Nurse-Maternal Newborn (MNN) CE

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About StatPearls CE

All of our activities are approved by ANCC (LVN, RN, and CNS) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the National Certification Corporation® content outlines. 390 authors and 14 editors have contributed to the development of the Nurse-Maternal Newborn (MNN) content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

Nurse-Maternal Newborn (MNN) Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
5 Alpha Reductase Deficiency This activity reviews 5-alpha-reductase deficiency, an important cause of ambiguous genitalia in children. Initially, the phenotype of children with 5 ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Abnormal Labor Physicians, advanced practice nurses, nursing personnel, and midwives must be aware of what constitutes normal versus abnormal labor. Without proper s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Abortion Complications Roughly one million abortions are performed each year in the United States alone. The total abortion-related complication rate is estimated to be abou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
ACE Inhibitors ACE inhibitors are a medication class used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease he ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Achondroplasia Achondroplasia is the most common skeletal dysplasia found in humans, accounting for 90% of cases of disproportionate short stature. It is caused by a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute Eclampsia Eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder that manifests as new-onset generalized tonic colonic seizures. Typically eclampsia occurs after gestational ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Mastitis Mastitis can be broken down into lactational and non-lactational causes. While non-lactational causes of mastitis are less common, lactational mastiti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Acute Postpartum Hemorrhage Obstetric hemorrhage is the most common and dangerous complication of childbirth. Traditionally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has been defined as great ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2.25 29 Activity Info
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning is a procedure routinely performed in the inpatient and outpatient settings. It is important to maintain patency of the natural or a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Akinesia Akinesia or "absent movement" is a clinical sign that could be indicative of a number of disorders, depending on the age group of the patient. The var ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amenorrhea Amenorrhea is defined as the absence of menstruation during the reproductive years of a woman's life. Physiological states of amenorrhea are seen, mos ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Amniocentesis Amniocentesis is the aspiration of amniotic fluid from the amniotic cavity and is the most common invasive fetal testing procedure. It is usually perf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amniotic Band Syndrome Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) comprises various congenital anomalies, which include disruption, deformation, and malformations of organs that were inte ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amniotic Fluid Embolism Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare entity, but one which has very high mortality and morbidity rates. This article will explain the clinical pres ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Amniotomy Amniotomy, also known as artificial rupture of membranes (AROM) or colloquially known as "breaking the water," is the intentional rupture of the amnio ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) ACE inhibitors are medications used in the treatment and management of hypertension, which is a significant risk factor for coronary disease heart fai ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Antepartum Infections This activity reviews the evaluation and management of antepartum infections and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving matern ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Antiemetic Histamine H1 Receptor Blockers First-generation antihistamines have several indications that primarily include nausea and vomiting secondary to motion sickness and vertigo, but seco ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
APGAR Score In 1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at Columbia University, developed the Apgar score. Serendipitously, APGAR is also a useful mnemonic t ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Approach New Breast Mass Breast masses are common and are associated with a wide spectrum of disease, from benign physiological adenosis to advanced malignancy. A structured a ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Asymptomatic bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in the properly collected urine of a patient that has no signs or symptoms of a urinary tract inf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atrial Septal Defect Atrial septal defect (ASD) is one of the most common types of congenital heart defects, occurring in about 25% of children. An atrial septal defect oc ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Birth Asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is a lack of blood flow or gas exchange to or from the fetus in the period immediately before, during, or after the birth process. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Birth Trauma This activity reviews common birth-related injuries. The mechanism of injury, clinical features, and management of various birth-related traumatic eve ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bishop Score In 1964, Edward Bishop set forth criteria for elective induction of labor which included parity, gestational age, fetal presentation, obstetric histor ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Braxton Hicks Contractions Braxton-Hicks contractions, also known as prodromal or false labor pains, are contractions of the uterus that typically are not felt until the second ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Breast Milk Jaundice Breast milk jaundice is a type of jaundice that occurs in neonates due to breastfeeding. It happens within the first week of life due to the abnormal ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Breech Presentation Breech presentation refers to the fetus in the longitudinal lie with the buttocks or lower extremity entering the pelvis first. The three types of bre ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Brief Resolved Unexplained Event In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended replacing the term apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) with brief resolved unexplained even ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Disease In Pregnancy Many cardiac diseases during pregnancy are under investigation, and many others which are still not understood require further inquiry. Some of these ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cataract A cataract is a disease of the eye in which the normally clear lens has opacified which obscures the passage of light. It is a gradually progressive d ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Central and Peripheral Cyanosis Peripheral cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the distal extremities (Hands, fingertips, toes), and can sometimes involve circumoral and periorbi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cephalohematoma A cephalohematoma is an accumulation of blood under the scalp. During the birth process, small blood vessels on the head of the fetus are broken as a ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Cesarean Section This activity reviews the cesarean section, and it highlights ways in which an interprofessional care team can impact the health of women and their ne ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Choanal Atresia The nasal choanae are paired openings that connect the nasal cavity with the nasopharynx. Choanal atresia is a congenital condition in which these ope ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cholinergic Medications Cholinergic medications are a category of pharmaceutical agents that act upon the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter within ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Chorioamnionitis Chorioamnionitis is an infection that can occur before labor, during labor, or after delivery. It can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Chorioamnionitis ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Circumcision Male circumcision is the surgical removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, that covers the glans of the penis. Over the past decades, cultural changes and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cleft Lip Cleft lip deformity is one of the most common congenital deformities, and management requires an interprofessional approach to address the physical cl ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cleft Palate Cleft palate is a developmental defect in the hard palate that results in a communication between the oral and nasal cavities resulting in nasal reflu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Clonus Clonus is a rhythmic oscillating stretch reflex that is related to upper motor neuron lesions. Therefore, clonus is generally accompanied by hyperrefl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clostridium Botulinum Clostridium botulinum is an anaerobic gram-positive spore-forming rod and is the most common cause implicated in reversible flaccid paralysis. Other c ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Clubfoot Clubfoot is a congenital deformity of the foot, otherwise known as congenital talipes equinovarus. It is one of the most common congenital malformatio ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in pregnancy is associated with the highest risk of trans-placental transmission. Universal screening for pre ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Congenital Melanocytic Nevi Congenital melanocytic nevi are benign skin lesions that usually present at birth and vary from small to large in size. Larger lesions are rarer and h ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congenital Pulmonary Airway Malformation Congenital pulmonary airway malformation is a congenital lung disease that can present from the prenatal period to childhood. Though rare overall, it ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Congenital Rubella Rubella, also known as German Measles, is a viral illness characterized by maculopapular rash, lymphadenopathy, and fever. It is a highly contagious b ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Congenital Torticollis Torticollis, also known as a twisted neck, is the contraction or contracture of the muscles of the neck that causes the head to tilt to one side. It i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Congenital Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection in humans and animals. Infection in healthy immunocompetent adults is asymptomatic in about 50% of the cases al ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Corpus Callosum Agenesis Corpus callosum is the largest white matter structure containing 200 million axons, connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. Agenesis of the corpu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cow Milk Allergy Cow's milk allergy is an allergic reaction to the protein found in cow’s milk. Diagnosis can be difficult as it is primarily based on history and phys ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cradle Cap Cradle cap, or pityriasis capitis, is a subset of infantile seborrheic dermatitis (ISD). It is a very common, mostly self-limiting, chronic non-inflam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cultural Competence in the Care of Muslim Patients and Their Families Delivering high-quality care to patients of the Muslim faith requires knowledge of the differences in cultural and spiritual values. Important differe ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Cyanotic Heart Disease Congenital heart disease (CHD) are structural abnormalities of the heart or intrathoracic great vessels occurring during fetal development. CHD is