Pharmacy-Pharmacotherapy CE

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All of our activities are approved by ACPE (PharmD) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) ® content outlines. 1,790 authors and 28 editors have contributed to the development of the Pharmacy-Pharmacotherapy content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

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Pharmacy-Pharmacotherapy Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
131 I Sodium Iodide Radioiodine-131 is a therapeutic agent used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. This activity describes the ind ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine Toxicity This activity reviews the FDA-class 1 drug 3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA, ecstasy, or molly. The drug is known to promote a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
5 Alpha Reductase Inhibitors The 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (finasteride and dutasteride) are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hype ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abacavir Abacavir is an approved nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in combination with ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Abdominal Abscess Abdominal abscesses contain cellular debris, enzymes, and liquid and can be from an infectious or non-infectious source. They are a common and serious ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Abulia Abulia, also known as apathy, psychic akinesia, and athymia, refers to a lack of will, drive, or initiative for action, speech and thought, and is fel ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acanthosis Nigricans Acanthosis nigricans is a cutaneous manifestation of an underlying condition. It usually develops in in skin folds, such as the back of the neck, axil ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acarbose Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a growing concern around the world, and in the USA in particular, with clinicians encountering the condition more frequent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Many diseases and conditions list pain as a component of their presentation; as a result, pain management is of great importance to both clinicians an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Acetaminophen/Aspirin/Caffeine The FDA recognized the combination of acetylsalicylic acid (250 mg), acetaminophen (250 mg), and caffeine (65 mg) as safe and effective in treating ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acetazolamide Acetazolamide is a diuretic and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor medication that is used to treat several illnesses. FDA-approved indications include glau ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Toxicity Nerve agents are some of the most deadly and easily employed chemical warfare agents. Given the global threat of terrorism, it is prudent to have a ba ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Achlorhydria Achlorhydria is a condition in which the stomach does not produce hydrochloric acid, one of the components of gastric acid. Hydrochloric acid plays an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acitretin Acitretin belongs to a group of drugs known as retinoids. Retinoids include natural and synthetic compounds that have similar activity to vitamin A. V ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acne Fulminans Acne fulminans or acne maligna is a rare skin disorder presenting as an acute, painful, ulcerating, and hemorrhagic clinical form of acne. It may or m ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acne Vulgaris Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disorder of pilosebaceous unit, which runs a chronic course and it is self-limiting. Acne vulgaris is triggered by pr ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Acquired Angioedema Angioedema is characterized by one or more areas of well-demarcated, non-pitting edema of deep subcutaneous tissues. It is primarily known to involve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human immunodeficiency virus is transmitted sexually, via blood transfusions, sharing intravenous needles, and from the mother to a child during the b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Antiretroviral Therapy Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a significant health problem worldwide. Advances in treatment have made this disease not only manageable but ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive growth hormone production from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tissue ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Actinic Cheilitis Actinic cheilitis is a precancerous lesion that forms most commonly on the lower lip. Similar to actinic keratosis, actinic cheilitis can undergo mali ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Actinomycosis Actinomyces are gram-positive filamentous non-acid fast anaerobic to microaerophilic bacteria that typically colonize the human mouth, urogenital trac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Activated Charcoal An oral suspension of activated charcoal should be considered in poisonings when gastrointestinal decontamination of an ingested toxin is indicated. A ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Active Tuberculosis Active tuberculosis is a condition in which Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes infection; typically in the lungs, although many systems can be involved ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Bronchitis Acute bronchitis is the inflammation of the lining of the bronchi. It is a common presentation in emergency departments, urgent care centers, and in p ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma Acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ocular emergency that results from a rapid increase in intraocular pressure due to outflow obstruction of aqueous h ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Headache Headache is a nearly universal complaint. Most headaches are benign, and the majority of patients can be safely treated and discharged with minimal wo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Intermittent Porphyria Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by a deficiency of hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). It presents wi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a malignancy of B or T lymphoblasts characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of abnormal, immature lymphocytes ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Acute Mountain Sickness At higher altitudes, the decreased partial pressure of oxygen can cause several pathological presentations, including high altitude pulmonary edema, h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common leukemia among the adult population and accounts for about 80% of all cases. It is characterized by cl ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 31 Activity Info
Acute Postpartum Hemorrhage Obstetric hemorrhage is the most common and dangerous complication of childbirth. Traditionally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has been defined as great ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Acute Renal Colic Acute renal colic is severe pain resulting from the presence of a stone in the urinary system. The stone can be present anywhere along the path betwee ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Acute Renal Tubular Necrosis The most common intrinsic cause of acute kidney injury is acute tubular necrosis. Acute tubular necrosis is most common in hospitalized patients and c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Stress Disorder Acute stress disorder (ASD) was first outlined in 1994 at the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) as a new ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Acyclovir Acyclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of infections caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). It is FDA approved to treat gen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adalimumab Adalimumab is a fully human, high-affinity, recombinant anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha monoclonal antibody used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Addison Disease Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, which can have devastating consequences if not promptly recognized and appropriately treated. Often th ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Adenopathy Lymphadenopathy is a common abnormal finding during the course of the physical exam in general medical practice. Adenopathy can be caused by neoplasm, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Adrenal Insufficiency Adrenal glands produce hormones necessary for normal body functioning; the deficiency of these hormones is called adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentration. It is a life- ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Afatinib Afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a widely used medication for non-small cell lung carcinoma. This activity educates health care providers on ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
African Trypanosomiasis African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness is transmitted via the bite of the tsetse fly and is predominantly seen in subsaharan Africa. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Agoraphobia Agoraphobia is the anxiety that occurs when one is in a public or crowded place, from which a potential escape is difficult, or help may not be readil ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Agranulocytosis Agranulocytosis is a condition in which the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is less than 100 neutrophils per microlitre of the blood. Agranulocytosis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Albendazole Albendazole has FDA approval for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum resulting from the larval form of the dog ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Albumin Colloid Albumin is the most abundant protein in the blood and accounts for about 50 percent of all plasma proteins. It gets synthesized by the liver and secre ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Albuterol Albuterol is used for the treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (acute or severe) in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. It also h ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Alcohol Related Psychosis Psychosis associated with alcohol can occur with acute intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, and chronic alcoholism. Alcohol-related psychosis is also kno ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol use disorder is very common in the United States. The cause of alcohol use disorder is not well understood; however, several factors are thou ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Alcohol Withdrawal Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually appear when an individual discontinues or reduces alcohol intake after a period of prolonged consumption. In most ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Alcoholic Liver Disease The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is hepatic steatosis, which involves the accumulation of small fat droplets under liver cells approaching t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Alcoholic Pancreatitis Pancreatitis is defined as inflammation of the pancreas, leading to damage and dysfunction of the retroperitoneal organ. It can be classified as Acute ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Alendronate Alendronate is FDA-approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis, steroid-induced osteoporosis, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alfentanil Alfentanil is a short-acting opioid analgesic commonly compared to fentanyl, a medication that is ubiquitous in the hospital setting along with remife ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aliskiren Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor medication that is FDA approved to treat hypertension in adults and children six years and older. It may be used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a common fungal infection in uncontrolled asthmatics, cystic fibrosis patients, and immunocompromise ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN) is the most common form of acute interstitial nephritis. It is most often caused by exposure to a drug. AIN is o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease presenting with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an IgE ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Allopurinol Allopurinol is a urate-lowering medication that is FDA approved for the management of gout, prevention of tumor lysis syndrome, and prevention of recu ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Almotriptan Almotriptan is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraines. It is in the triptan 5-HT class of drugs. This activity reviews t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alogliptin Alogliptin was first approved by the FDA in January 2013 and is indicated to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alopecia The term alopecia means hair loss regardless of the cause. It is not exclusive to the scalp; it can be anywhere in the body. Many therapies are availa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alosetron Alosetron is a medication used to manage and treat severe diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). It is in the class of 5-HT receptor a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha 1 Receptor Agonists Alpha-1 agonists are a class of medications used in the management of many disorders, including vasodilatory shock, hypotension, hypoperfusion, septic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Adrenergic Receptors The indication for the use of an alpha-receptor modifying medication depends on which receptor is the target: the alpha-1 receptor or the alpha-2 rece ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alpha Blockers Alpha-blockers are medications used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and pheochromocytom ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitors Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a group of antidiabetic drugs used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This activity outlines the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Receptor Agonist Toxicity Alpha-adrenergic agonist toxicity is due to a broad group of pharmaceutical agents known as alpha agonists, which can be further broken down into cent ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alprazolam Alprazolam, known by various trade names, is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication in the United States. Alprazolam is frequently presc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Aluminum Hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of acid indigestion. It is in the antacid class of drugs. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Amantadine Amantadine is an antiviral agent with mild antiparkinsonian activity. Amantadine was used in the early 2000s for Influenza A treatment. However, high ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amatoxin Mushroom Toxicity Amatoxin containing mushrooms are a rare but significant cause of acute fulminant liver failure. However, not all Amanita species have this toxin, and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Amebiasis Amebiasis or amoebic dysentery is a parasitic intestinal infection caused by any of the amoebas of the Entamoeba group. It may be asymptomatic or pres ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amebic Liver Abscess Amebic liver abscess is the most common extra-intestinal manifestation of the protozoan, Entamoeba histolytica. The life cycle involves consumption of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Amikacin Amikacin is an antimicrobial with activity against more resistant gram-negative bacilli such as Acinetobacter baumanii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used to manage and treat acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aminoglycosides While aminoglycosides are an older class of medication, they continue to be clinically valuable. Aminoglycosides have a broad spectrum of activity cov ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Aminophylline Aminophylline is FDA approved for the treatment of reversible airway obstruction due to asthma or other chronic lung diseases. This activity illustrat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amlodipine Amlodipine is an oral dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Compared to nifedipine and other medications in the dihydropyridine class, amlodipine h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ammonia Toxicity Ammonia toxicity occurs when susceptible individuals suffer exposure to external sources of ammonia via ingestion, inhalation, direct contact with ski ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Amoxapine Amoxapine is an FDA approved drug belonging to the class of second-generation tricyclic dibenzoxazepine antidepressants. Generally, it is reserved for ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Amoxicillin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in the primary care setting. It is an amino-penicillin, created by adding an extra amino grou ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Amoxicillin Clavulanate Amoxicillin-clavulanate is a mainstay antibiotic in emergency departments and primary care offices throughout the country. It is a combination of two ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amphetamine Amphetamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy. It is classified as a central nervous system stimulant. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders Amphetamines belong to a class of compounds called phenethylamines which induce catecholaminergic effects in the CNS and peripheral circulation. Recre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amphotericin B Amphotericin B deoxycholate belongs to the polyene class of antifungals. It is also known by the name conventional amphotericin B and has been used fo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ampicillin Ampicillin is a medication used in the management and treatment of certain bacterial infections. It is in the penicillin class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as “Lou Gehrig’s disease,” is a neurodegenerative disease of the motor neurons. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Anabolic Steroid Toxicity Anabolic steroids such as testosterone are produced naturally and enhance protein synthesis at the cellular level. There are also synthetic analogs av ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anabolic Steroid Use Disorder Androgen use has become a major public health concern due to the transition of use of androgens from strictly sports to a much wider spectrum of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (also known as androgenic steroids) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Legal, as well as the illegal use of anabolic steroid ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Analgesic Nephropathy Analgesic nephropathy is chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis caused by chronic use of analgesics such as acetaminophen, aspirin, and NSAIDs as the pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Ancylostoma Ancylostoma duodenale, the human hookworm, is the most common parasitic infection in countries with poor access to adequate water, sanitation, and hyg ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Androgen Replacement Testosterone is FDA-approved as replacement therapy in men who have low testosterone levels and those with symptoms of hypogonadism. It is essential t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anemia Of Chronic Renal Disease Anemia of chronic renal disease, also known as anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a form of normocytic, normochromic, hypoproliferative anemia ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Angioneurotic Edema Angioneurotic edema is a relatively common presentation in the emergency department. It presents as unpredictable frequent edematous episodes of cutan ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease, heart fa ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade is a common and successful strategy in treating several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Angular Chelitis Angular cheilitis describes an inflammatory skin process of variable etiology occurring at the labial commissure, the angle of the mouth. It is usuall ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anifrolumab Anifrolumab is a novel investigational agent used in the management and treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). It is a fully humanized IgG1k ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the axial spine. Chronic back pain and progressive spinal stiffness are the most common f ... Read the Article 2.25 36 Activity Info
