Pharmacy-Cardiac CE

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All of our activities are approved by ACPE (PharmD) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Board of Pharmacy Specialties (BPS) ® content outlines. 475 authors and 14 editors have contributed to the development of the Pharmacy-Cardiac content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

Pharmacy-Cardiac Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
131 I Sodium Iodide Radioiodine-131 is a therapeutic agent used in the management and treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. This activity describes the ind ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Catheter Interventions Since the late 1970s, when catheter-based therapy for ischemic heart disease was first introduced, catheters have continued to evolve. Initially, card ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction An acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurs due to occlusion of one or more coronary arteries, causing transmural myocardial ischemia which in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Afatinib Afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a widely used medication for non-small cell lung carcinoma. This activity educates health care providers on ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Aliskiren Aliskiren is a direct renin inhibitor medication that is FDA approved to treat hypertension in adults and children six years and older. It may be used ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alpha Blockers Alpha-blockers are medications used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and pheochromocytom ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Receptor Agonist Toxicity Alpha-adrenergic agonist toxicity is due to a broad group of pharmaceutical agents known as alpha agonists, which can be further broken down into cent ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alprostadil Alprostadil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction in males and for temporary patency of ductus arteriosus in ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amiloride Amiloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and heart failure. It is in the diuretic class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Amiodarone Amiodarone is one of the most commonly used anti-arrhythmic drugs. While the United States FDA has labeled amiodarone for the treatment of life-threat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amitriptyline Amitriptyline is FDA approved medication to treat depression in adults. The Non-FDA approved indications are anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Amlodipine Amlodipine is an oral dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. Compared to nifedipine and other medications in the dihydropyridine class, amlodipine h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Andexanet Alfa Andexanet alfa is a recombinant modified Factor Xa protein approved by the FDA in May 2018 for the reversal of apixaban and rivaroxaban in patients wi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARB) Pharmaceutical RAAS blockade has is a common and successful strategy in the treatment of several diseases, including hypertension, congestive heart fa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction Anteroseptal myocardial infarctions are commonly caused by rupture of an unstable atherosclerotic plaque in the left anterior descending artery. Delay ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anthracycline Medications (Doxorubicin) Doxorubicin is an anthracycline class medication used in the management and treatment of various types of malignancies and tumors. This activity will ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiarrhythmic Medications The antiarrhythmic medications have typically been categorized according to the Vaughan-Williams (VW) classification system. The system classifies the ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Anticoagulation Safety One class of drugs that has been implicated in serious adverse drugs reactions for many decades are the oral anticoagulants, especially warfarin. Ther ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antihypertensive Medications Hypertension (HTN) is considered one of the leading causes of increased cardiovascular disease. Lowering blood pressure does reduce cardiovascular ris ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Antilipemic Agent Bile Acid Sequestrants Bile acid sequestrants are FDA approved to manage hypercholesterolemia. They can be used in combination with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) or ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Antiphospholipid Syndrome Antiphospholipid antibodies are autoantibodies that are directed against phospholipid-binding proteins. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) is characteri ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Drug Toxicity Antiplatelet medications are primarily used for the management and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related events. Currently, there are fou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiplatelet Medications Over time, numerous antiplatelet agents have been developed with a multitude of indications. Antiplatelet medications divide into oral and parenteral ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Aortic Valve Endocarditis Infective endocarditis occurs globally and is defined by the infection of the endocardial surface of the native valve, prosthetic heart valve, or an i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortoiliac Occlusive Disease Aortoiliac occlusive disease is defined by atherosclerotic blockage of the distal abdominal aorta and iliac arteries. Patients commonly present with c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortopulmonary Septal Defect An aortopulmonary or septal defect/aortopulmonary window is one of the rarest congenital heart defects. This defect develops embryologically when ther ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Apixaban Apixaban is a novel oral anticoagulant (NOAC) that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012 for use in patients with non-valv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atenolol Atenolol is a second-generation beta-1-selective adrenergic antagonist indicated in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and acute myocardi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which there is a build up of plaques inside arteries. These plaques are principally composed of l ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Atorvastatin HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Block Second-Degree A delay in conduction between the atria and ventricles results in an atrioventricular conduction block. This is indicated by a prolongation of the PR ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Dissociation Atrioventricular dissociation is a cardiac conduction defect where the atria and ventricles beat independently of each other. It can occur due to vari ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Reciprocating Tachycardia Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia (AVRT) is a macroreentrant tachycardia that needs an accessory pathway to bypass the conventional conductio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Septal Defect The atrioventricular septal defect is a congenital cardiac malformation that is characterized by a variable degree of the atrial and ventricular septa ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Azilsartan Azilsartan is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin-receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacterial Endocarditis Bacterial endocarditis refers