the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cystic Hygroma Cystic hygromas are the most common subtype of lymphangiomas, presenting at birth and in early infancy. Enlargement of cystic hygromas is common, and ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Deep Vein Thrombosis A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins, usually of the leg, but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mese ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dermal Melanocytosis This activity outlines the evaluation & management of congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spot). It explains the role of the interprofessional ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Developmental Delay Delay in development occurs when the child fails to attain developmental milestones as compared to peers from the same population. It is caused by imp ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Developmental Dysplasia Of The Hip DDH (developmental dysplasia of the hip ) is a disorder that is due to abnormal development of acetabulum with or without hip dislocation. Early diagn ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Diaper Dermatitis Diaper dermatitis is an inflammatory reaction of the skin of the perineal and perianal areas (diaper area). It is the most common skin disorder seen i ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Diffuse Toxic Goiter Goiter is an anatomical enlargement of the thyroid gland. It can be related with thyroid dysfunction or have normal thyroid function. This activity re ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disease Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs (DMARD) Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are a class of drugs indicated for the treatment of several inflammatory arthritides including rheumato ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Domestic Violence Family and domestic violence is a common problem in the United States, affecting an estimated 10 million people every year; as many as one in four wom ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Down Syndrome Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or a portion of a third chromosome 21. Patients typically present with ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Doxycycline Hyclate Doxycycline hyclate is a medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of infections. It is in the tetracyclines class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Duodenal Atresia And Stenosis Duodenal atresia is a congenital intestinal obstruction that can cause bilious or nonbilious vomiting within the first 24 to 38 hours of neonatal life ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Ear Microtia Microtia is a congenital ear deformity in which the external ear is malformed and underdeveloped. In more severe cases, it is usually associated with ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Eclampsia This article discusses preeclampsia and eclampsia, one of the four categories of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Eclampsia is a severe complicati ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Ehlers Danlos Syndrome Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a genetic disorder affecting collagen formation and function. It affects virtually every organ system, which can resul ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
EMS Prehospital Deliveries There are approximately 3.9 million deliveries in the United States every year. Fortunately, most of these deliveries are appropriately anticipated an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Endometritis Endometritis is inflammation of the uterine lining. It can affect all layers of the uterus. The uterus is typically aseptic. However, the travel of mi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Enoxaparin Enoxaparin is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) and was first approved for medical use in 1993 and is derived from heparin. It has approval for the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Anesthesia Epidural anesthesia is a technique that may be used as a primary surgical anesthetic or as a resource for postoperative pain management. It is safe an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Episiotomy An episiotomy is a procedure developed to augment difficult vaginal deliveries while controlling for and avoiding potentially dangerous perineal lacer ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epstein Pearls Epstein pearls are small, benign, self-resolving nodules commonly found in the oral cavities of newborns. This activity describes the evaluation and m ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Erb Palsy Erb's palsy, or Erb-Duchenne paralysis, is one of most common neurological birth injuries. It is caused by injury to the brachial plexus, which is for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythroblastosis Fetalis Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is also known as alloimmune HDFN or erythroblastosis fetalis. It is caused by the destruction of neo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Erythromycin Erythromycin has traditionally; it has been used for various respiratory infections (i.e., community-acquired pneumonia, Legionnaires disease), prophy ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
