shortening of the fornices, ultimately leading to an inability to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Contracted Socket The contracted socket is a dreaded complication of anophthalmos, which leads to the shortening of the fornices, ultimately leading to an inability to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cornea Foreign Body Removal A corneal foreign body can be the cause of agonizing eye pain and loss of vision. This activity reviews the safe removal of a corneal foreign body and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cornea Foreign Body Removal A corneal foreign body can be the cause of agonizing eye pain and loss of vision. This activity reviews the safe removal of a corneal foreign body and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Corneal Abrasion A corneal abrasion (also called scratched eye or scratched cornea) is an eye injury that causes significant discomfort, photophobia, and erythema. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Corneal Abrasion A corneal abrasion (also called scratched eye or scratched cornea) is an eye injury that causes significant discomfort, photophobia, and erythema. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Corneal Foreign Body Corneal foreign bodies account for the second most common form of ocular trauma, with corneal abrasions being number one. In general, major morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Corneal Foreign Body Corneal foreign bodies account for the second most common form of ocular trauma, with corneal abrasions being number one. In general, major morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Corneal Injury Approximately 3 percent of all visits to the emergency department are due to eye trauma, with the vast majority of these presentations involving corne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Corneal Injury Approximately 3 percent of all visits to the emergency department are due to eye trauma, with the vast majority of these presentations involving corne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Corneal Mucous Plaque Corneal mucous plaques are most commonly associated with dry eye syndrome. They are made of a collection of mucin, corneal epithelial cell debris admi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Corneal Mucous Plaque Corneal mucous plaques are most commonly associated with dry eye syndrome. They are made of a collection of mucin, corneal epithelial cell debris admi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Corneal Ulcer A corneal ulcer is a defect in the surface epithelium of the cornea that involves the underlying stroma. It is common in contact lens wearers and pres ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Corneal Ulcer A corneal ulcer is a defect in the surface epithelium of the cornea that involves the underlying stroma. It is common in contact lens wearers and pres ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Cranial Nerve III Palsy The third cranial nerve is also known as oculomotor nerve and has two major components, the outer parasympathetic fibers that supply the ciliary muscl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is characterized as an inflammatory state of the nasolacrimal sac. It is typically caused by an obstruction within the nasolacrimal duc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Dacryocystitis Dacryocystitis is characterized as an inflammatory state of the nasolacrimal sac. It is typically caused by an obstruction within the nasolacrimal duc ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Diving Mask Squeeze Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask during descent, resulting in damage ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Diving Mask Squeeze Mask squeeze is a common injury among divers and occurs when a diver fails to equalize the air space in their mask during descent, resulting in damage ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Endophthalmitis Endophthalmitis is defined as an inflammation of the inner coats of the eye, resulting from intraocular colonization of infectious agents with exudati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Endophthalmitis Endophthalmitis is defined as an inflammation of the inner coats of the eye, resulting from intraocular colonization of infectious agents with exudati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Enophthalmos Enophthalmos is defined as the posterior displacement of the globe in an anteroposterior plane within the orbit. This is to be distinguished from hype ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Enophthalmos Enophthalmos is defined as the posterior displacement of the globe in an anteroposterior plane within the orbit. This is to be distinguished from hype ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Enucleation Enucleation is the removal of the eye from the orbit and involves the separation of all tissue connections between the globe and the orbit. This is on ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Enucleation Enucleation is the removal of the eye from the orbit and involves the separation of all tissue connections between the globe and the orbit. This is on ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Evaluation Of Visual Acuity Visual acuity is an often overlooked aspect of an emergency or outpatient department visit but can be vital to making a diagnosis. In reality, there a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Evaluation Of Visual Acuity Visual acuity is an often overlooked aspect of an emergency or outpatient department visit but can be vital to making a diagnosis. In reality, there a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Exophthalmos Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity DO
Exophthalmos Exophthalmos is the protrusion of one or both eyes anteriorly out of the orbit due to an increase in orbital contents within the rigid bony orbit. It ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity MD/PA
Extraocular Muscle Management With Orbital and Globe Trauma Extraocular muscle (EOM) management from ocular, orbital, and cranial trauma can be varied and complex. In the known ocular or orbital trauma setting, ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity DO