to infection of the endocardial surface of the heart. It usually involves heart valves, but it can occur on the endocard ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Beta 2 Receptor Agonists/Antagonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are cell-surface receptors clinically taken advantage of in the management of bronchospasm as in patients with bronchial a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Betaxolol Betaxolol is a medication used mostly in the management and treatment of open-angle glaucoma, essential hypertension, post-myocardial infarction, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bisoprolol Bisoprolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is in the selective beta-blocker clas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bivalirudin Bivalirudin is a medication used in the management and treatment of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute myocardial infarc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bosentan Pulmonary artery hypertension has proven to cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The first-line treatment option for pulmonary artery ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bumetanide Bumetanide is FDA approved for the management of various edematous conditions secondary to cardiac failure, or hepatic or renal disease, including the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are among the most commonly used cardiovascular drugs in the adult population. Like most other medications, when calci ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Channel Blockers Calcium channel antagonists, also known as calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have been widely used for many indications. These agents are often classif ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcium Gluconate Calcium gluconate is a medication used in the management of hypocalcemia, cardiac arrest and cardiotoxicity due to hyperkalemia or hypermagnesemia. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cancer Chemotherapy Chemotherapy in cancer has merged the disease course from a terminal and catastrophic result in merely all cases to a treatable and sometimes curable ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Candesartan Candesartan is an oral angiotensin II receptor blocker. It is available as a pro-drug, candesartan cilexetil, which undergoes hydrolysis in the gastro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Captopril Captopril is an FDA-approved medication used in the management of hypertension, left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction, and diabetic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbidopa Carbidopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). It is in the decarboxylase inhibitor class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardioactive Steroid Toxicity Cardioactive steroids (CAS) are medically important compounds historically used for conditions like edema and "dropsy." They are available in several ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardioembolic Stroke An estimated 26 million people suffer a stroke each year, making it a significant source of mortality and long-term disability. Up to two-thirds of st ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Cardiomegaly Cardiomegaly is an umbrella designation for a variety of conditions leading to enlargement of the heart which usually remains undiagnosed until the sy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiorenal Syndrome The cardiorenal syndrome includes multiple subtypes based on underlying pathology and chronicity. Each subtype involves unique pathophysiology, and th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carvedilol Carvedilol is a non-selective adrenergic blocker indicated for the chronic therapy of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), hypertensi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cataplexy Cataplexy, a physical feature of narcolepsy, is characterized by transient episodes of voluntary muscle weakness precipitated by intense emotion. Subj ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chlorthalidone Chlorthalidone is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the thiazide-like diuretics class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chronic Coronary Occlusion Chronic coronary occlusion or chronic total occlusion (CTO) has a wide spectrum ranging from subtotal to total coronary involvement. The diagnosis is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Diarrhea Chronic diarrhea is defined as loose/watery stools, which occur three or more times within 24 hours and lasts for 4 or more weeks. This activity outli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Ischemic Heart Disease Selection of Treatment Modality The term stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) often is used synonymously with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD) and encompasses a variety of condi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chronic Renal Failure Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the presence of kidney damage or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) less than 60 ml/min per 1.7 ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Chronic Testicular Pain Chronic orchialgia is defined as 3 months of intermittent or constant testicular pain that is significantly bothersome to the patient. It is the cause ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chronic Thrombo-Embolic Pulmonary Hypertension Chronic pulmonary embolism (also known as chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is a potentially life-threatening condition and is associated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cilostazol Cilostazol is a quinolone derivative primarily used for the treatment of intermittent claudication due to peripheral vascular disease; this is the FDA ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Clomipramine The only FDA approved use for clomipramine is for treating obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in ages 10 and older. For the treatment of OCD, clomipr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Clopidogrel Clopidogrel is FDA approved for the medical management of unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-segment ele ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Clozapine Clozapine is an FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Clozapine is not the first-line drug of choice d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cocaine Toxicity Cocaine abuse is a major worldwide health problem. Patients with acute cocaine toxicity may require urgent treatment for tachycardia, dysrhythmia, hyp ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Colesevelam Colesevelam is an FDA approved antihyperlipidemic drug. When treating hyperlipidemia, colesevelam should be used in conjunction with restriction of ch ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 2.25 36 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Calcification Arterial calcium development is closely related to vascular injury, inflammation, and repair. Calcification occurs very early in the process of athero ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease is a common heart condition that involves atherosclerotic plaque formation in the vessel lumen. This leads to impairment in bl ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Prevention In the United States, cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. According to the AHA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Thrombus The pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina is the rupture of the coronary artery plaque resulting in acute thrombotic