External Cephalic Version About 25 percent of fetuses will be in breech presentation at 28 weeks, though this decreases to roughly 3 to 4 percent at term. Most infants who are ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fatty Liver In Pregnancy Acute fatty liver in pregnancy (AFLP) is an obstetric emergency and carries high morbidity and mortality, including death in the mother and her fetus. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Female Infertility Infertility is a medical condition that can cause psychological, physical, mental, spiritual, and medical detriments to the patient. The unique qualit ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the five disorders that comprise fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These fetal alcohol spectrum disorders clas ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fetal Growth Restriction Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is most often defined as an estimated fetal weight less than the 10th percentile for gestational age by prenatal ultras ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fetal Movement Fetal movements felt by pregnant women are a sign that the fetus is growing in size and strength. The mother is usually the first to feel these moveme ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fever In A Neonate The World Health Organization categorizes neonatal sepsis as early or late based on the age of onset. Early neonatal sepsis affects infants less than ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluticasone Fluticasone is a medication used to manage and treat asthma, allergic rhinitis, emphysema, and atopic dermatitis. It is in the corticosteroid class of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Folic Acid Deficiency Folate is an essential water-soluble vitamin, naturally present in food, especially in fruits, green leafy vegetables, and liver. Folic acid is the s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Forceps Delivery The use of forceps in infant delivery has fallen out of favor among obstetricians in the past three decades. Forceps deliveries now make up about only ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Galactose 1 Phosphate Uridyltransferase Deficiency Galactosemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to impaired degradation of galactose. If not recognized and treated promptly, affected infants may d ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2.25 32 Activity Info
Gastroschisis Gastroschisis is a paraumbilical abdominal wall defect associated with protrusion of the bowel through the defect. A membrane does not cover the bowe ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Gestational Age Assessment Gestational age is a key piece of data used by healthcare providers to determine when to perform various screening tests and assessments of the fetus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gestational Diabetes The definition of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM can c ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Gestational Sac Evaluation The gestational sac is the first structure seen in pregnancy by ultrasound as early as 4.5 to 5 weeks of gestational age, but it is only 97.6% specifi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gonococcal Conjunctivitis Gonococcal conjunctivitis (GC), also known as gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum when it occurs in neonates, is an infection that is transmitted by cont ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Gonorrhea Neisseria gonorrhoeae, an obligate human pathogen, is a sexually transmitted disease that causes consequential worldwide morbidity both in resource-ab ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Gray Baby Syndrome Gray baby syndrome is an adverse reaction to chloramphenicol that is characterized by abdominal distention, hemodynamic collapse, and ashen-gray skin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Group B Streptococcus And Pregnancy Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a gram-positive bacteria that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract. It is known to cause both early o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hearing Loss The management of hearing loss is challenging and complex. To achieve good outcomes, the goals and objectives of hearing loss management must be defin ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Height Assessment Height assessment is important from a clinical, anthropological, forensic as well as medico-legal standpoint. This chapter describes the significance ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
HELLP Syndrome The syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets, otherwise referred to as HELLP syndrome, has historically been classified as a co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemolytic Diseases Of The Newborn Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn is a red blood cell mismatch between mothers and their fetus that can cause significant morbidity and morta ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Disease Of Newborn Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a life-threatening condition that is caused due to insufficient vitamin K levels in the newborns as a result of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hepatitis The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver — hepatitis most commonly results from viruses. But drugs, alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases, i ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B infection is a serious global healthcare problem. Often transmitted via body fluids like blood, semen, and vaginal secretions, the hepatit ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Hepatitis B Vaccine The hepatitis B vaccine is a medication used in the prevention of hepatitis B infection, which can lead to chronic liver failure and hepatocellular ca ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Neonatorum Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in the neonatal period continue to be troublesome for practitioners. In the 1970s, the drug vidarabine was intro ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Type 2 This activity reviews the evaluation and management of herpes simplex type 2 and highlights the role of the primary care provider in managing patients ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hirschsprung Disease Hirschsprung disease (HD) is a congenital disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells (GC) at the Meissner's plexus (submucosa) and Auerba ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
