NP-Advanced Physiology CE

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About StatPearls CE

All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Nurse Practitioner Board and Certification content outlines. 693 authors and 19 editors have contributed to the development of the NP-Advanced Physiology content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

NP-Advanced Physiology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Acromegaly Acromegaly is a disorder caused by excessive growth hormone production from the anterior pituitary gland, resulting in excessive growth of body tissue ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Addison Disease Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, which can have devastating consequences if not promptly recognized and appropriately treated. Often th ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Alkalosis Alkalosis is an abnormal pathophysiological condition characterized by the buildup of excess base or alkali in the body. It results in an abnormally h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alpha-lipoic acid is a medication used in managing and treating chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress such as diabetic neuropathy and slow ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Anabolic Steroids Anabolic steroids (also known as androgenic steroids) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone. Legal, as well as the illegal use of anabolic steroid ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Anasarca Anasarca is a serious condition in which there is a generalized accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space. This accumulation of fluid occurs whe ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Angiotensin II Angiotensin is a peptide endocrine hormone and an important part of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, an inter-related endocrine system import ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Antibody Deficiency Disorder Antibody deficiency disorders may present soon after birth with recurrent infections. Normal individuals have 5 classes of immunoglobulins and several ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Argyll Robertson Pupil Argyll Robertson pupil describes the physical exam finding of bilaterally small pupils that do not constrict when exposed to bright light but do const ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Axonotmesis This activity reviews the etiology, epidemiology, anatomy, physiology, and prognosis of peripheral nerve injury with a particular focus on axonotmesis ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Azotemia Azotemia is a biochemical abnormality, defined as elevation, or buildup of, nitrogenous products (BUN-usually ranging 7 to 21 mg/dL), creatinine in th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barotrauma Barotrauma is physical tissue damage caused by a pressure difference between an unvented space inside the body and surrounding gas or fluid. The damag ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bekhterev Jacobsohn Reflex The Bekhterev-Jacobsohn reflex is also known as the Jacobsohn finger flexion sign. Dr. Vladimir Bekhterev (a Russian neurologist) and Dr. Louis Jacobs ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Broca Aphasia Broca’s aphasia is a non-fluent aphasia in which the output of spontaneous speech is markedly diminished and there is a loss of normal grammatical str ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcitonin Salmon calcitonin (after this referred to as “calcitonin”) is an analog of human calcitonin used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Page ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor CGRP receptor antagonists and monoclonal antibodies against CGRP and its receptor are medications used in the management and treatment of migraine, wh ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis Carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis is a condition that develops when excessive CO2 is present in the bloodstream, leading to a depressed level of conscious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carboxyhemoglobin Toxicity Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-irritating gas formed with the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels). It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Fitness Cardiopulmonary fitness testing is a durable and versatile tool that provides valuable diagnostic and prognostic information regarding patients with c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carotid Sinus Hypersensitivity Carotid sinus hypersensitivity is an exaggerated response to pressure applied to the carotid sinus located in the carotid bifurcation, resulting in br ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerebral Ischemia Cerebral ischemia is a common mechanism of acute brain injury that results from impaired blood flow to the brain. Cerebral ischemia represents a medic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cheyne Stokes Respirations Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a type of breathing disorder characterized by cyclical episodes of apnea and hyperventilation. Although described in the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Child Development The stages through which a child goes through from birth until he or she becomes an adult is child development. Children are first newborns, and durin ... Read the Article 3.25 60 Activity Info