Extraocular Muscle Management With Orbital and Globe Trauma Extraocular muscle (EOM) management from ocular, orbital, and cranial trauma can be varied and complex. In the known ocular or orbital trauma setting, ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA
Eye Trauma Imaging Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of trauma to the eye. In addition to computed tomography, which is the primary imaging ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Eye Trauma Imaging Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of trauma to the eye. In addition to computed tomography, which is the primary imaging ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Eyelid Laceration Eyelid lacerations are managed differently depending on the depth, width, and location of the injury. Surgical management will be broken down into the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Eyelid Laceration Eyelid lacerations are managed differently depending on the depth, width, and location of the injury. Surgical management will be broken down into the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Fluorescein Fluorescein is a diagnostic contrast agent particularly used in various ophthalmic procedures, such as checking for any corneal or vessel abnormalitie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Fluorescein Fluorescein is a diagnostic contrast agent particularly used in various ophthalmic procedures, such as checking for any corneal or vessel abnormalitie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia The visual field test maps the vision in each individual eye by measuring the entire scope of vision when vision is focused on a central point. A visu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Homonymous Superior Quadrantanopia The visual field test maps the vision in each individual eye by measuring the entire scope of vision when vision is focused on a central point. A visu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil), ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil), ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Hyperbaric Cataracts Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the administration of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than one-atmosphere absolute pressure (1 ATA) for a therape ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hyperbaric Cataracts Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the administration of 100% oxygen at pressures greater than one-atmosphere absolute pressure (1 ATA) for a therape ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Hyperbaric Related Myopia and Cataract Formation Oxygen has been shown to be harmful to many tissues in the body via the formation of oxygen free radicals through normal metabolic processes. The high ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hyperbaric Related Myopia and Cataract Formation Oxygen has been shown to be harmful to many tissues in the body via the formation of oxygen free radicals through normal metabolic processes. The high ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hypertelorism Orbital hypertelorism is defined as an increased distance between the orbits, with true lateral displacement of the orbits. Hypertelorism is associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hyphema Hyphema is the accumulation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the anterior chamber of the eye. By definition, blood must be grossly visible, either on dire ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Hyphema Hyphema is the accumulation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the anterior chamber of the eye. By definition, blood must be grossly visible, either on dire ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Intraocular Hemorrhage Bleeding inside the eye is known as Intraocular hemorrhage. They are common and, at times, serious ocular conditions and can develop almost anywhere i ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity DO
Intraocular Hemorrhage Bleeding inside the eye is known as Intraocular hemorrhage. They are common and, at times, serious ocular conditions and can develop almost anywhere i ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA
Keratitis Keratitis is a clinical entity wherein inflammatory cells infiltrate different corneal layers in response to noxious stimuli, either infectious exogen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Keratitis Keratitis is a clinical entity wherein inflammatory cells infiltrate different corneal layers in response to noxious stimuli, either infectious exogen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Lagophthalmos Lagophthalmos describes the incomplete or abnormal closure of the eyelids and has many different causes. This activity reviews the evaluation and mana ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Lagophthalmos Lagophthalmos describes the incomplete or abnormal closure of the eyelids and has many different causes. This activity reviews the evaluation and mana ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Lateral Orbital Canthotomy Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is caused due to rapidly increasing intra-orbital pressure and can lead to permanent blindness. OCS is a sight-thre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Lateral Orbital Canthotomy Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is caused due to rapidly increasing intra-orbital pressure and can lead to permanent blindness. OCS is a sight-thre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Le Fort Osteotomy The LeFort I osteotomy is utilized extensively within the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery when repositioning of the maxilla is required for co ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Le Fort Osteotomy The LeFort I osteotomy is utilized extensively within the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery when repositioning of the maxilla is required for co ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Leukemia Cutis Leukemia cutis is skin involvement in patients with peripheral leukemia; it is relatively rare and typically signifies an advanced disease stage. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Leukemia Cutis Leukemia cutis is skin involvement in patients with peripheral leukemia; it is relatively rare and typically signifies an advanced disease stage. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Lipemia Retinalis Lipemia retinalis (LR) is characterized by creamy white discoloration of retinal vessels. It is a feature of chylomicronemia. Proper ophthalmic evalua ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Lipemia Retinalis Lipemia retinalis (LR) is characterized by creamy white discoloration of retinal vessels. It is a feature of chylomicronemia. Proper ophthalmic evalua ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Lymphoproliferative Disorders Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled production of lymphocytes that cause mono ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Lymphoproliferative Disorders Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled production of lymphocytes that cause mono ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Macular Hole A macular hole is a clinical condition of the central retina, which leads to the gross impairment of central vision. Many ocular conditions may predis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Macular Hole A macular hole is a clinical condition of the central retina, which leads to the gross impairment of central vision. Many ocular conditions may predis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Marcus Gunn Pupil Marcus Gunn pupil is indicative of a defect in the afferent pathway of the light reflex. To avoid the high morbidity associated with this condition, i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Marcus Gunn Pupil Marcus Gunn pupil is indicative of a defect in the afferent pathway of the light reflex. To avoid the high morbidity associated with this condition, i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Maxillary Fracture Maxillary fractures are common in patients sustaining facial trauma and may be caused by road traffic accidents, sports, or assault. Maxillary fractur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Maxillary Fracture Maxillary fractures are common in patients sustaining facial trauma and may be caused by road traffic accidents, sports, or assault. Maxillary fractur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Maxillary Sinus Fracture Maxillary sinus fractures (MSFs) are most commonly caused by blunt force trauma to the face. Depending on the magnitude and location of the direct inj ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Maxillary Sinus Fracture Maxillary sinus fractures (MSFs) are most commonly caused by blunt force trauma to the face. Depending on the magnitude and location of the direct inj ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Mucous Membrane Graft Mucous membrane graft acts as a basement membrane and is indicated in many cases like Steven Johnson syndrome, chemical injury, socket reconstruction, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mucous Membrane Graft Mucous membrane graft acts as a basement membrane and is indicated in many cases like Steven Johnson syndrome, chemical injury, socket reconstruction, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Nasal Fracture Fractures of the naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) complex resulting from high impact trauma to the face can have significant ramifications due to the NOE co ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Nasal Fracture Fractures of the naso-orbital-ethmoid (NOE) complex resulting from high impact trauma to the face can have significant ramifications due to the NOE co ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurs due to decreased blood supply to the optic nerve head. It is divided into a) Arteritic anterior ischemic opt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Non-arteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy occurs due to decreased blood supply to the optic nerve head. It is divided into a) Arteritic anterior ischemic opt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ocular Burns Ocular burns are true medical emergencies that can lead to devastating vision impairment. In a patient presenting with a possible ocular burn, immedia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Ocular Burns Ocular burns are true medical emergencies that can lead to devastating vision impairment. In a patient presenting with a possible ocular burn, immedia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Ocular Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is an inflammation of the contents of the orbit posterior to the orbital septum. The inflammation occurs secondary to an infection ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ocular Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is an inflammation of the contents of the orbit posterior to the orbital septum. The inflammation occurs secondary to an infection ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ocular Ultrasound Ocular ultrasound has many potential benefits in the evaluation of patients with acute vision loss, ocular trauma, headache or concern for increased i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ocular Ultrasound Ocular ultrasound has many potential benefits in the evaluation of patients with acute vision loss, ocular trauma, headache or concern for increased i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Ophthalmia Neonatorum Ophthalmia neonatorum is a type of conjunctivitis that takes place in the neonatal period. This condition is commonly transmitted during vaginal deliv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Ophthalmia Neonatorum Ophthalmia neonatorum is a type of conjunctivitis that takes place in the neonatal period. This condition is commonly transmitted during vaginal deliv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Optic Nerve Sheath Ultrasound Point of care optic nerve sheath ultrasound (ONSUS) is a bedside practice that can be used to evaluate for increased intracranial pressure. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Optic Nerve Sheath Ultrasound Point of care optic nerve sheath ultrasound (ONSUS) is a bedside practice that can be used to evaluate for increased intracranial pressure. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Optic Neuritis This activity describes the evaluation and management of optic neuritis and details the role of the interprofessional team in managing patients with t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Optic Neuritis This activity describes the evaluation and management of optic neuritis and details the role of the interprofessional team in managing patients with t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Orbital Floor Fracture Fractures of the orbital floor and the medial orbital wall (blowout fractures) are common midface injuries. Orbital fractures have a distinct trauma m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Orbital Floor Fracture Fractures of the orbital floor and the medial orbital wall (blowout fractures) are common midface injuries. Orbital fractures have a distinct trauma m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Palytoxin Keratitis PTX exposure, and resulting toxicity, are most frequently associated with inhalation of vapors while cleaning or eradicating the coral from home aquar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Palytoxin Keratitis PTX exposure, and resulting toxicity, are most frequently associated with inhalation of vapors while cleaning or eradicating the coral from home aquar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Paraproteinemic Keratopathy Ocular manifestations of monoclonal gammopathy may include corneal, retinal, vascular, or inflammatory changes that may lead to vision loss. This arti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Paraproteinemic Keratopathy Ocular manifestations of monoclonal gammopathy may include corneal, retinal, vascular, or inflammatory changes that may lead to vision loss. This arti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity DO
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity MD/PA
Pediatric Facial Trauma Pediatric facial trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma to the structures of the face in patients ages less than 18 years. This article primaril ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Pediatric Facial Trauma Pediatric facial trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma to the structures of the face in patients ages less than 18 years. This article primaril ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
PHACE Syndrome Infantile hemangioma is the most prevalent benign tumor of infancy, with an estimated incidence between 4 and 5 percent. Large facial segmental hemang ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
PHACE Syndrome Infantile hemangioma is the most prevalent benign tumor of infancy, with an estimated incidence between 4 and 5 percent. Large facial segmental hemang ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is an exudative maculopathy characterized by multiple recurrent serosanguineous retinal pigment epithelial det ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) is an exudative maculopathy characterized by multiple recurrent serosanguineous retinal pigment epithelial det ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a congenital anomaly of Descemet membrane. This article describes the pathophysiology, etiology, di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy Posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) is a congenital anomaly of Descemet membrane. This article describes the pathophysiology, etiology, di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Posterior Vitreous Detachment Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is the separation of the posterior vitreous cortex and the internal limiting membrane of the retina and is the mos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Posterior Vitreous Detachment Posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is the separation of the posterior vitreous cortex and the internal limiting membrane of the retina and is the mos ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Pupillary Light Reflex Eyes allow visualization of the world by receiving and processing the energy of light as it enters the eye. This light interacts with the structures a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Pupillary Light Reflex Eyes allow visualization of the world by receiving and processing the energy of light as it enters the eye. This light interacts with the structures a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Purtscher Retinopathy Purtscher retinopathy, also known as traumatic retinal angiopathy, lymphorrhagia retinae, or retinal teletraumatism, is an occlusive microvasculopathy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Purtscher Retinopathy Purtscher retinopathy, also known as traumatic retinal angiopathy, lymphorrhagia retinae, or retinal teletraumatism, is an occlusive microvasculopathy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pythium Keratitis Pythium is a parasitic aquatic oomycete that causes vision-threatening keratitis. Clinically, morphologically and histopathologically, it closely mimi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Pythium Keratitis Pythium is a parasitic aquatic oomycete that causes vision-threatening keratitis. Clinically, morphologically and histopathologically, it closely mimi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Retinal Detachment Retinal detachments constitute a serious ocular condition and can lead to permanent vision loss. When the retina, the neurosensory layer, detaches fro ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity DO
Retinal Detachment Retinal detachments constitute a serious ocular condition and can lead to permanent vision loss. When the retina, the neurosensory layer, detaches fro ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity MD/PA