o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Vasospasm Coronary artery vasospasm (CAVS) is a constriction of the coronary arteries that can cause complete or near-complete occlusion of the vessel. In 1959, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coronary Stents Coronary stents (CS) are expandable tubular metallic devices which are introduced into coronary arteries that are clogged due to an underlying atheros ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cyanosis Cyanosis is characterized by a blueish discoloration of the skin or mucous membranes. Cyanosis is frequently encountered in clinical practice, and the ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Deadly Single Dose Agents Although the basics of evaluating and treating most unknown ingestants are well known, many overdoses require very specific treatment if the patient i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dexamethasone Dexamethasone has a wide variety of uses in the medical field. As a treatment, dexamethasone has been useful in the treatment of acute exacerbation of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Diclofenac Diclofenac is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory conditions and pain. It is in the class of non-steroidal anti-inflamma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digitalis Toxicity Digoxin is a well-known cardiac glycoside and one of the oldest drugs used today in cardiovascular medicine. It has wide-ranging beneficial effects an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure and certain arrhythmias and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside cla ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Diltiazem Diltiazem is an oral and parenteral non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in many clinical scenarios as an antihypertensive, anti-ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dipyridamole Dipyridamole is an antiplatelet agent used in secondary prophylaxis against stroke and as an adjunctive agent with warfarin post mechanical valve repl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Disopyramide Disopyramide is a medication used for the treatment of heart rhythm abnormalities, which can be life-threatening, such as ventricular tachycardia/fibr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dobutamine The FDA approveD dobutamine for short-term use in patients with decreased contractility due to heart failure or cardiac surgical procedures leading to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dofetilide Clinical uses of dofetilide include maintaining sinus rhythm in patients with atrial fibrillation. Dofetilide is indicated in adults for the conversio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dopamine Dopamine is a peripheral vasostimulant used to treat low blood pressure, low heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Low infusion rates (0.5 to 2 micrograms/k ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dopamine Agonists Dopamine agonists are used in patients with Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists such as ropinirole, are the first-line treatment for restless legs sy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Doxepin Doxepin is a medication used in the treatment of major depressive disorder, anxiety, insomnia as well as in the management of skin pruritus. It is in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Doxorubicin Doxorubicin is an antibiotic derived from the Streptomyces peucetius bacterium. It has widespread use as a chemotherapeutic agent since the 1960s. Dox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drug and Alcohol Use The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition includes 10 separate classes of drugs of abuse, which include alcohol, caffei ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Drug Induced Hepatotoxicity Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is an acute or chronic liver injury secondary to drugs or herbal compounds. It is difficult to diagnose because the presen ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drug Induced Valvular Heart Disease Drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) is a condition involving changes in the morphology and functionality of valvular leaflets secondary to exp ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Drug Interactions In Palliative Care Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a significant cause of adverse drug events (ADE) in palliative care. This activity will highlight the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Drug Metabolism Most drugs undergo chemical alteration by various bodily systems as a way to create compounds that are more easily excreted from the body. These chemi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dyslipidemia Dyslipidemia is the imbalance of lipids such as cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, (LDL-C), triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
ECG T Wave Normally, the T wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG) is representative of ventricular repolarization. Changes in T wave morphology can be indicative of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Edoxaban Edoxaban is a medication used in the management and treatment of pulmonary embolism (PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and non-valvular atrial fibril ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Enalapril Enalapril is a medication used in the management of hypertension and congestive heart failure. It is an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. This ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Enalaprilat Enalaprilat injection is used in the management of hypertension when oral therapy is not practical. Enalaprilat is the active metabolite of the oral p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
End of Life Care Unlike other conditions and life experiences, which only affect a certain percentage of the world’s population, the end-of-life is a stage in the proc ... Read the Article 2.5 36 Activity Info
Endocarditis Antibiotic Regimens Infective endocarditis is an uncommon infection with a high mortality rate. It requires prompt identification and carefully selected antibiotic therap ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Enoxaparin Enoxaparin is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and was first approved for medical use in 1993 and is derived from heparin. It has approval for the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Epididymitis Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis, a tubular structure on the testis where sperm mature. Epididymitis is a relatively common condition ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in a variety of settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved f ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Eplerenone Eplerenone is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, as well as hypertension. It is in the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Eptifibatide Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa class platelet inhibitor drug used to reduce ischemic cardiac events in specific patient populations. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Escitalopram Escitalopram is a medication used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. It is in the selectiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings including urgent c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Ethacrynic Acid Ethacrynic acid is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic heart failure. It is in the loop diuretic class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ezetimibe Ezetimibe is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypercholesterolemia. It is among a novel class of selective cholesterol-absorption ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Familial Hypercholesterolemia Familial hypercholesterolemia is a group of inherited genetic defects that lead to the severe elevation of serum cholesterol concentrations. Clinicall ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Familial Hyperlipidemia Type 2a Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipid metabolism presenting at birth. It is characterized by very high low-den ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Felodipine Felodipine is a medication used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension. It is a member of the dihydropyridine class of calcium chan ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fenofibrate Fenofibrate is FDA approved to treat patients with hypertriglyceridemia, primary hypercholesterolemia, or mixed dyslipidemia. It reduces low-density l ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fenoldopam Fenoldopam is used primarily for the lowering of blood pressure during episodes of severe hypertension. Fenoldopam has a unique mechanism of action co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fibrate Medications Fibrates are a class of drugs utilized in the management and treatment of dyslipidemia. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fibric Acid Antilipemic Agents Fibric acids are FDA indicated to treat patients with primary hypercholesterolemia or mixed dyslipidemia. They reduce low-density lipoprotein choleste ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Flecainide Flecainide is a class IC antiarrhythmic agent. This activity will highlight the mechanism of action, pharmacodynamics, evidenced-based usage and toxic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluvastatin In adults, fluvastatin is indicated for hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia to decrease the amount of total cholesterol in the blood. Specific ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Foscarnet Foscarnet is a medication used to manage and treat CMV, HSV, and VZV viral infections in AIDS and immunocompromised patients. It is in the antiviral c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fosinopril Fosinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Fosinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fosphenytoin Fosphenytoin is a medication used in the management and prevention of seizures. It is a water-soluble phenytoin prodrug with the capability to be used ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Furosemide Furosemide is a loop diuretic that has been in use for decades. However, clinicians must be aware of updates related to the indications and administra ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gemfibrozil Gemfibrozil is an FDA approved fibric acid agent (fibrate) for the management of hypertriglyceridemia (particularly in type IV and V hyperlipidemia). ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gentamicin Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used in the treatment of several gram-negative infections. This activity aims to review the indications, ac ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ginger Root Ginger root is a plant-based, whole food spice used in the personal or professional treatment of various conditions, ranging from gastrointestinal ups ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gingivitis Gingivitis is an inflammatory condition of the gingival tissue or the gums most commonly due to a bacterial infection. It is inflammation of the gingi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ginkgo Biloba Ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements used in the world. This activity reviews the potential indications, action, and cont ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitors Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GP IIb/IIIa) inhibitors prevent platelet aggregation by blocking glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptors on their platelet's plasma mem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glycopyrrolate Glycopyrrolate, also known as glycopyrronium, is an anticholinergic drug. Glycopyrrolate has been widely used as a preoperative medication to inhibit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Group B Coxsackie Virus Coxsackie B virus belongs to the Picornavirus family and can cause a variety of diseases, including gastrointestinal illness, myocarditis, pneumonia, ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
H2 Blockers H2 receptor blockers, or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), are a class of gastric acid-suppressing agents frequently used in various gastric conditions ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Heart Failure And Ejection Fraction Heart failure (HF) is a common and potentially fatal disease if left untreated. This article aims to describe the different types of heart failure. It ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Heart Transplantation Allograft Vasculopathy Despite advances in mechanical circulatory support, cardiac transplant remains the definitive treatment intervention for patients with advanced heart ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are lipid-lowering medications used in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. This act ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hydralazine Hydralazine is used orally as a therapeutic agent to treat essential hypertension and intravenously to lower blood pressure urgently or emergently. FD ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hydrochlorothiazide Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) is a thiazide-type diuretic which has been used clinically for more than half a century. The drug has been widely used to t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hypercholesterolemia Lipoprotein disorders are clinically important due to the of the role of lipoproteins in atherogenesis and the associated risk of atherosclerotic card ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Hyperlipidemia Hyperlipidemia is a term that encompasses various genetic and acquired disorders that describe elevated lipid levels within the body. It is a very com ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypertensive Heart Disease Hypertensive heart disease refers to a constellation of changes in the left ventricle, left atrium and coronary arteries as a result of chronic blood ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypertriglyceridemia Hypertriglyceridemia in many cases is multifactorial, resulting from the combination of genetic factors and other causes of increased production and o ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a mutation in sarcomere protein genes which effect contraction of the hea ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hypoaldosteronism Hypoaldosteronism is a clinical condition characterized by a deficiency of aldosterone or its impaired action at the tissue level. The disorder may re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypokalemia One of the most common electrolyte disturbances seen in clinical practice is hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is more prevalent than hyperkalemia, and most ca ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Ibuprofen Ibuprofen is a medication used in the management and treatment of inflammatory diseases, rheumatoid disorders, mild to moderate pain, fever, dysmenorr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ibutilide Ibutilide is indicated for the conversion of acute atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm (NSR). Off-label uses of ibutilide in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Idiopathic Pulmonary