Cholecalciferol Cholecalciferol is a medication used in the management and treatment of osteoporosis and Vitamin D insufficiency/ deficiency in both healthy patients ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cholelithiasis Cholelithiasis or gallstones are hardened deposits of digestive fluid that can form in your gallbladder. The gallbladder is a small organ located just ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chronic Emphysema Pulmonary emphysema is a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease that is defined as a pathological, permanent dilatation of distal airways (resp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Compensatory Measure By 2020, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is expected to be the third leading cause of death according to the epidemiological data. Althou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Coenzyme Q10 CoQ10 is not FDA-approved to treat any medical condition, although it is widely available over-the-counter as a dietary supplement and recommended by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Conduction Aphasia Conduction aphasia is a rare form of aphasia in which both expression and comprehension remain intact, but the patient shows an isolated impairment in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease emerging from mutations of genes for enzymes that lead to the production of glu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 2.25 36 Activity Info
Conn Syndrome Conn syndrome was named after J. W. Conn who first described it in 1955, in a patient who had hypertension with an aldosterone-producing adenoma. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of positive airway pressure that is used to deliver a set pressure to the airways that is maintai ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cor Pulmonale Cor pulmonale is a Latin word that means "pulmonary heart," its definition varies, and presently, there is no consensual definition. Cor pulmonale can ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dawn Phenomenon The "dawn phenomenon" refers to periodic episodes of hyperglycemia experienced by patients with diabetes in the early morning hours before, and to som ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Decerebrate And Decorticate Posturing Decorticate and decerebrate posturing are abnormal posturing responses typically to noxious stimuli. They involve stereotypical movements of the trunk ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Diabetic Gastroparesis Gastroparesis is defined by objective delaying of gastric emptying without any evidence of mechanical obstruction. Diabetic gastroparesis is a potenti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dietary Calcium Adequate calcium intake, from either direct food sources or calcium supplements, is essential for nutrition in patients of all ages. This article will ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Dopamine Dopamine is a peripheral vasostimulant used to treat low blood pressure, low heart rate, and cardiac arrest. Low infusion rates (0.5 to 2 micrograms/k ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Dysbarism Dysbarism describes any condition resulting from changes in ambient pressure that occur at a rate outpacing the body's ability to adapt safely. Exampl ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dyslexia Reading is a skill unique to humans and is crucial for living in the world today. Learning to read is one of the first teaching points of elementary s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dyspnea on Exertion Dyspnea, also called shortness of breath, is a patient's perceived difficulty to breathe. Sensations and intensity can vary and are subjective. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
ECG T Wave Normally, the T wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG) is representative of ventricular repolarization. Changes in T wave morphology can be indicative of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Electrocardiogram Electrocardiogram (abbreviated as EKG or ECG) represents a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Willem Einthoven first invented it in 1 ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Erythropoietin Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hormone, naturally produced by the peritubular cells of the kidney, that stimulates red blood cell production. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Estradiol Estradiol is a medication used in the management and treatment of postmenopausal symptoms and for women who have had hysterectomies. Estradiol is the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Evaluation Of Visual Acuity Visual acuity is an often overlooked aspect of an emergency or outpatient department visit but can be vital to making a diagnosis. In reality, there a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Frontal Lobe Syndrome Frontal lobe syndrome, in general, refers to a clinical syndrome resulting from damage, and impaired function of the prefrontal cortex, which is a lar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Galactorrhea Galactorrhea is milk production from the breast unrelated to pregnancy or lactation. Milk production one year after cessation of breastfeeding is non- ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gastric Emptying Scan This activity describes the use of gastric emptying scintigraphy in the evaluation of gastric motility and related disorders. It discusses its role in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gastritis The current classification of gastritis is based on time course (acute versus chronic), histological features, anatomic distribution, and underlying p ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoglycemia, as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
H2 Blockers H2 receptor blockers, or H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), are a class of gastric acid-suppressing agents frequently used in various gastric conditions ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Heat Illness The disorders of hyperthermia (also known as heat-related injury or illness) exist on a continuum, which is marked by dysregulation of the body’s ther ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hemolytic Diseases Of The Newborn Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is a red blood cell mismatch between mothers and their fetus that can cause significant morbidity and morta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hemorrhage Hemorrhage can manifest in many different ways depending on the mechanism and anatomic location. It is a common and serious medical emergency that req ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a severe form of high-altitude illness