Cardiothoracic Surgery CME

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All of our activities are approved by AMA PRA Category 1 (MD or PA) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the America Osteopathic Board of Surgery® and American Board of Thoracic Surgery® content outlines. 339 authors and 10 editors have contributed to the development of the Cardiothoracic Surgery content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Cardiothoracic Surgery Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity DO
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity MD/PA
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) frequently occur in our medical system, and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome tha ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity DO
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) frequently occur in our medical system, and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome tha ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity DO
Allen Test The Allen test (AT) is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands. The radial artery is easily palpable. The need for this test arises from the ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity MD/PA
Anesthesia For Patients With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Medical knowledge and treatment advances have led to increased survival of extremely premature neonates. Prematurity increases the incidence of having ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anesthesia For Patients With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Medical knowledge and treatment advances have led to increased survival of extremely premature neonates. Prematurity increases the incidence of having ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Anesthetic Management For Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery (ERACS) Since the advent of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) initiative, enhanced recovery protocols exist for many surgical specialties. Many studi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anesthetic Management For Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery (ERACS) Since the advent of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) initiative, enhanced recovery protocols exist for many surgical specialties. Many studi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Angioplasty Angioplasty with or without stenting is a nonsurgical procedure used to open clogged or narrow coronary arteries due to underlying atherosclerosis. Th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Angioplasty Angioplasty with or without stenting is a nonsurgical procedure used to open clogged or narrow coronary arteries due to underlying atherosclerosis. Th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Arch Aneurysm An isolated aortic arch aneurysm represents the less frequent cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms but poses a significant surgical challenge as it invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Aortic Arch Aneurysm An isolated aortic arch aneurysm represents the less frequent cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms but poses a significant surgical challenge as it invo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity DO
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Aortic Insufficiency A normal aortic valve is comprised of three semilunar cusps that attach to the aortic wall. Aortic regurgitation (AR), also known as aortic insufficie ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity DO
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity DO
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Aortic Transection Aortic transection is an injury encountered with blunt thoracic trauma with substantial morbidity and mortality. Many patients with aortic transection ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valve Disease Aortic valve disease consists of both regurgitations comprising retrograde flow throw the aortic valve and stenosis or narrowing of the orifice limiti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Aortic Valve Disease Aortic valve disease consists of both regurgitations comprising retrograde flow throw the aortic valve and stenosis or narrowing of the orifice limiti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Infective endocarditis occurs globally and is defined by the infection of the endocardial surface of the native valve, prosthetic heart valve, or an i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Infective endocarditis occurs globally and is defined by the infection of the endocardial surface of the native valve, prosthetic heart valve, or an i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Surgical Treatment Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease involving the endocardial surface of the heart and can include the valves and/or the mural endocardium ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Surgical Treatment Infective endocarditis is an infectious disease involving the endocardial surface of the heart and can include the valves and/or the mural endocardium ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is performed to treat aortic valve insufficiency with outcomes comparable to the valve replacement. When performed in a high volum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Aortic Valve Repair Aortic valve repair is performed to treat aortic valve insufficiency with outcomes comparable to the valve replacement. When performed in a high volum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valve Replacement The aortic valve lies at the junction of the left ventricle and aorta and is a semilunar valve with three leaflets. It allows unidirectional blood flo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Aortic Valve Replacement The aortic valve lies at the junction of the left ventricle and aorta and is a semilunar valve with three leaflets. It allows unidirectional blood flo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valve Ross Operation The Ross procedure, also known as the switch procedure or pulmonary autograft procedure, is a cardiac surgery in which a diseased aortic valve is repl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Aortic Valve Ross Operation The Ross procedure, also known as the switch procedure or pulmonary autograft procedure, is a cardiac surgery in which a diseased aortic valve is repl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Aortic Valvular Atresia Aortic valvular atresia is a congenital condition in which the aortic valvular cusps are fused at birth. It frequently forms as a spectrum of malforma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Aortopulmonary Window Aortopulmonary Window is a rare congenital cardiac malformation that can lead to congestive cardiac failure if left untreated. To avoid the high morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Aortopulmonary Window Aortopulmonary Window is a rare congenital cardiac malformation that can lead to congestive cardiac failure if left untreated. To avoid the high morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Aspergilloma An aspergilloma is a fungus ball or mycetoma composed of Aspergillus hyphae along with cellular debris and mucus. It is a noninvasive type of chronic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Aspergilloma An aspergilloma is a fungus ball or mycetoma composed of Aspergillus hyphae along with cellular debris and mucus. It is a noninvasive type of chronic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Atrioventricular Canal Defects Atrioventricular canal defects comprise a spectrum of defects such as exclusive ventricular or atrial defects, septal defects, atrioventricular anomal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Atrioventricular Canal Defects Atrioventricular canal defects comprise a spectrum of defects such as exclusive ventricular or atrial defects, septal defects, atrioventricular anomal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Automatic Internal Cardiac Defibrillator The automated internal cardiac defibrillator or shock box is the common name given to the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD). ICD is a state ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Automatic Internal Cardiac Defibrillator The automated internal cardiac defibrillator or shock box is the common name given to the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD). ICD is a state ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Autotransfusion Autotransfusion has not always been a safe procedure. The first known documented procedure of autotransfusion was performed in 1818 by Dr. James Blund ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Autotransfusion Autotransfusion has not always been a safe procedure. The first known documented procedure of autotransfusion was performed in 1818 by Dr. James Blund ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Balloon Valvuloplasty Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac intervention to open up a stenotic or stiffed heart valves (e.g., aortic or mitral) using a catheter with a balloon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Balloon Valvuloplasty Balloon valvuloplasty is a cardiac intervention to open up a stenotic or stiffed heart valves (e.g., aortic or mitral) using a catheter with a balloon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Bicuspid Aortic Valve A bicuspid aortic valve is a common congenital heart defect in which the bicuspid aortic valve contains two cusps instead of the usual three. This lea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Bidirectional Glenn Procedure or Hemi-Fontan The bidirectional Glenn (BDG) and hemi-Fontan are the types of surgical techniques used to create superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, the second stage ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Bidirectional Glenn Procedure or Hemi-Fontan The bidirectional Glenn (BDG) and hemi-Fontan are the types of surgical techniques used to create superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, the second stage ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Bioprosthetic Stented Pericardial Porcine Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve repair is performed because severe aortic valvular disease uncorrected mortality rates are dismal. Half of the patients presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Bioprosthetic Stented Pericardial Porcine Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve repair is performed because severe aortic valvular disease uncorrected mortality rates are dismal. Half of the patients presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Blood Donation Blood donation is a vital part of worldwide healthcare. It allows for blood transfusion as a life-sustaining and life-saving procedure. Over one hundr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Blood Donation Blood donation is a vital part of worldwide healthcare. It allows for blood transfusion as a life-sustaining and life-saving procedure. Over one hundr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity DO
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA
Blunt Cardiac Injury A cardiac contusion is a misnomer used to indicate injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Blunt Cardiac Injury A cardiac contusion is a misnomer used to indicate injury to the heart after blunt chest trauma. Because of the term's ambiguity in describing a spect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Bronchial Carcinoid Tumors The endless types of pulmonary pathologies that exist present in a variety of different ways. With proper suspicion and medical knowledge, the correc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Bronchial Carcinoid Tumors The endless types of pulmonary pathologies that exist present in a variety of different ways. With proper suspicion and medical knowledge, the correc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Abscess A cardiac abscess is a suppurative infection of the myocardium, endocardium, native or prosthetic valve tissue. Similar to other abscesses, it develop ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Cardiac Abscess A cardiac abscess is a suppurative infection of the myocardium, endocardium, native or prosthetic valve tissue. Similar to other abscesses, it develop ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Cancer Cardiac tumors are uncommon and can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, and the incidence is from 0.001 to 0.3% by autopsy. The ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Cardiac Cancer Cardiac tumors are uncommon and can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, and the incidence is from 0.001 to 0.3% by autopsy. The ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardiac Catheterization Risks and Complications Cardiac catheterization is one of the most widely performed cardiac procedures. In the United States, more than 1,000,000 cardiac catheterization proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Fibroma Cardiac fibromas are the second most common primary cardiac tumor after rhabdomyoma in children. They are primarily composed of connective tissue and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardiac Fibroma Cardiac fibromas are the second most common primary cardiac tumor after rhabdomyoma in children. They are primarily composed of connective tissue and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Imaging As innovative technology has progressed throughout the field of medicine, so too has the ability to visualize the heart and its vasculature noninvasiv ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Cardiac Imaging As innovative technology has progressed throughout the field of medicine, so too has the ability to visualize the heart and its vasculature noninvasiv ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Cardiac Rhabdomyoma Cardiac rhabdomyoma is a rare tumor. It arises from the striated muscles. It is a type of hamartoma seen in the pediatric age group. Although mostly a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Stress Imaging Cardiac stress imaging is a noninvasive modality used in evaluating coronary artery disease, myocardium viability, and exercise capacity. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Cardiac Stress Imaging Cardiac stress imaging is a noninvasive modality used in evaluating coronary artery disease, myocardium viability, and exercise capacity. This activit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Surgery Cardiac surgery is the specialty of medicine concerning the surgical treatment of pathologies related to the heart and thoracic aorta. The spectrum of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Cardiac Surgery Cardiac surgery is the specialty of medicine concerning the surgical treatment of pathologies related to the heart and thoracic aorta. The spectrum of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity DO
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA
Cardiac Trauma Cardiac trauma can be categorized as either blunt or penetrating according to the mechanism of injury. Outcomes range from spontaneously-resolving arr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardiac Trauma Cardiac trauma can be categorized as either blunt or penetrating according to the mechanism of injury. Outcomes range from spontaneously-resolving arr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Cardioplegia Cardioplegia serves to intentionally and temporarily arrest the heart for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. This activity describes cardio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardioplegia Cardioplegia serves to intentionally and temporarily arrest the heart for myocardial protection during cardiac surgery. This activity describes cardio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Bypass Cardiopulmonary bypass has become the standard of care for many cardiac procedures. The procedure is relatively safe if the duration of surgery is not ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a diagnostic modality used to evaluate a patient's functional capacity. The test can provide a wealth of kn ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Carney Complex Carney complex (CNC) is a rare genetic disorder associated with one of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Carney complex affects multip ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Carney Complex Carney complex (CNC) is a rare genetic disorder associated with one of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes. Carney complex affects multip ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Ablation Catheter ablation is a rapidly evolving field and has proven to be a valid solution for many patients suffering from recurrent arrhythmias. Even thoug ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Catheter Ablation Catheter ablation is a rapidly evolving field and has proven to be a valid solution for many patients suffering from recurrent arrhythmias. Even thoug ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Aortic Valve Disorders Aortic valve disease is one of the most common valvular disorders in the United States and worldwide. Transcatheter management is emerging as a releva ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Aortic Valve Disorders Aortic valve disease is one of the most common valvular disorders in the United States and worldwide. Transcatheter management is emerging as a releva ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Coarctation Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta typically at the location of the ductus arteriosus distal to the left subclavian artery accountin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Coarctation Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta typically at the location of the ductus arteriosus distal to the left subclavian artery accountin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited cardiac condition characterized by left ventricular muscular hypertrophy in the absence of other car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited cardiac condition characterized by left ventricular muscular hypertrophy in the absence of other car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices For patients with atrial fibrillation, percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) emerged as a valid alternative to oral anticoagulation. This ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Left Atrial Appendage Closure Devices For patients with atrial fibrillation, percutaneous left atrial appendage closure (LAAC) emerged as a valid alternative to oral anticoagulation. This ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Of Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common abnormality that describes the presence of a small opening between the top two chambers of the heart. Several l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Catheter Management Of Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a common abnormality that describes the presence of a small opening between the top two chambers of the heart. Several l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Catheter Management Pulmonary Valvular Disorders Transcatheter intervention for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation was a remarkable advancemen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Catheter Management Pulmonary Valvular Disorders Transcatheter intervention for right ventricular outflow tract obstruction with balloon angioplasty and stent implantation was a remarkable advancemen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity DO
Chagas Disease Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) is a zoonotic disease caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This is a vector-borne illness spread by the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Cholesterol Emboli Cholesterol embolization syndrome occurs when atheromatous plaques in large arteries release cholesterol emboli and atheromatous debris into the circu ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Selection of Treatment Modality The term stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) often is used synonymously with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and encompasses a variety of condi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Selection of Treatment Modality The term stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) often is used synonymously with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and encompasses a variety of condi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Chronic Thrombo-Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Chronic pulmonary embolism (also known as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is a potentially life-threatening condition and is associated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Chronic Thrombo-Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Chronic pulmonary embolism (also known as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is a potentially life-threatening condition and is associated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Chronic Total Occlusion Of The Coronary Artery Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are diagnosed in patients who are undergoing coronary angiography as part of the evaluation of ischemic heart di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Chronic Total Occlusion Of The Coronary Artery Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are diagnosed in patients who are undergoing coronary angiography as part of the evaluation of ischemic heart di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Chylothorax A chylothorax is the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space. This is most commonly seen following traumatic disruption of the thoracic duct and is ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Chylothorax A chylothorax is the accumulation of chyle in the pleural space. This is most commonly seen following traumatic disruption of the thoracic duct and is ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Coarctation of the Aorta Coarctation of the aorta is a narrowing of the aorta, most commonly occurring just beyond the left subclavian artery. However, it can occur in various ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Complex Coronary Artery Lesions Contemporary treatment of coronary artery disease is highly dependent on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) along with medical management. PCI t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Complex Coronary Artery Lesions Contemporary treatment of coronary artery disease is highly dependent on percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) along with medical management. PCI t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Constrictive Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that covers the heart. Besides acting as a protective barrier, it also affects cardiac hemodynamics. Constrict ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Constrictive Pericarditis The pericardium is the fibroelastic sac that covers the heart. Besides acting as a protective barrier, it also affects cardiac hemodynamics. Constrict ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Constrictive-Effusive Pericarditis Constrictive pericarditis involves scarring and loss of elasticity of the pericardium surrounding the heart, leading to impaired filling. Effusive-con ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Cor Triatriatum Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital heart defect in which a thin, fibromuscular membrane causes division of either the right or left atrium, resultin ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Cor Triatriatum Cor triatriatum is a rare congenital heart defect in which a thin, fibromuscular membrane causes division of either the right or left atrium, resultin ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Coronary arteriovenous fistula should be suspected in patients who present with unexplained heart failure, have continuous murmur on auscultation, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Arteriovenous Fistula Coronary arteriovenous fistula should be suspected in patients who present with unexplained heart failure, have continuous murmur on auscultation, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Anomalies With the increasing application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as the standard of care for patients with acute chest pain, health ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Anomalies With the increasing application of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as the standard of care for patients with acute chest pain, health ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Of The Gastroepiploic Artery Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the mainstay for the treatment of coronary artery disease for several decades. Various vessels have be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Of The Gastroepiploic Artery Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been the mainstay for the treatment of coronary artery disease for several decades. Various vessels have be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Redo The coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure is used to improve blood flow to at-risk areas of myocardial tissues. When a patient requires subseq ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Redo The coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedure is used to improve blood flow to at-risk areas of myocardial tissues. When a patient requires subseq ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Dissection Coronary artery dissection is the separation of the coronary arterial wall and can be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. This activity will focus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Dissection Coronary artery dissection is the separation of the coronary arterial wall and can be spontaneous, traumatic, or