Anorexia and Cachexia Cachexia is a significant loss of muscle and adipose tissue. It occurs in patients with advanced cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chroni ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Antacids Antacids are a group of drugs that have been on the market for many years. They were initially first-line defense against peptic ulcer disease; howeve ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction Anteroseptal myocardial infarctions are commonly caused by the rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the left anterior descending artery. D ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anthracyclines Anthracyclines are drugs extracted from Streptomyces spp and used in the treatment of various types of cancers. These agents are among the most effect ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Medications Anticholinergic medications are used in the management and treatment of a wide range of diseases. This activity illustrates the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Toxicity Anticholinergic toxicity is commonly seen in the emergency department but is rarely fatal. According to the 2015 annual American Association of Poison ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anticoagulation Safety One class of drugs that has been implicated in serious adverse drugs reactions for many decades are the oral anticoagulants, especially warfarin. Ther ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Anticonvulsants Toxicity Anticonvulsants, or antiepileptics, are an ever-growing class of medications that act through multiple different mechanisms to control seizures. Antie ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Antidepressants While antidepressants may be the drug of choice for depression, they also have FDA approval as treatments for other medical disorders. For example, an ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Antidotes Overdoses and accidental ingestions or exposures are common throughout the world. With more than 2.4 million toxic exposures each year, poisoning is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiemetic Antimuscarinics Scopolamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of motion sickness and postoperative nausea/vomiting. It is in the antimuscarinic cla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiemetic Neurokinin-1 Receptor Blockers Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a new class of antiemetic drugs that possess unique anxiolytic, antidepressant, and antiemetic properties ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiemetic Serotonin-5-HT3 Receptor Blockers Selective serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antifungal Antibiotics Fungi are unicellular or multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms that exist in all environments worldwide. While most fungi do not play a significant role ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Antifungal Ergosterol Synthesis Inhibitors The ergosterol inhibitor class of medications ("conazoles") is used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. These drugs inhibit ergoster ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Antihistamine Toxicity In 1943, as the planet was engulfed in WWII and the United States was officially announcing the end of The Great Depression, the most common modern an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Antihistamines Antihistamines are a pharmaceutical class of drugs that act to treat histamine-mediated conditions. There are two main classes of histamine receptors: ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Antihypertensive Medications Hypertension (HTN) is considered one of the leading causes of increased cardiovascular disease. Lowering blood pressure does reduce cardiovascular ris ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Antimalarial Medications When treating patients suspected of having malaria, it is essential that treatment does not initiate until the diagnosis of malaria has been establish ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antiparasitic Drugs Antiparasitic drugs are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of infections by parasites, including protozoa, helminths, and ect ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Drug Toxicity Antiplatelet medications are primarily used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related events. Currently, there are fou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Medications Over time, numerous antiplatelet agents have been developed with a multitude of indications. Antiplatelet medications divide into oral and parenteral ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antipsychotic Medications First-generation antipsychotics are dopamine receptor antagonists (DRA) and are known as typical antipsychotics. Second-generation antipsychotics are ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Antisialagogues Antisialagogues are medications often used to manage and treat patients with noisy breathing near the end of life. These medications are members of th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antitubercular Medications Antitubercular medications: rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol are FDA approved for the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infecti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anxiolytics and Sedative-Hypnotics Toxicity Anxiolytics and sedative-hypnotics are widely consumed at home and in a hospital setting. This activity reviews the most commonly used agents of these ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Infective endocarditis occurs globally and is defined by the infection of the endocardial surface of the native valve, prosthetic heart valve, or an i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aphthous Stomatitis Aphthous stomatitis is a common ailment, idiopathic in nature, with recurrent painful aphthous ulcers (commonly termed “canker sores”) on the non-kera ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Apixaban Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 for use in patients with non-valv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Aprepitant Aprepitant is a medication used in the management and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and postoperative nausea and vomiti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Argatroban Argatroban is a medication used in the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), which is a rare, life-threatening complication of hepari ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arginase Deficiency Argininemia is an autosomal recessive disorder causing hyperammonemia secondary to arginine accumulation. It is a disorder first noticed in children w ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aripiprazole Aripiprazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, mania associated with bipolar I disorder, irritability associated ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Aromatase Inhibitors Anastrozole is a medication used in the management and treatment of breast cancer. It is in the aromatase inhibitors class of drugs. This activity des ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arsenic Toxicity Arsenic poisoning is a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide through environmental and occupational exposure, as well as intentio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Arsenical Keratosis Arsenical keratosis is an important cutaneous manifestation of chronic arsenic toxicity (CAT). As it is a common presenting complaint of CAT and a pre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Arthritis Arthritis is defined as an acute or chronic joint inflammation in the joint. Arthritis may attribute to a wide variety of symptoms that include pain, ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Aspart Insulin Insulin aspart is a rapid-acting, human insulin analog that is FDA approved for the treatment of type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycem ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Asteatotic Eczema This activity outlines the evaluation and treatment of asteatotic eczema and reviews the role of the healthcare team in managing patients with this co ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Asthma Anesthesia Asthma is characterized by variable and often reversible airway obstruction with bronchial hyperreactivity. An estimated 8.4% of people in the US have ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Asthma Medication in Children Asthma typically presents with a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, and is characterize ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Asthma Medications Asthma is a wide-reaching, chronic inflammatory illness that impacts millions of people daily. It is frequently responsible for unscheduled healthcare ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atazanavir Atazanavir is FDA approved for the treatment of HIV-1 infection, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, for patients who are 3-months-old or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atenolol Atenolol is a second-generation beta-1-selective adrenergic antagonist indicated in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and acute myocardi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atomoxetine Atomoxetine is indicated for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children over the age of 6. Although atomo ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a specific form of eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Atopic dermatitis has a complex etio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Atorvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Dissociation Atrioventricular dissociation is a cardiac conduction defect where the atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. It can occur due to vari ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) is a macroreentrant tachycardia that needs an accessory pathway to bypass the conventional conductio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Atypical Antipsychotic Agents In recent years, the atypical antipsychotics or second-generation antipsychotics have become the drugs of choice for acute psychoses. They are “atypic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atypical Bacterial Pneumonia Pneumonia is a lower respiratory tract infection, specifically involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Autoimmune Hepatitis and Pregnancy Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disorder usually characterized by circulating autoantibodies and elevated serum globulin le ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Autonomic Pharmacology The basis of autonomic pharmacology reflects the physiology of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) to r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Azathioprine Azathioprine (AZA) is a medication used in the management and treatment of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the prevention of kidney transplant r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Azilsartan Azilsartan is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin-receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Azithromycin Azithromycin is an antimicrobial medication used in the treatment and management of bacterial infections, including community-acquired pneumonia and s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacillus Cereus Bacillus cereus is a facultatively anaerobic, toxin-producing gram-positive bacteria that can be found in soil vegetation and even food. This may caus ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacitracin Topical Bacitracin is a topical antibiotic ointment widely used by both medical professionals and the general public to treat minor skin injuries including cu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Baclofen Baclofen is used to treat muscle spasticity; it is FDA-approved for the management of reversible spasticity, particularly for the relief of flexor spa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacterial Diarrhea Diarrhea consists of the passage of watery and loose stools multiple times a day (usually more than 3), though specific definitions may vary when appl ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Bacterial Endophthalmitis The word "endophthalmitis" can be broken down in greek to "interior-eye-inflammation" and is used to describe an infection of the vitreous or the aque ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Tracheitis Bacterial tracheitis, also known as bacterial croup, acute laryngotracheobronchitis, or membranous croup, is a potentially lethal infection of the sub ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a condition caused by an overgrowth of normal vaginal flora. Most commonly, this presents clinically with increased vaginal dis ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bacteriostatic Antibiotics The term "bacteriostatic antibiotics" is used to describe medications whose mechanism of action stalls bacterial cellular activity without directly ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacteroides Fragilis The human colon possesses the largest population of bacteria in the body, and the majority of these organisms are anaerobes; of these, about 25 percen ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Balanitis Balanitis is an inflammation of the glans penis. Men with balanitis often present with penile pain and erythema. This activity explains the risk facto ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Balanitis Circumscripta Plasmacellularis Balanitis circumscripta is a chronic idiopathic reactive balanoposthitis that can occur in uncircumcised men and is caused by a dysfunctional foreskin ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barbiturates Barbiturates are a group of sedative-hypnotic medications used for the treatment of seizure disorder, neonatal withdrawal, insomnia, preoperative anxi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bartter Syndrome Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of salt reabsorption resulting in extracellular fluid volume depletion with low/normal blood press ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Basal Cell Cancer Basal cell carcinoma a common cutaneous malignancy that occurs mostly on sun-damaged skin of the head, neck, and trunk. Basal cell carcinoma can be di ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Behcet Disease Behcet disease, also known as an oculo-orogenital syndrome, is a chronic remitting and relapsing inflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent oral ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Benazepril Benazepril is a drug used in the management of hypertension. It is in the ACE inhibitor class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benign Essential Blepharospasm Benign essential blepharospasm is a focal cranial dystonia, characterized by involuntary contractions of orbicularis oculi muscle contractions, result ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common condition encountered in aging men and a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms. Histological pre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benzocaine Benzocaine is a local anesthetic used in the management of pain control. It is in the ester local anesthetic class of medications. This activity descr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide and shortly thereafter diazepam, benzodiazepines quickly became popular medications secondar ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines are especially important in the cessation of seizure activity, as 1% to 2% of emergency department visits annually in the United State ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Benzoyl Peroxide Benzoyl peroxide is an over-the-counter topical medication and is also an FDA-approved prescription medication for the treatment of acne vulgaris. It ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Benztropine Benztropine is FDA approved as adjunctive therapy for all forms of parkinsonism. It is also used for drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms and the prev ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta 2 Agonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of medications used in the frontline management and treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta 2 Receptor Agonists/Antagonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are cell-surface receptors clinically taken advantage of in the management of bronchospasm as in patients with bronchial a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta Lactam Antibiotics Beta-lactam antibiotics are used in the management and treatment of bacterial infections. This activity will highlight the mechanism of action, advers ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors Beta-lactamase inhibitors are drugs that are co-administered with beta-lactam antimicrobials to prevent antimicrobial resistance by inhibiting serine ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in managing and treating open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and chronic s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved for the treatment of postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by ne ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bevacizumab Bevacizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and is used for the treatment of several differen ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Biliary Colic Biliary colic is defined as pain in the abdomen, due to obstruction usually by stones in the cystic duct or common bile duct of the biliary tree. It t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Biologic Response Modifiers (BRMs) Biologic response modifiers (BRMs), also known as immunomodulators, are the class of medications that target the disease-causing mechanism. They are u ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Biologic Warfare Agent Toxicity Biological warfare agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and biological toxins. Some agents are frequently lethal, while others are intended to cau ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Biotin Deficiency Biotin is a B-complex vitamin that serves as an essential coenzyme for five carboxylases: pyruvate carboxylase, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase, prop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Biotinidase Deficiency Biotin acts as a coenzyme for four carboxylation enzymes in the body: 3-methylcrontonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), acetyl-CoA c ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bipolar Affective Disorder Bipolar affective disorder is a chronic and complex disorder of mood that is characterized by a combination of manic (bipolar mania), hypomanic and de ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Bisacodyl Bisacodyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic or functional constipation. This activity outlines the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bismuth Subsalicylate Bismuth subsalicylate is a medication that is used in the management and treatment of gastrointestinal discomfort and traveler's diarrhea. It is in th ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Bisoprolol Bisoprolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is in the selective beta-blocker clas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Bisphosphonates define a class of drugs that are widely indicated since the 1990s to treat osteoporosis both in men and women. Their effectiveness in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Related Jaw Osteonecrosis Bisphosphonates are synthetic pyrophosphate analogs used to treat hypercalcemia secondary to conditions affecting bone resorption such as malignancy, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bisphosphonate Toxicity In the second half of the 20th century, bisphosphonates have emerged as a novel treatment for bone metabolism disorders. Currently, bisphosphonates ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bivalirudin Bivalirudin is a medication used in the management and treatment of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Black Cohosh Black Cohosh, or Cimicifuga racemosa, is a perennial dicot of the Buttercup family native to the Eastern half of the United States and Canada. It is a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Black Piedra Piedra is a superficial fungal infection of hair shafts, which presents with small nodules stuck-on to the shaft. Black piedra, caused by Piedraia hor ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bladder Sphincter Dyssynergia Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia is a common cause of lower urinary tract symptoms in a patient with spinal cord injury and various other neurological d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blastomycosis Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Blastomyces dermatitidis. It presents as a pulmonary infection after the inhalation of spores, and it ma ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bleomycin Bleomycin has approval for adult use in the treatment of squamous cell cancer of head and neck regions, Hodgkin's lymphoma, testicular carcinoma. It i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Body Piercing Infections Body piercings have become increasingly popular and are a socially acceptable form of body modification. Common site of piercings are the ears, mouth, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bortezomib Bortezomib is FDA-approved for use in the initial treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone. It is also FDA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Botulinum Toxin Botulinum toxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of therapeutic and cosmetic purposes. Therapeutic uses include chronic migraine, ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Botulism Botulism is a rare, potentially fatal syndrome of diffuse, flaccid paralysis caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) which is elaborated by the bacteriu ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Botulism Antitoxin Botulinum antitoxin, also known as botulism antitoxin, is comprised of antibodies or antibody antigen-binding fragments that block the neurotoxin prod ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brexanolone Brexanolone is a medication used in the treatment of postpartum depression in adult women. It is in the GABA-A modulator class of medications. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brodalumab Brodalumab is a monoclonal antibody approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of moderate to severe plaque ps ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bromocriptine Bromocriptine is a medication currently used in the management and treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is an ergot alkaloid derivative in the d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bronchodilators Bronchodilators are indicated for individuals that have lower than optimal airflow through the lungs. The mainstay of treatment is beta-2 agonists tha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Budesonide Budesonide is a medication used in the management and treatment of the inflammatory diseases, mainly affecting the airways and gastrointestinal tract. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bulimia Nervosa Bulimia nervosa is a disorder that is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behavior to control weight with potentially dangero ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Bullous Myringitis Bullous myringitis (BM) is a relatively common infectious condition characterized by bullae or vesicles on the tympanic membrane without affecting the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bumetanide Bumetanide is FDA approved for the management of various edematous conditions secondary to cardiac failure or hepatic or renal disease, including neph ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Buprenorphine Buprenorphine, a synthetic opioid, treats pain and opioid use syndrome. It was developed in the late 1960s. It is a synthetic analog of thebaine, whic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bupropion Bupropion is an antidepressant medication that is now also used in smoking cessation. Bupropion has been FDA-approved since 1985. The drug is FDA-appr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic. Originally the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but found not to be effective for psychosis, but it had anxio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Busulfan Busulfan is a medication used in the management and treatment of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation specifically for patients wi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Butterbur Butterbur (derived from the leaves of Petasites japonicus) is an herbal supplement that has been found to be effective in the prophylaxis of adult mig ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Caffeine Withdrawal Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Unlike other p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcineurin Inhibitors Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) are composed of three drugs (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and pimecrolimus). They are primarily used as immunosuppressive dr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcitonin Salmon calcitonin (after this referred to as “calcitonin”) is an analog of human calcitonin used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Page ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor CGRP receptor antagonists and monoclonal antibodies against CGRP and its receptor are medications used in the management and treatment of migraine, wh ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Calcitriol Calcitriol is a hormonally-active, synthetic, vitamin D analog prescribed for the treatment of hypocalcemia, osteoporosis, and prevention of corticost ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Carbonate Calcium carbonate is an inorganic salt primarily used in the management and treatment of low calcium conditions, GERD, CKD, and a variety of other ind ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are among the most commonly used cardiovascular drugs in the adult population. Like most other medications, when calci ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel antagonists, also known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have been widely used for many indications. These agents are often classif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Gluconate Calcium gluconate is a medication used to manage hypocalcemia, cardiac arrest, and cardiotoxicity due to hyperkalemia or hypermagnesemia. It is classi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD) is a crystal deposition arthropathy involving the synovial and periarticular tissues. Its clinical pre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Cancer-associated Thrombosis Cancer-associated thrombosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality for cancer patients. It commonly occurs in patients with clinical ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Candesartan Candesartan is an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker. It is available as a pro-drug, candesartan cilexetil, which undergoes hydrolysis in the gastro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Candida Auris Candida auris is an emerging fungal pathogen that is associated with nosocomial infections and is considered a serious global health threat. It has nu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cannabidiol (CBD) CBD is a medication used in the management and treatment of the seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. This activity describes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cannabinoid Toxicity Cannabinoids are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. They include plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cannabinoids Cannabinoids are biologically active compounds used in the management and treatment of appetite/weight loss from HIV/AIDS and chemotherapy in addition ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cannaboinoid Antiemetic Therapy There are currently three cannabinoids available on the pharmaceutical market. Dronabinol and nabilone are both synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Capsaicin Capsaicin is a chili pepper extract, genus Capsicum, with analgesic properties. Since its discovery, it is used as a homeopathic remedy to treat burni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Captopril Captopril is an FDA-approved medication used in the management of hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Carbamazepine is used in the management and treatment for epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and acute manic and mixed episodes in bipolar I disorder. In ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Carbapenem Resistant Enterobacteriaceae Gram-negative bacterial resistance to antibiotics has decreased the physician’s ability to combat infection. Carbapenems are the most potent beta-lact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbidopa Carbidopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). It is in the decarboxylase inhibitor class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are a medication used in the management and treatment of glaucoma, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, altitude sickne ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carcinoid Tumors Carcinoid tumors are slow-growing tumors arising from neuroendocrine cells and capable of secreting a variety of peptides and neuroamines. The common ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardioactive Steroid Toxicity Cardioactive steroids (CAS) are medically important compounds historically used for conditions like edema and "dropsy." They are available in several ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardioembolic Stroke An estimated 26 million people suffer a stroke each year, making it a significant source of mortality and long-term disability. Up to two-thirds of st ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiorenal Syndrome The cardiorenal syndrome includes multiple subtypes based on underlying pathology and chronicity. Each subtype involves unique pathophysiology, and th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carisoprodol Carisoprodol is an FDA-approved drug indicated for the relief of discomfort associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Although market ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carvedilol Carvedilol is a non-selective adrenergic blocker indicated for the chronic therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), hypertensi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Caspofungin Caspofungin is a drug in the echinocandins class of medications, used in the management and treatment of several medical conditions. These conditions ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cataplexy Cataplexy, a physical feature of narcolepsy, is characterized by transient episodes of voluntary muscle weakness precipitated by intense emotion. Subj ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Catatonia Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by abnormal movements, behaviors, and withdrawal, is a condition that is most often seen in mood ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis Cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is a rare, life-threatening disorder that can complicate facial infection, sinusitis, orbital cellulitis, pharyngitis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cefepime Cefepime is a cephalosporin in the beta-lactam class of antibiotics used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cefotaxime Cefotaxime(CTX) is a medication used in the management and treatment of cervicitis/urethritis and pneumonia. Cefotaxime (CTX) is a beta-lactam antibio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Celecoxib The FDA recommends celecoxib and other NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), along with acetaminophen, as first-line analgesics for patients ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Centipede Envenomation Centipede bites are uncommon but can be clinically significant in regards to patient discomfort, morbidity, and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Central Pain Syndrome Central sensitization of pain occurs when the patient's nervous system is persistently in a state of high activity. This state decreases sensitivity t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cephalexin Cephalexin is an FDA-approved antibiotic. Cephalexin is a first-generation cephalosporin utilized in the treatment of urinary tract infections, respir ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cephalosporins Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antimicrobials used to manage a wide range of infections from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The five genera ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a potential cause of hyponatremia in the setting of disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Cerebral salt wasting ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), which includes thrombosis of the cerebral veins and the dural sinuses, is a rare disorder that can lead to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cetirizine Cetirizine is a medication used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. This activity reviews th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cetuximab Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with the following FDA-approved indications: colorectal cancer, metastatic, KRAS wil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chancroid Chancroid is an exceedingly rare sexually transmitted infection, both in the United States and globally. Knowledge regarding its true prevalence is ma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chemotherapy Acral Erythema Acral erythema is also known as palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (PPE), palmoplantar erythrodysesthesia, hand-foot syndrome (HFS), or Burgdorf reacti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Chloramphenicol Chloramphenicol is a medication used in the management and treatment of superficial eye infections such as bacterial conjunctivitis, and otitis extern ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chlordiazepoxide Chlordiazepoxide is a long-acting benzodiazepine and is an FDA approved medication for adults with mild-moderate to severe anxiety, preoperative anxie ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Chloroprocaine Chloroprocaine is an ester class local anesthetic and is indicated for neuraxial anesthesia (caudal, epidural and spinal), as well as peripheral nerve ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chloroquine Chloroquine is a medication used in the management and treatment of malaria and inflammatory diseases. It is in the sulfonamides class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine, a less toxic metabolite of chloroquine, can cause pathologic ocular damage unless strict prescribing and screening ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine is a medication used to manage and treat schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and acute psychosis. It is in the category of typical antipsy ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chlorthalidone Chlorthalidone is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the thiazide-like diuretics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Choledocholithiasis Choledocholithiasis is the presence of stones within the common bile duct. It is estimated that common bile duct stones are present in anywhere from 1 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cholera Cholera is an acute secretory diarrheal illness caused by the bacteria Vibrio cholerae. It is estimated to cause upwards of four million cases per yea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cholestatic Jaundice Cholestasis is defined as stagnation, or at least a marked reduction, in bile secretion and flow. Cholestasis can be due to a functional impairment of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholestyramine Resin Cholestyramine is used for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia. The reduction in LDL cholesterol by the resin is dose-dependent. A dose of 8 ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cholinergic Crisis A cholinergic crisis develops as a result of overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions. This is usually sec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholinergic Medications Cholinergic medications are a category of pharmaceutical agents that act upon the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter within ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cholinergic Toxicity Cholinergic toxicity is caused by substances that stimulate, enhance or mimic the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter of the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholinesterase Inhibitors Cholinesterase inhibitors function to decrease the breakdown of acetylcholine. They SEe use in the treatment of Alzheimer and dementia symptoms. This ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chronic Closed Angle Glaucoma Chronic closed-angle glaucoma, also called chronic angle-closure glaucoma, is a condition that can be a cause of permanent vision loss if not diagnose ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Diarrhea Chronic diarrhea is defined as loose/watery stools, which occur three or more times within 24 hours and lasts for 4 or more weeks. This activity outli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in the United States affecting about one-third of the general population. According to the third edition of ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Chronic Iron Deficiency Chronic iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world and a significant common cause of anemia worldwide. It is mainly caused by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Liver Disease Chronic liver disease is a progressive deterioration of liver functions. Liver functions include the production of clotting factors and other proteins ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2.25 37 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Over one-quarter of United States citizens suffer from chronic pain. It is among the most common complaints seen in an outpatient clinic. The failure ... Read the Article 2.75 43 Activity Info
Chronic Pelvic Pain Chronic pelvic pain can be a disabling, chronic, persistent pain, within the pelvis in women. Relatively common, chronic pelvic pain is associated wit ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Chronic Sinusitis Chronic sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinus or nasal passages occurring for more than 12 weeks at a time. It may present as chronic sinusitis wi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Testicular Pain And Orchalgia Chronic orchialgia is defined as 3 months of intermittent or constant testicular pain that is significantly bothersome to the patient. It is the cause ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Thrombo-Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Chronic pulmonary embolism (also known as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is a potentially life-threatening condition and is associated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chronic Transplantation Rejection Transplant rejection can be classified as hyperacute, acute, or chronic. Hyperacute rejection is usually caused by specific antibodies against the gra ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Urticaria Chronic spontaneous urticaria is defined as the occurrence of wheals and/or angioedema for a total duration of six weeks or more. Synonymous with "chr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ciguatera Toxicity Ciguatera toxicity is a food-borne illness caused by eating fish contaminated with Ciguatoxin. This toxin is a potent neurotoxin, and it is produced b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cilostazol Cilostazol is a quinolone derivative primarily used for the treatment of intermittent claudication due to peripheral vascular disease; this is the FDA ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cimetidine Cimetidine is a drug with the indication of peptic ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and for dermatological conditions including warts, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cinacalcet Cinacalcet is a medication used in the management and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (on dialysis population), primary hyperparathyroidism ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ciprofloxacin Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic agent in the fluoroquinolone class used to treat bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections and pneumonia. C ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cisplatin Cisplatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of solid tumors and hematologic malignancies. It is in the alkylating agent class of cy ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Citalopram Citalopram hydrobromide is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The primary FDA-approved clinical use for citalopram hydrobromide is for the trea ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cladribine Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, resulting in loss of oligodendrocytes, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clavulanic Acid Clavulanic acid is a medication that can be used in conjunction with amoxicillin in the management and treatment of bacterial infections, specifically ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clindamycin Clindamycin is a medication used for the treatment of numerous infections, including but not limited to septicemia, intra-abdominal infections, lower ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clobazam Clobazam was synthesized in the 1960s with a primary goal of providing greater efficacy with fewer benzodiazepine-related side effects. FDA indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clomiphene Clomiphene is a medication used in the management and treatment of anovulatory or oligo-ovulatory infertility to induce ovulation for patients desirin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clomipramine The only FDA approved use for clomipramine is for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in ages 10 and older. For the treatment of OCD, clomipr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clonazepam Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug used for the acute management of panic disorder, epilepsy, and non-convulsive status epilepticus. It also has many ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug tha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clonidine Toxicity Clonidine is a commonly prescribed biochemical derivative of imidazoline with a variety of clinical uses. It was originally developed as a nasal decon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Clotrimazole Clotrimazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the imidazole class of drugs. This activity outlines ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clozapine Clozapine is an FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is not the first-line drug of choice d ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Cluster Headache Cluster headaches are the most common of the primary headache type known as trigeminal autonomic cephalgia. They are fairly rare, plaguing 0.1% of the ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cocaine Toxicity Cocaine abuse is a major worldwide health problem. Patients with acute cocaine toxicity may require urgent treatment for tachycardia, dysrhythmia, hyp ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Codeine Codeine is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain. It is in the opioid class of medications. This activity outlines the ind ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 is not FDA-approved to treat any medical condition, although it is widely available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and recommended by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colchicine Colchicine has FDA approval for gout prophylaxis and treatment of acute gouty flares. It also has approval for the treatment of familial Mediterranean ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colesevelam Colesevelam is an FDA-approved antihyperlipidemic drug. When treating hyperlipidemia, colesevelam should be used in conjunction with restriction of ch ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Coma Altered mental status is a catch-all term that includes a spectrum of patient behaviors ranging from confusion to deep unresponsiveness. Coma is at on ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Common Variable Immunodeficiency Common variable immunodeficiency is a disorder characterized by defective B cell function leading to impaired immunoglobulin production. It can presen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization, mortality, and incurs significant health care costs. As disease presentation varie ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 2.5 38 Activity Info
Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva. It is the most common presentation of eye redness in both primary care and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Contact Dermatitis Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory eczematous skin disease. It is caused by chemicals or metal ions that exert toxic effects without inducing a T-c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Contact Urticaria Contact urticaria is a transient wheal and flare response on exposure to specific agents, especially in the work environment. Contact urticaria falls ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Copper Toxicity Copper metabolism plays an important role in physiologic homeostasis. Copper toxicity, however, induces several pathologic processes that are detrimen ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Prevention In the United States, cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. According to the AHA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Vasospasm Coronary artery vasospasm (CAVS) is a constriction of the coronary arteries that can cause complete or near-complete occlusion of the vessel. In 1959, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corticosteroid Adverse Effects Corticosteroids are hormone mediators produced by the cortex of adrenal glands that further categorize into glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and a ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Corticosteroid Induced Myopathy Corticosteroid-induced myopathy is an iatrogenic myopathy caused by chronic high to moderate systemic corticosteroid use. This is a common condition t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas of medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cosmeceuticals The term 'cosmeceutical' has always been controversial, with the lack of a proper definition, its difference from individual cosmetic and pharmaceutic ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Cow Milk Allergy Cow's milk allergy is an allergic reaction to the protein found in cow’s milk. Diagnosis can be difficult as it is primarily based on history and phys ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
COX Inhibitors COX inhibitors are medications used in the management and treatment of chronic pain syndromes. They are in the anti-inflammatory class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Cradle Cap Cradle cap, or pityriasis capitis, is a subset of infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). It is a very common, mostly self-limiting, chronic non-inflam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Crescentric Glomerulonephritis Crescentric glomerulonephritis, also known as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, is a condition of the kidney characterized by a rapid loss of re ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn sodium is a medication used to manage bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and certain allergic eye conditions such as vernal conjunctivitis, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Crotalidae Envenomation Crotalid envenomations cause a spectrum of disease, with both localized and systemic toxicity, which can result in both prolonged morbidity and rarely ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cryptococcal Meningitis Cryptococcosis is an opportunistic infection that causes more than 100,000 HIV-related deaths each year. Although the infection is usually HIV-related ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Cushing Disease Cushing disease is an endocrine disorder characterized by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production by the anterior pituitary, leading t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction Cutaneous adverse drug reactions (CADR), also known as toxidermia, are skin manifestations resulting from systemic drug administration. These reaction ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cutaneous Cryptococcus Cryptococcus is an encapsulated fungus and an opportunistic pathogen. These commonly infect the central nervous system but can present with a variety ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cyanocobalamin Cyanocobalamin is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiencies. This activity reviews the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cyclobenzaprine Cyclobenzaprine is FDA-approved as an adjunct to rest for the treatment of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Cyc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyclophosphamide Cyclophosphamide is a medication primarily used in the management and treatment of neoplasms, including multiple myeloma, sarcoma, and breast cancer. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cyclosporine Cyclosporine is an immunosuppressive agent used to treat organ rejection post-transplant. It also has use in certain other autoimmune diseases, treatm ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cystic Fibrosis Until relatively modern times, cystic fibrosis was poorly understood. In 1949, Lowe et al. postulated that cystic fibrosis must be caused by a geneti ... Read the Article 2.5 42 Activity Info
