NP-Advanced Pathophysiology CE

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About StatPearls CE

All of our activities are approved by AANP (ARNP) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Nurse Practitioner Board and Certification content outlines. 256 authors and 5 editors have contributed to the development of the NP-Advanced Pathophysiology content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

NP-Advanced Pathophysiology Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
Absence Seizure Absence seizures are brief seizures during which the patient is unresponsive. They are generally seen in children between 4 and 12 years of age. It ha ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Acute Otitis Media Acute otitis media (AOM) is defined as an infection of the middle ear and is the second most common pediatric diagnosis in the emergency department fo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2.25 29 Activity Info
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Adrenal Cancer Adrenal masses are a frequent observation in the adrenal gland. While most lesions are benign, adrenocortical carcinoma should be a consideration when ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Adverse Effects Of Radiation Therapy Radiotherapy causes DNA break and subsequent cell death. This affects the cancer cells more severely than the normal cells. However, with the growing ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol use disorder is very common in the United States. The cause of alcohol use disorder is not well understood, however, several factors are thou ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Allergic Contact Dermatitis Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type 4 or delayed-type hypersensitivity response (DTH) by an individual’s immune system to a small molecule (le ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Allergic Rhinitis Allergic rhinitis (AR) is an atopic disease presenting with symptoms of sneezing, nasal congestion, clear rhinorrhea, and nasal pruritis. It is an IgE ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Alzheimer Disease Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of a decline in cognitive ability. It is a neurodegenerative disorder that usually affects people over ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a heterogeneous acquired or hereditary disease that results from the abnormal deposition of beta-sheet fibrillar protein aggregates in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Anorexia Nervosa Anorexia nervosa is defined by a restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, which leads to significantly low body weight. Patients with th ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Anterior Myocardial Infarction Anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common heart disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Advancement in diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Asthma Medication in Children Asthma typically presents with a history of respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough, and is characterize ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Atheroembolic Kidney Disease Atheroembolic renal disease is caused by occlusion of small arteries in the kidneys by cholesterol crystal emboli from ulcerated atherosclerotic plaqu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atopic Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a specific form of eczema, is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Atopic dermatitis has a complex etio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Atrial Myxoma Myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumor. It is estimated that more than 75% of myxomas originate in the left atrium either at the mitral ann ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Barrett Esophagus Barrett esophagus (BE) is a pre-malignant condition characterized by conversion of the normal esophageal squamous epithelium into metaplastic columnar ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Barrett Metaplasia Barrett's esophagus is the condition in which a specialized columnar epithelium replaces the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus. P ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Binge Eating Disorder Binge eating disorder is an eating disorder associated with various psychological and non-psychological issues with some degree of impairment of daily ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Breast Abscess Breast abscesses are a common problem, especially in lactating women. Most breast abscesses are benign, however when a non-lactating patient presents ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Breast Cancer Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women, accounting for more than 1 in 10 new cancer diagnoses each year. It is the second most com ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Breast Fibroadenoma A breast fibroadenoma is a painless, unilateral, benign tumor that presents as a solid lump. It commonly occurs in women between the age of 14 to 35 y ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Breast Milk Jaundice Breast milk jaundice is a type of jaundice that occurs in neonates due to breastfeeding. It happens within the first week of life due to the abnormal ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Burkitt Lymphoma Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphoma. The disease is associated with Epstein Barr virus (EBV), human immunodeficiency vi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cachexia Cachexia is a complicated metabolic syndrome related to underlying illness and characterized by muscle mass loss with or without fat mass loss that is ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Capillary Infantile Hemangiomas Capillary hemangiomas (infantile hemangiomas, juvenile hemangiomas, hemangioblastomas or strawberry nevi of infancy), are common benign orbital neopla ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Cancer Cardiac tumors are uncommon and can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumors are rare, and the incidence is from 0.001 to 0.3% by autopsy. The ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cardiac Cirrhosis Cardiac cirrhosis is a term used to include the spectrum of hepatic disorders that occur secondary to hepatic congestion due to cardiac dysfunction, e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Syncope Syncope, a sudden, transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, is a phenomenon estimated to affect 30% to 40% of the population, and those numb ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cervical Cancer Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer among women worldwide. Primary prevention and screening are by far the most effective modalities for ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cherry Hemangioma Cherry hemangiomas are the most common type of acquired vascular proliferation