that, if left untreated, can lead to mortality in 50 percent of affecte ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hyperaldosteronism Hyperaldosteronism occurs due to the excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal gland. Hyperaldosteronism can initially present as essential an ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Management Of Frostbite Although evidence for treating frostbite with hyperbaric oxygen is sparse and limited to case reports and animal studies, the proposed mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypercapnea Hypercapnia is the increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic product of the many cellular pr ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hypercarbia Hypercarbia is defined by an increase in carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic end-product of normal metabolism, with incre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperchloremic Acidosis Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is a pathological state that results from bicarbonate loss, rather than acid production or retention. Bicarbonate lo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypercortisolism Hypercortisolism refers to the clinical state resulting from excess tissue exposure to cortisol and/or other glucocorticoids. When such exposure is su ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Hyperprolactinemia When the amount of serum prolactin exceeds the upper limit, we call it hyperprolactinemia. The common causes of hyperprolactinemia can be physiologica ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypoaldosteronism Hypoaldosteronism is a clinical condition characterized by a deficiency of aldosterone or its impaired action at the tissue level. The disorder may re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypocarbia Hypocarbia, also known as hypocapnia, is a decrease in alveolar and blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels below the normal reference range of 35 mm Hg. CO ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypoparathyroidism Parathyroid hormone deficiency, also called hypoparathyroidism, results in hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and increased neuromuscular irritability. ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Immediate Hypersensitivity Reactions Hypersensitivity reactions are exaggerated or inappropriate immunologic responses occuring in response to an antigen or allergen. Type I, II, and III ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Immunoglobulin Immunoglobulins (Ig) or antibodies are glycoproteins that are produced by plasma cells. B cells are instructed by specific immunogens, for, example, b ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Immunoglobulin E As one of the five designated immunoglobulin isotypes, immunoglobulin E (IgE) plays a major role in atopic conditions by inducing immediate hypersensi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Impaired Bilirubin Conjugation Bilirubin circulates in both the unconjugated and conjugated forms. Disorders of impaired conjugation of bilirubin classically present with elevated l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Impaired Wound Healing Wounds of all shapes and sizes have plagued patients and created a significant burden on their caretakers. It has long been noticed that some patient ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Insulin Insulin is a medication used in the treatment and management of diabetes mellitus type-1 and sometimes diabetes mellitus type-2, both of which are a s ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Iron Iron is a mineral essential to the human body. It is administered for the treatment of iron deficiency. It is available in many formulations that belo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Iron Overload Iron overload occurs when there are excess stores of iron in the body. Primary iron overload is often inherited. Secondary iron overload usually arise ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with pathologically high serum and urine concentrations of ketone bodies. Clinically relevant forms of ke ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Ketogenic Diet Despite continuous advances in the medical world, obesity continues to remain a major worldwide health hazard with adult mortality as high as 2.8 mill ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Kwashiorkor Kwashiorkor is a disease marked by severe protein malnutrition and bilateral extremity swelling. It usually affects infants and children, most often a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Loop Diuretics Loop diuretics are medications used in the management and treatment of fluid overload conditions such as heart failure, nephrotic syndrome or cirrhosi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Lumbar Puncture The lumbar puncture is a diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and certain neurological disorders. It is also ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Luteinizing Hormone Deficiency Luteinizing hormone is a gonadotropin hormone secreted by the pituitary and is essential for puberty and normal sexual function. Its deficiency result ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Magnesium Magnesium use is indicated for a variety of diseases. This is due to the variety of effects magnesium has within the body. Administration of magnesium ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Melatonin Synthetic melatonin is a dietary supplement. The FDA does not regulate supplements. Therefore, melatonin is not officially FDA-approved for any indica ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Menopause Menopause is a routine, non-pathologic condition involving the permanent cessation of menses for at least 12 months. Menopause occurs in all menstruat ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Metabolic Acidosis Acid-base disorders are disturbances in the homeostasis of hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma. Any process that increases the serum hydrogen ion ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Muscarinic Agonists Muscarinic agonists are parasympathomimetic drugs and are indicated for ileus, urinary retention, glaucoma, Alzheimer disease, and other symptoms. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Muscle Cramps Muscle cramps result in continuous, involuntary, painful, and localized contraction of an entire muscle group, individual single muscle, or select mus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Myocardial Stunning and Hibernation Coronary artery disease can result in acute and chronic myocardial perfusion deficits. This hypoperfusion can result in impaired myocardial contractil ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nitric Oxide Nitric oxide is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoxic respiratory failure or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn ( ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nocturnal Cough A cough is an essential protective and defensive reflex that the body uses to remove mucus, noxious substances, and irritants from the larynx, trachea ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Normochromic Normocytic Anemia Normocytic normochromic anemia is the type of anemia in which the circulating RBCs are the same size (normocytic) and have a normal red color (normoc ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Oculocardiac Reflex The oculocardiac reflex (OCR), also known as the Aschner reflex or trigeminovagal reflex (TVR), was first described in 1908 as a reduction in heart ra ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Orthostasis When one stands up from laying down, gravity causes 500 to 800 milliliters of blood volume to shift from the upper body to the lower body and splanchn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Orthostatic Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing from a sitting or supine position. Clinically, this is diagnosed b ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Oxygen Saturation Oxygen saturation is an essential element of patient care. Oxygen is tightly regulated within the body because hypoxemia can lead to many acute advers ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Oxytocin Oxytocin is indicated and approved by the FDA for two specific time frames in the obstetric world: antepartum and postpartum. In the antepartum period ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Panic Disorder Panic disorder is fairly common in the general population. Among all anxiety disorders, it has the highest number of medical visits and serves as a ve ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Pediatric Malignant Pleural Effusion The pleural cavity is a thin layer of the sac that is lined with a serous membrane that encloses the lungs and separates it from the thoracic cage. Th ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pericardial Calcification The pericardium is a rigid, avascular, fibrous sac. Its primary functions are anchoring, lubricating, and preventing overdistention of cardiac chamber ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Peripheral Vascular Disease Peripheral vascular diseases are a significant cause of morbidity and limb loss in the United States. An early identification and risk factor modifica ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Pernicious Anemia Pernicious anemia (PA) is megaloblastic anemia resulting from a deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12), which in turn is caused by a lack of intrinsic ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Phantom Limb Pain Phantom limb pain is the perception of pain or discomfort in a limb that is no longer there. PLP most commonly presents as a sequela of amputation. Th ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phenytoin Toxicity Phenytoin has become one of the most well-studied anticonvulsants. With an average monthly cost of $30, it has also become one of the most widely used ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Phytonadione (Vitamin K1) Phytonadione (vitamin K1) is a medication used in the treatment and management of vitamin k deficiency, which is a significant risk factor for intracr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pleural Friction Rub A pleural friction rub is an adventitious breath sound heard on auscultation of the lungs. The sound results from the movement of inflamed and roughen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Postmenopausal Syndrome Menopause is a significant event that all women experience in their lifetime. This brings in significant physiological changes and symptoms that are f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Potassium Potassium is an essential mineral constituent of the human body and is the chief cation found within the intracellular fluid of all cells. The chief i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pregnancy Globally, there are more than 200 million pregnancies each year. Of these pregnancies, more than 40% are unintended. Unintended does not imply unwante ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Primary Hyperaldosteronism Primary hyperaldosteronism (PA) is an underdiagnosed cause of hypertension. The classic presentation of PA includes hypertension and hypokalemia. Howe ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are a group of endogenously produced compounds that play essential roles in regulating human physiology. Synthetically derived prostagl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Protein C Deficiency Protein C deficiency is a rare but serious condition that can be congenital or acquired. Patients with this condition have a higher propensity to deve ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pupillary Light Reflex Eyes allow visualization of the world by receiving and processing the energy of light as it enters the eye. This light interacts with the structures a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Renal Artery Stenosis Renal artery stenosis is narrowing of the one or both of renal arteries. It is the major cause of hypertension and according to some reports is the ca ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory acidosis typically occurs due to failure of ventilation and accumulation of carbon dioxide. The primary disturbance is an elevated arteria ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Rh Incompatibility Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility refers to the discordant pairing of maternal and fetal Rh type. It is associated with the development of maternal Rh sensi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognosis. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Shock Shock is a life-threatening manifestation of circulatory failure. Circulatory shock leads to cellular and tissue hypoxia resulting in cellular death ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sleeplessness And Circadian Disorder Proper sleep is vital to maintain health and optimize overall functioning during periods of wakefulness. Sleeplessness has been linked with several he ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spasticity Spasticity, which is sometimes referred to as tightness or stiffness, is a motor disorder marked by a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone or to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spatial Neglect Spatial Neglect is a neuropsychological condition that occurs mainly due to damage to the right cerebral hemisphere after the right middle cerebral ar ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Spinal Shock Spinal shock is a result of severe spinal cord injury. It usually requires high-impact, direct trauma that leads to spinal cord injury and spinal shoc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Spirometry Spirometry is one of the most commonly used approaches to test pulmonary function. It measures the volume of exhaled air vs. time. This activity highl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Surfactant Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that lines the alveoli and decreases the surface tension to prevent lung atelectasis. Surfactant deficie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Syncope Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous recovery. While there are numerous classifications schemes used ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tachypnea Tachypnea is defined as a breathing rate that is higher than the normal breathing rate. This condition is seen in both the physiologic state as well a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tetrodotoxin Toxicity Tetrodotoxin is a neurotoxin most commonly found in marine animals. It is famous for causing perioral numbness in consumers of pufferfish. Because the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tonsillar Herniation Tonsillar herniation is the movement of brain tissue from one intracranial compartment to another, specifically the movement of the cerebellar tonsils ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Type I Hypersensitivity Reaction Type I hypersensitivity is also known as an immediate reaction and involves immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated release of antibodies against the soluble ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Vagal Maneuver Vagal maneuvers are techniques used to increase vagal parasympathetic tone in an attempt to diagnose and treat various arrhythmias. They are often uti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Valsalva Maneuver The Valsalva maneuver is forced expiration against a closed glottis. It mimics many normal and in some cases routine activities, such as straining dur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vasovagal Episode A vasovagal episode or vasovagal syncope is the most common form of reflex syncope. Reflex syncope describes any form of syncopal episode caused by a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is an essential vitamin and medication used in the management and treatment of pernicious anemia, ileal resection, treatment o ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Vitamin B12 Deficiency Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is derived from animal products such as red meat, dairy, and eggs. Intrinsic fac ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) Riboflavin is a medication used in the management and treatment of deficiency of vitamin B2. It is part of the B complex group of vitamins. This activ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vitamin C Deficiency Vitamin C deficiency, also known as scurvy, is a disease primarily associated with socioeconomic status and access to food. Signs and symptoms are oft ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Vitamin D Vitamin D is labeled as the "sunshine vitamin," as it is produced in the skin on sun exposure. Vitamin D is required to maintain serum calcium concent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin K Deficiency Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds involved in coagulation, bone development, and cardiovascular health. Vitamin K deficiency can co ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Water Toxicity Water toxicity can occur due to numerous etiologies but it is challenging to diagnose as it presents with vague symptoms of altered mental status, dis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wernicke Aphasia Aphasia is an impairment of language function which is localized to the dominant cerebral hemisphere. Wernicke aphasia is characterized by impaired la ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Wound Healing Phases Wound healing is a natural physiological reaction to tissue injury. However, wound healing is not a simple phenomenon and involves a complex interplay ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Zinc Zinc is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the mineral and supplemental class of drugs. This activity outlines th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Zinc Deficiency Zinc deficiency is common worldwide but is seen with greater frequency in developing countries. Zinc deficiency can be inherited or acquired, and typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info

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