Cystic Kidney Disease Cystic kidney diseases are multisystemic disorders that can develop due to genetic or non-genetic causes in children and adults. These can be a seriou ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cystitis Cystitis refers to infection of the lower urinary tract, or more specifically the urinary bladder. It may be broadly categorized as either uncomplicat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cytarabine Cytarabine is a medication used in the management and treatment of leukemias and lymphomas. It belongs to the anthracycline group of medications. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a wide-spread virus, with manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to severe end-organ dysfunction in immunocompromised patie ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Dakin Solution Dakin solution, also called Dakin fluid or Carrel-Dakin fluid, is a dilute sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) solution that is commonly known as bleach. The ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Danazol Danazol is a drug used in the management of endometriosis, a condition in which endometrial cells grow on tissue outside the uterus, including the fal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dantrolene Dantrolene sodium is a postsynaptic muscle relaxant with multiple indications in the fields of anesthesiology and neurology. While there are many indi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dapsone Dapsone is indicated for a variety of conditions, both dermatologic and non-dermatologic. The FDA-approved indications are leprosy and dermatitis herp ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Daptomycin Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic derived from the organism Streptomyces roseosporus. Daptomycin is used to treat various bacterial infect ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Daunorubicin Daunorubicin is an anthracycline antibiotic mainly used to treat various types of cancers, especially leukemias. It can be used to treat both acute an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dawn Phenomenon The "dawn phenomenon" refers to periodic episodes of hyperglycemia experienced by patients with diabetes in the early morning hours. This clinical ent ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
De Quervain Thyroiditis In general, thyroiditis is defined as an inflammation of the thyroid gland. There are several kinds of thyroiditis, and they can be associated with ei ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Deadly Single Dose Agents Although the basics of evaluating and treating most unknown ingestants are well known, many overdoses require very specific treatment if the patient i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Deferoxamine Deferoxamine is a medication used in Iron and aluminum toxicity. It is in the chelator class of drugs. This activity reviews the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Delayed Puberty Delayed puberty not infrequently occurs in the pediatric population and a common reason for referral to a pediatric endocrinologist. While it is usual ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Delusional Disorder A delusion is a fixed false belief based on an inaccurate interpretation of an external reality despite evidence to the contrary. The diagnosis of a d ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Denosumab Denosumab is a bone anti-resorptive drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis and other bone-related disorders. FDA-approved indications include pre ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dental Abscess Dental infections, while relatively straightforward regarding diagnosis and access, can be challenging to manage acutely. Dental abscesses or periapic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Depressive Cognitive Disorders Depressive cognitive disorders, also called pseudodementia (a term founded by Kiloh in the year 1961), is defined as the cognitive and functional impa ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Desflurane The FDA-approved indications for desflurane are induction or maintenance of anesthesia in adults. It may also be used to maintain anesthesia in pediat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Desipramine Desipramine is a secondary amine tricyclic antidepressant that is FDA approved for the treatment of depression. This drug has off-label use to treat b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Desmopressin Desmopressin is a drug that acts on the vasopressin receptors of the body. It has many relevant clinical uses, ranging from nocturnal enuresis to hemo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Desvenlafaxine Desvenlafaxine is an antidepressant that is an FDA-approved drug to treat major depressive disorder in adults. For healthy women who have contraindica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dexrazoxane Dexrazoxane is a medication used in the management and treatment of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity and extravasation injuries. It is in the clas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dextran Dextran is a medication used in managing and treating various clinical conditions, including during hemorrhage, shock, surgical procedures, radiologic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dextroamphetamine-Amphetamine Dextroamphetamine/amphetamine belongs to a class of drugs known as central nervous system stimulants. The Drug Enforcement Administration/Food and Dru ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dextromethorphan Dextromethorphan received FDA approval in 1958 for its use as a cough suppressant. It is one of the most common compounds found in most over-the-count ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin or AVP) ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Diabetic Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is defined by objective delaying of gastric emptying without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetic gastroparesis is a potenti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diabetic Nephropathy Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the main cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in developed countries, including the United States. It is consider ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Diamond Blackfan Anemia Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital type of anemia with pure red cell aplasia causing congenital bone abnormalities and most commonly presen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diaper Dermatitis Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen i ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Diazepam Diazepam is a benzodiazepine medication that is FDA approved for the management of anxiety disorders, short-term relief of anxiety symptoms, spasticit ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Didanosine Didanosine is a medication used in the management and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dietary Calcium Adequate calcium intake, from either direct food sources or calcium supplements, is essential for nutrition in patients of all ages. This article will ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diffuse Toxic Goiter Goiter is an anatomical enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can be related with thyroid dysfunction or have normal thyroid function. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digitalis Toxicity Digoxin is a well-known cardiac glycoside and one of the oldest drugs used today in cardiovascular medicine. It has wide-ranging beneficial effects an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used to manage and treat heart failure and certain arrhythmias, and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside class of drugs. T ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diltiazem Diltiazem is an oral and parenteral non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in many clinical scenarios as an antihypertensive, anti-ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dimercaprol Dimercaprol is a medication used in the treatment of toxic exposure to arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead. It is in the chelating class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP IV) Inhibitors Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a group of antihyperglycemic medications used to manage type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is a significant ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Toxicity Diphenhydramine is most often used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, allergic rhinitis, mild to severe allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Diphtheria Diphtheria is a toxin-mediated infection caused by Corynebacterium species, primarily Corynebacterium diphtheria. It causes skin and mucosal infection ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Diphyllobothrium Latum Diphyllobothriasis is a zoonotic infection that suffers from a lack of awareness in the medical field but has seen a recent resurgence in cases global ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dipyridamole Dipyridamole is an antiplatelet agent used in secondary prophylaxis against stroke and as an adjunctive agent with warfarin post mechanical valve repl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are a class of drugs indicated for the treatment of several inflammatory arthritides including rheumato ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disopyramide Disopyramide is a medication used to treat heart rhythm abnormalities, which can be life-threatening, such as ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Disulfiram Disulfiram is one of three drugs approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It is a second-line option ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Dobutamine The FDA approveD dobutamine for short-term use in patients with decreased contractility due to heart failure or cardiac surgical procedures leading to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Docetaxel Docetaxel is an antineoplastic agent used in the management of multiple metastatic and non-resectable tumor types. It is a newer agent from the taxane ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Docusate Docusate is a medication used in the management and treatment of constipation. It is in the stool softener class of drugs. This activity reviews the i ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Dofetilide Clinical uses of dofetilide include maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation. Dofetilide is indicated in adults for the conversio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Donepezil Donepezil hydrochloride is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor most commonly used for the treatment of Alzheimer disease. Donepezil is FDA approved for ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dopamine Agonists Dopamine agonists are used in patients with Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists such as ropinirole, are the first-line treatment for restless legs sy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Dornase Alfa Dornase alfa is a medication used in the management and treatment of cystic fibrosis. It is in the category B class of drugs. This activity outlines t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Doxazosin Doxazosin is a medication used to manage and treat benign prostatic hyperplasia, hypertension, ureteral stones, and PTSD-associated nightmares. It is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Doxepin Doxepin is a medication used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety, insomnia, as well as in the management of skin pruritus. It is in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin is an antibiotic derived from the Streptomyces peucetius bacterium. It has widespread use as a chemotherapeutic agent since the 1960s. Dox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Doxycycline Hyclate Doxycycline hyclate is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of infections. It is in the tetracyclines class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used to manage and treat nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in the first-genera ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dronabinol Dronabinol is synthetic tetrahydrocannabinol ('THC'), which obtained FDA approval in 1985 for the treatment of HIV/AIDs-induced anorexia and chemother ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Drug and Alcohol Use The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition includes 10 separate classes of drugs of abuse, which include alcohol, caffei ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Drug Induced Esophagitis Drugs can be damaging to the esophageal wall by having a direct toxic effect on the esophageal mucosa. They may produce a caustic effect by creating a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Drug Induced Gingival Overgrowth Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO), also referred to as drug-induced gingival enlargement, and previously known as drug-induced gingival hyperpla ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is an acute or chronic liver injury secondary to drugs or herbal compounds. It is difficult to diagnose because the presen ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drug Induced Pigmentation Drug-induced pigmentation represents a complex issue for patients who are prescribed certain medications. These medications may include NSAIDs, tetrac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Drug Induced Valvular Heart Disease Drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) is a condition involving changes in the morphology and functionality of valvular leaflets secondary to exp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Drug Interactions In Palliative Care Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a significant cause of adverse drug events (ADE) in palliative care. This activity will highlight the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Drug Metabolism Most drugs undergo chemical alteration by various bodily systems as a way to create compounds that are more easily excreted from the body. These chemi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Drug Trials This activity outlines the significance of drug trials in the process of drug development, the phases of drug trials, and various ethical issues that ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Drug-Induced Lupus Erythematosus Drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DIL) is an autoimmune phenomenon where the patient develops symptoms similar to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Dry Eye Syndrome Dry eyes affect a significant number of people but treatment remains unsatisfactory. The cause of this condition may be anatomical or systemic. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Duloxetine Duloxetine is a medication used to manage major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), fibromyalgia, diabetic peripheral neuro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Duodenal Ulcer Duodenal ulcers occur when there is a disruption to the surface of the mucosa of the duodenum. These ulcers are part of peptic ulcer disease, which in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Dyslipidemia Dyslipidemia is the imbalance of lipids such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dyspnea in Palliative Care Dyspnea is a troubling symptom for many terminally-ill patients and their caregivers. It is common in many advanced diseases and is frequently experie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dysuria Dysuria is a symptom of pain and/or burning, stinging, or itching of the urethra or urethral meatus with urination. It is a very common urinary sympto ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
ECG T Wave Normally, the T wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG) is representative of ventricular repolarization. Changes in T wave morphology can be indicative of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Echinococcus Granulosus Echinococcosis (Echinococcus granulosis) is a zoonotic larval infection that infects humans globally. Patients with this condition may be asymptomatic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Eclampsia This article discusses preeclampsia and eclampsia, one of the four categories of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Eclampsia is a severe complicati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Eczema Eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a common chronic skin condition that can lead to recurrent infections and poor quality of life if left unt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Edoxaban Edoxaban is a medication used in the management and treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and non-valvular atrial fibril ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Edrophonium Edrophonium is a medication used in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. It is in the acetylcholinesterase class of drugs. This activity reviews the in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Efavirenz Efavirenz is a medication used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. This activity outl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Electrical Status Epilepticus In Sleep Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES), a childhood-onset epileptic encephalopathy, is characterized by epilepsy, cognitive regression, and mar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Electronic Vaping Delivery Of Cannabis And Nicotine This activity outlines the current scientific literature and knowledge of the risks and benefits of inhaling nicotine through proprietary devices. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Emicizumab Emicizumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of hemophilia A. It belongs to the bispecific monoclonal antibody class of medications ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Empagliflozin Empagliflozin is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT-2) cl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Emtricitabine The nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) emtricitabine is used in combination with other antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the treatment of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Enalapril Enalapril is a medication used in the management of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. This ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Enalaprilat Enalaprilat injection is used in the management of hypertension when oral therapy is not practical. Enalaprilat is the active metabolite of the oral p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity Info
End Of Life Evaluation And Management Of Pain Evaluation and management of pain at the end of life is a multifold issue with a deep impact on the patient's quality of life. With a better understan ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Endocarditis Infective endocarditis is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adolescents despite new advantages in management and prophyla ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Endocarditis Antibiotic Regimens Infective endocarditis is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It requires prompt identification and carefully selected antibiotic therap ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