Retinal Hemorrhage Retinal hemorrhages are a common clinical manifestation in patients visiting an eye clinic. Retinal hemorrhages give a clue to an underlying systemic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Retinal Hemorrhage Retinal hemorrhages are a common clinical manifestation in patients visiting an eye clinic. Retinal hemorrhages give a clue to an underlying systemic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Retinal Traction Detachment Retinal traction detachment (RTD) is the separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium due to the traction resu ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Retinal Traction Detachment Retinal traction detachment (RTD) is the separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium due to the traction resu ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Retrobulbar Block The retrobulbar block, initially described in 1884, had been widely referred to as the "gold standard" in ophthalmological surgery for many years. Tho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Retrobulbar Block The retrobulbar block, initially described in 1884, had been widely referred to as the "gold standard" in ophthalmological surgery for many years. Tho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Rhino-orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis Rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis is an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales and has high morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Rhino-orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis Rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis is an uncommon infection caused by the angiotropic fungus belonging to the order Mucorales and has high morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Salzmanns Nodular Corneal Degeneration This activity describes the evaluation and management of Salzmann nodular corneal degeneration; it also highlights the role of the ophthalmologist and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Salzmanns Nodular Corneal Degeneration This activity describes the evaluation and management of Salzmann nodular corneal degeneration; it also highlights the role of the ophthalmologist and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Seidel Test The Seidel test assesses for the presence of aqueous humor leakage from the anterior chamber. This leakage is from a defect in the cornea or sclera fr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Seidel Test The Seidel test assesses for the presence of aqueous humor leakage from the anterior chamber. This leakage is from a defect in the cornea or sclera fr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Siderosis Bulbi Siderosis bulbi is a chronic pigmentary degenerative process following the retention of an iron-containing foreign body. It can lead to sight-threaten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Siderosis Bulbi Siderosis bulbi is a chronic pigmentary degenerative process following the retention of an iron-containing foreign body. It can lead to sight-threaten ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Skin Antiseptics Antiseptics are chemical agents applied to the skin to reduce the microbial count and reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are def ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Skin Antiseptics Antiseptics are chemical agents applied to the skin to reduce the microbial count and reduce the risk of surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are def ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are life-threatening and result from the accumulation of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater. The incidence of subarach ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity DO
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are life-threatening and result from the accumulation of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater. The incidence of subarach ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA
Subconjunctival Hemorrhage Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common ocular complaint that most clinicians will see in their practice. This article is to describe its causes and it ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Subconjunctival Hemorrhage Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common ocular complaint that most clinicians will see in their practice. This article is to describe its causes and it ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Superior Ophthalmic Vein Cannulation for Carotid Cavernous Fistula The superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach for embolization of carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) was first described over 25 years ago. Carotid-caver ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Superior Ophthalmic Vein Cannulation for Carotid Cavernous Fistula The superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) approach for embolization of carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) was first described over 25 years ago. Carotid-caver ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Supertrochlear Nerve Block The supratrochlear nerve block is a special procedure, which can be utilized to relieve pain in the mid-forehead region. It can provide anesthesia for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Supertrochlear Nerve Block The supratrochlear nerve block is a special procedure, which can be utilized to relieve pain in the mid-forehead region. It can provide anesthesia for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Supraorbital Nerve Block The supraorbital nerve block is a procedure performed to provide immediate localized anesthesia for a multitude of injuries such as complex laceration ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Supraorbital Nerve Block The supraorbital nerve block is a procedure performed to provide immediate localized anesthesia for a multitude of injuries such as complex laceration ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Tear Gas and Pepper Spray Toxicity Tear gas and pepper spray are lay terms to describe a group of agents used to subdue combative persons in a non-lethal manner. The three most commonly ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Tear Gas and Pepper Spray Toxicity Tear gas and pepper spray are lay terms to describe a group of agents used to subdue combative persons in a non-lethal manner. The three most commonly ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Temporoparietal Fascia Flaps This activity reviews the temporoparietal fascia flap and highlights the background, indications, and technique of this surgical approach. This techni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Temporoparietal Fascia Flaps This activity reviews the temporoparietal fascia flap and highlights the background, indications, and technique of this surgical approach. This techni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Tonometry