Artery Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension, also known as idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH), it is a progressive disease that affects the precapillary pulmo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare disease characterized by repeated episodes of a diffuse alveolar hemorrhage resulting in the accumu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Imipramine Imipramine is a medication used in the treatment of depression and anxiety. It is a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Inamrinone Inamrinone is a medication used in the short-term management and treatment of congestive heart failure. It is a phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor, which ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infectious Endocarditis Infectious endocarditis refers to the colonization of cardiac valve endocardium by virulent microorganisms. It is a rare condition that can lead to r ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Inferior Myocardial Infarction Without timely treatment, coronary artery occlusion results in decreased perfusion to the myocardium, resulting in myocardial ischemia followed by my ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Inotropes And Vasopressors Vasopressors and inotropes are medications used to create vasoconstriction or increase cardiac contractility, respectively, in patients with shock. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Isoproterenol Isoproterenol is a beta-1, and beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist indicated primarily for bradydysrhythmias. The administration and subsequent post-ad ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Isosorbide Isosorbide is a medication used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris in patients with coronary heart disease. It is in the nitrate class ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ivabradine Ivabradine is FDA-approved in the United States for use in patients with symptoms due to stable heart failure and an ejection fraction of 35% or less ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia Junctional ectopic tachycardia is an arrhythmia usually present in infants but has been seen in older children as well. It can be congenital or postop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Labetalol Due to their negative inotropic and chronotropic actions, beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists are typically indicated in individuals with chronic car ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Left Atrial Enlargement Left atrial enlargement (LAE) is an anatomic variation of the left atria and is a result of increased left atrial pressure for a prolonged period. Lef ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Failure Left heart failure occurs when there is dysfunction of the left ventricle, resulting insufficient delivery of blood to vital organs. Left ventricular ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Non-compaction Cardiomyopathy Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) is a very rare congenital cardiomyopathy. It is a disease of endomyocardial trabeculations that increase in num ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Levodopa (L-Dopa) Levodopa is the precursor to dopamine. Most commonly, clinicians use levodopa as a dopamine replacement agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lipid Lowering Drug Therapy Patients at an increased risk of having a cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or uns ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lisinopril Lisinopril is classified as an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and has been available for nearly three decades. Lisinopril has some key featur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lithium Toxicity The drug of choice for recurrent bipolar illness management remains to be lithium. Lithium, a monovalent cation similar to sodium with an unknown mech ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Lomitapide Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) medications comprise mipomersen and lomitapide. Lomitapide is an FDA-approved besides a diet low in fa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Long QT Syndrome The QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) represents the duration of the ventricular action potential, and this physiologically correlates with th ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Loop Diuretics Loop diuretics are medications used in the management and treatment of fluid overload conditions such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Losartan Losartan is FDA approved for the treatment of several medical conditions, which include the following: hypertension, diabetic nephropathy. ARBs are kn ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Lovastatin Lovastatin is a lipid-lowering medication part of the statin drug class used in the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease, hypercholester ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malignant Hypertension Malignant hypertension is a term that has been used to describe patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) and multiple complications with poor progno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Management of Antithrombotics Around Gastrointestinal Procedures Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are used to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients at high risk. However, when these patients need ga ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
MAO Inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO Inhibitors) are medications used in the management and treatment of depression, among other neurological and psychia ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Methyldopa Methyldopa is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the centrally acting anti-hypertensive class of drugs. This ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Methylprednisolone Methylprednisolone is an FDA-approved medication for the management and treatment of allergic conditions, arthritis, asthma exacerbations, long-term a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Metolazone Metolazone is a cardiovascular agent, specifically a quinazoline diuretic related to the thiazide class. It is available in a generic formulation in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Metoprolol Metoprolol is FDA-approved for the treatment of angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation/flutter, and hypertension. Off-label ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mexiletine Mexiletine is largely used to suppress ventricular arrhythmias but also has a role in peripheral neuropathy and chronic pain, although the use for eit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Milk Thistle Herbal products have become increasingly popular, especially among those with chronic disease. Milk thistle has been used for hundreds of years by her ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Milrinone Milrinone is a medication indicated for cardiac support in patients with acute heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, or chronic heart failure. It fun ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a supraventricular tachycardia resulting in a rapid, irregular atrial rhythm that is caused by multiple ectopic ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as "heart attack," is caused by decreased or complete cessation of blood flow to a portion of the myoca ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Myopericarditis The terms pericarditis refers to inflammation of the pericardium and myocarditis. Both can occur together in clinical practice, and hence the term