iatrogenic. This activity will focus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Fistula Coronary artery fistulas are aberrant connections between coronary arteries and other structures, such as other branches of arteries or heart chambers ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Fistula Coronary artery fistulas are aberrant connections between coronary arteries and other structures, such as other branches of arteries or heart chambers ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Perforation Coronary artery perforation is a rare complication associated with a percutaneous coronary intervention. This activity highlights the risk factors, de ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Perforation Coronary artery perforation is a rare complication associated with a percutaneous coronary intervention. This activity highlights the risk factors, de ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Stents Coronary artery stents have become the cornerstone in the management and treatment of coronary artery disease. This activity illustrates the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Stents Coronary artery stents have become the cornerstone in the management and treatment of coronary artery disease. This activity illustrates the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Surgery Coronary artery surgery is performed because coronary artery disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Variations in technique a ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Surgery Coronary artery surgery is performed because coronary artery disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Variations in technique a ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Cameral Fistula Coronary cameral fistula is an abnormal communication existing between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber. It appears in less than 1% of the po ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Cameral Fistula Coronary cameral fistula is an abnormal communication existing between a coronary artery and any cardiac chamber. It appears in less than 1% of the po ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Sinus Thrombosis The coronary venous system generally receives minimal attention in the medical literature. Even though the coronary sinus is a major access site for m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Coronary Sinus Thrombosis The coronary venous system generally receives minimal attention in the medical literature. Even though the coronary sinus is a major access site for m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Cyanotic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease (CHD) are structural abnormalities of the heart or intrathoracic great vessels occurring during fetal development. CHD is the ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Cyanotic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease (CHD) are structural abnormalities of the heart or intrathoracic great vessels occurring during fetal development. CHD is the ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Diaphragm Eventration Diaphragm eventration is the permanent elevation of a hemidiaphragm and can be due to congenital or acquired causes. Diaphragm eventration can become ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Diaphragm Eventration Diaphragm eventration is the permanent elevation of a hemidiaphragm and can be due to congenital or acquired causes. Diaphragm eventration can become ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Diaphragm Injury The diaphragm is composed of the central tendon, costal, sternal, and lumbar components, the lateral parts of which are a continuation of the oblique ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Diaphragm Injury The diaphragm is composed of the central tendon, costal, sternal, and lumbar components, the lateral parts of which are a continuation of the oblique ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Diaphragm Rupture Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively uncommon, representing less than 1% of traumatic injuries. They are typically considered a marker of severe trau ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Diaphragm Rupture Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively uncommon, representing less than 1% of traumatic injuries. They are typically considered a marker of severe trau ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Diaphragm Trauma The diagnosis of traumatic diaphragm injuries (TDI) can be difficult but is critical, as a delayed diagnosis can carry significant sequelae. TDIs can ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity DO
Diaphragm Trauma The diagnosis of traumatic diaphragm injuries (TDI) can be difficult but is critical, as a delayed diagnosis can carry significant sequelae. TDIs can ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity MD/PA
Diaphragmatic Pacing Diaphragmatic pacing is a procedure that is performed to stimulate the phrenic nerve to cause diaphragm contraction. This diaphragm contraction helps ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Diaphragmatic Pacing Diaphragmatic pacing is a procedure that is performed to stimulate the phrenic nerve to cause diaphragm contraction. This diaphragm contraction helps ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Double Aortic Arch Double aortic arch is the commonest form of a group of defects that affect the development of the aorta. This defect causes an abnormal circular forma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Double Aortic Arch Double aortic arch is the commonest form of a group of defects that affect the development of the aorta. This defect causes an abnormal circular forma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Double Chambered Right Ventricle The double-chambered right ventricle was first described in the 19th century. It is now considered a distinctive anatomic entity; wherein there is a m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Double Chambered Right Ventricle The double-chambered right ventricle was first described in the 19th century. It is now considered a distinctive anatomic entity; wherein there is a m ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Double Orifice Mitral Valve A double orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is a rare, congenital, or acquired anomaly that is typically asymptomatic. With time, however, it may lead to mit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Double Orifice Mitral Valve A double orifice mitral valve (DOMV) is a rare, congenital, or acquired anomaly that is typically asymptomatic. With time, however, it may lead to mit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or non bilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal lif ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or non bilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal lif ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Dyspnea on Exertion Dyspnea, also called shortness of breath, is a patient's perceived difficulty to breathe. Sensations and intensity can vary and are subjective. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Dyspnea on Exertion Dyspnea, also called shortness of breath, is a patient's perceived difficulty to breathe. Sensations and intensity can vary and are subjective. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Ebstein Anomaly And Malformation Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve is a congenital malformation, in which there is downward displacement of insertion of septal and posterior leaf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ebstein Anomaly And Malformation Ebstein anomaly of the tricuspid valve is a congenital malformation, in which there is downward displacement of insertion of septal and posterior leaf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Echocardiogram Cardiac echocardiography is a safe and non-invasive test that provides the clinical team with important cardiac function data. This functional data is ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Echocardiogram Cardiac echocardiography is a safe and non-invasive test that provides the clinical team with important cardiac function data. This functional data is ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Echocardiography Imaging Techniques Since its discovery as an imaging modality for cardiac evaluation, echocardiogram has evolved tremendously. It has become the 1st choice for structura ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Echocardiography Imaging Techniques Since its discovery as an imaging modality for cardiac evaluation, echocardiogram has evolved tremendously. It has become the 1st choice for structura ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Endomyocardial Biopsy The role and utility of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in the work-up of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial and the practice varies widely in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Endomyocardial Biopsy The role and utility of endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) in the work-up of cardiovascular diseases remains controversial and the practice varies widely in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Endoscopic Vein Harvesting Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) is a procedure to harvest the greater saphenous vein (GSV), the most widely used conduit in coronary artery bypass gr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Endoscopic Vein Harvesting Endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) is a procedure to harvest the greater saphenous vein (GSV), the most widely used conduit in coronary artery bypass gr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Epiphrenic Diverticula Epiphrenic diverticulum, also known as a pulsion diverticulum, is a rare type of esophageal diverticulum occurring in the distal 10 centimeters of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Epiphrenic Diverticula Epiphrenic diverticulum, also known as a pulsion diverticulum, is a rare type of esophageal diverticulum occurring in the distal 10 centimeters of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings, including urgent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings, including urgent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Esophageal Trauma Esophageal injury (EI) is a rare but challenging clinical finding in the setting of trauma. Esophageal injuries or perforations are transmural disrupt ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Esophageal Trauma Esophageal injury (EI) is a rare but challenging clinical finding in the setting of trauma. Esophageal injuries or perforations are transmural disrupt ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Anticoagulation Thromboembolism formation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a common complication experienced for patients requiring prolonged respiratory ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Anticoagulation Thromboembolism formation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a common complication experienced for patients requiring prolonged respiratory ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Weaning Venovenous and venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has become a more popular topic and treatment over the last several years. More patien ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Weaning Venovenous and venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has become a more popular topic and treatment over the last several years. More patien ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Femoral Aneurysm Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm consists of an outpouching of 1 or 2 layers of the vessel wall. A true aneurysm, on the other hand, involves all the 3 l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Femoral Aneurysm Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm consists of an outpouching of 1 or 2 layers of the vessel wall. A true aneurysm, on the other hand, involves all the 3 l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Femoral Vascular Closure Devices After Catheterization Procedure Femoral vascular closure devices have become powerful tools for interventional cardiologists and other proceduralists to achieve hemostasis at the cat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Femoral Vascular Closure Devices After Catheterization Procedure Femoral vascular closure devices have become powerful tools for interventional cardiologists and other proceduralists to achieve hemostasis at the cat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) Fludeoxyglucose F18 is a radioactive tracer that acts as a glucose analog and is used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with positron-emitting to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Fludeoxyglucose (18F) Fludeoxyglucose F18 is a radioactive tracer that acts as a glucose analog and is used for diagnostic purposes in conjunction with positron-emitting to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Fontan Completion The Fontan procedure provides a palliative treatment option for children that are diagnosed with functionally univentricular congenital heart disease. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Fontan Completion The Fontan procedure provides a palliative treatment option for children that are diagnosed with functionally univentricular congenital heart disease. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Fractional Flow Reserve Angiographic results alone can guide the decision to perform a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Angiography is used to visually assess the co ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Fractional Flow Reserve Angiographic results alone can guide the decision to perform a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Angiography is used to visually assess the co ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Fungal Endocarditis Endocarditis is the inflammation of the endocardium, the innermost lining of the heart. Endocarditis may be due to infective or non-infective etiologi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Fungal Endocarditis Endocarditis is the inflammation of the endocardium, the innermost lining of the heart. Endocarditis may be due to infective or non-infective etiologi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Heart Transplantation A heart transplant is performed in patients with refractory acute and chronic heart failure. An orthotopic heart transplant is the most commonly utili ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Heart Transplantation A heart transplant is performed in patients with refractory acute and chronic heart failure. An orthotopic heart transplant is the most commonly utili ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Heart Transplantation Allograft Vasculopathy Despite advances in mechanical circulatory support, cardiac transplant remains the definitive treatment intervention for patients with advanced heart ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Allograft Vasculopathy Despite advances in mechanical circulatory support, cardiac transplant remains the definitive treatment intervention for patients with advanced heart ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Heart Transplantation Patient Selection Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide, and falls second only to pancreatic cancer as the p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Patient Selection Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and worldwide, and falls second only to pancreatic cancer as the p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Heart Transplantation Rejection Heart transplantation (HTx) is a procedure performed in patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) who remain symptomatic despite appropriate medical ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Heart Transplantation Rejection Heart transplantation (HTx) is a procedure performed in patients with end-stage heart failure (HF) who remain symptomatic despite appropriate medical ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Heart-Lung Transplantation A heart-lung transplant is performed for unsalvagable dual cardiac and pulmonary failure. An organ transplant is an established life-saving therapy fo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Heart-Lung Transplantation A heart-lung transplant is performed for unsalvagable dual cardiac and pulmonary failure. An organ transplant is an established life-saving therapy fo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Heyde Syndrome Heyde syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of aortic stenosis (AS), gastrointestinal bleeding, and acquired von Willebrand sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Heyde Syndrome Heyde syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by the triad of aortic stenosis (AS), gastrointestinal bleeding, and acquired von Willebrand sy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Holt Oram Syndrome Holt-Oram syndrome also referred to as the heart-hand syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder that is distinguished by upper limb abnormalities in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Holt Oram Syndrome Holt-Oram syndrome also referred to as the heart-hand syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder that is distinguished by upper limb abnormalities in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Hyperbaric Complications Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is generally a relatively safe therapy for various conditions. However, there are some adverse side effects. When adv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Hyperglycemia The term "hyperglycemia" is derived from the Greek hyper (high) + glykys (sweet/sugar) + haima (blood). Hyperglycemia is blood glucose greater than 12 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Hyperglycemia The term "hyperglycemia" is derived from the Greek hyper (high) + glykys (sweet/sugar) + haima (blood). Hyperglycemia is blood glucose greater than 12 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is a type of congenital heart disease that results in the underdevelopment of the left-sided structures of the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Hypoplastic Lung Disease Pulmonary hypoplasia is a relatively uncommon medical condition characterized by incomplete development of the lungs that can affect the overall devel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Hypoplastic Lung Disease Pulmonary hypoplasia is a relatively uncommon medical condition characterized by incomplete development of the lungs that can affect the overall devel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Implantable Loop Recorder Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is an invaluable tool to assist in diagnosing certain cardiac conditions. There are a variety of ambulat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Implantable Loop Recorder Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is an invaluable tool to assist in diagnosing certain cardiac conditions. There are a variety of ambulat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Infectious Endocarditis Infectious endocarditis refers to the colonization of cardiac valve endocardium by virulent microorganisms. It is a rare condition that can lead to r ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Infectious Endocarditis Infectious endocarditis refers to the colonization of cardiac valve endocardium by virulent microorganisms. It is a rare condition that can lead to r ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Inferior Myocardial Infarction Without timely treatment, coronary artery occlusion results in decreased perfusion to the myocardium, resulting in myocardial ischemia followed by my ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Inferior Myocardial Infarction Without timely treatment, coronary artery occlusion results in decreased perfusion to the myocardium, resulting in myocardial ischemia followed by my ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Inhalation Injury Inhalation injury is a broad term that includes pulmonary exposure to a wide range of chemicals in various forms including smoke, gases, vapors, or fu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Inhalation Injury Inhalation injury is a broad term that includes pulmonary exposure to a wide range of chemicals in various forms including smoke, gases, vapors, or fu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Innominate Artery Injury Innominate artery injuries can present either by penetrating or blunt force. A provider must make a quick decision on treatment to avoid the feared mo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Innominate Artery Injury Innominate artery injuries can present either by penetrating or blunt force. A provider must make a quick decision on treatment to avoid the feared mo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Internal Mammary Artery Bypass Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and coronary artery bypass graft is considered the mainstay for the treatment of seve ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity DO
Internal Mammary Artery Bypass Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, and coronary artery bypass graft is considered the mainstay for the treatment of seve ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA
Interpleural Analgesia The interpleural analgesic technique was first described by Reiestad et al. for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. It is believed that this te ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Interpleural Analgesia The interpleural analgesic technique was first described by Reiestad et al. for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. It is believed that this te ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Interventricular Septum Abscess An interventricular septal abscess is a life-threatening complication of infective endocarditis. It occurs as a consequence of either native or prosth ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Interventricular Septum Abscess An interventricular septal abscess is a life-threatening complication of infective endocarditis. It occurs as a consequence of either native or prosth ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various cardi ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity DO
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump This activity reviews the indications and contraindications of intra-aortic balloon pump in patients with cardiogenic shock secondary to various cardi ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity MD/PA
Intracardiac Shunts Intracardiac shunts are abnormal pathways for blood flow in the heart that form either in addition to or in place of normal pathways for blood flow. T ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Intracardiac Shunts Intracardiac shunts are abnormal pathways for blood flow in the heart that form either in addition to or in place of normal pathways for blood flow. T ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Intracoronary Stents On September 16, 1977, in Zurich Germany, Andreas Grunzig performed the first balloon angioplasty in a coronary artery on Andreas Bachman. Grunzig use ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Intracoronary Stents On September 16, 1977, in Zurich Germany, Andreas Grunzig performed the first balloon angioplasty in a coronary artery on Andreas Bachman. Grunzig use ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Lambls Excrescences Lambl excrescences, a histological term describing rare cardiac growths that develop at the valvular coaptation sites of the heart which are seen as a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Lambls Excrescences Lambl excrescences, a histological term describing rare cardiac growths that develop at the valvular coaptation sites of the heart which are seen as a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Laryngeal And Tracheal Stents Laryngeal and tracheal stenting is performed for intrinsic or extrinsic pathology, causing narrowing of the airway lumen, and involves a multidiscipli ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Laryngeal And Tracheal Stents Laryngeal and tracheal stenting is performed for intrinsic or extrinsic pathology, causing narrowing of the airway lumen, and involves a multidiscipli ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Left Heart Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization is performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Despite significant advancement in non-invasive cardiac imaging, it ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Left Heart Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization is performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Despite significant advancement in non-invasive cardiac imaging, it ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Left Ventricular False Aneurysm Left ventricular false aneurysm is a rare complication of myocardial rupture contained by non-myocardial tissue. The most common cause of a false aneu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Left Ventricular False Aneurysm Left ventricular false aneurysm is a rare complication of myocardial rupture contained by non-myocardial tissue. The most common cause of a false aneu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Left Ventricular Rupture Left ventricular (LV) rupture is a catastrophic but a common occurrence with acute myocardial infarction patients. The incidence of LV free-wall ruptu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Left Ventricular Rupture Left ventricular (LV) rupture is a catastrophic but a common occurrence with acute myocardial infarction patients. The incidence of LV free-wall ruptu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Libman Sacks Endocarditis Libman-Sacks endocarditis, also known as murantic or verrucous endocarditis, is a form of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) which