Tonometry is a common procedure employed by health care professionals to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) using a calibrated instrument. Instruments ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Tonometry Tonometry is a common procedure employed by health care professionals to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) using a calibrated instrument. Instruments ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC) is likely the most common cause of infectious retinochoroiditis worldwide. One-quarter of patients with a history o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Toxoplasma Retinochoroiditis Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis (TRC) is likely the most common cause of infectious retinochoroiditis worldwide. One-quarter of patients with a history o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Transient Loss Of Vision Transient loss of vision instills apprehension in the minds of patients and providers. Patients commonly worry about the potential for permanent loss ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Transient Loss Of Vision Transient loss of vision instills apprehension in the minds of patients and providers. Patients commonly worry about the potential for permanent loss ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Transtentorial Herniation A transtentorial herniation is the movement of brain tissue from one intracranial compartment to another. This includes uncal, central, and upward her ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Transtentorial Herniation A transtentorial herniation is the movement of brain tissue from one intracranial compartment to another. This includes uncal, central, and upward her ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Trochlear Nerve Palsy Trochlear nerve palsy is a frequently seen condition in ophthalmology clinics. In most cases, it may be congenital or post-traumatic but can occasiona ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Trochlear Nerve Palsy Trochlear nerve palsy is a frequently seen condition in ophthalmology clinics. In most cases, it may be congenital or post-traumatic but can occasiona ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Tropicamide Tropicamide is a safe drug used for pupillary dilation prior to a comprehensive eye exam or ocular procedure. Dilation is also necessary for specific ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Tropicamide Tropicamide is a safe drug used for pupillary dilation prior to a comprehensive eye exam or ocular procedure. Dilation is also necessary for specific ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Tumid Lupus Erythematosus Tumid lupus erythematosus (TLE) is currently considered a subtype of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). TLE differs from the other subtypes of cutan ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Tumid Lupus Erythematosus Tumid lupus erythematosus (TLE) is currently considered a subtype of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE). TLE differs from the other subtypes of cutan ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Uhthoff Phenomenon Uhthoff phenomenon, also known as Uhthoff sign or Uhthoff syndrome, is a transient worsening of neurological function lasting less than 24 hours that ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Uhthoff Phenomenon Uhthoff phenomenon, also known as Uhthoff sign or Uhthoff syndrome, is a transient worsening of neurological function lasting less than 24 hours that ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Visual Acuity A visual acuity test is only one part of a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. The goal of the visual acuity test is to determine the visual cla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Visual Acuity A visual acuity test is only one part of a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. The goal of the visual acuity test is to determine the visual cla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Vitreous Hemorrhage Vitreous hemorrhage is described as blood in the vitreous cavity. It can occur due to a myriad of causes. Its timely diagnosis and management can cons ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Vitreous Hemorrhage Vitreous hemorrhage is described as blood in the vitreous cavity. It can occur due to a myriad of causes. Its timely diagnosis and management can cons ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Waardenburg Syndrome Waardenburg syndrome is a group of genetic conditions inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. During embryogenesis, there is an abnormal distribut ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Waardenburg Syndrome Waardenburg syndrome is a group of genetic conditions inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. During embryogenesis, there is an abnormal distribut ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Weber Syndrome Weber syndrome is a midbrain stroke characterized by crossed hemiplegia along with oculomotor nerve deficits. This activity reviews the etiology and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Weber Syndrome Weber syndrome is a midbrain stroke characterized by crossed hemiplegia along with oculomotor nerve deficits. This activity reviews the etiology and t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Xerophthalmia Xerophthalmia is a leading cause of preventable blindness and childhood blindness. Health education focusing on proper nutrition has the potential to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Xerophthalmia Xerophthalmia is a leading cause of preventable blindness and childhood blindness. Health education focusing on proper nutrition has the potential to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Zygomatic Arch Fracture Fracture of the zygoma is the second most common fracture of the face, just behind nasal fractures, which can cause significant cosmetic and functiona ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Zygomatic Arch Fracture Fracture of the zygoma is the second most common fracture of the face, just behind nasal fractures, which can cause significant cosmetic and functiona ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA

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