End-Stage Renal Disease More than 500,000 people in the United States live with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its progre ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Enflurane Enflurane is a medication used in the induction and maintenance of general anesthetics. It is in the inhaled anesthetics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Enoxaparin Enoxaparin is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and was first approved for medical use in 1993 and is derived from heparin. It has approval for the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Entamoeba Histolytica Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan that causes intestinal amebiasis as well as extra-intestinal manifestations. Although 90 percent of E. histolytic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Enterococcus Infections Enterococci are Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci in short and medium chains, which cause difficult to treat infections in the nosocomial sett ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Enuresis Enuresis is a common childhood disorder seen in outpatient settings. Enuresis can be promptly treated if cases are identified early. In this activity, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Eosinophilia Eosinophils are a kind of blood granulocytes that express cytoplasmic granules that contain basic proteins and bind with acidic dyes like “eosin.” The ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication used in the management and treatment of clinically significant hypotension. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Epidural Morphine Epidural morphine is a medication used for analgesia, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, or as a sole technique for surgical anesthesia. Morphine wa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Steroids Epidural steroids injections (ESI) have been utilized for the treatment of pain due to lumbar disc injuries since the 1950s. They are frequently used ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Epinastine Epinastine is a medication used in the treatment and management of allergic conjunctivitis. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in various settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved for va ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Eplerenone Eplerenone is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and hypertension. It is in the aldoste ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Epoetin Alfa Epoetin alfa is a medication used in the management of anemia secondary to bone marrow failure. It is one of the erythropoiesis-stimulating classes of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Eptifibatide Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa class platelet inhibitor drug used to reduce ischemic cardiac events in specific patient populations. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erectile Dysfunction Erectile dysfunction is a widespread condition in males over 40 years of age all over the world. It has a variety of causes and is often treatable. Le ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Ergotamine/Caffeine The combination of ergotamine and caffeine is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute migraines. It is in the ergot alkaloid class ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Erlotinib Erlotinib is a medication used in the management and treatment of some types of non-small cell lung cancer and advanced pancreatic cancer. It is in th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erysipelas Erysipelas is a skin infection involving the dermis layer of the skin, but it may also extend to the superficial cutaneous lymphatics. It is character ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erythromycin Erythromycin has traditionally been used for various respiratory infections (i.e., community-acquired pneumonia, Legionnaires disease), prophylaxis of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Escitalopram Escitalopram is a medication used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. It is in the selectiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings, including urgent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a deadly malignancy with a very low survival, even with treatment. In the United States, esophageal cancers represent the fifth m ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Esophageal Candidiasis The most prevalent cause of infectious esophagitis is esophageal candidiasis. Of patients that have infectious esophagitis, 88% are from Candida albic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Esophagitis Esophagitis refers to inflammation or injury to the esophageal mucosa. One of the most common causes is gastroesophageal reflux, which can lead to ero ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Essential Thrombocytosis Essential thrombocytosis is also known as essential thrombocythemia (ET) and was formerly known as hemorrhagic thrombocythemia and is one of the myelo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Estradiol Estradiol is a medication used in the management and treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and for women who have had hysterectomies. Estradiol is the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Estrogen Estrogen is a steroid hormone associated with the female reproductive organs and is responsible for the development of female sexual characteristics. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Estrogen Therapy Estrogen therapy is a form of hormone replacement therapy that is often used to manage and treat menopausal symptoms, especially vasomotor symptoms an ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Etanercept Etanercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of autoimmune conditions such as plaque psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic art ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ethacrynic Acid Ethacrynic acid is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic heart failure. It is in the loop diuretic class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ethambutol Ethambutol is a medication used in the management and treatment of tuberculosis. It is a bacteriostatic drug that inhibits cell wall synthesis. This a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ethanol Ethanol is an alcohol by chemical composition, used in the management and treatment of methanol/ethylene glycol toxicity. Ethanol has also been used e ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ethosuximide Ethosuximide is a medication used in the management and treatment of absence epilepsy. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a medication used in the management and treatment of heavy metal toxicity. It is in the chelating class of d ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Etomidate Etomidate is an ultrashort-acting, non-barbiturate hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. It is administered only by intravenous route. Etomidate has ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Etoposide Etoposide is a medication used in the management and treatment of various cancers such as testicular, prostate, bladder, stomach, and lung cancer. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (EDKA) is an uncommon diabetic complication associated with several risk factors such as fasting, surgery, pregnancy, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Evaluation and Treatment Of Pain With Medicinal Cannabis Pain is a multifaceted issue affecting millions of individuals that often requires multimodal therapies with an integrated team model. Due to refracto ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ewing Sarcoma Ewing sarcoma is the second most common primary malignant bone tumor, mostly affecting adolescents in the second decade of their life, and it is a hig ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Exenatide Exenatide is FDA-indicated to improve glycemic control in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when used as an adjunct to diet and exercise. I ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Exfoliative Dermatitis Erythroderma is a clinical finding characterized by diffuse erythema and scaling of 90% of the body surface area. It results from a myriad of underlyi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ezetimibe Ezetimibe is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypercholesterolemia. It is among a novel class of selective cholesterol-absorption ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.75 14 Activity Info
Factitious Hypoglycemia Factitious hypoglycemia is the intentional attempt to induce low blood glucose levels and remains one of the diagnostic challenges that face endocrino ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Factor V Leiden Deficiency Factor V Leiden (FVL) is a point mutation of factor V resulting in an elimination of cleavage site in factor V and factor Va. This genetic defect lead ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Famciclovir Famciclovir is a medication used in the management and treatment of herpes and varicella-zoster infections. It is in the class of nucleoside analog an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is a group of inherited genetic defects that lead to the severe elevation of serum cholesterol concentrations. Clinicall ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Famotidine Famotidine decreases the production of stomach acid, and its pharmacologic activity is used in the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal conditio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fatty Liver Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) or "Fatty Liver" corresponds to the presence of macrovesicular changes without inflammation (steatosis) and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Febrile Neutropenia Neutropenic fever is defined as a single oral temperature greater than or equal to 101 F, or a temperature greater than or equal to 100.4 F for at lea ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Febrile Seizure Febrile seizures are seizures that are caused by a sudden spike in body temperature with fevers greater than 38C or 100.4F, with no other underlying s ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Febuxostat Febuxostat is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. It is in a class of medications known as xanthine oxidase i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Felbamate Felbamate is an anti-epileptic drug that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the management of focal seizures and Lennox-Gastaut syn ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Felodipine Felodipine is a medication used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension. It is a member of the dihydropyridine class of calcium chan ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fenofibrate Fenofibrate is FDA approved to treat patients with hypertriglyceridemia, primary hypercholesterolemia, or mixed dyslipidemia. It reduces low-density l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fenoldopam Fenoldopam is used primarily for the lowering of blood pressure during episodes of severe hypertension. Fenoldopam has a unique mechanism of action co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fentanyl Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid, which, similar to morphine, produces analgesia but to a greater extent. This robust pharmacologic agent is typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fentanyl Transdermal Transdermal fentanyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain and cancer pain. It is part of the opioid class of drugs. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Fever In A Neonate The World Health Organization categorizes neonatal sepsis as early or late based on the age of onset. Early neonatal sepsis affects infants less than ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fexofenadine Fexofenadine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. It is a second-generation antihistamine. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fibrate Medications Fibrates are a class of drugs utilized in the management and treatment of dyslipidemia. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fibric Acid Antilipemic Agents Fibric acids are FDA indicated to treat patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia. They reduce low-density lipoprotein choleste ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. This activity illustrates the evaluation and management of fibro ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Filariasis Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease that causes significant morbidity in the developing world. This activity reviews the evaluation, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Filgrastim Filgrastim is a medication used for the management and treatment of neutropenia in patients with myelosuppression from chemotherapy or radiation, whic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Finasteride Finasteride is an FDA-approved pharmacologic agent for treating benign prostate hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia (male pattern hair loss) in men. F ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Fire Ant Bites Fire ants tend to be an aggressive insect that will sting causing very painful reactions. There are two types of fire ants which belong to the Soleno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Flecainide Flecainide acetate is an oral class Ic antiarrhythmic drug (AAD) which blocks cardiac Na+ channels and received FDA approval in 1984. Flecainide is us ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluconazole Fluconazole is a member of the triazole family, one of the most widely used antifungal agents. It is an FDA-approved drug to treat vaginal candidiasis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Flucytosine Flucytosine is a medication used in the management and treatment of systemic and severe candida and cryptococcus infections. It is in the antimetaboli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fludrocortisone Fludrocortisone is a synthetic adrenal steroid with high mineralocorticoid activity that is a commonly used drug for adrenocortical insufficiency. Thi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agent for benzodiazepine overdose an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fluorides and Fluorocarbons Toxicity Fluorocarbons are fluorinated carbon chain polymers that are used in an assortment of household and commercial products as waterproofing agents, lubri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluorouracil 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a medication used for the treatment of various neoplasms. It is in the chemotherapy class of medications. This activity outli ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is FDA-approved for major depressive disorder (age eight and older), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, binge eating d ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Fluphenazine Fluphenazine is a typical antipsychotic used for the symptomatic management of psychosis in patients with schizophrenia. There is a long-acting fluphe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Flutamide Flutamide is used in the management and treatment of androgen-dependent tumors like prostate cancer and conditions associated with hyperandrogenism li ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fluticasone Fluticasone is a medication used to manage and treat asthma, allergic rhinitis, emphysema, and atopic dermatitis. It is in the corticosteroid class of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluvastatin In adults, fluvastatin is indicated for hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia to decrease the amount of total cholesterol in the blood. Specific ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Folic Acid Folic acid has FDA-approval for the treatment of megaloblastic and macrocytic anemias due to folic deficiency. Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Folic Acid Deficiency Folate is an essential water-soluble vitamin, naturally present in food, especially in fruits, green leafy vegetables, and liver. Folic acid is the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Folinic Acid Folinic acid is a medication used in the treatment of various cancers in combination with 5-FU. It is also commonly used as an antidote to folic acid ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Follicular Lymphoma Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the second most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and accounts for up 30% of all lymphomas. FL is a generally lazy ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Folliculitis Folliculitis is a common skin condition that usually involves infection of the hair follicle. While this condition is typically benign, prompt recogni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Foscarnet Foscarnet is a medication used to manage and treat CMV, HSV, and VZV viral infections in AIDS and immunocompromised patients. It is in the antiviral c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fosinopril Fosinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Fosinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fosphenytoin Fosphenytoin is a medication used in the management and prevention of seizures. It is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug with the capability to be used ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) Fresh frozen plasma is indicated for the deficiency of coagulation factors with abnormal coagulation tests in the presence of active bleeding. Fresh f ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fulvestrant Fulvestrant is used in the management and treatment of advanced breast cancer. It is a selective estrogen receptor degrader. This activity outlines th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fungal Sinusitis There are several types of fungal sinusitis. The classification depends on the degree of invasion of the sinuses. The overarching categories are non-i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Furosemide Furosemide is a loop diuretic that has been in use for decades. However, clinicians must be aware of updates related to the indications and administra ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
GABA Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators GABA positive allosteric modulators are medications used in the management and treatment of seizures, sedation, anxiolytic, alcohol withdrawal, and mu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gabapentin Gabapentin is an anticonvulsive medication that originally saw use as a muscle relaxer and anti-spasmodic medication, but later it was discovered it h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gastric Ulcer Gastric ulcers are a break in the mucosa of the stomach lining that penetrates through the muscularis mucosa and extends more than 5 mm in diameter. W ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Gastrointestinal Stromal Cancer Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are typically benign tumors that most commonly occur in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. While only comprising ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gastrointestinal Tuberculosis Gastrointestinal (GI) tuberculosis (TB) accounts for 1% to 3 % of all TB cases worldwide. It can occur in the context of active pulmonary disease or a ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is an uncommon condition in the community that can be associated with significant morbidity, healthcare burden and could have poor outco ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil is an FDA approved fibric acid agent (fibrate) for the management of hypertriglyceridemia (particularly in type IV and V hyperlipidemia). ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized anxiety disorder is a mental health disorder that produces fear, worry, and a constant feeling of being overwhelmed. It is characterized b ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Generalized Pustular Psoriasis Generalized pustular psoriasis is a rare and extreme form of psoriasis characterized by the presence of sterile pustules. The incidence peaks between ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gentamicin Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of several gram-negative infections. This activity aims to review the indications, ac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gestational Diabetes The definition of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM can c ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Giardia Lamblia Enteritis Giardia lamblia enteritis is small-intestine gastroenteritis caused by the pathogenic protozoan Giardia lamblia, (Giardia duodenalis or Giardia intest ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Giardiasis Giardiasis is a small intestinal infection caused by the protozoa Giardia duodenalis. A common disease, it often presents with watery diarrhea and fla ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gigantism And Acromegaly Acromegaly and gigantism are disorders of the abnormal excess secretion of growth hormone. Gigantism occurs when growth hormone hypersecretion occurs ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ginger Root Ginger root is a plant-based, whole food spice used in the personal or professional treatment of various conditions, ranging from gastrointestinal ups ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ginkgo Biloba Ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements used in the world. This activity reviews the potential indications, action, and cont ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ginseng There are many described uses for ginseng. Due to its antioxidative and potential neuromodulating effects, it has become a popular supplement in neuro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glargine Insulin Insulin glargine is used to manage and treat hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a long-acting insulin and is us ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Glatiramer Glatiramer is an immunomodulator used in the treatment and management of multiple sclerosis. Its mechanism is not clearly understood, but it appears t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition of increased intraocular pressure in the eye that may progress to a loss of vision. This results in a characteristic optic ner ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Glimepiride Glimepiride is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sulfonylurea class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glioblastoma Multiforme Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary brain malignancy with a poor prognosis. No specific risk factors are identified. Diagnosis is by imaging li ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Glipizide Glipizide is a second-generation sulfonylurea that is FDA-approved for the treatment of adults with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is administered as an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used to manage and treat hypoglycemia as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, anaphylaxis refrac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists are a class of medications utilized in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. This activity will highlight the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glucosamine Sulfate Glucosamine sulfate is an oral supplement used in the management and treatment of osteoarthritis. This activity outlines the indications, hypothesized ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Glucose Intolerance Glucose intolerance (GI) is a metabolic condition that results from hyperglycemia. It can be defined as dysglycemia that includes both prediabetes and ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glyburide Glyburide is a medication used in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sulfonylurea class of drugs. This activity outlines the ind ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) inhibitors prevent platelet aggregation by blocking glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors on their platelet's plasma mem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glycopyrrolate Glycopyrrolate, also known as glycopyrronium, is an anticholinergic drug. Glycopyrrolate has been widely used as a preoperative medication to inhibit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gonococcal Arthritis Gonococcal arthritis is arthritis that results from the bacteremic spread of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen. It comprises loca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Granuloma Faciale Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare, benign, inflammatory skin disease, usually presenting as isolated, well-defined reddish-brown to violaceous asymptom ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Granuloma Inguinale Donovanosis, also known as granuloma inguinale, is a bacterial infection of the genital region caused by Klebsiella granulomatis. It is chronic and pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a rare vasculitis affecting small vessels. Hallmark features include necrotizing granulomas and pauci-immune ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Gray Baby Syndrome Gray baby syndrome is an adverse reaction to chloramphenicol that is characterized by abdominal distention, hemodynamic collapse, and ashen-gray skin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Griseofulvin Griseofulvin is FDA approved for and the drug of choice in tinea capitis. Other indications include onychomycosis as well as superficial fungal infect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Group B Coxsackie Virus Coxsackie B virus belongs to the Picornavirus family and can cause a variety of diseases, including gastrointestinal illness, myocarditis, pneumonia, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