myo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nadolol Nadolol is a medication used in the treatment of angina and hypertension, which are significant risk factors for the development of coronary artery di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nebivolol Nebivolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Niacin The uses of niacin are yet to be fully comprehended and embraced. This activity assists in improving knowledge of the benefits niacin has to offer, no ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Niacin Toxicity Niacin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperlipidemia. It is in the vitamin supplement class of drugs. This activity reviews ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nicotinic Ganglionic Blocker Mecamylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the nicotinic ganglion blocker class of drugs. This activi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nifedipine Nifedipine is a calcium channel blocker in the dihydropyridine subclass. It is primarily used as an antihypertensive and as an anti-anginal medication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nimodipine Nimodipine is a second-generation 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It was initially invented for the management of systemic hypertension. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nisoldipine Nisoldipine is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It falls under the class of dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers. This activit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nitrates Nitrates are useful in the management and treatment of angina. They are a group of medications that cause vasodilation by donating nitric oxide. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nitric Oxide Nitric oxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn ( ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin is a vasodilatory drug used primarily to provide relief from anginal chest pain. It is currently FDA approved for the acute relief of a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nocturia Nocturia is defined as the need for patients to get up at night on a regular basis to urinate. A period of sleep must precede and follow the urinary e ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDs are a class of medications used to treat pain, fever, and other inflammatory processes. This activity describes the indications, mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nonviral Myocarditis Myocarditis is a significant cause of sudden death and nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, especially in the young. It has a very diverse and sometime ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Norepinephrine Untreated hypotension can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Norepinephrine is a first-line agent for hypotension that does not respon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nortriptyline Nortriptyline is indicated for use in the treatment of depression (FDA-approved). It can also be used off-label for conditions such as chronic pain, d ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Olmesartan Olmesartan is a medication used in the management of hypertension. It is in the angiotensin receptor blocking (ARB) class of drugs. This activity revi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Omega-3 Fatty Acids Omega-3 fatty acids is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperlipidemia. It is in the antilipemic class of medications. This activi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Omeprazole Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor used in the management and treatment of several conditions, including peptic ulcer disease, gastrointestinal ref ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Orthostatic Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing from a sitting or supine position. Clinically, this is diagnosed b ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes an irregularly irregular heart rhythm. AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia characterized by disorganized, rapid ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia Atrial tachycardia is a form of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) usually seen in patients with structural heart abnormalities but also seen in patie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) describes a narrow complex tachycardia involving episodic supraventricular tachycardia with sudden onse ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
PCSK9 Inhibitors Familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by extremely high levels of total and LDL-cholesterol, premature vascular disease, and tendon xanthomas ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pentoxifylline Pentoxifylline is a drug used in the management of peripheral vascular disease. It is a xanthine derivative. This activity outlines the mechanism of a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Peripheral Arterial Disease Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a circulatory problem causing a reduced blood flow through the arteries. This typically reduces blood flow to the ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and limb loss in the United States. An early identification and risk factor modifica ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Pharmacological Cardioversion Cardioversion is the process of converting an abnormal and potentially dangerous heart rhythm into a normal sinus rhythm. The normal heart rate comes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are class medications used in the management and treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), erectile dysfu ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Photosensitivity Photosensitivity refers to various symptoms, diseases, and photodermatoses caused or exacerbated by exposure to sunlight. Photosensitive conditions ar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pitavastatin Pitavastatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia. It is in the statin class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Polygenic Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia causes atherosclerotic vascular disease leading to the development of coronary artery disease, transient ischemic attack, stroke, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Posterior Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of chest pain that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Posterior wall myocardial infarction occur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Posterior Myocardial Ischemia Posterior myocardial infarction (PMI) accounts for a substantial number of cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); however, true PMI is often under-re ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postpartum Cardiomyopathy Postpartum cardiomyopathy, also known as peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM), is defined as new onset heart failure between the last month of pregnancy a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Potassium Potassium is an essential mineral constituent of the human body and is the chief cation found within the intracellular fluid of all cells. The chief i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Potassium Iodide Potassium Iodide (KI) has effects in the production of thyroid hormone and is useful in treating conditions related to thyroid hormone, especially sev ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Prasugrel Prasugrel is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous intervention. Prasugrel is a thienop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pravastatin Pravastatin is a medication