involves t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Libman Sacks Endocarditis Libman-Sacks endocarditis, also known as murantic or verrucous endocarditis, is a form of nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) which involves t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Lobectomy The anatomic resection of an entire lobe of a lung is called a lobectomy. It is usually done with the help of the video scope and with less than an 8 ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Lobectomy The anatomic resection of an entire lobe of a lung is called a lobectomy. It is usually done with the help of the video scope and with less than an 8 ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Lung Biopsy Techniques And Clinical Significance Lung biopsy is a widely accepted procedure for diagnosing pulmonary disorders by obtaining samples of lung tissue. Besides lung nodules and masses, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Lung Biopsy Techniques And Clinical Significance Lung biopsy is a widely accepted procedure for diagnosing pulmonary disorders by obtaining samples of lung tissue. Besides lung nodules and masses, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Lung Decortication Lung decortication is a simple yet formidable procedure. It involves the excision of the thick fibrinous peel from the pleural surface, thereby permit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Lung Decortication Lung decortication is a simple yet formidable procedure. It involves the excision of the thick fibrinous peel from the pleural surface, thereby permit ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Lung Isolation Anesthesia Lung isolation involves utilizing bronchial barrier devices to separate the lungs enabling each lung to function as a separate unit. Lung isolation is ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Lung Isolation Anesthesia Lung isolation involves utilizing bronchial barrier devices to separate the lungs enabling each lung to function as a separate unit. Lung isolation is ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Lung Torsion Lung torsion is a life-threatening pathology that occurs when the lung or a pulmonary lobe rotates causing vascular and airway obstruction. This is a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Lung Torsion Lung torsion is a life-threatening pathology that occurs when the lung or a pulmonary lobe rotates causing vascular and airway obstruction. This is a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Lung Transplant Rejection As the number of lung transplants annually in the US and worldwide has increased, so has the occurrence of lung transplant rejection. Lung transplant ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Lung Transplant Rejection As the number of lung transplants annually in the US and worldwide has increased, so has the occurrence of lung transplant rejection. Lung transplant ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Lung Transplantation Lung transplantation is the ultimate treatment option for patients with end-stage lung disease. Despite the significant advancement in the medical man ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Lung Transplantation Lung transplantation is the ultimate treatment option for patients with end-stage lung disease. Despite the significant advancement in the medical man ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Lung Volume Reduction Surgery Lung volume reduction surgery is performed for patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to try and improve the quantity and quali ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Lung Volume Reduction Surgery Lung volume reduction surgery is performed for patients with end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to try and improve the quantity and quali ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Lutembacher Syndrome Lutembacher syndrome (LS) was first described in a letter by anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel in 1750. Corvisart who later described the association ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Lutembacher Syndrome Lutembacher syndrome (LS) was first described in a letter by anatomist Johann Friedrich Meckel in 1750. Corvisart who later described the association ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Lymph Node Dissection Lymph node dissection is a surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are dissected, and a sample of tissue is checked for the presence of cancer und ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Lymph Node Dissection Lymph node dissection is a surgical procedure in which the lymph nodes are dissected, and a sample of tissue is checked for the presence of cancer und ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is the infiltration and inflammation of lymphatic vessels secondary to the spread of malignancy from a primary site. Pulmo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis Lymphangitic carcinomatosis is the infiltration and inflammation of lymphatic vessels secondary to the spread of malignancy from a primary site. Pulmo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Malignant Effusion Pleural effusion is a frequent complication of advanced malignancy with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the managem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Malignant Effusion Pleural effusion is a frequent complication of advanced malignancy with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Recent advances in the managem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Management of Antithrombotics Around Gastrointestinal Procedures Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are used to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients at high risk. However, when these patients need ga ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Management of Antithrombotics Around Gastrointestinal Procedures Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are used to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients at high risk. However, when these patients need ga ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Manougian The Manougian technique is one of the techniques used in aortic valve replacement surgery in the context of a small aortic annulus. The Manougian tech ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Manougian The Manougian technique is one of the techniques used in aortic valve replacement surgery in the context of a small aortic annulus. The Manougian tech ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. Symptomatic severe AS has a high mortality rate if left untreated. Surgical ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the elderly. Symptomatic severe AS has a high mortality rate if left untreated. Surgical ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Mediastinal Cancer The mediastinum is a cavity that separates the lungs from the other structures in the chest. Generally, it is further divided into three main parts: a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Mediastinal Cancer The mediastinum is a cavity that separates the lungs from the other structures in the chest. Generally, it is further divided into three main parts: a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Mediastinal Carcinoid Tumors Mediastinal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare malignancies with aggressive behavior and a grim prognosis. These malignancies often go undetected unt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mediastinal Carcinoid Tumors Mediastinal carcinoid tumors are extremely rare malignancies with aggressive behavior and a grim prognosis. These malignancies often go undetected unt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Mediastinal Seminoma Mediastinal seminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor in the mediastinum. The tumor usually occurs in the anterior-superior mediastinum in males aged 20 ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Mediastinal Seminoma Mediastinal seminoma is a malignant germ cell tumor in the mediastinum. The tumor usually occurs in the anterior-superior mediastinum in males aged 20 ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Mediastinal Trauma The mediastinum is contained within the thoracic cavity and has a high concentration of major vascular and visceral structures. Traumatic injury to an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Mediastinal Trauma The mediastinum is contained within the thoracic cavity and has a high concentration of major vascular and visceral structures. Traumatic injury to an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Mediastinitis Mediastinitis refers to inflammation or infection that involves the mediastinum, the cavity within the thorax that is bordered by the pleural sacs, th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mediastinitis Mediastinitis refers to inflammation or infection that involves the mediastinum, the cavity within the thorax that is bordered by the pleural sacs, th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Mediastinotomy Anterior mediastinotomy (the Chamberlain procedure) is surgical entry to the mediastinum via an incision in the parasternal 2nd left intercostal space ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Mediastinotomy Anterior mediastinotomy (the Chamberlain procedure) is surgical entry to the mediastinum via an incision in the parasternal 2nd left intercostal space ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Medical Ethics Familiarity with ethical principles on a basic level is necessary to practice medicine. However, most healthcare providers are unable to explain how o ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity DO
Medical Ethics Familiarity with ethical principles on a basic level is necessary to practice medicine. However, most healthcare providers are unable to explain how o ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity MD/PA
Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Surgery Aortic valve replacement is the standard treatment for patients with severe or symptomatic aortic insufficiency or aortic stenosis. In the past, the s ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Surgery Aortic valve replacement is the standard treatment for patients with severe or symptomatic aortic insufficiency or aortic stenosis. In the past, the s ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Commissurotomy Mitral valve commissurotomy is the technique used to repair mitral valve stenosis. Mitral stenosis is most commonly due to rheumatic heart disease. Th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Mitral Commissurotomy Mitral valve commissurotomy is the technique used to repair mitral valve stenosis. Mitral stenosis is most commonly due to rheumatic heart disease. Th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is caused by the retrograde flow of blood from the left ventricle (LV) into the left atrium (LA) through the mitral valve (M ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity DO
Mitral Regurgitation Mitral regurgitation (MR) is caused by the retrograde flow of blood from the left ventricle (LV) into the left atrium (LA) through the mitral valve (M ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity DO