of the skin. They present as a dome-shaped, bright, ruby-colored papule ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Chromaffin Cell Cancer Pheochromocytoma is a tumor that arises from chromaffin cells present in the adrenal medulla or paraganglion cells. It can present with vague symptoms ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Chronic Liver Disease Chronic liver disease is a progressive deterioration of liver functions. Liver functions include the production of clotting factors and other proteins ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2.25 35 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 2.25 36 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Contact Urticaria Contact urticaria is a transient wheal and flare response on exposure to specific agents, especially in the work environment. Contact urticaria falls ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Coronary artery disease is a common heart condition that involves atherosclerotic plaque formation in the vessel lumen. This leads to impairment in bl ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Disease Prevention In the United States, cardiovascular disease is one of the leading causes of mortality, morbidity, and increased healthcare cost. According to the AHA ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cryptococcus Cryptococcus is an invasive fungus, transmitted through the inhalation of spores and causes cryptococcosis, an infection commonly associated with immu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cushing Syndrome Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to high circulating levels of cortisol. The most common cause of cushingoid features is iatrogenic co ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Deep Vein Thrombosis A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins, usually of the leg, but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mese ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dementia Dementia describes an overall decline in memory and other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. I ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Dermoid Cyst A dermoid cyst is a benign cutaneous developmental anomaly that arises from the entrapment of ectodermal elements along the lines of embryonic closure ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Unfortunately, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not only one of the most severe forms of inherited muscular dystrophies but also the most common h ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Emphysema Pulmonary emphysema, a progressive lung disease, is a form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Endometrial Hyperplasia Endometrial hyperplasia is a common disorder due to exposure to exogenous or endogenous estrogen along with a relative deficiency of progesterone. It ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Enterococcus Infections Enterococci are Gram-positive facultative anaerobic cocci in short and medium chains, which cause difficult to treat infections in the nosocomial sett ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythema Nodosum Erythema nodosum (EN) is a common acute nodular septal panniculitis, characterized by the sudden onset of erythematous, firm, solid, deep nodules or p ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Esophageal Cancer Esophageal cancer is a deadly malignancy with a very low survival, even with treatment. In the United States, esophageal cancers represent the fifth m ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Esophageal Varices Esophageal varices are dilated submucosal distal esophageal veins connecting the portal and systemic circulations. They form due to portal hypertensio ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Extraintestinal Manifestations of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease involve multiple organ systems. They are common and may result in significant morbidity. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fibrocystic Breast Disease Fibrocystic breast disease is the most common benign type of breast disease, diagnosed in millions of women worldwide. Certain hormonal factors underp ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Follicular Adenoma Follicular adenomas are a common benign neoplasm encountered in clinical practice. They usually present as a solitary thyroid nodule, but other presen ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Gangrene Gangrene is tissue damage secondary to infection, ischemia, or both. It is a relatively uncommon condition, and early recognition is essential. Gangre ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Gastric Cancer Gastric cancer is the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The only potentially curative tre ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Gastritis The current classification of gastritis is based on time course (acute versus chronic), histological features, anatomic distribution, and underlying p ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Giant Cell Tumor Giant cell tumor is one of the most common benign bone tumors, occurring in young adults ages 20–40 years with a high recurrence rate and a potential ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Gout Gout is one of the most common causes of chronic inflammatory arthritis in the United States, which is characterized by monosodium urate (MSU) monohyd ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hairy Cell Leukemia Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, chronic B-cell malignancy that involves the spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. Patients often have non-sp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hand and Wrist Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated multisystem inflammatory disease that predominantly affects the synovial joints. This activity provide ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hashimoto Thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis, also known as chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, is an autoimmune disease in which thyroid cel ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Heart Failure And Ejection Fraction Heart failure (HF) is a common and potentially fatal disease if left untreated. This article aims to describe the different types of heart failure. It ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Hematuria Hematuria is the presence of blood in the urine. Hematuria can be gross or microscopic; gross hematuria is visible blood in urine whereas microscopic ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B infection is a serious global healthcare problem. Often transmitted via body fluids like blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, the hepatit ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also known as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominant disorder. Individuals with HNPCC are at inc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Herpes