used in the management and treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, and mixed dyslipidemia. It falls und ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Premature Ventricular Contraction During a premature ventricular contraction (PVC), the heartbeat is initiated by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node. Given that a PVC occurs b ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Prinzmetal Angina Prinzmetal angina (vasospastic angina or variant angina) is a known clinical condition characterized by chest discomfort or pain at rest with transien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Procainamide Procainamide is a medication used in the management and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias, atrial flutter/fibrillatio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Propofol Toxicity Propofol is a phenol derivative administered intravenously that is commonly used for sedation and in general anesthesia. The most common formulation ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Propranolol Propranolol can be used to ameliorate the sympathetic response in angina, tachyarrhythmias, prevention of acute ischemic attacks, migraine prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are a group of endogenously produced compounds that play essential roles in regulating human physiology. Synthetically derived prostagl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Pulseless Electrical Activity Pulseless electrical activity (PEA), also known as electromechanical dissociation, is a clinical condition characterized by unresponsiveness and impal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Pulseless ventricular tachycardia is a serious condition with high mortality and morbidity that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulsus Paradoxus Pulsus paradoxus refers to a systolic pressure drop greater than 10mmHg during inspiration. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
QT Prolonging Drugs The heart has an electrical system that allows it to contract in a rhythm. A key aspect of this electrical system is depolarization and repolarization ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Quinapril Quinapril is a medication utilized in the management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease. This activity rev ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Quinidine Quinidine is one of the oldest known antiarrhythmics; an interprofessional approach is necessary when using this drug, including specialties such as c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Radiation Induced Coronary Artery Disease Radiation-induced coronary artery disease (RICAD) is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality in mainly oncology patients treated with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ramipril Ramipril is an ACE-inhibitor which is used for several indications. These include hypertension, prevention of heart failure progression post-myocardia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ranolazine Ranolazine was FDA approved in 2006 for the treatment of chronic angina. Angina is characterized by chest discomfort that occurs due to ischemia. Stab ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Red Man Syndrome Red man syndrome (RMS) is an anaphylactoid reaction caused by the rapid infusion of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. RMS consists of a pruritic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Reentrant Arrhythmias Reentrant arrhythmias are a diverse group of cardiac conduction defects that can manifest in a wide range of presentations. Proper diagnosis is crucia ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Renal Failure The term renal failure denotes inability of the kidneys to perform excretory function leading to retention of nitrogenous waste products from the bloo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Reserpine Reserpine is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Restenosis Despite advances in cardiovascular health and interventional cardiology, coronary restenosis continues to be a challenge for interventional cardiologi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Restrictive Cardiomyopathy Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) is characterized by diastolic dysfunction of a non-dilated ventricle. Multiple types of restrictive cardiomyopathies ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Retinopathy Retinopathy refers to pathological alterations to the retina resulting from a variety of causes, including environmental conditions and genetic factor ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rheumatic Heart Disease Rheumatic heart disease is a systemic immune condition that occurs as a complication of rheumatic fever. This occurs after a beta-hemolytic streptococ ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Right Ventricular Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart diminishes or stops altogether causing irreversible damage to the heart muscles. A ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Risk Factors For Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality among adults in the United States. While common, it is preventable. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rivaroxaban Rivaroxaban is used for treatment and management venous thromboembolism as a postoperative thromboprophylaxis for patients undergoing orthopedic surge ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rosiglitazone Rosiglitazone is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the thiazolidinediones class of medications. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rosuvastatin Rosuvastatin is a statin medication used as a lipid-lowering agent. The FDA-approved indications are homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, hyperli ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sacubitril/Valsartan Sacubitril/valsartan is the first agent to be approved in a new class of drugs called angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI). The medication ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) Salicylates have been available since the early 1900s. This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, methods of administration, importa ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Secondary Hypertension Secondary hypertension is elevated blood pressure (BP), which is secondary to an identifiable cause. This activity outlines the causes, history, and p ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Selecting A Treatment Modality In Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a commonly encountered diagnosis and a common reason for inpatient admission. Timely identification of this condition ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Selective Beta-1-Blockers The cardio-selective beta-1-blockers include atenolol, betaxolol, bisoprolol, esmolol, acebutolol, metoprolol, and nebivolol. FDA approved uses of bet ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Septic Emboli Septic embolism is an obstruction of a blood vessel, typically by an infected thrombus that has traveled through the bloodstream from a distant infect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sildenafil Sildenafil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is in the phosphodiest ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Simvastatin Simvastatin is an oral HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor indicated as an adjunct to diet. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of lovastatin, the first FDA-app ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sinus Node Dysfunction Sinus node dysfunction is a disease that is characterized by the inability of the sinoatrial node of producing an adequate heart rate that meets the p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple disease pathologies. It is a general chemical compound by classifi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperkalemia. This activity outlines and reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sotalol Sotalol has the following are the FDA and non-FDA indications: premature ventricular contractions, hemodynamically stable ventricular tachycardia, pha ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Stable Angina Angina affects 10 million people in the United States. Providers must be able to differentiate between stable angina and other causes of chest pain to ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Statin Medications Statin medications are used in the management and treatment of hypocholesteremia. They are known to be inhibitors of the hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA red ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Stimulants The term stimulants cover a broad class of drugs that increase the activity of the central nervous system. These drugs are used by a very high percent ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Streptokinase Streptokinase can be useful in the management and treatment of acute ST-segment myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Stroke Anticoagulation Anticoagulation is a class of medications used in the management and prevention of stroke. This activity outlines the role, indications, action, and c ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardial surfaces of the heart, which includes 1 or more heart valves. The incidence of infectiv ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Systolic Hypertension Isolated systolic hypertension is the predominant form of hypertension in the elderly population. Traditionally it has been defined as a systolic bloo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as Gebrochenes-Herz syndrome, transient apical ballooning syndrome, apical ballooning cardiomyopathy, stress-indu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Terazosin Terazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia as well as essential hypertension. Terazosin is a long- ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Therapeutic Uses Of Diuretic Agents Diuretics are a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous and other non-edematous disease conditions. Diuretics are a class of drug ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Thiazide Diuretics Thiazide diuretics are an FDA-approved class of drugs that inhibit the reabsorption of 3% to 5% of luminal sodium in the distal convoluted tubule of t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Thiazolidinediones Thiazolidinediones are medications used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. These medications may be acting as a nuclear tran ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block An atrioventricular block is a loss of the regular function of the cardiac electroconductive pathways linking the sinoatrial node (SA node) and the ve ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Thromboembolic Event Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease is the most feared complication of hospitalizations and is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortalit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thrombolytic Therapy Thrombolytics or fibrinolytics are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of dissolving intravascular clots. They are in the plas ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a type of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia that is classically characterized by the pentad of fever, hem ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tissue Plasminogen Activator Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is classified as a serine protease (enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins). It is thus one of the essential ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Torsemide Torsemide is a loop diuretic extensively used in the management of heart failure, renal disease, and cirrhosis. Torsemide acts on electrolyte channels ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
TPA Therapy Alteplase (tPA) is a powerful thrombolytic agent used in the lysis of acute thromboembolism. FDA-approved indications for alteplase include pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Treprostinil Treprostinil is a medication used in the management and treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH). This activity outlines and reviews the indi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Triamterene Triamterene is a medication used in the management and treatment of edematous states. It is in the potassium-sparing diuretics class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis is uncommon compared to left-sided infective endocarditis. Right-sided infected infective endocarditis accounts ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were introduced in the late 1950s for the treatment of depression. With the advent of selective serotonin reuptake in ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Unstable Angina Unstable angina is chest discomfort or pain caused by an insufficient flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. It is part of the acute coronary syndrome ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Vasodilators Vasodilators are useful in the management of hypertension, angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and more. This activity reviews the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Venlafaxine Venlafaxine is FDA approved to treat and manage symptoms of depression, social anxiety disorder, and cataplexy. Off-label, venlafaxine can be used f ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ventricular Fibrillation Arrhythmias originating from the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system are grouped under ventricular arrhythmia (VA). This includes a subset o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ventricular Premature Complexes Ventricular premature beats (VPBs), or premature ventricular complexes/contractions (PVCs), are ectopic beats that arise from within the ventricles. T ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia is characterized as a wide complex tachyarrhythmia. It is classified by duration as non-sustained or sustained. Non-sustained ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or Prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Viral Myocarditis Myocarditis is an inflammatory process of the myocardium. It can present in the acute, subacute, or chronic phase with either focal or diffuse involve ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Vitamin B3 Niacin is a medication used in the management and treatment of pellagra and hyperlipidemia. It is part of the B complex vitamins. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Warfarin Warfarin is a medication used in the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and thromboembolic events. It is in the anticoagulant class of dru ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Warfarin Drug Interactions Warfarin has FDA approval for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its complications, such as a pulmonary embolus. It is also indica ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagulopathic and thromboembolic disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Ziprasidone Ziprasidone is an atypical antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and acute agitation in schizophrenic patients. Because it antagon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info

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