Mitral Stenosis Mitral stenosis (MS) is a form of valvular heart disease characterized by narrowing of the mitral valve orifice. The most common cause of mitral steno ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Valve Insufficiency This activity discusses clinical aspects of mitral regurgitation (MR) in terms of etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment guideli ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Mitral Valve Insufficiency This activity discusses clinical aspects of mitral regurgitation (MR) in terms of etiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and treatment guideli ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Valve Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment The advent of minimally invasive mitral valve repair in recent years provides a necessary therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic mitral valv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mitral Valve Minimally Invasive Surgical Treatment The advent of minimally invasive mitral valve repair in recent years provides a necessary therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic mitral valv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular he ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular he ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Mitral Valve Repair Mitral valve repair is commonly used to treat mitral valve pathology due to mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Mitral Valve Repair Mitral valve repair is commonly used to treat mitral valve pathology due to mitral regurgitation. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is classified as primary o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Morgagni Hernia Morgagni hernias are rare congenital diaphragmatic defects that can lead to bowel obstruction and incarceration if not repaired. Surgery can be perfor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Morgagni Hernia Morgagni hernias are rare congenital diaphragmatic defects that can lead to bowel obstruction and incarceration if not repaired. Surgery can be perfor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries of 2.5 mm diameter or more. This activity helps i ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries of 2.5 mm diameter or more. This activity helps i ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Mural Thrombi Mural thrombi are thrombi that attach to the wall of a blood vessel and cardiac chamber. Mural thrombus occurrence in a normal or minimally atheroscle ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Mural Thrombi Mural thrombi are thrombi that attach to the wall of a blood vessel and cardiac chamber. Mural thrombus occurrence in a normal or minimally atheroscle ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Myocardial Protection Several anatomical and physiological concepts are essential to fully comprehend the various techniques of myocardial protection. This activity explain ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Myocardial Protection Several anatomical and physiological concepts are essential to fully comprehend the various techniques of myocardial protection. This activity explain ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Myocardial Stunning and Hibernation Coronary artery disease can result in acute and chronic myocardial perfusion deficits. This hypoperfusion can result in impaired myocardial contractil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Myocardial Stunning and Hibernation Coronary artery disease can result in acute and chronic myocardial perfusion deficits. This hypoperfusion can result in impaired myocardial contractil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Neonatal Anesthesia Neonatal anesthesia requires a unique knowledge of neonatal physiology, which is different from older infants, children, or adults. Oftentimes, health ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Neonatal Anesthesia Neonatal anesthesia requires a unique knowledge of neonatal physiology, which is different from older infants, children, or adults. Oftentimes, health ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Neurological Sequelae Of Endocarditis Endocarditis is inflammation or infection of the endocardium, the inner lining of cardiac valves and cardiac muscle. It most commonly results from bac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Neurological Sequelae Of Endocarditis Endocarditis is inflammation or infection of the endocardium, the inner lining of cardiac valves and cardiac muscle. It most commonly results from bac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
NICKS Procedure Nicks procedure is performed to avoid patient prosthesis mismatch in patients with the small aortic annulus. The main goal is to implant a prosthetic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
NICKS Procedure Nicks procedure is performed to avoid patient prosthesis mismatch in patients with the small aortic annulus. The main goal is to implant a prosthetic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Nonviral Myocarditis Myocarditis is a significant cause of sudden death and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, especially in the young. It has a very diverse and sometime ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Nonviral Myocarditis Myocarditis is a significant cause of sudden death and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, especially in the young. It has a very diverse and sometime ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Nosocomial Pneumonia Nosocomial pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after hospital admission and not incuba ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity DO
Nosocomial Pneumonia Nosocomial pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia that occurs 48 hours or more after hospital admission and not incuba ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity MD/PA
Ochronosis Ochronosis is named for the reddish-brown hue of tissue termed "ochre-like" that was first described by a young physician named Archibald Garrod in th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ochronosis Ochronosis is named for the reddish-brown hue of tissue termed "ochre-like" that was first described by a young physician named Archibald Garrod in th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Open Heart Massage Before the implementation of closed-chest compressions in the early 1960s, open cardiac massage was a common procedure performed during cardiac arrest ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Open Heart Massage Before the implementation of closed-chest compressions in the early 1960s, open cardiac massage was a common procedure performed during cardiac arrest ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Orbital Atherectomy Orbital atherectomy (OA) is an adjunctive therapy used for lesion preparation of calcified plaque with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and pe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Orbital Atherectomy Orbital atherectomy (OA) is an adjunctive therapy used for lesion preparation of calcified plaque with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and pe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pacemaker Malfunction Pacemakers are implanted in patients with rhythmic cardiac problems. These pacemakers can often malfunction and produce a set of symptoms that require ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Pacemaker Malfunction Pacemakers are implanted in patients with rhythmic cardiac problems. These pacemakers can often malfunction and produce a set of symptoms that require ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Papillary Fibroelastoma Papillary fibroelastomas are one of the most common types of primary cardiac tumors. They are increasingly recognized as the spatial resolution of ima ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Papillary Fibroelastoma Papillary fibroelastomas are one of the most common types of primary cardiac tumors. They are increasingly recognized as the spatial resolution of ima ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Papillary Muscle Rupture Papillary muscle rupture is a rare and potentially fatal complication that typically follows a myocardial infarction or occurs secondary to infective ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Papillary Muscle Rupture Papillary muscle rupture is a rare and potentially fatal complication that typically follows a myocardial infarction or occurs secondary to infective ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Partial And Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection Total and partial anomalous venous connection comprises a wide spectrum of congenital cardiovascular malformations where one or more pulmonary veins r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Partial And Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection Total and partial anomalous venous connection comprises a wide spectrum of congenital cardiovascular malformations where one or more pulmonary veins r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vessel that allows the oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the fetal lungs in utero. At birth, a newborn inh ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity DO
Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vessel that allows the oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the fetal lungs in utero. At birth, a newborn inh ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity MD/PA
Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) occurs when a remnant of normal fetal anatomy abnormally persists into adulthood. It represents a benign finding in the new ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) occurs when a remnant of normal fetal anatomy abnormally persists into adulthood. It represents a benign finding in the new ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Pectus Carinatum Pectus carinatum is a structural deformity of the chest wall that affects nearly 1 in 1000 teens, and early identification allows for more noninvasive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Pectus Carinatum Pectus carinatum is a structural deformity of the chest wall that affects nearly 1 in 1000 teens, and early identification allows for more noninvasive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity DO
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity MD/PA
Penetrating Chest Trauma Chest trauma has quickly risen to be the second most common traumatic injury in non-intentional trauma. Trauma to the chest is also associated with th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Penetrating Chest Trauma Chest trauma has quickly risen to be the second most common traumatic injury in non-intentional trauma. Trauma to the chest is also associated with th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Pentalogy of Cantrell Pentalogy of Cantrell is a collection of congenital malformations involving the heart, pericardium, diaphragm, sternum, and ventral abdominal wall. It ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Pentalogy of Cantrell Pentalogy of Cantrell is a collection of congenital malformations involving the heart, pericardium, diaphragm, sternum, and ventral abdominal wall. It ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical, invasive procedure wi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical, invasive procedure wi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Balloon Catheters Angioplasty is performed to treat atherosclerotic disease and its resultant complications such as myocardial infarction, strokes, renal failure, and l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty and Balloon Catheters Angioplasty is performed to treat atherosclerotic disease and its resultant complications such as myocardial infarction, strokes, renal failure, and l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneous Tricuspid Valve Repair Percutaneous tricuspid valve intervention is a new upcoming intervention for the treatment of tricuspid valve lesions. Percutaneous intervention offer ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity DO
Percutaneous Tricuspid Valve Repair Percutaneous tricuspid valve intervention is a new upcoming intervention for the treatment of tricuspid valve lesions. Percutaneous intervention offer ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity MD/PA
Percutaneously Inserted Ventricular Assist Device There are now percutaneous inserted ventricular assist devices available. This device is a non-pulsatile axial flow pump that is placed across the aor ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Percutaneously Inserted Ventricular Assist Device There are now percutaneous inserted ventricular assist devices available. This device is a non-pulsatile axial flow pump that is placed across the aor ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Pericardial Cyst A pericardial cyst is typically considered a congenital anomaly, with most patients diagnosed via incidental findings on routine chest imaging. Rarely ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Pericardial Cyst A pericardial cyst is typically considered a congenital anomaly, with most patients diagnosed via incidental findings on routine chest imaging. Rarely ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Pericardiocentesis Pericardiocentesis is a procedure performed to remove pericardial fluid from the pericardial sac that surrounds the myocardium. It is often performed ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pericardiocentesis Pericardiocentesis is a procedure performed to remove pericardial fluid from the pericardial sac that surrounds the myocardium. It is often performed ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
PHACE Syndrome Infantile hemangioma is the most prevalent benign tumor of infancy, with an estimated incidence between 4 and 5 percent. Large facial segmental hemang ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
PHACE Syndrome Infantile hemangioma is the most prevalent benign tumor of infancy, with an estimated incidence between 4 and 5 percent. Large facial segmental hemang ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Phrenic Nerve Injury The phrenic nerve is among the most important nerves in the body due to its role in respiration. The phrenic nerve provides the primary motor supply t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Phrenic Nerve Injury The phrenic nerve is among the most important nerves in the body due to its role in respiration. The phrenic nerve provides the primary motor supply t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Pleurodesis Pleurodesis is a procedure performed to obliterate the pleural space to prevent recurrent pleural effusion or pneumothorax or to treat a persistent pn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pleurodesis Pleurodesis is a procedure performed to obliterate the pleural space to prevent recurrent pleural effusion or pneumothorax or to treat a persistent pn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity DO