Zoster Herpes zoster, also known as shingles, is a viral syndrome caused by reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus. After an episode of varicella (chicke ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs due to the reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus. It is a variation of herpes zoster that can cause a va ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism In Pregnancy Hyperthyroidism is an uncommon condition that complicates approximately 0.1% to 0.4% of pregnancies. The condition is marked by increased levels of ci ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by a mutation in sarcomere protein genes which effect contraction of the hea ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a state of hyperinflammatory response that usually occurs in the first six months of treatment o ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Inferior Myocardial Infarction Without timely treatment, coronary artery occlusion results in decreased perfusion to the myocardium, resulting in myocardial ischemia followed by my ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract and is divided into Crohn disease and ulcerative coli ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Influenza Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, including upper and lower respiratory passages. A wide spectrum of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Kaposi Sarcoma Kaposi sarcoma is an interesting soft tissue tumor occurring in several distinct populations with a variety of presentations and courses. In its most ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Kawasaki Disease Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited medium vessel vasculitis that has a predilection for the coronary arteries. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
Keloid Keloids result from abnormal wound healing in response to skin trauma or inflammation. Keloid development rests on genetic and environmental factors. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ketogenic Diet Despite continuous advances in the medical world, obesity continues to remain a major worldwide health hazard with adult mortality as high as 2.8 mill ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lateral Wall Myocardial Infarction Isolated lateral wall myocardial infarction (LMI), similar to other acute myocardial infarctions (MI), is caused by acute atherosclerotic plaque ruptu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Listeria Monocytogenes Listeria monocytogenes is a facultative, intracellular, gram-positive rod that is responsible for causing the infection listeriosis. Listeria causes s ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Lung Cancer Lung cancer or bronchogenic carcinoma refers to tumors originating in the lung parenchyma or within bronchi. It is one of the leading causes of cancer ... Read the Article 2 24 Activity Info
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread by ticks. Lyme disease is divided into three stages: early local ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Malaria Malaria is a parasitic infection transmitted by the Anopheles mosquito that leads to acute life-threatening disease and poses a significant global hea ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Malignant Melanoma A melanoma is a tumor produced by the malignant transformation of melanocytes. Melanocytes are derived from the neural crest; consequently, melanomas, ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Mania Mania is a period of 1 week or more in which a person experiences a change in normal behavior that drastically affects their functioning. Mania can be ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Medullary Thyroid Cancer Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a tumor arising from the parafollicular cells, or C cells, of the thyroid gland. Medullary thyroid cancer produces c ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Meningioma Meningioma is a known benign central nervous system tumor commonly arising from the meninges of the brain and spinal cord. The rate of recurrence and ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Metabolic Syndrome Metabolic syndrome is an accumulation of several disorders, which together raise the risk of an individual developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke The middle cerebral artery (MCA) is the most common artery involved in acute stroke. It branches directly from the internal carotid artery and consist ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Molluscum Contagiosum Molluscum contagiosum, also called water warts, is a benign condition of the skin. The skin lesions of molluscum contagiosum are called mollusca. The ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasias Type 2 Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) is a hereditary cancer syndrome associated primarily with tumors of the adrenal gland, thyroid and parathy ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as "heart attack," is caused by decreased or complete cessation of blood flow to a portion of the myoca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neonatal Jaundice Neonatal jaundice is yellowish discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva, and sclera due to elevated serum or plasma bilirubin in the newborn period. Neo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Neuropathy About 2.4 percent of the population is affected by peripheral neuropathy. The prevalence increases to 8 percent in older populations. Peripheral neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a group of malignant neoplasms originating from the lymphoid tissues, mainly the lymph nodes. These tumors may result due to c ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Noonan Syndrome Noonan syndrome is typically a genetically inherited disorder with heterogeneous phenotypic manifestations that can change with age. The most consiste ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Orbital Cellulitis Orbital cellulitis is defined as a serious infection that involves the muscle and fat located within the orbit. It is also sometimes referred to as po ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a serious infection of the bone that can be either acute or chronic. It is an inflammatory process involving the bone and its structu ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Osteosarcoma Osteosarcoma is a malignant osseous neoplasm. It is the most common primary bone cancer of childhood. Less frequently, it occurs in adults where it re ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Paget Disease Paget disease is a skeletal growth disorder in which abnormalities such as unusual bone growth can occur in several multifactoral ways. This is often ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Palliative Care The World Health Organization characterizes the field of palliative care as a form of specialized medical care which aims to optimize