H2 Blockers H2 receptor blockers, or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), are a class of gastric acid-suppressing agents frequently used in various gastric conditions ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Halobetasol Cream Halobetasol cream is a medication used in the management and treatment of psoriasis. It is in the topical corticosteroid class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Haloperidol Haloperidol is a first-generation (typical) antipsychotic that is a commonly used drug worldwide. Haloperidol is used for positive symptoms of schizop ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Halothane Toxicity Halothane is a medication previously used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. After its large impact on medicine and anesthesia speci ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hashimoto Thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which thyroid cel ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Heart Failure And Ejection Fraction Heart failure (HF) is a common and potentially fatal disease if left untreated. This article aims to describe the different types of heart failure. It ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Helicobacter Pylori H. pylori is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can infect humans. It is often found in the stomach of affected individuals and causes in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hemiplegic Migraine A hemiplegic migraine is a rare form of migraine in which the migraine headache attack is accompanied by unilateral weakness. Typically, migraine aura ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hemodialysis Dialysis is a form of renal replacement therapy. The kidney’s role of filtration of the blood is supplemented by artificial equipment for the removal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hemolytic Diseases Of The Newborn Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is a red blood cell mismatch between mothers and their fetus that can cause significant morbidity and morta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Hemophilia A Hemophilia encompasses a group of inherited disorders that alter blood coagulation. Classical hemophilia, also known as hemophilia A, is a hereditary ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Disease Of Newborn Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a life-threatening condition that is caused due to insufficient vitamin K levels in the newborns as a result of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hepatic Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver secondary to chronic injury, leading to alteration of the normal lobular orga ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome observed in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This syndrome is characterized by a wide sp ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Hepatic Failure Acute liver failure (ALF) is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by coagulopathy, elevated liver biochemistry, and hepatic encephalopathy withou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hepatic Lymphoma Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) that primarily involves the liver. This is in contrast to predominant lymp ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hepatitis The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver — hepatitis most commonly results from viruses. But drugs, alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases, i ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Vaccine The hepatitis B vaccine is a medication used in the prevention of hepatitis B infection, which can lead to chronic liver failure and hepatocellular ca ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hereditary Angioedema Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by either a lack of C1-inhibitor protein or by dysfunctional C1-inhibitor protein. ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heroin Toxicity Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is a very efficient prodrug and more potent than morphine. Many deaths are caused by heroin overdoses througho ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Ophthalmicus Herpes simplex ophthalmicus is an eye infection by the herpes simplex type 1 and type 2 viruses. It is ubiquitous and affects all the ages of the popu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Type 2 This activity reviews the evaluation and management of herpes simplex type 2 and highlights the role of the primary care provider in managing patients ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a medication regimen used in the management and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV- ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hirsutism Hirsutism is the growth of excessive male-pattern hair in women after puberty. It affects facial and body areas dependent on androgens, namely mustach ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Histamine Toxicity Scombroid poisoning results from eating fish that have been improperly stored. The primary toxic agent implicated in scombroid toxicity is histidine, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
HIV Antiretroviral Therapy A typical initial HIV regimen includes 3 HIV medications from a minimum of 2 drug classes. Although this treatment is not curative, it can provide lon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
HIV Disease Current Practice The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an enveloped retrovirus that contains 2 copies of a single-stranded RNA genome. It causes the acquired immun ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
HIV Encephalitis HIV encephalitis is a complication of HIV infection, which presents with neurocognitive dysfunction of varying severity. Almost half of HIV-infected p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
HIV Nephropathy Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy is an aggressive condition that requires prompt diagnosis to prevent permanent damage to ren ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
HIV Prophylaxis HIV prophylaxis is divided into two categories: post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). PEP is the administration of anti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
HIV-1 Associated Opportunistic Infections HIV-1 associated opportunistic infections encompass a myriad of life-threatening infections seen in patients with advanced human immunodeficiency viru ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
HIV-1 Associated Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a common cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in patients with HIV/AIDS who do not take appropriate prophylaxis. Cerebral ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
HIV-associated Lipodystrophy HIV-associated lipodystrophy is a syndrome characterized by body habitus changes associated with the development of insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
HLA B27 Syndromes The human leukocyte antigens (HLA) are gene loci in the major histocompatibility complex class I of genes on chromosome 6, present on all nucleated ce ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hookworm Hookworm infection is one of the common parasitic infestations in developing countries. They are mainly causing iron deficiency anemia in exposed pati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hormone Replacement Therapy Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is supplementing women with hormones that are lost during the menopausal transition. To relieve the symptoms associa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Horner Syndrome Horner syndrome is a rare condition classically presenting with partial ptosis (drooping or falling of the upper eyelid), miosis (constricted pupil), ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hospital Acquired Infections Hospital-acquired infections (healthcare-associated infections) are nosocomially acquired infections that are not present or incubating at the time of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hot Flashes Hot flashes are sudden-onset, spontaneous, and episodic sensations of warmth usually felt on the chest, neck, and face immediately followed by an outb ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Human Papilloma Virus Vaccine The 9-valent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (9vHPV) is a vaccine used in the management and prevention of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hungry Bone Syndrome Hungry bone syndrome is a state of profound hypocalcemia that can persist for prolonged periods, most notably after parathyroidectomy and thyroidectom ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase is an enzyme useful in facilitating the management of injectable medications. This activity reviews the indications, action, adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydralazine Hydralazine is a direct vasodilator used orally to treat essential hypertension, among other diseases, and intravenously to rapidly reduce blood press ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Hydrochlorothiazide Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide-type diuretic which has been used clinically for more than half a century. The drug has been widely used to t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hydrocodone Hydrocodone is a schedule II semi-synthetic opioid medication used to treat pain. Hydrocodone is also an antitussive indicated for cough in adults. In ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydrocodone and Acetaminophen Hydrocodone is one of the most common pain medications prescribed by clinicians and one of the most abused by patients. It is a relatively potent drug ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydromorphone Hydromorphone is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate to severe acute pain as well as severe chronic pain. It is in the opioi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hydroquinone Hydroquinone cream is the standard depigmentation or skin lightening agent. Clinically it is used to treat areas of dyschromia, such as in melasma, ch ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydroxocobalamin Hydroxocobalamin is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency and acute cyanide toxicity. It is in the anti-anemic c ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hydroxyurea Toxicity Hydroxyurea is an antineoplastic agent used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation in the treatment of resistant leuke ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hymenoptera Stings The Hymenoptera order includes over 150,000 different species of flying and non-flying insects. Some species within this order have modified oviposito ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hyperchloremic Acidosis Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a pathological state that results from bicarbonate loss, rather than acid production or retention. Bicarbonate lo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypercholesterolemia Lipoprotein disorders are clinically important due to the of the role of lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the associated risk of atherosclerotic card ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypercortisolism Hypercortisolism refers to the clinical state resulting from excess tissue exposure to cortisol and/or other glucocorticoids. When such exposure is su ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hyperhidrosis Hyperhidrosis is a disorder of excessive sweating due to over-stimulation of cholinergic receptors on eccrine glands. This pathologic disorder is char ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is a rare condition presenting as temporary periods of severe muscle weakness or paralysis. To treat this condition ap ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels within the body. It is a very com ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypertensive Emergency A hypertensive emergency is an acute, marked elevation in blood pressure that is associated with signs of target-organ damage. These can include pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hypertensive Heart Disease Hypertensive heart disease refers to a constellation of changes in the left ventricle, left atrium and coronary arteries as a result of chronic blood ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism In Pregnancy Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon condition that complicates approximately 0.1% to 0.4% of pregnancies. The condition is marked by increased levels of ci ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hypertonic Fluids Clinicians use hypertonic fluids to increase intravascular fluid volume. Hypertonic saline can be utilized in the treatment of hyponatremia. Hypertoni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypertriglyceridemia Hypertriglyceridemia in many cases is multifactorial, resulting from the combination of genetic factors and other causes of increased production and o ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hyperuricemia Hyperuricemia is a common disorder that affects patients of all ages and genders. The most common manifestation of hyperuricemia is gout, which can be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypnic Headache Hypnic headaches are a primary headache disorder that presents in the elderly population and usually wakes people up from sleep. It is not very common ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypoalbuminemia Hypoalbuminaemia is one of the most prevalent disorders in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Hypoalbuminaemia may be a result of decreased pro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypocarbia Hypocarbia, also known as hypocapnia, is a decrease in alveolar and blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels below the normal reference range of 35 mmHg. CO2 ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypokalemia One of the most common electrolyte disturbances seen in clinical practice is hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is more prevalent than hyperkalemia, and most ca ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypomagnesemia Magnesium is an important electrolyte. It is a key part of many reactions that occur in the human body, affecting cellular function, nerve conduction, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypotension Hypotension is a decrease in systemic blood pressure below accepted low values. While there is not an accepted standard hypotensive value, pressures l ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Ibuprofen Ibuprofen is a medication used to manage and treat inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid disorders, mild to moderate pain, fever, dysmenorrhea, and osteoa ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
ICU Delirium Delirium is defined by DSM-5 criteria as an impairment in attention and awareness that develops over a relatively short time interval that is associat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease characterized by repeated episodes of a diffuse alveolar hemorrhage resulting in the accumu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Idioventricular Rhythm Idioventricular rhythm is a slow regular ventricular rhythm with a rate of less than 50 bpm, absence of P waves, and a prolonged QRS interval. When th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ifosfamide Ifosfamide is a cytotoxic medication used in the management and treatment of various cancers such as lymphomas, sarcomas, and lung cancers. It is in t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
IgA Deficiency Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency is a common primary immunodeficiency characterized by undetectable serum IgA, a concomitant lack of secretory IgA, a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
IgA Nephropathy IgA nephropathy is a common form of glomerulonephritis caused by the deposition of IgA immunoglobulins in the glomerular basement membrane. Immune-med ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
IgG4 Related Disease Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is also known as IgG4-related systemic disease, hyper-IgG4 disease, IgG4-related autoimmune disease, IgG4- ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Imatinib Imatinib is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and other malignancies ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Imipramine Imipramine is a medication used in the treatment of depression and anxiety. It is a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Imiquimod Imiquimod is a medication used in the management and treatment of anogenital warts, superficial basal cell carcinomas, and actinic keratoses. It is in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Immunotherapy Immunotherapy is used to upregulate or downregulate the immune system to achieve a therapeutic effect in immunological mediated disorders, including i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Inamrinone Inamrinone is a medication used in the short-term management and treatment of congestive heart failure. It is a phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor, which ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Indinavir Indinavir is an alpha-amino acid amide protease inhibitor used as a treatment therapy for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Indomethacin Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug with broad applications. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infectious Colitis The management of infectious colitis is complex, and new approaches have been introduced. The basic and clinical aspects of infectious colitis must be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infectious Scleritis Infectious scleritis is an inflammatory process of the sclera due to a microbial agent. In order to avoid the risk of enucleation or evisceration due ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Inferior Myocardial Infarction Without timely treatment, coronary artery occlusion results in decreased perfusion to the myocardium, resulting in myocardial ischemia followed by my ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Inflammatory Arthritis Inflammatory arthritis includes a group of arthritis accompanied by joint pain, swelling, warmth, and tenderness in the joints, and morning stiffness ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Infliximab Infliximab is a biologic, monoclonal-antibody drug. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Infliximab for moderate to sever ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Infliximab-abda Infliximab (IFX) is a biologic agent that specifically targets an immune mediator, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), involved in a pathological proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Influenza Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, including upper and lower respiratory passages. A wide spectrum of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Influenza Vaccine Influenza viruses belong to Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus family and classify into three distinct types based on their major antigenic differences; influ ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Inhalational Anesthetic Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane, most commonly used agents in practice today) are used for induc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Inhaled Corticosteroids Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the FDA-indicated treatment of choice in preventing asthma exacerbation in patients with persistent asthma. Persiste ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Insect Bites The term "bug bite" is commonly used to denote both bites and stings inflicted by members of the phylum Arthropoda. Arthropods make up the largest di ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Insulin Insulin is a medication used in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus type-1 and sometimes diabetes mellitus type-2, both of which are a s ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Insulin Lispro Insulin lispro is an insulin analog that is FDA-approved for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2 to control hyperglycemia. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Insulinoma Insulinoma is a type of functional neuroendocrine tumor characterized by hypersecretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia. This activity reviews the man ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Interferon Interferons are currently used clinically to treat viral infections such as hepatitis C, cancers including non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and autoimmune dise ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Interferon Induced Retinopathy Interferons are glycoproteins that have antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory functions. They are used widely for the treatment of many c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Interstitial Lung Disease Interstitial lung disease (diffused parenchymal diseases) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by fibrosis (scarring) of the lungs. Th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Interstitial Pulmonary Fibrosis Nonidiopathic interstitial pulmonary fibrosis describes a group of diseases causing fibrosis to the lung parenchyma due to a known cause. This a serio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intestinal Carcinoid Cancer Carcinoid tumor refers to a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor (NET) that originate commonly in the gastrointestinal tract (about 55%) or in oth ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Intracerebral Hemorrhage This activity aims to outline the pathophysiology, risk factors, presentation diagnosis, and complications of intracerebral hemorrhages. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Intrathecal Morphine Morphine is an opioid administered for acute and chronic pain conditions. The advantage of intrathecal (IT) morphine over intravenous (IV), oral (PO), ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a pooled antibody and a biological agent used in the management of various immunodeficiency states and a plethora ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Intubation Endotracheal Tube Medications Mastering the skill of endotracheal intubation to secure airway plays a critical role in many settings such as pre-hospital environments, emergency ro ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Iontophoresis Analgesic Medications Analgesic iontophoresis is the administration of analgesic medications via iontophoresis used in the management and treatment of pain. The technique m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ipilimumab Ipilimumab is a medication used in the management and treatment of metastatic melanoma. It is in the CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody class of medications. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ipratropium Ipratropium maintenance therapy has well-established benefits for treatment of chronic obstructive lung disease. Mortality in chronic obstructive lung ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Irinotecan Irinotecan is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of solid tumors. It is in the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor class of drug ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Iron Iron is a mineral essential to the human body. It is administered for the treatment of iron deficiency. It is available in many formulations that belo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Iron Deficiency Anemia Iron deficiency anemia is the most common cause of anemia worldwide, which results in microcytic and hypochromic red cells on the peripheral smear. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Iron Dextran Iron dextran is an injectable medication used in the management of iron deficiency anemia, particularly in patients who are unable to tolerate iron by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Iron Supplementation Iron is a medication used in the management and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. This activity illustrates the indications, action, and contraind ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Iron Toxicity Iron poisoning is one of the most common toxic ingestion and one of the most deadly among children. Failure to diagnose and treat iron poisoning can h ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. IBS, in the absence of any other causative disease, is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Isoniazid Isoniazid is an antibiotic used in the treatment of mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. This activity describes the indications, action, and contra ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Isoniazid Toxicity Isoniazid (INH) is a potent bactericidal antibiotic used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Treatment with INH therapy has a risk of toxicity, which ca ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Isoproterenol Isoproterenol is a beta-1 and beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist indicated primarily for bradydysrhythmias. The administration and subsequent post-adm ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Isosorbide Isosorbide is a medication used to treat and prevent angina pectoris in patients with coronary heart disease. It is in the nitrate class of drugs. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Isotretinoin Isotretinoin is an oral prescription medication that affects sebaceous glands and is used to treat severe acne. The drug was approved by the US Food a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
