Nurse Anesthetist CE

Stay on top of your practice by subscribing to the StatPearls Unlimited CE program. Gain access to 461 PubMed indexed activities in Nurse Anesthetist. Your subscription also gives you unlimited access to all 6,319 PubMed indexed CE activities in our library.

View Your State's Requirements

About StatPearls CE

All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the National Board of Certification and Recertification for Nurse Anesthetists® (NBCRNA) content outlines. 605 authors and 10 editors have contributed to the development of the Nurse Anesthetist content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

View Your State's Requirements

Nurse Anesthetist Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
3-3-2 Rule The airway is one of the most critical elements of patient safety, and difficult intubations commonly cause morbidity and mortality. To decrease morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Abdominal Aortic Repair Abdominal aortic repair is a major surgical procedure done to treat an aortic aneurysm. Elective surgery on an abdominal aortic aneurysm is indicated ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Abdominal compartment syndrome occurs when the pressure in the abdominal cavity elevates beyond 20 mmHg. It is associated with multiorgan dysfunction. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ablative Laser Resurfacing This activity outlines and describes ablative laser options and their current therapeutic uses in skin resurfacing. The differences between fractional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ablative Nerve Block Ablation procedures have been used to treat chronic back pain and sciatica of unknown etiology as an alternative to surgical severing the dorsal rami. ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The d ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Adaptive Support Ventilation Adaptive support ventilation (ASV) is a type of mechanical ventilation, which is a relatively newer mode of closed-loop ventilation. Other modes of me ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adolescent and Idiopathic Scoliosis Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is the most common form of pediatric scoliosis occurring in individuals between the ages of 10 to 18. By definit ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adrenergic Drugs Adrenergic drugs are a broad class of medications that bind to adrenergic receptors throughout the body. These receptors include: alpha-1, alpha-2, be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Agranulocytosis Agranulocytosis is a condition in which the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is less than 100 neutrophils per microlitre of the blood. Agranulocytosis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Air Leak An air leak is the leakage of air from an air-containing cavity into spaces that, under normal circumstances, do not contain air. The term air leak sy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Airway For Laser Surgery Maintenance of a patent airway and adequate ventilation during the surgery of the upper respiratory tract can be difficult due to the need to maintain ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain the patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alcohol Related Psychosis Psychosis associated with alcohol can occur with acute intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, and chronic alcoholism. Alcohol-related psychosis is also kno ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Allen Test The Allen test is used to assess collateral blood flow to the hands, generally in preparation for a procedure that has the potential to disrupt blood ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification The American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification system was developed to offer clinicians a simple categorization of a p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Anesthesia Breathing Systems Anesthesia breathing systems serve as a conduit to deliver anesthetic and fresh gases to a patient. There are a variety of breathing systems, each wit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Awake Craniotomy Awake craniotomy, also known as awake brain surgery, is a type of procedure performed on the brain while the patient is awake and able to talk to the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Eye Surgery This activity reviews the anesthetic implications associated with patients undergoing eye surgeries. This article will highlight major anesthetic topi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Labor, Delivery, And Cesarean Section In High-Risk Heart Disease Obstetric anesthesia in high-risk cardiac patients is a challenging and rewarding subspecialty of anesthesia. Anesthesiologists must be well-versed i ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Laryngeal Surgery Anesthetic considerations for surgical interventions on the laryngeal structures necessitate the maintenance of ventilation. Jet ventilation is often ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Patients With Burns Anesthetic management of the burn patient can be a complex task due to various pathophysiological and hemodynamic changes following burn comprising gr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Patients With Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia Gravis is a neuromuscular disorder affecting muscarinic, nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is a disease characterized by weakness and f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Patients With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Medical knowledge and treatment advances have led to increased survival of extremely premature neonates. Prematurity increases the incidence of having ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Patients With Pulmonary Hypertension Or Right Heart Failure Patients with pulmonary hypertension require special anesthetic considerations when undergoing anesthesia and surgery because of their increased morbi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia For Transplant Surgery With the increasing number of organ procurement and transplantation, it is essential to know the needs of this patient population's pathophysiology an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia Inhalation Agents Cardiovascular Effects Many providers lack thorough knowledge of the effects of inhaled anesthetics on the cardiovascular system. This can lead to significant intra-operativ ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anesthesia Machine The closed-circuit anesthesia machine has become the main-stay for providing oxygenation, ventilation, and administration of volatile anesthetics to p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anesthesia Monitoring Of Mixed Venous Saturation While oxygen saturation refers to the percentage of hemoglobin bound to oxygen within red blood cells, mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) refers to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthesia Vaporizers Anesthetic vaporizers are an essential piece of anesthesia equipment. This activity reviews the modern anesthetic vaporizer classification, the physic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anesthetic Considerations For Bronchoscopic Procedures Bronchoscopy is a common diagnostic procedure performed to assess a multitude of pulmonary conditions. There are a variety of techniques to safely per ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthetic Considerations In Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic herniation results in unique pathophysiologic changes that may prove to be a challenge to manage perioperatively. Anesthesiol ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthetic Considerations In Hemifacial Microsomia Hemifacial microsomia is the second most common congenital defect of the head and neck, second only to cleft lip/cleft palate, with an incidence of 1 ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthetic Considerations In Patients With Cerebral Palsy Cerebral palsy encompasses a broad spectrum of permanent neurodevelopmental disorders that affects an individual’s muscle tone, motor functions, movem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthetic Considerations In The Geriatric Population Elderly patients commonly have injuries or other medical conditions requiring surgery. Due to physiologic and pathologic changes that occur with age, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthetic Gases Anesthetic gases (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane), also known as inhaled anesthetics, are administered as primary thera ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anesthetic Management For Enhanced Recovery After Cardiac Surgery (ERACS) Since the advent of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) initiative, enhanced recovery protocols exist for many surgical specialties. Many studi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anesthetic Management For Enhanced Recovery After Major Surgery (ERAS) Enhanced recovery after major surgery (ERAS) protocols are evidence-based, multimodal approaches used to facilitate recovery after major surgical proc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anesthetic Neurotoxicity General anesthetics act on several receptors in the CNS, and their effects are generally reversible. In some patient populations, though, there is an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used to treat and manage hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease, heart failure, stroke, ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antiemetic Medications Nausea is a commonly encountered symptom in healthcare, one that is difficult for any patient. Causes may be as simple as the body's defense against a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Antiemetic Serotonin-5-HT3 Receptor Blockers Selective serotonin receptor (5-HT3) antagonists block serotonin both peripherally, on gastrointestinal (GI) vagal nerve terminals, and centrally in t ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Antiepileptic Drug Monitoring Antiepileptic drug-level monitoring has been a common clinical practice since the advent of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The practice of maintaining AE ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Antisialagogues Antisialagogues are medications often used to manage and treat patients with noisy breathing near the end of life. These medications are members of th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Aortic Regurgitation Aortic regurgitation is the inadequate closure of the aortic valve during diastole that results in reverse blood flow through the aortic valve. This c ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Aprepitant Aprepitant is a medication used in the management and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) and postoperative nausea and vomiti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Arachnoiditis Arachnoiditis is a persistent inflammation of the arachnoid mater as well as subarachnoid space due to mechanical, chemical, and infectious injuries. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arterial Gas Embolism Arterial gas embolism is a rare, life-threatening entity, which requires prompt recognition and early intervention. Failure to diagnose and initiate e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arterial Pressure Monitoring Arterial pressure monitoring is a form of invasive blood pressure monitoring and is done through the cannulation of a peripheral artery. This form of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arytenoid Subluxation Arytenoid subluxation or dislocation is a rare laryngeal injury that occurs as a result of airway instrumentation or direct trauma to the cricoaryteno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Asthma Anesthesia Asthma is characterized by variable and often reversible airway obstruction with bronchial hyperreactivity. An estimated 8.4% of people in the US have ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Atelectasis The word "atelectasis" is Greek in origin; It is a combination of the Greek words atelez (Ateles) and ektasiz (ektasis) meaning "imperfect" and "expan ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Atracurium Atracurium is indicated as an addition to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation and provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surge ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2.5 39 Activity Info
Axillary Block The axillary approach to the brachial plexus nerve block was first described by Dr. Halstead et al. in 1884. Before the prevalence of ultrasound, this ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Barbiturates Barbiturates are a group of sedative-hypnotic medications used for the treatment of seizure disorder, neonatal withdrawal, insomnia, preoperative anxi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Bier Block The Bier block, also known as intravenous local anesthesia (IVRA), is a safe, effective, and cost-efficient way to provide short-term anesthesia and a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bilateral Vocal Cord Paralysis Vocal cord paralysis refers to the immobility of a vocal cord, which can be due to pathology of the vocal ford (also known as the vocal fold) itself, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bispectral Index Monitoring the depth of anesthesia is very important during any procedure, as anesthesia that is too deep can cause hemodynamic changes. Anesthesia th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bleeding Disorders Hereditary bleeding disorders occur due to the absence or deficiency of specific clotting proteins. The three most common hereditary bleeding disorder ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Blood Gas Temperature Correction Blood gas temperature correction is an important process to implement when assessing blood gas laboratory values. The laws of physics concerning gas s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Aspiration And Biopsy Bone marrow aspiration and biopsies are often performed both in the inpatient and outpatient settings for the diagnosis of a multitude of hematologic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Botulism Botulism is a rare, potentially fatal syndrome of diffuse, flaccid paralysis caused by botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) which is elaborated by the bacteriu ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Brachial Plexus Block Techniques Blockade of the brachial plexus is an effective method for providing anesthesia to the upper limb from the shoulder to the fingertips. There are multi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Breast Reconstruction Perforator Flaps This topic is about breast reconstruction using flaps in patients with breast cancer. There are different reconstructive options available for patient ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Bronchopleural Fistula Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a sinus tract between the main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space. Treatment for BPF ranges from ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Bupivacaine Bupivacaine is a potent local anesthetic with unique characteristics from the amide group of local anesthetics. Local anesthetics are used in regional ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Buprenorphine Buprenorphine, a synthetic opioid, treats pain and opioid use syndrome. It was developed in the late 1960s. It is a synthetic analog of thebaine, whic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Capnography And Pulse Oximetry Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive measure of oxygen saturation. Capnography is a method of monitoring the concentration or partial pressure of carbon di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Embolism Laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing popularity in clinical practice. As part of laparoscopic surgeries, gas insufflation is usually adopted to ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiac Risk Assessment This activity reviews the presurgical cardiac risk assessment and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in optimizing presurgical fitness ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Risk Stratification Cardiac risk stratification is an essential evaluation among health professionals. In today's world, cardiovascular disease is the number one cause o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Caudal Anesthesia A caudal block is a type of central neuraxial block, most commonly used in pediatrics to provide analgesia for surgeries up to the umbilicus, and in a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Central Venous Access of The Subclavian Vein In the United States, more than 5 million central venous catheters are inserted every year in both hospitalized and surgical patients. Once an indicat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cervical Plexus Block Superficial cervical plexus block is an easy block that can be performed either using a landmark-based technique or using the ultrasound-based techniq ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chest Trauma Chest trauma has quickly risen to the second most common traumatic injury in non-intentional trauma. Trauma to the chest comes with the highest mortal ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Chloroprocaine Chloroprocaine is an ester class local anesthetic and is indicated for neuraxial anesthesia (caudal, epidural, and spinal) and peripheral nerve blocks ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Chronic Pain Syndrome Chronic pain is a leading chief complaint in an adult ambulatory care setting. Unfortunately, chronic non-cancer pain is often poorly understood by ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Cisatracurium Cisatracurium besylate is an intermediate-acting, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD). Cisatracurium has a benzylisoquinolinium struct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Claw Hand Ulnar nerve palsy is the loss of sensory and motor function. This can occur after injury to any portion of the ulnar nerve. The ulnar nerve is the ter ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clear Liquid Diet A clear liquid diet is a specific dietary plan that only includes liquids that are fully transparent at room temperature. Some items that may be allow ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Clonidine Clonidine is an antihypertensive medication that acts on alpha-adrenergic and imidazoline receptor agonists. Clonidine is an antihypertensive drug tha ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Colitis Colitis is an increasingly common condition in which the mucosal lining of the colon becomes acutely or chronically inflamed. Patients with colitis ma ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a condition resulting from the herniation of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity resulting in lung hypoplas ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of positive airway pressure that is used to deliver a set pressure to the airways that is maintai ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Corticosteroid Induced Myopathy Corticosteroid-induced myopathy is an iatrogenic myopathy caused by chronic high to moderate systemic corticosteroid use. This is a common condition t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas of medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Craniotomy A craniotomy is a surgical procedure in which a part of the skull is temporarily removed to expose the brain and perform an intracranial procedure. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cricothyrotomy Today, the emergency cricothyroidotomy is the surgical rescue technique of choice for the failed airway in adults. It is considered a more straightfor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Crouzon Syndrome Crouzon syndrome is a genetically inherited syndrome characterized by craniosynostosis (premature fusion of coronal sutures) resulting in the skull an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cryoanalgesia This activity reviews the role of cryoanalgesia (the use of cold temperatures for analgesia) for pain control, its indications, contraindications and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Dantrolene Dantrolene sodium is a postsynaptic muscle relaxant with multiple indications in the fields of anesthesiology and neurology. While there are many indi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Deep Peroneal Nerve Block The deep peroneal nerve is one of 5 nerves that are often blocked or anesthetized to perform ankle surgery. It can be performed as a regional block an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Prophylaxis Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is the formation or presence of a thrombus in the deep veins. DVT occurs mostly in the lower extremities and to a lesser ex ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs Neuromuscular blocking agents are commonly used to paralyze patients requiring intubation whether in an emergency as a life-saving intervention or as ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dexmedetomidine The FDA-approved indications for dexmedetomidine are sedation of intubated and mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diabetes Insipidus Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a disease process that results in either decreased release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin or AVP) ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Diabetes Intraoperative Management According to Center for Disease Control data, the incidence of diabetes mellitus in the United States in 2015 was 30.3 million and predicted to increa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Diabetic Perioperative Management With the rising prevalence of diabetes mellitus; an increasing number of people with diabetes undergo surgery each year. This activity highlights the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Diaphragm Disorders The diaphragm is a vital organ for mammals as it is the primary muscle for respiration. Diaphragmatic paralysis is the loss of its muscular power and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Difficult Airway A difficult airway is a clinical situation wherein a healthcare provider who is skilled at airway management experiences difficulty with one or more r ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Digital Nerve Block The digital nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed to provide immediate anesthesia for a multitude of injuries and procedures, such a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digoxin Immune Fab Digoxin immune fab is a medication used in the management and treatment of digoxin toxicity. Most toxicity cases are seen in patients with a past medi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dilated Cardiomyopathy Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a disease of the heart muscle characterized by enlargement and dilation of one or both of the ventricles along with im ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dorsal Penile Nerve Block The dorsal penile nerve block is an effective technique for gaining regional anesthesia of the penis with small volumes of a local anesthetic. The tec ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Double Lumen Endobronchial Tubes A double-lumen tube (DLT) is an endotracheal tube designed to isolate the lungs anatomically and physiologically. Double-lumen tubes (DLTs) are the mo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dystrophinopathies This activity covers a group of X-linked muscle disorders, with their most recognized pathology being Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), followed by B ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Airway Management In Adverse Conditions Managing the airway of the critically ill or injured patient is a core skill in emergency medical care. In addition to difficulties arising from physi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication used in the management and treatment of clinically significant hypotension. It is in the sympathomimetic class of medication ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Anesthesia Epidural anesthesia is a technique that may be used as a primary surgical anesthetic or as a resource for postoperative pain management. It is safe an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural Blood Patch An epidural blood patch (EBP) is a procedure in which a small volume of autologous blood is injected into a patient's epidural space to stop a leak of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Catheter Epidural catheters are widely used in surgical, obstetric, and chronic pain settings as they serve as an excellent adjunct or alternative to general a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural Morphine Epidural morphine is a medication used for analgesia, as an adjunct to general anesthesia, or as a sole technique for surgical anesthesia. Morphine wa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Steroid Injections Epidural steroid injections have been utilized for pain relief since 1952. When indicated, they are an invaluable non-surgical treatment for low-back ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Steroids Epidural steroids injections (ESI) have been utilized to treat pain due to lumbar disc injuries since the 1950s. They are frequently used in the treat ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Esmolol Esmolol (esmolol hydrochloride) is an intravenous cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist. Esmolol is used in various settings, including urgent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Etomidate Etomidate is an ultrashort-acting, non-barbiturate hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. It is administered only by intravenous route. Etomidate has ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Evaluation And Management of Perioperative Hypertension This activity reviews the role of the interprofessional team involved in the perioperative care of patients with hypertension (HTN). These providers i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Extubation Extubation is the removal of an endotracheal tube (ETT), which is the last step in liberating a patient from the mechanical ventilator. To discuss the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Fentanyl Transdermal Transdermal fentanyl is a medication used in the management and treatment of chronic pain and cancer pain. It is part of the opioid class of drugs. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agents for benzodiazepine overdose a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fluoroscopy Lumbar Puncture Assessment, Protocols, and Interpretation Lumbar puncture is a standard procedure to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for diagnostic purposes and an essential procedure to perform myelography. There ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Gaseous Anesthetics Anesthesiologists have several tools for diminishing pain, awareness, movement, and the hemodynamic derangements of stress in the surgical patient. G ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding can fall into two broad categories: upper and lower sources of bleeding. The anatomic landmark that separates upper and lowe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
General Anesthesia for Surgeons The primary goal of general anesthesia is rendering a patient unconscious and unable to feel painful stimuli while controlling autonomic reflexes. The ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Glaucoma Glaucoma is a condition of increased intraocular pressure in the eye that may progress to a loss of vision. This results in a characteristic optic ner ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Glottic Stenosis Glottic stenosis describes a narrowing of the portion of the larynx containing the vocal cords and glottic opening, otherwise known as the glottis. Gl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glycopyrrolate Glycopyrrolate, also known as glycopyrronium, is an anticholinergic drug. Glycopyrrolate has been widely used as a preoperative medication to inhibit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Halothane Toxicity Halothane is a medication previously used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. After its large impact on medicine and anesthesia speci ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Heart Transplantation A heart transplant is performed in patients with refractory acute and chronic heart failure. An orthotopic heart transplant is the most commonly utili ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a severe complication that can occur in patients exposed to any form or amount of heparin products. A fall i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
High Frequency Ventilation High-frequency ventilation (HFV) is a type of ventilation that is utilized when conventional ventilation fails. It is a technique where the set respir ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypercarbia Hypercarbia is defined by an increase in carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic end-product of normal metabolism, with incre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), historically referred to as idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, is a relatively common disorde ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypotension Hypotension is a decrease in systemic blood pressure below accepted low values. While there is not an accepted standard hypotensive value, pressures l ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Hypoxia Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at the tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from i ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Idioventricular Rhythm Idioventricular rhythm is a slow regular ventricular rhythm with a rate of less than 50 bpm, absence of P waves, and a prolonged QRS interval. When th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Infant Apnea Apnea in infants is the term used to describe episodes of cessation of breathing and may be due to many physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Bri ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Infraclavicular Nerve Block The infraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique developed to avoid the side effects and complications of supraclavicular blocks, particul ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Inhalational Anesthetic Inhalation anesthetics (nitrous oxide, halothane, isoflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane, most commonly used agents in practice today) are used for induc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Internal Jugular Vein Central Venous Access If an ultrasound machine is not immediately available and central venous access via the right jugular vein is required, a simple three-finger techniqu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Interpleural Analgesia The interpleural analgesic technique was first described by Reiestad et al. for the treatment of acute postoperative pain. It is believed that this te ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Interscalene Block An interscalene nerve block anesthetizes most of the territory innervated by the brachial plexus, sparing the inferior trunk. This block is generally ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypotension Intracranial hypotension (ICH) is defined as a CSF pressure less than 60 mm H2O and generally causes a postural headache in patients with the conditio ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring This activity outlines the current recommendations for ICP monitoring and reviews the role of current invasive and noninvasive methods of monitoring. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring Different intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring techniques assess the function of the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cranial nerves, and periph ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intrathecal Catheter The placement of an intrathecal catheter is a minimally invasive procedure aimed at releasing drugs directly into the subarachnoid space for the contr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Intrathecal Delivery System Intrathecal drug delivery systems are typically used for three main purposes, which are the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain, muscle spasticity ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Intrathecal Morphine Morphine is an opioid administered for acute and chronic pain conditions. The advantage of intrathecal (IT) morphine over intravenous (IV), oral (PO), ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Intubation Endotracheal Tube Medications Mastering the skill of endotracheal intubation to secure an airway plays a critical role in many settings such as pre-hospital environments, emergency ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Inverse Ratio Ventilation Inverse ratio ventilation (IRV) is an alternative strategy for mechanical ventilation that reverses the classical inspiratory/expiratory paradigm. Thi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Isoflurane Isoflurane is a volatile anesthetic approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. Like mo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ketamine Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride) has been approved for general anesthesia either alone or in combination with other medications. It is a superb drug ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Ketamine In Acute and Chronic Pain Management Acute and chronic pain remain important health problems both in the United States and worldwide. With the rise in the prevalence of many chronic degen ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ketamine Toxicity Ketamine is a structural analog of the dissociative anesthetic and recreational drug phencyclidine (PCP). Similar to phencyclidine, ketamine causes an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Laryngeal Mask Airway Laryngeal mask airways (LMA) are supraglottic airway devices. They may be used as a temporary method to maintain an open airway during the administrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Laryngotracheal Stenosis Laryngotracheal stenosis (LTS) is a narrowing of the upper airway between the larynx and the trachea with potentially devastating consequences, includ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Latex Allergy Latex comes from a sap found in rubber trees, Hevea brasiliensis, which is used to make many products used today. It is allergenic and causes symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Levodopa (L-Dopa) Levodopa is the precursor to dopamine. Most commonly, clinicians use levodopa as a dopamine replacement agent for the treatment of Parkinson's disease ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lidocaine Toxicity Lidocaine is a local anesthetic drug that produces transient loss of sensory, motor, and autonomic function when the drug is injected or applied in pr ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lipid Emulsion Therapy Lipid emulsion therapy is a medication used in the management and treatment of Local anesthetic toxicity. This activity reviews the indications, actio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Liver Transplantation Cirrhosis and decompensated liver disease were the ninth leading cause of death for males in 2016 in the United States. Liver transplantation (LT) is ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Local And Regional Anesthesia in Ophthalmology and Ocular Trauma The delivery of local and regional anesthesia is an essential tool for providing immediate localized anesthesia for various intraocular and periocular ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Local Anesthetic Toxicity Local anesthetics are commonly used in most medical and dental practices. While adverse effects are rare, the rising prevalence of local anesthetics i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Local Anesthetics In Children Local anesthetics (LA) consist of amino amide and amino ester medications used for several medical purposes. This activity will cover the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Long QT Syndrome The QT interval on an electrocardiogram (ECG) represents the duration of the ventricular action potential, and this physiologically correlates with th ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lower Extremity Blocks The lumbosacral plexus (L1 to S4 nerve roots) innervates the lower extremity. Unlike the brachial plexus in the upper extremity, the lumbosacral plexu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lumbar Facet Arthropathy The lumbar zygapophysial joint, otherwise known as facet joint, is a common generator of lower back pain. The facet joint is formed via the posterolat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lumbar Puncture The lumbar puncture is a diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and certain neurological disorders. It is also ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lumbar Sympathetic Block The autonomic nervous system consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. As the name implies, the lumbar sympathetic block can be utili ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lumbar Sympatholysis Lumbar sympatholysis can be an effective treatment for individuals suffering from chronic pain in the lower extremity as a result of numerous etiologi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lung Biopsy This activity reviews salient details regarding accessing tissue specimens via a puncture through the chest wall into the lung (percutaneous lung lesi ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Lung Isolation Anesthesia Lung isolation involves utilizing bronchial barrier devices to separate the lungs enabling each lung to function as a separate unit. Lung isolation is ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Malignant Hypertension Malignant hypertension is a term that has been used to describe patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) and multiple complications with poor progno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malignant Hyperthermia Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a hereditary disorder of skeletal muscle that classically presents as a hypermetabolic response to halogenated anesthet ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Median Nerve Block Techniques A median nerve block is a simple, safe, and effective method of obtaining anesthesia to the palmar aspect of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, r ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Median Nerve Injury This activity reviews the evaluation and treatment of an injury to the median nerve and highlights the role of the healthcare team in managing patien ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Mediastinoscopy Mediastinoscopy is a thoracic surgical procedure performed with a mediastinoscope to examine the mediastinum— the space in the thoracic cavity between ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mendelson Syndrome In Curtis Lester Mendelson’s original 1946 description of his namesake syndrome, chemical pneumonitis was described in young and healthy obstetrical p ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Meperidine Meperidine is in the class of phenylpiperidine as a hydrochloride salt synthetic form of the opioid. Meperidine is used for the treatment of moderate ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Metformin Metformin, FDA-approved in 1994, is an antidiabetic agent used in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin comes in both immediate-release and extended-rel ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Methemoglobinemia Methemoglobinemia is a condition with life-threatening potential in which diminution of the oxygen-carrying capacity of circulating hemoglobin occurs ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Methohexital Methohexital is a medication used in anesthesia for sedation. It is in the barbiturate class of medications. This activity outlines the indications, a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Metoclopramide Metoclopramide has been approved by the FDA specifically to treat nausea and vomiting in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease or diabetic gas ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Midazolam Intravenous midazolam is used for the induction of anesthesia and also in the management of acute seizures. Because of its water-soluble nature, midaz ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Migraine Headache Migraine is a genetically influenced complex disorder characterized by episodes of moderate-to-severe headache, most often unilateral and generally as ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI) Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a separate class from other antidepressants, treating different forms of depression and other nervous system ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Multimodal Postoperative Pain Control After Orthopaedic Surgery Multimodal pain control is an important modality to control pain in the post-operative period in all patients undergoing surgery or various other proc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Myasthenia Gravis Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction. It manifests as a generalized muscle weakness which can involve the ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Nalbuphine Nalbuphine is FDA indicated for moderate to severe pain in which an opioid agent is required when other alternative treatments have been insufficient. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Napalm Toxicity Napalm is a weaponized mixture of chemicals designed to create a highly flammable and gelatinous liquid. Detonation then occurs by various explosive ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nasogastric Tube Nasogastric tubes are part of the standard of care in treating intestinal obstruction and can also be used to provide nutritional support. They are mo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Nasotracheal Intubation Nasotracheal intubation (NTI) involves passing an endotracheal tube through the naris, into the nasopharynx, and the trachea, most commonly after indu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neck Trauma The management of neck trauma can be challenging and sometimes overwhelming, as this anatomical region contains many vital structures. These structure ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Needlestick Needlestick injuries are frequent occurrences in healthcare settings and can lead to serious complications. While the introduction of universal precau ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Neonatal Anesthesia Neonatal anesthesia requires a unique knowledge of neonatal physiology, which is different from older infants, children, or adults. Oftentimes, health ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neostigmine Neostigmine is water-soluble, an ionized compound that reversibly inhibits the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. Its FDA indication is for the reversal of ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nerve Block Anesthesia The purpose of peripheral nerve blocks is to inhibit impulse transmission distally in a nerve terminal, thus terminating the pain signal perceived by ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Neurapraxia Neurapraxia is the mildest form of peripheral nerve injury commonly induced by focal demyelination or ischemia. In neurapraxia, the conduction of nerv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neuraxial Neurolysis Neurolysis is the application of chemical or physical agents to a nerve to cause a temporary or permanent degeneration of targeted nerve fibers. When ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Neurogenic Shock Neurogenic shock is a devastating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that can manifest as hypotension, bradyarrhythmia, and temperature dysregula ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening syndrome associated with the use of dopamine-receptor antagonist medications or with rapid ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Neurolytic Blocks A neurolytic block is the targeted destruction of a nerve or nerve plexus. Frequently, the term neuroablation is used to also describe the physical in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents The widespread use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) was a significant milestone in the development of anesthesia. Before the introduction of N ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nitrous Oxide Nitrous oxide is an odorless, colorless, non-flammable gas. While nitrous oxide is not flammable, it will support combustion to the same extent as ox ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a broad term used to cover a spectrum of conditions that are characterized by evidence of hepatic steatos ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Non-depolarizing Neuromuscular Blockers Non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockers (nNMBs) are administered as primary therapy in facilitating endotracheal intubations and adjuvant therapy in t ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nondepolarizing Paralytics Non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) work by competing with acetylcholine (Ach) for binding sites on nicotinic alpha subunits. They ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ommaya Reservoir Ommaya reservoir is a ventricular access device with an intraventricular catheter system for the purpose of chronic access to the intrathecal space. O ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Open Airway Procedural Sedation Open airway procedural sedation (OAPS) allows practitioners to perform various procedures in different clinical settings that would otherwise be poorl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, actions, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Opioid Anesthesia Opioids have had a wide range of uses in medicine throughout history. However, they have fallen under scrutiny in recent history due to the opioid cri ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Opioid Equivalency Opioids are often prescribed for cancer-related pain and moderate-to-severe chronic pain, especially pain that is inadequately controlled with non-opi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Opioid Overdose One very common reason why patients seek medical care is for pain. Today, there are many ways to relieve pain, and one of them is with the use of opia ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Opioid Use Disorder Opioid use disorder has a significant impact on the quality of life. It is an epidemic in the United States. The persistent use of opioids should be d ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Oral Hypoglycemic Medications The most effective management of diabetes mellitus demands an interprofessional approach involving both lifestyle modifications with diet and exercise ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Organophosphate Toxicity Most patients exposed to organophosphates come into contact with insecticides. The first organophosphate insecticide was created in the mid-1800s but ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Oropharyngeal Airway Acute respiratory failure is caused by a wide range of etiologies. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest and ultimately death is likely in the absenc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Pancuronium Pancuronium bromide is a long-acting, bis-quaternary aminosteroid, non-depolarizing, neuromuscular blocking drug (NMBD), which was first synthesized i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Parahiatal Hernia Parahiatal hernia is a rare type of diaphragmatic hernia. Its rarity could either be due to one or a combination of the following three factors; confu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parkland Formula Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation plays a fundamental role in the management of severe burn patients. The Parkland formula is the most widely u ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Patient Restraint and Seclusion Patient restraint and seclusion is a controversial yet necessary aspect of medicine. Restraint encompasses both physical and chemical procedures. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pectoralis Nerve Block The pectoral nerve (Pecs) block I and II are a novel technique to block the pectoral nerves, intercostal nerves 3 to 6, intercostobrachial nerves, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric And Neonatal Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a sequential algorithm that is the basis of achieving the return of spontaneous circulation. While pediatric patients ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Bronchospasm Bronchospasm involves the constriction of the smooth muscle layers of the small airways. If left untreated, bronchospasm can progress to respiratory d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pediatric Facial Trauma Pediatric facial trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma to the structures of the face in patients ages less than 18 years. This article primaril ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an essential topic in pediatrics that is frequently overlooked, especially in the context of children with neurodevel ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Pediatric Procedural Sedation Pediatric procedural sedation refers to techniques and medications used to minimize anxiety and pain associated with unpleasant procedures. It is per ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Regional Anesthesia Pain relief in children undergoing surgery is often an unmet critical need. Landmark guided blocks can be associated with an untoward incidence of adv ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Tracheostomy Tracheostomy has been increasingly performed in children with complex medical conditions for the management of upper airway obstruction, prolonged ven ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Penetrating abdominal trauma is most commonly caused by stabbing or gunshot wound. The most commonly injured regions are the small bowel, large bowel, ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
PENG Regional Block The pericapsular nerve group block (PENG) is a regional anesthetic technique that was described in 2018, developed primarily in total hip arthroplasti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Peptic Ulcer Perforated Peptic ulcer disease refers to an insult to the mucosa of the upper digestive tract resulting in ulceration that extends beyond the mucosa and into th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Percutaneous Liver Biopsy Percutaneous liver biopsy is a procedure in which a needle is introduced through the skin and, eventually, liver tissue to obtain a specimen to help a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pericapsular Nerve Group Block Hip and knee surgery is a common orthopedic surgery among the elderly. In 2010 the prevalence of total hip replacement at fifty years of age was 0.58% ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pericardiocentesis Pericardiocentesis is a procedure performed to remove pericardial fluid from the pericardial sac that surrounds the myocardium. It is often performed ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Sleep-related movement disorders are an important group of sleep diseases encountered commonly in clinical practice that requires thorough evaluation ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury Perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common yet under-recognized problem that increases mortality, morbidity, and increases the cost of hospit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perioperative Anticoagulation Management Management of perioperative anticoagulation requires an interprofessional approach to determine the duration and discontinuation of temporary interrup ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Perioperative Cardiac Management The importance of the appropriate perioperative cardiac management in non-cardiac surgery lies in the high