the quality of l ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Pediatric Asthma Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow obstruction resulting from edema, bronchospasm ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as an inflammation of the upper genital tract due to an infection in women. The disease affects the uteru ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Periorbital Cellulitis Periorbital cellulitis is sometimes called preseptal cellulitis. It is is a skin and soft tissue infection around the eye that is anterior to the orbi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pleomorphic Adenoma Pleomorphic adenoma, the most common salivary gland tumor, is also known as benign mixed tumors (BMT's), because of its dual origin from epithelial an ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Pleural Effusion Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in between the parietal and visceral pleura, called the pleural cavity. It can occur by itself or can be ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Polycystic Ovarian Disease Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder in females of reproductive age. It is characterized by two or more of the foll ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Posterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) strokes can be challenging to diagnose, due to the variability in symptoms, which may be nonspecific and inconsistent ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Post-Op Assessment and Management Of Obesity Surgery Obesity surgery is growing in popularity throughout the world. While patient selection is a key factor in determining the success of the surgery, post ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Postoperative Fever Postoperative fever is defined as a temperature higher than 38 C (or greater than 100.4 F) on two consecutive postoperative days or higher than 39 C ( ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) results from a bacterial infection that causes rapid deterioration of the kidney function due to an inflam ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Prenatal Screening Historically, pregnancy was a very tenuous part of a woman's life because of the high mortality rate associated with gestation. In the early 1900s, ma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Presyncope Presyncope or near-syncope is often ill-defined and may have different meanings to different providers but denotes near fainting or a prodrome of sync ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Primary Lung Tuberculosis Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death from an infectious agent worldwide, causing even more deaths in HIV/AIDS patients. A third of the world's p ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pseudomembranous Colitis Pseudomembranous colitis, a severe inflammation of the inner lining of the large intestine, manifests as an antibiotic-associated colonic inflammatory ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative, aerobic, non-spore forming rod that is capable of causing a variety of infections in both immunocompetent a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Psoriasis Psoriasis is a chronic proliferative and inflammatory condition of the skin. It is characterized by erythematous plaques covered with silvery scales p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pulmonary Hamartoma Pulmonary hamartomas are benign malformations of the lung and include an abnormal mixture of tissue components such as cartilage, epithelium, fat, or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Renal Cancer Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignant tumor of the kidney and constitutes over 90 percent of all renal malignancies. RCC may be spor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Renal Cell Cancer Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), which originate within the renal cortex, are responsible for 80% to 85% of all primary renal neoplasms. Transitional cel ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Renal Failure The term renal failure denotes inability of the kidneys to perform excretory function leading to retention of nitrogenous waste products from the bloo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rheumatic Heart Disease Rheumatic heart disease is a systemic immune condition that occurs as a complication of rheumatic fever. This occurs after a beta-hemolytic streptococ ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder of the joints characterized by inflammatory arthritis as well as extra-articular involvement. It c ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Rickettsia Rickettsiae Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an acute febrile tick-borne illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. In North America, it is both the most seve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Rickettsial Infection Rickettsia is a group of vector-borne organisms that cause acute febrile illnesses throughout the world. While the clinical presentations of rickettsi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Scleroderma And Primary Myocardial Disease Systemic scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that can affect internal organs. Cardiac manifestations of the disease can be a result of the prim ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Seborrheic Keratosis Seborrheic keratoses are epidermal skin tumors that commonly present in adult and elderly patients. They are benign skin lesions and often do not requ ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Sensory Neuropathy Sensory neuropathy is a common condition that is often a direct complication of another co-morbidity. It can be debilitating under certain circumstanc ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Septic Arthritis Septic arthritis is inflammation of the joints secondary to an infectious etiology such as bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, viral, or other pathogens ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Sleeplessness And Circadian Disorder Proper sleep is vital to maintain health and optimize overall functioning during periods of wakefulness. Sleeplessness has been linked with several he ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Solar Urticaria Solar urticaria is a chronic acquired photosensitivity disorder. It consists of recurrent episodes of urticaria overlying areas of the skin that are e ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Spider Angioma Spider angioma, also known as spider naevus or spider telangiectasia, is a vascular lesion characterized by anomalous dilatation of end vasculature fo ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition, which often results in severe morbidity and permanent disability. It occurs when the axons of ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Spinal Epidural Abscess Spinal epidural abscess is an infection of the central nervous system that