ITP-Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an autoimmune pathology characterized by a low platelet count, purpura, and hemorrhagic episodes caused by an ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Itraconazole Itraconazole is a medication used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the antifungal class of medications. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ixazomib Ixazomib, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, is used primarily in the treatment of multiple myeloma. This activity outlines the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ixekizumab Ixekizumab is FDA-indicated for the adult treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. These adult patients are also candidates for systemic ther ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Jarisch Herxheimer Reaction Jarisch Herxheimer reaction (JHR) is a transient clinical phenomenon that occurs in patients infected by spirochetes who undergo antibiotic treatment. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia Junctional ectopic tachycardia is an arrhythmia usually present in infants but has been seen in older children as well. It can be congenital or postop ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Junctional Rhythm The sinoatrial node is the natural cardiac pacemaker located in the upper right atrium. The atrioventricular node is a separate cardiac pacemaker loca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), otherwise known as Janz syndrome and impulsive petit mal, is an idiopathic, hereditary, and generalized form of epi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited medium vessel vasculitis that has a predilection for the coronary arteries. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Keratitis Keratitis is a clinical entity wherein inflammatory cells infiltrate different corneal layers in response to noxious stimuli, either infectious exogen ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Kernicterus Kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is bilirubin-induced neurological damage, which is most commonly seen in infants. It occurs when the unconju ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ketamine Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride) has been approved for general anesthesia either alone or in combination with other medications. It is a superb drug ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Ketamine In Acute and Chronic Pain Management Acute and chronic pain remain important health problems both in the United States and worldwide. With the rise in the prevalence of many chronic degen ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ketamine Toxicity Ketamine is a structural analog of the dissociative anesthetic and recreational drug phencyclidine (PCP). Similar to phencyclidine, ketamine causes an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ketoconazole Ketoconazole is a drug used in the management and treatment of fungal infections. It is in the imidazole antifungal class of medications. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ketorolac Ketorolac is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute moderate to severe pain. It is in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug clas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Kidney Transplantation Kidney transplantation is performed to prolong and improve the lives of those with end-stage renal disease. Open and laparoscopic surgery are the two ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Kissing Bug Bite Kissing bug bites and the subsequent development of Chagas disease is under-recognized and frequently go untreated. Chagas disease can be challenging ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Klebsiella Pneumonia In 1882, Carl Friedlander first described Klebsiella pneumoniae as an encapsulated bacillus after isolating the bacterium from the lungs of those who ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Labetalol Due to their negative inotropic and chronotropic actions, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists are typically indicated in individuals with chronic car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lactulose Lactulose is used in preventing and treating clinical portal-systemic encephalopathy. Its chief mechanism of action is by decreasing the intestinal pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lamivudine Lamivudine is a medication used in the management and treatment of HIV-1 and hepatitis B. It is in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRT ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lamotrigine Lamotrigine can be used to treat the following partial seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, bipolar I disorder maintenance, and Lennox ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Latanoprost Latanoprost is an eye drop formulation for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle gla ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Late Onset Depression In the older population, one of the serious health concerns that are associated with comorbidity, impaired functioning, excessive use of health care ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Laxatives Constipation is a common diagnosis that requires proper evaluation and appropriate treatment. The approach to a patient with chronic constipation incl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lead Toxicity Lead became a common occupational toxin with the birth of the Industrial Revolution, by the end of the 19-century childhood lead poisoning secondary t ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Leflunomide Leflunomide is a medication used in the management and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is in the non-biological DMARDs class of medications. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Left Atrial Enlargement Left atrial enlargement (LAE) is an anatomic variation of the left atria and is a result of increased left atrial pressure for a prolonged period. Lef ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Non-compaction Cardiomyopathy Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a very rare congenital cardiomyopathy. It is a disease of endomyocardial trabeculations that increase in num ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lemborexant Lemborexant is a medication used in the management and treatment of insomnia. It is in the dual orexin antagonist class of medications. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Leprosy Leprosy is also referred to as Hansen disease. It is a chronic granulomatous infection generally caused by Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Leucovorin Leucovorin is a medication used in the treatment of methotrexate toxicity and chemotherapy regimens. Leucovorin is a folate analog. This activity revi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Leukocytosis Leukocytosis has a variety of etiologies with which clinicians of all backgrounds should be familiar. This activity outlines the evaluation of leukocy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists Montelukast and zafirlukast are cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonists indicated for the prevention and treatment of chronic asthma. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Leuprolide Leuprolide is a medication used in the management and treatment of prostate cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, precocious puberty, and other sex ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Levetiracetam Levetiracetam is a novel antiepileptic drug used in the treatment of partial seizures, myoclonic seizures, and tonic-clonic seizures. In 2000, the FDA ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Levodopa (L-Dopa) Levodopa is the precursor to dopamine. Most commonly, clinicians use levodopa as a dopamine replacement agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Levofloxacin Levofloxacin is FDA-approved for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, acute bacterial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Levonorgestrel Levonorgestrel, also known as the morning-after pill, is a first-line oral emergency contraceptive pill with approval from the World Health Organizati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Levothyroxine Oral levothyroxine is primarily indicated for the treatment of primary, secondary, and tertiary hypothyroidism. Primary hypothyroidism is when the pro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lichen Nitidus Lichen nitidus is a rare benign condition characterized by extensive 1- to 2-mm skin-colored papules commonly occurring on upper extremities, chest, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lichen Planopilaris Lichen planopilaris is an inflammatory, primary cicatricial alopecia that results in several different patterns of hair loss. It is considered a folli ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lidocaine Toxicity Lidocaine is a local anesthetic drug that produces transient loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function when the drug is injected or applied in pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Linezolid Linezolid is a synthetic oxazolidinone antimicrobial drug. It is indicated for gram-positive infections and approved for the treatment of bacterial pn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lipid Lowering Drug Therapy Patients at an increased risk of having a cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or uns ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lipodystrophies Lipodystrophies are conditions that share the common finding of a reduction in subcutaneous fat. There are multiple subtypes of lipodystrophy, which m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lipoid Pneumonia Lipoid pneumonia is a rare form of lung disease due to aspiration or inhalation of exogenous or endogenous lipid-containing products. In the past, thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lisinopril Lisinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Lisinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative, intracellular, gram-positive rod that is responsible for causing the infection listeriosis. Listeria causes s ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Lithium Despite the availability of newer mood stabilizers, lithium continues to be a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder. It is often underutilized bec ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lithium Toxicity The drug of choice for recurrent bipolar illness management remains to be lithium. Lithium, a monovalent cation similar to sodium with an unknown mech ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Liver Toxicity One of the most important causes of liver dysfunction is drug-induced liver injury (DILI) which can lead to a wide spectrum of symptoms ranging from m ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practice. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lomitapide Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) medications comprise mipomersen and lomitapide. Lomitapide is an FDA-approved besides a diet low in fa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Long QT Syndrome The QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) represents the duration of the ventricular action potential, and this physiologically correlates with th ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Loop Diuretics Loop diuretics are medications used in the management and treatment of fluid overload conditions such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Loperamide Loperamide is a medication used in the treatment of diarrhea. It classifies as an anti-diarrheal agent. The use of loperamide in high doses has been a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Loratadine Loratadine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. It is in the second generation antihistamine class ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lorazepam Lorazepam is a benzodiazepine medication commonly used as the sedative and anxiolytic of choice in the inpatient setting owing to its fast (1 to 3 min ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Losartan Losartan is FDA approved for the treatment of several medical conditions, which include the following: hypertension, diabetic nephropathy. ARBs are kn ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Lovastatin Lovastatin is a lipid-lowering medication part of the statin drug class used to treat and prevent coronary heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, and ad ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lumateperone Lumateperone is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders. It is a second-generation aty ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lung Abscess A lung abscess is a microbial infection of the lung that results in necrosis of the pulmonary parenchyma. Depending on the duration, it can be classif ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Lung Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections Non-tuberculosis mycobacterial lung infections are not as common as mycobacterium tuberculosis, but they are still serious and associated with high mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lung Pancoast Tumor Pancoast or superior sulcus tumor consists of a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall and producing a characteristic syndrome named Panc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lupus Nephritis Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that results in chronic inflammation and damage of more than one organ. It is diagnosed cl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lurasidone Lurasidone is a medication used in the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar depression. It is in the benzisothiazole class of medications. This acti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Luspatercept Luspatercept is a medication used in the management and treatment of anemia in myelodysplastic syndromes, primary myelofibrosis, and beta-thalassemia. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread by ticks. Lyme disease is divided into three stages: early local ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy refers to the swelling of lymph nodes which can be secondary to bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, autoimmune disease, and malign ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Lymphogranuloma venereum is an ulcerative sexually transmitted infection of the genital area caused by Chlamydia trachomatis that is transmittable by ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lymphogranuloma Venereum Proctocolitis Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) proctocolitis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the L1, L2, and L3 serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lymphoma Lymphoma comprises heterogeneous malignancies that arise from the clonal proliferation of lymphocytes. It represents approximately 5% of malignancies. ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Macrolides Macrolides are a class of drugs used in the management and treatment of various bacterial infections. This activity reviews the mechanism of action, i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Macular Degeneration Age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the most common cause of blindness prevalent in developed countries, particularly in people older than 60 y ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Magnesium Magnesium use is indicated for a variety of diseases. This is due to the variety of effects magnesium has within the body. Administration of magnesium ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium sulfate is a medication used to manage and treat multiple clinical conditions and holds several on and off-label uses. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Major Depressive Disorder Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been ranked as the third cause of the burden of disease worldwide in 2008 by WHO, which has projected that this di ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Malaria Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito that leads to acute life-threatening disease and poses a significant global hea ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Malaria Prophylaxis Malaria is an infection caused by Plasmodium species endemic to most parts of Africa, South America, East Asia, and parts of Europe and the Middle Eas ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Male Infertility Infertility is usually defined as the inability of a couple to conceive even after one year of unprotected, frequent sexual intercourse. The male is s ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Malignant Hypertension Malignant hypertension is a term that has been used to describe patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) and multiple complications with poor progno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Malignant Otitis Externa Malignant otitis media is a serious infection of the ear canal and temporal bone. It can lead to severe complications if not treated urgently. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
MALToma The neoplastic proliferation of B cells in the marginal zone of lymphoid tissue gives rise to marginal zone B cell lymphomas. Mucosa-associated lympho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Management of Antithrombotics Around Gastrointestinal Procedures Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are used to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients at high risk. However, when these patients need ga ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Manganese Toxicity Manganese (Mn) toxicity is a well-established result of repeated occupational and nutritional exposures. Though this syndrome is relatively uncommon, ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
MAO Inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO Inhibitors) are medications used to manage and treat depression, among other neurological and psychiatric illnesses. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Marijuana Cannabis, also known as marijuana, is commonly sought out by patients for various conditions. Conversely, many providers are uncomfortable prescribing ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mastodynia Mastodynia or breast pain, also called mastalgia can occur both in women and men, but it presents more commonly in women. While most patients do not r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mean Corpuscular Volume Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measure used to determine anemia etiologies. This activity illustrates the categories of anemia with varying MCVs, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Measles Measles, also known as rubeola, is a preventable, highly contagious, acute febrile viral illness. It remains an important cause of global mortality an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mebendazole Mebendazole is a medication used in the treatment of parasitic infection. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, activity, adverse ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Meclizine Meclizine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea, vomiting, and dizziness caused by motion sickness and vertigo. Meclizine bel ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medication Dispensing Errors And Prevention Close to 6,800 prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States. To further complicate a practitioner' ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Medication Overuse Induced Headache Medication overuse headache (MOH) is thought to occur when medications intended to relieve headaches are consumed too frequently. Causal agents are va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Medication Routes of Administration A medication administration route is often classified by the location at which the drug is applied, such as oral or intravenous. The choice of routes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medroxyprogesterone This article highlights medroxyprogesterone as it is used as contraception to prevent pregnancy. This activity discusses the mechanism of action, adve ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Megaloblastic Anemia Megaloblastic anemia (MA) encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by the presence in the bone marrow of large red blood cell precur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Megestrol Megestrol is a medication used in the management and treatment of significant, inexplicable weight loss in HIV/AIDS patients and anorexia or cachexia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Melanosis Coli First described by Andral and Cruveilhier in 1830, Melanosis coli is a condition associated with the deposition of lipofuscin (not melanin as the name ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Melatonin Synthetic melatonin is a dietary supplement. The FDA does not regulate supplements. Therefore, melatonin is not officially FDA-approved for any indica ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Meningococcal Meningitis Meningitis is an infection/inflammation of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges. Meningococcal meningitis is the ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Meningococcal Prophylaxis Neisseria meningitidis is a gram-negative bacterium that inhabits the mucosal surface of the nasopharynx in approximately 10% of healthy persons. The ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meningococcal Vaccine Meningococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This activity will describe how to deal with this disease as a serious ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Menopause Menopause is a routine, non-pathologic condition involving the permanent cessation of menses for at least 12 months. Menopause occurs in all menstruat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Menstrual Related Headache Menstrual related headaches (MRH) are a common class of headaches that occur in women related to a decline in estrogen during the menstrual cycle. To ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Meperidine Meperidine is in the class of phenylpiperidine as a hydrochloride salt synthetic form of the opioid. Meperidine is used for the treatment of moderate ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mercaptopurine Mercaptopurine is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is in the class of medications known as purine ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mesalamine (USAN) Mesalamine, is also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a medication used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. It is under the drug classif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mesna Mesna is a medication used in the management and treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis associated with chemotherapy. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Metabolic Acidosis Acid-base disorders are disturbances in the homeostasis of hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma. Any process that increases the serum hydrogen ion ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Metformin Metformin, FDA-approved in 1994, is an antidiabetic agent used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin comes in both immediate-release and extended-rel ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Methadone Methadone is a medication used in the management and treatment of opioid use disorder and as an analgesic in chronic pain. It is a synthetic long-term ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Methamphetamine Methamphetamine is one of the powerful stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS). It is sometimes a second-line treatment for attention deficit h ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Methamphetamine Toxicity Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug that is a derivative of amphetamine. Methamphetamine can produce euphoria and stimulant eff ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Based on the antibiotic susceptibilities, Methicillin resistance in S. aureus is defined as an oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of gre ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Methimazole Methimazole has effects in the production of thyroid hormone and is useful in treating conditions related to thyroid hormone, especially thyrotoxicosi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methocarbamol Methocarbamol is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute musculoskeletal pain. It is in the skeletal muscle relaxant class of medic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methohexital Methohexital is a medication used in anesthesia for sedation. It is in the barbiturate class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methotrexate Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-metabolite most commonly used in chemotherapy and immunosuppressant in auto-immune diseases. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Methyldopa Methyldopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the centrally acting anti-hypertensive class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Methylene Blue Methylene blue is a medication used in the management and treatment of methemoglobinemia, a condition in which hemoglobin decreases its ability to car ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methylphenidate Methylphenidate is FDA-approved for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults and as a second-line treatment for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone is an FDA-approved medication for the management and treatment of allergic conditions, arthritis, asthma exacerbations, long-term a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Methylxanthines Methylxanthines are drugs primarily employed in the treatment of non-obstructive lung pathology. This activity will highlight the indications, mechani ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Metoclopramide Metoclopramide has been approved by the FDA specifically to treat nausea and vomiting in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or diabetic gas ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Metolazone Metolazone is a cardiovascular agent, specifically a quinazoline diuretic related to the thiazide class. It is available in a generic formulation in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Metoprolol Metoprolol is FDA-approved for the treatment of angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation/flutter, and hypertension. Off-label ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Metronidazole Metronidazole is one of the mainstay drugs for the treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections, protozoal infections, and microaerophilic bacterial in ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Mexiletine Mexiletine is largely used to suppress ventricular arrhythmias and has a role in peripheral neuropathy and chronic pain, although the use for either i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Microalbuminuria The current definition of microalbuminuria (MA) is an amount of urinary albumin that is greater than the normal value, but also lower than what is det ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Midazolam Intravenous midazolam is used for the induction of anesthesia and also in the management of acute seizures. Because of its water-soluble nature, midaz ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common artery involved in acute stroke. It branches directly from the internal carotid artery and consist ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Mifepristone Mifepristone is a synthetic steroid. It is a medication most commonly used for medically induced abortions. Mifepristone can also be used in the manag ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Migraine Headache Migraine is a genetically influenced complex disorder characterized by episodes of moderate-to-severe headache, most often unilateral and generally as ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Migraine Medications This activity will review treatments for acute migraine and migraine prophylaxis. It will highlight various classes of medications and their mechanism ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Migraine Prophylaxis Recurrent migraines can be functionally disabling and can impair quality of life. After the treatment of acute migraines, all migraine patients should ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Migraine with Aura Migraine is one of the common types of headache disorders affecting approximately 12% of the general population. Timely diagnosis is essential to avoi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Migraine-Associated Vertigo Patients often describe vertigo as the sensation of motion that occurs in the absence of motion or an altered sensation of motion that occurs with nor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Milk Thistle Herbal products have become increasingly popular, especially among those with chronic disease. Milk thistle has been used for hundreds of years by her ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Milk-Alkali Syndrome Milk-alkali syndrome is characterized by a triad of elevated levels of calcium, metabolic alkalosis, and acute kidney injury that commonly occurs due ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Milrinone Milrinone is a medication indicated for cardiac support in patients with acute heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or chronic heart failure. It fun ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Minocycline Minocycline is a medication used in the management and treatment of both infectious and non-infectious conditions. It is in the tetracycline class of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Minoxidil Minoxidil (also called 2,4-pyrimidinediamine, 6-(1-piperidinyl)-, 3-oxide) was first designed as a potent peripheral vasodilator agent for the treatme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mirabegron Mirabegron is a medication used in the management of overactive bladder. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medications. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mirtazapine Mirtazapine is an atypical antidepressant and is used primarily for the treatment of a major depressive disorder. The drug has sedative, antiemetic, a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Misoprostol Misoprostol has four primary effects: cytoprotection of the gastrointestinal mucosa, uterotonic, diarrhea, and abdominal pain (diarrhea and abdominal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mitomycin Mitomycin is a medication used in the treatment of anal carcinoma, bladder carcinoma, breast carcinoma, head and neck malignancies, and some other gas ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular he ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Modafinil Modafinil is a non-amphetamine central nervous system (CNS) stimulant with wakefulness-promoting properties. It is used in the treatment of conditions ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Moisturizers Moisturizers are topically applied products designed to increase the water content of the skin. Ingredients used in these products have a range of ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a separate class from other antidepressants, treating different forms of depression and other nervous system ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Montelukast Montelukast is an orally dosed drug (available as a film-coated tablet, chewable tablet, or oral granules) which is FDA-approved for the treatment of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mood Disorder Mood is defined as a pervasive and sustained feeling tone that is endured internally and which impacts nearly all aspects of a person’s behavior in th ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mood Stabilizers Mood stabilizers are a class of medications used in the management and treatment of bipolar disorder. This activity outlines the indications, action, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Motion Sickness Motion sickness is a common and complex syndrome that occurs in response to either real or perceived motion. Its presentation can be diverse and may i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mucolytic Medications Mucolytics are drugs used in the management of mucus hypersecretion and its sequelae like recurrent infections in patients of COPD, cystic fibrosis, a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Mucormycosis Mucormycosis results from a variety of fungi that may be typically innocuous environmental fungi and primarily affects immunocompromised patients. Fo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a supraventricular tachycardia resulting in a rapid, irregular atrial rhythm that is caused by multiple ectopic ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Muscarinic Agonists Muscarinic agonists are parasympathomimetic drugs and are indicated for ileus, urinary retention, glaucoma, Alzheimer disease, and other symptoms. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Muscarinic Antagonists The muscarinic antagonist is a class medication used to manage and treat numerous different conditions, including COPD and organophosphate toxicity. T ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Muscle Contraction Tension Headache Tension-type headache (TTH) is the most common type of primary headaches. It is also sometimes referred to as muscle contraction headache, stress head ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Mycobacterium Kansasii Mycobacterium kansasii is a slow-growing, non-tuberculosis mycobacterium (NTM) that, like other mycobacterial species, tends to cause six clinical pat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mycobacterium Marinum Mycobacterium marinum is a non-tuberculous mycobacterium that causes a tuberculosis-like illness in fish and can infect humans when injured skin is ex ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mycoplasma Infections With over 100 different species, the genus Mycoplasma is a unique bacterium that lacks a cell wall and causes a wide range of symptoms and infections. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Myoclonic Epilepsy and Ragged Red Fibers Myoclonic epilepsy with red-ragged fibers (MERRF) is a rare multisystem mitochondrial disease with predominant progressive myoclonus. It is common in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myxedema Myxedema coma is a rare fatal condition as a result of long-standing hypothyroidism with loss of the adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis. Hypot ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
N Acetylcysteine N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the mainstay of therapy for acetaminophen toxicity. NAC has FDA approval for the treatment of potentially hepatotoxic doses ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nadolol Nadolol is a medication used in the treatment of angina and hypertension, which are significant risk factors for the development of coronary artery di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nalbuphine Nalbuphine is FDA indicated for moderate to severe pain in which an opioid agent is required when other alternative treatments have been insufficient. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Naloxone Over the past two decades, the rate of overdose from opiates has increased significantly. Opiate misuse is associated with enormous morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Naltrexone Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist used to treat alcohol use disorder and opioid dependence. It is FDA-approved for alcohol misuse and opioid dependen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Naproxen Naproxen is FDA-approved for treating acute gout, ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, osteoarthritis, tendo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Narcolepsy Narcolepsy is a disorder of rapid onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), frequent uncontrollable sl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Narcotic Bowel Syndrome It is estimated that anywhere from 25% to 45% of the adult population suffers from long-term pain, which results in a poor quality of life, loss of pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Natalizumab Natalizumab is an FDA-approved, monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. The drug was originally appr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Nebivolol Nebivolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neisseria Meningitidis Meningococcal infections are an important disease caused by the bacterium, Neisseria meningitidis. It affects people of all ages and can even infect h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Neomycin Neomycin is a medication used in the treatment and management of hepatic coma and also used in perioperative prophylaxis. This activity reviews the in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neonatal HIV Over 95% of HIV-infected pediatric cases are a result of vertical transmission. Neonatal HIV is the concern for HIV in an infant born to a mother with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neonatal Seizure Neonatal seizures are a commonly encountered neurologic condition in neonates. They are defined as the occurrence of sudden, paroxysmal, abnormal alte ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Neostigmine Neostigmine is water-soluble, an ionized compound that reversibly inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Its FDA indication is for the reversal of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nephrotoxic Medications Numerous drugs used to manage and treat multiple diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and other pathologies, are nephrotoxic. These agents are ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nerve Agents Nerve agents represent a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in toxicology and emergency medicine. Patients affected by nerve agents pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Agent Toxicity The use of these neuroleptic agents has become more widespread. Knowledge of the toxicity and adverse effects associated with their use is becoming pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Medications Neuroleptics, also known as antipsychotic medications, are used to treat and manage symptoms of many psychiatric disorders. They fall into two classes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents The widespread use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) was a significant milestone in the development of anesthesia. Before the introduction of N ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neutropenic Enterocolitis (Typhlitis) Neutropenic enterocolitis is a severe inflammatory condition of the intestines, occurring mainly in the neutropenic, immune-compromised patients. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neutrophilia Neutrophilia is defined as a higher neutrophil count in the blood than the normal reference range of absolute neutrophil count. Neutrophilia can be se ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nevirapine Nevirapine is a drug used in the management and treatment of HIV. It is in the NNRTI class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, act ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
New Onset Diabetes After Transplant New-onset diabetes mellitus after transplantation (NODAT) is the development of diabetes mellitus after solid organ transplantation. NODAT frequently ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Niacin The uses of niacin are yet to be fully comprehended and embraced. This activity assists in improving knowledge of the benefits niacin has to offer, no ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Niacin Deficiency Niacin (vitamin B3) deficiency results in a condition known as pellagra. Pellagra includes the triad of dermatitis, dementia, and diarrhea and can res ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Niacin Toxicity Niacin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperlipidemia. It is in the vitamin supplement class of drugs. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nicotine Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is for those who want to quit smoking, as abruptly quitting can cause withdrawals and cravings. Nicotine withdrawal ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nicotine Addiction Nicotine addiction is a complex disorder with no easy cure. Habitual use of tobacco and tobacco products continues to be a significant contributor to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nicotinic Ganglionic Blocker Mecamylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the nicotinic ganglion blocker class of drugs. This activi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nifedipine Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker in the dihydropyridine subclass. It is primarily used as an antihypertensive and as an anti-anginal medication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nimodipine Nimodipine is a second-generation 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It was initially invented for the management of systemic hypertension. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nisoldipine Nisoldipine is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It falls under the class of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nitrates Nitrates are useful in the management and treatment of angina. They are a group of medications that cause vasodilation by donating nitric oxide. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nitric Oxide Nitric oxide is a medication used to manage and treat hypoxic respiratory failure or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). It is in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nitrofurantoin Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic medication that is used for the treatment of uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection. It is effective against most ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin is a vasodilatory drug used primarily to provide relief from anginal chest pain. It is currently FDA approved for the acute relief of an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nocardia The genus Nocardia is an aerobic actinomycete, catalase-positive, gram-positive bacillus, with a branching filamentous form that can cause pulmonary i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nocturia Nocturia is defined as the need for patients to get up at night on a regular basis to urinate. A period of sleep must precede and follow the urinary e ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Nocturnal Cough A cough is an essential protective and defensive reflex that the body uses to remove mucus, noxious substances, and irritants from the larynx, trachea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nocturnal Enuresis Enuresis refers to the involuntary loss of urine during sleep that occurs at least twice a week in children older than 5 years of age (or the developm ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Non Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung cancer is a diagnosis that has become a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Non-small cell lung cancer includes the subsets of adenocarcinom ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Non-depolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers (nNMBs) are administered as primary therapy in facilitating endotracheal intubations and adjuvant therapy in t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nondepolarizing Paralytics Non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) work by competing with acetylcholine (Ach) for binding sites on nicotinic alpha subunits. They ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms originating from the lymphoid tissues, mainly the lymph nodes. These tumors may result due to c ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDs are a class of medications used to treat pain, fever, and other inflammatory processes. This activity describes the indications, mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Toxicity As a class, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, commonly abbreviated as NSAIDs, are chemically varied, yet share similar therapeutic and adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nonviral Myocarditis Myocarditis is a significant cause of sudden death and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, especially in the young. It has a very diverse and sometime ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Norepinephrine Untreated hypotension can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Norepinephrine is a first-line agent for hypotension that does not respon ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Normal Saline Fluid therapy is a critical component of the clinical management of patients. It consists of colloid therapy as well as crystalloid therapy. The most ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Nortriptyline Nortriptyline is indicated for use in the treatment of depression (FDA-approved). It can also be used off-label for conditions such as chronic pain, d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info