number of surgical procedures performed eac ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Peripheral Nerve Blocks Recent advances in surgical techniques and the development of a greater number of minimally invasive procedures have led to an increase in outpatient ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Peripheral Nerve Stimulator Peripheral nerve stimulation is an emerging field in adjunctive analgesic therapies. This activity reviews the indications, contraindications, and tec ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral Neurolytic Blocks Peripheral nerve neuralgia or peripheral neuropathic pain may result from damage of a nerve due to various etiologies including medical conditions suc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral Vascular Bypass Peripheral vascular bypass (PVB) refers to surgical revision of blood flow to restore perfusion distal to an occluded or otherwise disrupted arterial ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Phantom Limb Pain Phantom limb pain is the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that is no longer there. PLP most commonly presents as a sequela of amputation. Th ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Phenol Nerve Block It was not until 1926 that the use of phenol as a neurolytic agent was described by Doppler et al., followed by a description of intrathecal injection ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Platelet Transfusion Platelet transfusion is a lifesaving procedure that is carried out to prevent bleeding or stop ongoing bleeding in patients with low platelet count or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pneumocephalus Pneumocephalus, also known as pneumatocele or intracranial aerocele, is defined as the presence of air in the intracranial space. Pneumocephalus can o ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pneumonectomy A pneumonectomy is an invasive procedure used as a management option for patients with advanced malignant and non-malignant lung disease. Proper patie ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Positive Pressure Ventilation Positive pressure ventilation describes the process of either using a mask or, more commonly, a ventilator to deliver breaths and to decrease the work ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Post Intubation Laryngeal Edema Post intubation laryngeal edema is common after endotracheal intubation and clinically manifests after extubation. Though most cases of post-intubatio ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Postdural Puncture Headache Postdural puncture headache is a potential complication of a lumbar puncture, with symptoms caused by traction on pain-sensitive structures from low c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Postoperative Delirium Post-operative delirium (POD) can occur from anywhere between 10 minutes after anesthesia up until discharge from the hospital. It is commonly recogni ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Postoperative Fever Postoperative fever is defined as a temperature higher than 38 C (or greater than 100.4 F) on two consecutive postoperative days or higher than 39 C ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postoperative Nausea Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common occurrence following anesthesia and leads to patient dissatisfaction and discomfort. In certain s ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Postoperative Pain Control Postoperative pain is experienced by the vast majority of patients who undergo surgical procedures. Control of postoperative pain plays an essential r ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Preeclampsia Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disease that occurs during pregnancy. This disease encompasses 2% to 8% of pregnancy-related complications, greater tha ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Premature Rupture Of Membranes Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is the rupture of gestational membranes prior to the onset of labor. When membrane rupture occurs before 37 wee ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is administering antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infections. The ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pressure Support Ventilation management is an ever-growing and changing environment in which medical professionals, through positive patient outcomes can determine the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pressure Support Ventilation Pressure support ventilation (PSV) is a common ventilator setting for both invasive and non-invasive ventilation. Healthcare workers involved in the c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Procaine Procaine is a medication used for analgesia before a procedural intervention. It is in the local anesthetics class of drugs. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Procedural Sedation Procedural sedation permits the safe performance of procedures that a patient cannot tolerate in the fully conscious state. Through this activity, th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used to manage and treat allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also has off-label u ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Propofol Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic used for procedural sedation, during monitored anesthesia care, or as an induction agent for general anesthesia. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Provocative Discography Provocative discography is an invasive diagnostic spine procedure that involves the administration of contrast into the nucleus pulposus of an interve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency Pseudocholinesterase deficiency, also known as butyrylcholinesterase deficiency, refers to a rare acquired or inherited defect in the pseudocholineste ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pudendal Nerve Block A pudendal nerve block is a method utilized to diagnose and treat pudendal neuralgia. The pudendal nerve block is also commonly used as a regional ane ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pudendal Neuralgia Pudendal neuralgia (PN) is a chronic pelvic pain syndrome that originates from damage or irritation to the pudendal nerve. Few providers examine speci ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pulmonary Artery Catheterization Pulmonary artery catheterization is a diagnostic procedure in which an intravascular catheter is inserted through a central vein, such as the femoral, ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulmonary Contusion Pulmonary contusions are lung injuries commonly sustained during cases of blunt chest trauma. These traumatic lung injuries result in impaired gas exc ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Quadratus Lumborum Block Healthcare providers have used many regional, anesthetic modalities to provide analgesia for the thorax, abdomen, and pelvis. While each of these moda ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Radial Artery Cannulation Arterial lines placement is for real-time monitoring of blood pressures and arterial blood sampling in critically ill patients or those undergoing com ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Radial Nerve Block A radial nerve block will provide anesthesia and/or analgesia to the hand, specifically the dorsal radial side. This includes anesthesia dorsally to ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ranchos Los Amigos The Rancho Los Amigos Scale (RLAS), also known as the Ranchos Scale, is a widely accepted medical scale used to describe the cognitive and behavioral ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Refractory Hypoxemia and Venovenous ECMO Refractory hypoxemia is a common problem encountered in patients on mechanical ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Acute respiratory distress s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Regional Anesthesia For Breast Reconstruction This topic concerns the use of regional anesthesia in patients undergoing breast reconstruction. There are various regional anesthetic techniques for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Regional Anesthetic Blocks A regional block is a specific anesthetic technique that inhibits nerve transmission to avoid or relieve pain. This activity reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory acidosis typically occurs due to failure of ventilation and accumulation of carbon dioxide. The primary disturbance is an elevated arteria ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Respiratory Failure Respiratory failure happens when the respiratory system fails to maintain gas exchange and is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to blood gas ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Restrictive Lung Disease The purpose of this article is to serve as a brief review of the restrictive lung diseases. The topic is vast, and here, we have provided a concise re ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Retrobulbar Block The retrobulbar block, initially described in 1884, had been widely referred to as the "gold standard" in ophthalmological surgery for many years. Tho ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Retrograde Cardioplegia To ensure the protection of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass, administration and even distribution of cardioplegia solution to the myocardium i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Right Bundle Branch Block Right bundle branch block (RBB) is an electrocardiogram finding resulting in a widened QRS and electrocardiographic vector changes. Although usually ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rocuronium Rocuronium is a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker widely used to produce muscle relaxation to help facilitate surgery and ventilation of the lung ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ropivacaine Ropivacaine is FDA-approved for surgical anesthesia and acute pain management. It is used in an epidural block for surgery—such as cesarean sections. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Rotator Cuff Tendonitis Rotator cuff tendonitis is an inflammation of the tendons that make up the rotator cuff, i.e., supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapu ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sacroiliac Joint Injection Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain is a common etiology of low back pain. Studies have shown that 10 to 27 percent of mechanical low back pain is secondary to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Saddle Anesthetic Block Saddle block anesthesia is the mainstay method of anesthesia for numerous surgical procedures. It is the desired procedure owing to its simplicity and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Saphenous Nerve Block The saphenous nerve block is widely used in both emergency and perioperative settings for procedural anesthesia and post-procedural pain management. T ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Saphenous Vein Cutdown The establishment of venous access is essential to the treatment and resuscitation of both the medically and traumatically ill patient. Adequate venou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Scalp Catheterization Peripheral venous access is a key need for resuscitating patients of all ages. An ideal site for venous catheterization is one that is easy to access ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sciatic Nerve Block The sciatic nerve supplies the vast majority of motor and sensory function to the lower limb. Regional anesthetic blockade of the sciatic nerve can be ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Scopolamine Scopolamine is a medication used to manage and treat postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and motion sickness. It is in the anticholinergic class ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Segmental Lung Resection Segmental lung resection is the removal of the sublobar anatomic portion of pulmonary parenchyma. The current guidelines for lung cancer are for lobar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sellick Maneuver Cricoid pressure is a technique that has become part of rapid sequence intubation to prevent aspiration of gastric contents. The technique has limited ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube In 1950 Robert W. Sengstaken and Arthur H. Blakemore recognized that the introduction of blood banks and the ability to provide patients with large qu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognoses. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Sevoflurane Sevoflurane is a halogenated inhalational anesthetic that is FDA approved for the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adults and pediat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Shock Shock is a life-threatening manifestation of circulatory failure. Circulatory shock leads to cellular and tissue hypoxia resulting in cellular death ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Shoulder Arthrocentesis Technique Shoulder arthrocentesis, also known as shoulder aspiration, is an important skill for interprofessional team members. It can be used for both diagnost ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder of the globin chains that causes hemolysis and chronic organ damage. This activity reviews the pathophysio ... Read the Article 2 21 Activity Info
Single Lung Ventilation Single lung ventilation involves ventilating one lung and letting the other collapse for providing surgical exposure in the thoracic cavity or isolati ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Sinus Arrhythmia Sinus arrhythmia is a variation of normal sinus rhythm that characteristically presents with an irregular rate in which the change in the R-R interval ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
SMAS Plication Facelift The SMAS (superficial musculoaponeurotic system) plication face lifting technique evolved to provide an effective means of suspending the soft tissues ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of hyperkalemia. This activity outlines and reviews the indications, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) have been in use for decades as an integral method of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring for spinal, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Sphenopalatine Ganglion Block The sphenopalatine ganglion is an extracranial parasympathetic ganglion found within the pterygopalatine fossa of the skull. Since it was first descri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spinal Anesthesia The development of regional anesthesia started with the isolation of local anesthetics, the first being cocaine (the only naturally occurring local an ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Compression Spinal cord compression can result from a myriad of both atraumatic and traumatic causes. The spinal column is vulnerable to a variety of compressive ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Stimulator Implant Spinal cord stimulator implantation is an essential procedure for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain. In select patient's spinal stimulators ca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Spinal Opioids In Anesthetic Practice Spinal opioids for use in anesthesia offers several advantages to systemic pain management. This occurs mainly through the mechanism of action when pl ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Spinal Shock Spinal shock is a result of severe spinal cord injury. It usually requires high-impact, direct trauma that leads to spinal cord injury and spinal shoc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spirometry Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches to test pulmonary function. It measures the volume of exhaled air vs. time. This activity highl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Splenic Trauma Traumatic injuries of the spleen can be either blunt or penetrating. The management of splenic trauma has become largely non-operative, as non-operati ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Stapedectomy The goal of any stapes procedure is to restore the vibration of fluids within the cochlea; increasing communication secondary to increasing sound ampl ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Status Asthmaticus One of the most common causes of emergency room visits in the United States is status asthmaticus, an acute, emergent episode of bronchial asthma that ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Stellate Ganglion Blocks Stellate ganglion block (SGB) is used for the treatment of many medical conditions including complex regional pain syndrome and peripheral vascular di ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Strychnine Toxicity Strychnine has been used for years as a medicinal remedy for a broad range of complaints. Strychnine is responsible for inhibiting postsynaptic glycin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis Prophylaxis Infective endocarditis (IE) is an infection of the endocardial surfaces of the heart, which includes one or more heart valves. The incidence of infect ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Subcutaneous Emphysema Subcutaneous emphysema is the de novo generation or infiltration of air underneath the dermal layers of skin. The development of subcutaneous air may ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Suboccipital Puncture Suboccipital puncture is a procedure that was developed at the beginning of the last century. It was designed to obtain cerebrospinal fluid for diagno ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Succinylcholine Chloride Succinylcholine chloride is a short-acting depolarizing neuromuscular blockade approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a p ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sugammadex Sugammadex is a modified gamma-cyclodextrin that is used to reverse steroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs rocuronium and vecuronium. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Superficial Peroneal Nerve Block The superficial peroneal nerve (superficial fibular nerve) is a mixed nerve that carries sensory information from the anterolateral aspect of the leg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Supertrochlear Nerve Block The supratrochlear nerve block is a special procedure, which can be utilized to relieve pain in the mid-forehead region. It can provide anesthesia for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Supraclavicular Block The supraclavicular block is a regional anesthetic technique used as an alternative or adjunct to general anesthesia or used for postoperative pain co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Supraglottic Airway Obstruction Supraglottic obstruction is a medical or surgical emergency. It can result in increased work of breathing and respiratory distress and can progress to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Supraorbital Nerve Block The supraorbital nerve block is a procedure performed to provide immediate localized anesthesia for a multitude of injuries such as complex laceration ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sural Nerve Block The sural nerve block is a regional anesthetic technique used as an alternative or adjunct to general anesthesia for foot and ankle surgery. Periphera ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Surgical Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning refers to the collective measures that are used for clearing the airway of a patient. It involves suctioning, clearing secretions, a ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Sympathetic Nerve Block Sympathetic blocks are widely used to treat visceral, ischemic, neuropathic, and sympathetically mediated pain, as well as many other conditions. Most ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Synchronized Intermittent Mandatory Ventilation Synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) is a type of volume control mode of ventilation. With this mode, the ventilator will deliver a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Syndactyly Syndactyly is one of the most common congenital anomalies of the extremities. It is a failure of differentiation of the digits, defined as a fusion of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Terazosin Terazosin is a medication used in the management and treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and essential hypertension. Terazosin is a long-acting, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Thoracentesis Thoracentesis is a procedure that is performed to remove fluid from the thoracic cavity. This can be done for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Thoracic Duct Leak Thoracic duct leaks are most often due to traumatic injury and iatrogenic injury. Surgery of the esophagus and the heart are the most common source of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Thoracic Paravertebral Block This topic concerns