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity MD/PA
Poland Syndrome In Children Poland syndrome encompasses a range of chest wall anomalies with possible ipsilateral upper extremity involvement. This syndrome is an uncommon and di ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Poland Syndrome In Children Poland syndrome encompasses a range of chest wall anomalies with possible ipsilateral upper extremity involvement. This syndrome is an uncommon and di ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Porcelain Aorta Porcelain aorta (PA) is a structural aortic wall disease characterized by extensive heavy calcification of the ascending thoracic aorta extending to t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Porcelain Aorta Porcelain aorta (PA) is a structural aortic wall disease characterized by extensive heavy calcification of the ascending thoracic aorta extending to t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Post Infarct Ventricular Septal Rupture The most severe potential complications of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involve tearing or rupture of acutely infarcted myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Post Infarct Ventricular Septal Rupture The most severe potential complications of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) involve tearing or rupture of acutely infarcted myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Presyncope Presyncope or near-syncope is often ill-defined and may have different meanings to different providers but denotes near fainting or a prodrome of sync ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Presyncope Presyncope or near-syncope is often ill-defined and may have different meanings to different providers but denotes near fainting or a prodrome of sync ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is one type of infectious endocarditis (IE). It accounts for 20% of all cases of endocarditis. It is important to ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is one type of infectious endocarditis (IE). It accounts for 20% of all cases of endocarditis. It is important to ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) comes from the process of ion-exchange chromatography from the cryoprecipitate supernatant of large plasma pools ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) comes from the process of ion-exchange chromatography from the cryoprecipitate supernatant of large plasma pools ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVMs) Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare clinical problem in which abnormal communications develop between a pulmonary artery and a pulmon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation (AVMs) Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a rare clinical problem in which abnormal communications develop between a pulmonary artery and a pulmon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Artery Banding This activity outlines indications, contraindications, and surgical steps of pulmonary artery banding and highlights the role of the interprofessional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Banding This activity outlines indications, contraindications, and surgical steps of pulmonary artery banding and highlights the role of the interprofessional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Artery Sling Pulmonary artery sling is a specific type of anatomical vascular anomaly that can compress nearby structures. Instead of arising from the main pulmona ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pulmonary Artery Sling Pulmonary artery sling is a specific type of anatomical vascular anomaly that can compress nearby structures. Instead of arising from the main pulmona ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum This activity provides a detailed review of the complex congenital heart defect pulmonary atresia with the intact ventricular septum. This review art ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum This activity provides a detailed review of the complex congenital heart defect pulmonary atresia with the intact ventricular septum. This review art ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is frequently used to assess left ventricular filling, represent left atrial pressure, and assess mitral val ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pulmonary Capillary Wedge Pressure Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) is frequently used to assess left ventricular filling, represent left atrial pressure, and assess mitral val ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Contusion Pulmonary contusions are lung injuries commonly sustained during cases of blunt chest trauma. These traumatic lung injuries result in impaired gas exc ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Pulmonary Contusion Pulmonary contusions are lung injuries commonly sustained during cases of blunt chest trauma. These traumatic lung injuries result in impaired gas exc ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Papilloma Pulmonary papillomas are benign papillary tumors characterized by a fibrovascular core covered by an epithelium. These tumors are rarely multiple. The ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Pulmonary Papilloma Pulmonary papillomas are benign papillary tumors characterized by a fibrovascular core covered by an epithelium. These tumors are rarely multiple. The ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonary Regurgitation Pulmonary regurgitation is a valvular abnormality with a myriad of etiologies, the most common of which being secondary to the repair of tetralogy of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pulmonary Regurgitation Pulmonary regurgitation is a valvular abnormality with a myriad of etiologies, the most common of which being secondary to the repair of tetralogy of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonic Regurgitation Pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is most commonly seen secondary to various etiologies causing pulmonary hypertension. It also appears in post valvotomy pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pulmonic Regurgitation Pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is most commonly seen secondary to various etiologies causing pulmonary hypertension. It also appears in post valvotomy pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Pulmonic Stenosis Pulmonic stenosis is a typically benign condition in most patients. While generally non-life-threatening after the neonatal period, complications and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Pulmonic Stenosis Pulmonic stenosis is a typically benign condition in most patients. While generally non-life-threatening after the neonatal period, complications and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Radial Artery Coronary Bypass The radial artery graft is considered the second option as a conduit after the left internal mammary graft in coronary artery bypass grafting. Multipl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Radial Artery Coronary Bypass The radial artery graft is considered the second option as a conduit after the left internal mammary graft in coronary artery bypass grafting. Multipl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Radiation Esophagitis Radiation esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagus due to radiation. Radiation esophagitis is typically an adverse effect that develops in individ ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Radiation Esophagitis Radiation esophagitis is inflammation of the esophagus due to radiation. Radiation esophagitis is typically an adverse effect that develops in individ ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are a common cause of vocal cord paresis and resulting in voice changes or hoarseness. The etiology, history, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Injury Recurrent laryngeal nerve injuries are a common cause of vocal cord paresis and resulting in voice changes or hoarseness. The etiology, history, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Restenosis Despite advances in cardiovascular health and interventional cardiology, coronary restenosis continues to be a challenge for interventional cardiologi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Restenosis Despite advances in cardiovascular health and interventional cardiology, coronary restenosis continues to be a challenge for interventional cardiologi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Retrograde Cardioplegia To ensure the protection of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass, administration and even distribution of cardioplegia solution to the myocardium i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Retrograde Cardioplegia To ensure the protection of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass, administration and even distribution of cardioplegia solution to the myocardium i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Right Aortic Arches Right aortic arch anomalies occur in approximately 0.01 to 0.1 percent of the general population. In general, these anomalies do not directly cause an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Right Aortic Arches Right aortic arch anomalies occur in approximately 0.01 to 0.1 percent of the general population. In general, these anomalies do not directly cause an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Right Heart Cardiac Catheterization Right heart catheterization is an invasive hemodynamic procedure that allows direct measurement of right-sided cardiac pressures and calculation of ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Right Heart Cardiac Catheterization Right heart catheterization is an invasive hemodynamic procedure that allows direct measurement of right-sided cardiac pressures and calculation of ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Rotational Atherectomy Coronary stenoses with circumferential or significant vessel calcification are rigid and frequently not dilatable with use of conventional balloon ang ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Rotational Atherectomy Coronary stenoses with circumferential or significant vessel calcification are rigid and frequently not dilatable with use of conventional balloon ang ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Saccular Aneurysm Most cerebral aneurysms are asymptomatic and small, and they are found incidentally during brain imaging or during an autopsy. A ruptured aneurysm is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Saccular Aneurysm Most cerebral aneurysms are asymptomatic and small, and they are found incidentally during brain imaging or during an autopsy. A ruptured aneurysm is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Saphenous Vein Grafts In 1967 Dr. Rena Favaloro first described the use of an autologous reversed greater saphenous vein (GSV) graft as a bypass graft. The GSV continued t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Saphenous Vein Grafts In 1967 Dr. Rena Favaloro first described the use of an autologous reversed greater saphenous vein (GSV) graft as a bypass graft. The GSV continued t ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Scimitar Syndrome Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital heart defect, variant of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous return that results in a left-to-right shunt. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Scimitar Syndrome Scimitar syndrome is a rare congenital heart defect, variant of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous return that results in a left-to-right shunt. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Sinus Of Valsalva Aneurysm A sinus of valsalva aneurysm (SOVA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic root located between the aortic valve annulus and the sinotubular junction ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Sinus Of Valsalva Aneurysm A sinus of valsalva aneurysm (SOVA) is an abnormal dilatation of the aortic root located between the aortic valve annulus and the sinotubular junction ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Stent Thrombosis Stent thrombosis, also known as abrupt vessel closure and acute stent thrombosis, is one of the fatal complications of percutaneous coronary intervent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Stent Thrombosis Stent thrombosis, also known as abrupt vessel closure and acute stent thrombosis, is one of the fatal complications of percutaneous coronary intervent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Stentless Autograft/Homograft Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve replacement is indicated when aortic stenosis or regurgitation disturbs the flow of blood out of the heart. Homograft valve and pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Stentless Autograft/Homograft Aortic Valve Replacement Aortic valve replacement is indicated when aortic stenosis or regurgitation disturbs the flow of blood out of the heart. Homograft valve and pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardial surfaces of the heart, which includes one or more heart valves. The incidence of infect ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity DO