classically presents with midline back pain, fever, and neurologic deficits ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Squamous Cell Skin Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma, the second most common form of skin cancer, is caused by the cumulative exposure of skin to UV light. This condition has prec ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Stevens Johnson Syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute, rare and potentially fatal skin reactions involving loss of skin and in some cases ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Stroke Prevention There is a significant overlap between the risk factors accounting for cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular events. The INTERHEART study looked a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Stroke Reperfusion Injury Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide, with a prevalence of about 2.5%. A stroke is called ischemic when caused by an interruption ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Struvite And Triple Phosphate Renal Calculi Struvite and triple phosphate renal calculi are formed as a result of urinary tract infection by urease-forming organisms. They grow rapidly and occup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Superior Vena Cava Syndrome Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a collection of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from either partial or complete obstruction of blood flow t ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Syncope Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous recovery. While there are numerous classifications schemes used ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Testicular Teratoma Testicular teratoma is a neoplasm derived from germ cells of the testicle. It can display diverse biological behavior with an aggressive nature at tim ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysms require a prompt diagnosis as most patients are asymptomatic until dissection or rupture of the aorta occurs, leading to wor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Thyroid Cancer Thyroid cancer is a malignancy arising from cells of thyroid origin, disproportionately affecting those with a history of neck radiation. Management ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Tropical Sprue Tropical sprue is a malabsorption syndrome characterized by chronic diarrhea, weight loss, and malabsorption of nutrients. It occurs in travelers to t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tuberculous Meningitis Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) manifests extrapulmonary tuberculosis caused by the seeding of the meninges with the bacilli of Mycobacterium tuberculosi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Tuberous Sclerosis Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder that affects multiple systems. It is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion and is characte ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Tubular Adenoma Colonic adenomas are raised protrusions of colonic mucosa, i.e., polyps formed by glandular tissue. Although a tumor of benign nature, these adenomas ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Type IV Hypersensitivity Reaction Type four hypersensitivity reaction is a cell-mediated reaction that can occur in response to contact with certain allergens resulting in what is call ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Ulcerative Colitis Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the colon which results in diffuse friability and superficial erosions on the colonic wa ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Upper Limb Amputation Upper extremity amputations are a procedure commonly done in a variety of circumstances including infection, trauma, cancer, disease progression or co ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Uterine Leiomyomata Uterine leiomyomata or fibroids are an extremely common benign neoplasm in women of reproductive age. Although they are benign, they can have a signif ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Uveitis Uveitis is a disease process that involves inflammation of the eye. There are multiple different causes of uveitis. These include infections, inflamma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Varicella Zoster Chickenpox or varicella is a contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus is responsible for chickenpox (usually primary i ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Vertebrobasilar Stroke Vertebrobasilar strokes are interruptions of blood flow to the posterior circulation. While these types of strokes are relatively uncommon, they are a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin A Vitamin A is a general term that encompasses various fat-soluble substances such as retinol, retinyl palmitate, and beta-carotene. Its various metabol ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vitamin C Deficiency Vitamin C deficiency, also known as scurvy, is a disease primarily associated with socioeconomic status and access to food. Signs and symptoms are oft ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Vitamin D Vitamin D is labeled as the "sunshine vitamin," as it is produced in the skin on sun exposure. Vitamin D is required to maintain serum calcium concent ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitiligo Vitiligo is a common acquired skin disorder which results from the loss of melanocytes from the epidermis and clinically manifests as well-demarcated ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vulva Cancer Vulvar cancer represents 0.3% of all new cancer cases in the United States. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type and is usually diagnosed a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Warthin Tumor Warthin tumor is a relatively frequent and benign neoplasm of the major salivary glands. It is histologically characterized by a dense lymphoid stroma ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Wernicke Encephalopathy Wernicke encephalopathy is an acute neurological condition characterized by a clinical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and confusion. This disease i ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Xanthelasma Palpebrarum Xanthelasma palpebrarum is a condition in which soft, yellow papules or plaques filled with cholesterol form over the medial canthus of the upper lid. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Xanthoma Xanthomas are localized lipid deposits within an organ system. They are often an important sign of systemic disease. To avoid the high morbidity and m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Zika Virus Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family and the genus Flavivirus. In the majority of people, infection by the Zika virus is mild and s ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info

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