the use of thoracic paravertebral block in patients undergoing general thoracic surgery. There are different regional anesthesia t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thoracic Segmental Spinal Anesthesia Thoracic segmental spinal anesthesia is a technique of regional anesthesia that can potentially be a suitable alternative to general anesthesia for ce ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thoracotomy Thoracotomy is described as an incision made between the ribs to access the contents of the thoracic cavity. Due to the anatomic location of the conte ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Thrombin Thrombin is a topical hemostatic agent used to control and minimize blood loss during surgical procedures, is utilized in conjunction or as an alterna ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Thyroid Storm Thyroid storm, also known as thyrotoxic crisis, is an acute, life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism that presents with multi-system involvem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Topical, Local, and Regional Anesthesia and Anesthetics Nerve impulse transmission occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels on the neuronal membrane open, allowing a massive influx of sodium. This causes m ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Total Laryngectomy The primary goal for the treatment of laryngeal cancer is the control of the disease. Preservation of speech, swallowing functions, and avoidance of t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Total Parenteral Nutrition Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment. It is in the nutrition class of drugs. This activit ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Tracheal Injury Tracheal injury is an uncommon occurrence seen primarily after healthcare procedures, blunt and penetrating trauma, and caustic inhalations. Damage to ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tracheal Intubation Medications Endotracheal intubation is indicated in many clinical settings, such as impending respiratory failure and when protecting the patient airway. The foll ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Tracheal Rapid Sequence Intubation Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is a technique that is used when rapid control of the airway is needed as a precaution for patients that may have a 'f ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tracheal Resection Tracheal resection is performed when tracheal stenosis is unresponsive to conservative management, such as balloon dilation and scar excision. Trachea ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Tracheal Trauma Tracheal trauma may be penetrating or blunt and acute or subacute. A blow or stab wound to the neck or crush injuries to the upper chest may cause acu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tracheo Innominate Artery Fistula Tracheoinnominate fistulas (TIFs) are life-threatening complications most frequently described as occurring after tracheostomy. They are associated wi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tracheostomy A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this art ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Transabdominal Plane Block The tranversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has become one of the most common truncal blocks performed for postoperative analgesia after abdominal surg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Transesophageal Echocardiogram Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) uses ultrasound waves to examine the heart and great vessels. There are four basic TEE rescue views that are al ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a clinical syndrome in which there is an acute, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with hypox ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a well-established percutaneous modality for decreasing portal hypertension. The major clinica ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Transsphenoidal Hypophysectomy This activity describes transsphenoidal hypophysectomy, a surgical procedure for resectioning tumors of the pituitary gland, along with the relevant a ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Transversus Abdominis Plane Block This activity outlines the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks, relevant anatomy, as well as indications and contraindications to performing this ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Trauma Care Principles Trauma care principles outline fundamental concepts that providers should know when treating various injuries in a trauma setting. The content will fo ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result from trauma ranging from a simple blow to the head to a penetrating injury to the brain. In the United States, ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Tubal Sterilization Tubal sterilization is performed at the request of women who have completed childbearing and desire an effective and irreversible form of birth contro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ulnar Nerve Block Techniques An ultrasound-guided ulnar nerve block can be used to provide surgical anesthesia or analgesia to the ulnar portion of the hand including the little f ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Ultrasound Guided Intravenous Access At least 150 to 200 million peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters are placed each year in the United States, and up to 80 percent of patients receive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ultrasound Guided Serratus Anterior Blocks Approximately 10 percent of injured patients presenting to the emergency department are found to have rib fractures. Rib fractures are associated with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ultrasound Intravascular Access Ultrasound (US) guidance for intravenous (IV) access has been well documented for more than 20 years and is now routine in many settings for non-emerg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ultrasound-guided Fascia Iliaca Compartment Block Pain management is an integral part of providing care in the emergency setting. Lower extremity pain from hip fractures, burns, and other trauma is a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ultrasound-Guided Intercostal Nerve Block The blockage of anterior branches of the intercostal nerves is a selective superficial block, with a very low incidence of complications and effective ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Umbilical Artery Catheterization Catheterization of an umbilical artery is one of the commonly performed procedures in extremely premature neonates. This activity reviews the indicati ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Unanticipated Difficult Intubation In An Adult Patient The goals of this activity are to review some subsets of patients that are at the highest risk for difficult or failed intubation. Discuss techniques ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis Unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis is a condition caused when one side of the diaphragm becomes weak or paralyzed. There are many possible causes for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Upper Limb Block Anesthesia Regional anesthesia and the incorporation of peripheral nerve blocks allows for localized, targeted anesthesia for both surgical anesthesia and post-o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaginal Delivery Vaginal delivery is safest for the fetus and for the mother when the newborn is full-term at the gestational age of 37 to 42 weeks. Vaginal delivery i ... Read the Article 2.25 31 Activity Info
Vecuronium Vecuronium bromide is an FDA approved peripherally acting, monoquarternary, steroidal, non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker with an intermediate dur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Venous Gas Embolism A venous gas embolism is an abnormal collection of gas that forms a bubble in the systemic venous circulation, which can act as an embolus and affect ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ventilation Assist Control Mechanical ventilation is a common intervention used to treat patients with acute respiratory failure. Assist-control ventilation is the most common s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ventilator Complications Mechanical ventilation is an essential medical intervention in the context of critical illness. However, this intervention is associated with the risk ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ventilator Management Invasive mechanical ventilation is an intervention that is frequently used in acutely ill patients requiring either respiratory support or airway prot ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Ventilator Weaning Mechanical ventilation is an established supportive treatment for patients with various forms of respiratory failure. Despite the widespread use and c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) Ventilator-induced lung injury is the acute lung injury inflicted or aggravated by mechanical ventilation during treatment and has the potential to ca ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ventricular Fibrillation Arrhythmias originating from the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system are grouped under ventricular arrhythmia (VA). This includes a subset o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia is characterized as a wide complex tachyarrhythmia. It is classified by duration as non-sustained or sustained. Non-sustained ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Video-Assisted Thoracoscopy Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has revolutionized the approach to and management of many pulmonary and cardiac diseases over the past two ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome Wolff Parkinson White Syndrome (WPW) is considered to be a congenital abnormality that involves the presence of abnormal electrical conductive circuit ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info

Pricing Options

Your subscription grants you access to Unlimited access to 461 CE activities as well as full access to 6,319 activities in the StatPearls library.

6 Months

$199 per 6 months per user

Annual

$299 per 1 year per user

Thorough Explanations

Become a better professional with answer explanations and articles that enable you to learn from the material.

Frequent Updates

Questions and teaching points are continuously updated.