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardial surfaces of the heart, which includes one or more heart valves. The incidence of infect ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity MD/PA
Subaortic Stenosis Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), also called subaortic stenosis, is a rare disorder seen in infants. In most cases, it involves the presence of a me ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Subaortic Stenosis Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), also called subaortic stenosis, is a rare disorder seen in infants. In most cases, it involves the presence of a me ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Subclavian Artery Thrombosis Subclavian artery thrombosis is a common condition that is felt to be underdiagnosed. It involved obstruction of blood flow through the subclavian art ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Subclavian Artery Thrombosis Subclavian artery thrombosis is a common condition that is felt to be underdiagnosed. It involved obstruction of blood flow through the subclavian art ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Subclavian Vein Thrombosis Subclavian vein thrombosis occurs due to either a primary etiology or a secondary etiology. It requires a thorough history and physical exam for diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Subclavian Vein Thrombosis Subclavian vein thrombosis occurs due to either a primary etiology or a secondary etiology. It requires a thorough history and physical exam for diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Supravalvar Aortic Stenosis Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a congenital heart defect that accounts for 8 to 14 percent of all cases of congenital aortic stenosis. It inv ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Supravalvar Aortic Stenosis Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a congenital heart defect that accounts for 8 to 14 percent of all cases of congenital aortic stenosis. It inv ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Surgical Access Incisions A well-planned surgical incision is one of the most crucial steps in any surgical procedure. It is always essential to determine the proper location o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Surgical Access Incisions A well-planned surgical incision is one of the most crucial steps in any surgical procedure. It is always essential to determine the proper location o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Synchronized Electrical Cardioversion When tachycardic rhythms fail to respond to pharmacologic treatment or present with or deteriorate into unstable manifestations, synchronized cardiove ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Synchronized Electrical Cardioversion When tachycardic rhythms fail to respond to pharmacologic treatment or present with or deteriorate into unstable manifestations, synchronized cardiove ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Takayasu Arteritis Takayasu arteritis (pulseless disease) is a systemic inflammatory condition characterized by damage to the large and medium arteries and their branche ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Takayasu Arteritis Takayasu arteritis (pulseless disease) is a systemic inflammatory condition characterized by damage to the large and medium arteries and their branche ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity DO
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA
Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysms require a prompt diagnosis as most patients are asymptomatic until dissection or rupture of the aorta occurs, leading to wor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysms require a prompt diagnosis as most patients are asymptomatic until dissection or rupture of the aorta occurs, leading to wor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Thoracotomy Thoracotomy is described as an incision made between the ribs to access the contents of the thoracic cavity. Due to the anatomic location of the conte ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity DO
Thoracotomy Thoracotomy is described as an incision made between the ribs to access the contents of the thoracic cavity. Due to the anatomic location of the conte ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity MD/PA
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Surgical aortic valve replacement has been the standard treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Previously, patients dete ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Surgical aortic valve replacement has been the standard treatment for patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). Previously, patients dete ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Transcatheter Management of Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysms Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms (LVP) are very rare but commonly lethal complications that are secondary to myocardial infarctions, cardiac surgeries ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Transcatheter Management of Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysms Left ventricular pseudoaneurysms (LVP) are very rare but commonly lethal complications that are secondary to myocardial infarctions, cardiac surgeries ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Transesophageal Echocardiogram Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses ultrasound waves to examine the heart and great vessels. There are four basic TEE rescue views that are al ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Transesophageal Echocardiogram Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses ultrasound waves to examine the heart and great vessels. There are four basic TEE rescue views that are al ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity DO
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity MD/PA
Transposition Of The Great Arteries Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital pediatric cardiac defect arising from an embryological discordance between the aorta and pul ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Transposition Of The Great Arteries Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital pediatric cardiac defect arising from an embryological discordance between the aorta and pul ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Tricuspid Atresia Tricuspid atresia is a cyanotic congenital heart defect characterized by the complete agenesis of the tricuspid valve. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity DO
Tricuspid Atresia Tricuspid atresia is a cyanotic congenital heart defect characterized by the complete agenesis of the tricuspid valve. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity MD/PA
Tricuspid Regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitation, also called tricuspid insufficiency, is a relatively common condition that can result from structural abnormalities of any pa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Tricuspid Regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitation, also called tricuspid insufficiency, is a relatively common condition that can result from structural abnormalities of any pa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis is uncommon compared to left-sided infective endocarditis. Right-sided infected infective endocarditis accounts ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity DO
Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis is uncommon compared to left-sided infective endocarditis. Right-sided infected infective endocarditis accounts ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity MD/PA
Tricuspid Valve Repair Tricuspid valve repair is almost always performed due to tricuspid regurgitation and in conjunction with left-sided valve surgery or coronary artery b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Tricuspid Valve Repair Tricuspid valve repair is almost always performed due to tricuspid regurgitation and in conjunction with left-sided valve surgery or coronary artery b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Truncus Arteriosus Persistent truncus arteriosus (TA) is a rare, congenital, cyanotic heart defect characterized by a ventricular septal defect (VSD), a single truncal v ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Truncus Arteriosus Persistent truncus arteriosus (TA) is a rare, congenital, cyanotic heart defect characterized by a ventricular septal defect (VSD), a single truncal v ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity DO
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity MD/PA
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity DO
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity MD/PA
Vascular Aortic Arch Ring Aortic arch anomalies can give rise to vascular rings, a rare vascular anomaly with significant health implications. This activity deals with underst ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity DO
Vascular Aortic Arch Ring Aortic arch anomalies can give rise to vascular rings, a rare vascular anomaly with significant health implications. This activity deals with underst ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity MD/PA
Vascular Ring Double Aortic Arch The term "vascular ring" refers to the vascular structures that encircle and compress the trachea and esophagus, causing respiratory and gastrointesti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity DO
Vascular Ring Double Aortic Arch The term "vascular ring" refers to the vascular structures that encircle and compress the trachea and esophagus, causing respiratory and gastrointesti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity MD/PA
Vein Graft Stenosis The long-term patency and success of venous grafts in bypass surgery remains a challenge due to a variety of complications, such as the accelerated ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Vein Graft Stenosis The long-term patency and success of venous grafts in bypass surgery remains a challenge due to a variety of complications, such as the accelerated ra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Ventricular Aneurysm A left ventricular aneurysm is one of the worst complications after acute myocardial infarction. The natural course leading to the formation of a vent ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity DO
Ventricular Aneurysm A left ventricular aneurysm is one of the worst complications after acute myocardial infarction. The natural course leading to the formation of a vent ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity MD/PA
Ventricular Premature Complexes Ventricular premature beats (VPBs), or premature ventricular complexes/contractions (PVCs), are ectopic beats that arise from within the ventricles. T ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Ventricular Premature Complexes Ventricular premature beats (VPBs), or premature ventricular complexes/contractions (PVCs), are ectopic beats that arise from within the ventricles. T ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity MD/PA
Ventricular Septal Rupture In 1847, Latham first introduced the diagnosis of ventricular septal rupture (VSR). The interventricular septum divides the ventricular chamber into r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Ventricular Septal Rupture In 1847, Latham first introduced the diagnosis of ventricular septal rupture (VSR). The interventricular septum divides the ventricular chamber into r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA
Viral Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammatory process of the myocardium. It can present in the acute, subacute, or chronic phase with either focal or diffuse involve ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity DO
Viral Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammatory process of the myocardium. It can present in the acute, subacute, or chronic phase with either focal or diffuse involve ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity MD/PA
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity DO
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity MD/PA
Warm Blood Cardioplegia The current gold standard of cardiac surgical myocardial protection is the administration of cardioplegia. The optimal temperature of the cardioplegia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity DO
Warm Blood Cardioplegia The current gold standard of cardiac surgical myocardial protection is the administration of cardioplegia. The optimal temperature of the cardioplegia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity MD/PA

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