HIV In Pregnancy Several thousand HIV positive pregnant women give birth in the US annually. With proper management, these women can achieve viral suppression to undet ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus is the symptomatic accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid inside the cerebral ventricles. It has complex pathogenesis and different causes. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hydrops Fetalis Hydrops fetalis, also known as fetal hydrops, is not a disease but rather a symptom of an underlying health problem that affects the fetus. If left un ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperemesis Gravidarum Hyperemesis gravidarum refers to intractable vomiting during pregnancy that leads to weight loss and volume depletion, resulting in ketonuria and/or k ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hypermagnesemia Magnesium is an essential element for the life of plants as it is part of chlorophyll. Moreover, it is abundant in animal tissues, where it is fundame ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypertension In Pregnancy Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including chronic hypertension with or without superimposed pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, gestational hypertension, pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hypoplastic Lung Disease Pulmonary hypoplasia is a relatively uncommon medical condition characterized by incomplete development of the lungs that can affect the overall devel ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypospadias Hypospadias is an anatomical congenital malformation of the male external genitalia. It is characterized by abnormal development of the urethral fold ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Hypovolemia Hypovolemia refers to a state of low extracellular fluid volume, generally secondary to combined sodium and water loss. All living organisms must main ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Imperforate Anus Imperforate anus or anal atresia is a congenital anorectal malformation (ARM) where a normal anal opening is absent at birth. ARMs comprise of a broad ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Incomplete Abortions An incomplete abortion is the partial loss of the products of conception within the first 20 weeks. Incomplete abortion usually presents with moderate ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Indomethacin Indomethacin is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug with broad applications. This activity reviews the indications, action, and contraindic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Induction of Labor There are indications for late preterm, early term, late term, and post-term inductions depending on a patient's obstetrical and medical history. Obst ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Infant Apnea Apnea in infants is the term used to describe episodes of cessation of breathing and may be due to many physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Bri ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Influenza Vaccine Influenza viruses belong to Orthomyxoviridae RNA virus family and classify into three distinct types based on their major antigenic differences; influ ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intrauterine Fetal Demise Stillbirth has many causes: intrapartum complications, hypertension, diabetes, infection, congenital and genetic abnormalities, placental dysfunction, ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Inverted Nipple An inverted nipple is a condition with a prevalence of 10%-20% in the general population. Though not life-threatening, it is psychologically and physi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Jaundice Jaundice, also known as hyperbilirubinemia, is defined as a yellow discoloration of the body tissue resulting from the accumulation of excess bilirubi ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Kernicterus Kernicterus, or bilirubin encephalopathy, is bilirubin-induced neurological damage, which is most commonly seen in infants. It occurs when the unconju ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Late Decelerations Late decelerations are one of the precarious decelerations among the three types of fetal heart rate decelerations during labor. They are caused by de ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Laxatives Constipation is a common diagnosis that requires proper evaluation and appropriate treatment. The approach to a patient with chronic constipation incl ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lovastatin Lovastatin is a lipid-lowering medication part of the statin drug class used in the treatment and prevention of coronary heart disease, hypercholester ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Macrosomia Macrosomia is commonly encountered during obstetric practice. It is associated with a higher likelihood of obstetric as well as neonatal complications ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium sulfate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple clinical conditions and holds several on and off label uses. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Measles Measles, also known as rubeola, is a preventable, highly contagious, acute febrile viral illness. It remains an important cause of global mortality an ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Meconium Aspiration Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is the neonatal respiratory distress that occurs in a newborn in the context of meconium-stained amniotic fluid (MA ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Meconium Ileus Meconium Ileus (MI) is one of the earliest manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) and presents in up to 20 percent of infants with CF. The inspissated ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Meningococcal Vaccine Meningococcal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. This activity will describe how to deal with this disease as a serious ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Meningomyelocele Myelomeningocele or open spina bifida is a devastating congenital malformation of the central nervous system associated with significant morbidity. Ti ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Metabolic Acidosis Acid-base disorders are disturbances in the homeostasis of hydrogen ion concentration in the plasma. Any process that increases the serum hydrogen ion ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Methamphetamine Methamphetamine is one of the powerful stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS). It is sometimes a second-line treatment for attention deficit h ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Midazolam Intravenous midazolam is used for the induction of anesthesia and also in the management of acute seizures. Because of its water-soluble nature, midaz ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Minocycline Minocycline is a medication used in the management and treatment of both infectious and non-infectious conditions. It is in the tetracycline class of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Myelomeningocele Neural tube defects are a spectrum of congenital anomalies that includes cranial defects and open or closed spinal dysraphism. Open spinal dysraphism ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nalbuphine Nalbuphine is FDA indicated for moderate to severe pain in which an opioid agent is required when other alternative treatments have been insufficient. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Necrotizing Enterocolitis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening illness almost exclusively affecting neonates with a mortality rate as high as 50 percent. The p ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) is a spectrum of clinical manifestations seen in neonates due to withdrawal from intrauterine drug exposure. It is ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Neonatal Conjunctivitis Neonatal eye discharge is usually due to congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction or either chemical or infectious conjunctivitis. Neonatal conjunctiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neonatal Evaluation The initial examination within the first 24 hours of birth is critical in determining the general well-being of newborns, but also to identify any red ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neonatal HIV Over 95% of HIV-infected pediatric cases are a result of vertical transmission. Neonatal HIV is the concern for HIV in an infant born to a mother with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neonatal Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is the most common metabolic disturbance occurring in the neonatal period. Screening at-risk infants and the management of low blood gluc ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Neonatal Jaundice Neonatal jaundice is yellowish discoloration of the skin, conjunctiva, and sclera due to elevated serum or plasma bilirubin in the newborn period. Neo ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is a frequent cause of increased morbidity and mortality in neonates. Understanding the pathophysiology, clinic ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Neonatal Seizure Neonatal seizures are a commonly encountered neurologic condition in neonates. They are defined as the occurrence of sudden, paroxysmal, abnormal alte ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Neonatal Sepsis Neonatal sepsis refers to an infection involving bloodstream in newborn infants less than 28 days old. It continues to remain a leading cause of morbi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neural Tube Disorders Neural tube defects are the most common severe central nervous system anomalies, only second to cardiovascular abnormalities resulting in congenital m ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Nocturia Nocturia is defined as the need for patients to get up at night on a regular basis to urinate. A period of sleep must precede and follow the urinary e ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Obstetric Ultrasound Ultrasound is a noninvasive diagnostic modality that can quickly confirm an intrauterine pregnancy at the bedside, significantly shortening the length ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oligohydramnios Oligohydramnios is a disorder of amniotic fluid resulting in decreased amniotic fluid volume for gestational age. Low amniotic fluid volumes can be th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ophthalmia Neonatorum Ophthalmia neonatorum is a type of conjunctivitis that takes place in the neonatal period. This condition is commonly transmitted during vaginal deliv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Oxytocin Oxytocin is indicated and approved by the FDA for two specific time frames in the obstetric world: antepartum and postpartum. In the antepartum period ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia Atrial tachycardia is a form of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) usually seen in patients with structural heart abnormalities but also seen in patie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Patent Ductus Arteriosus The ductus arteriosus is a fetal vessel that allows the oxygenated blood from the placenta to bypass the fetal lungs in utero. At birth, a newborn inh ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Patent Foramen Ovale Patent foramen ovale (PFO) occurs when a remnant of normal fetal anatomy abnormally persists into adulthood. It represents a benign finding in the new ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pediatric Hearing Loss Pediatric hearing loss is a broad category that covers a wide range of pathologies. Early detection and prompt management are essential, as the develo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perimortem Cesarean Delivery Delivery by Cesarean section dates to 800 BCE. Unfortunately, at the time, the procedure was only done on a deceased or dying pregnant patient. It was ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Perinatal Drug Abuse And Neonatal Drug Withdrawal Drug abuse and addiction have significantly increased over the last few decades; specifically, opioid abuse and dependence have increased to epidemic ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Perineal Lacerations Lacerations occur frequently in childbirth and can involve the perineum, labia, vagina and cervix. Most lacerations will heal without long term compli ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Periventricular Hemorrhage-Intraventricular Hemorrhage Periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage is a disease process that primarily affects the premature newborn infant born at less than 33 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Phenobarbital Phenobarbital is included in a class of drugs called barbiturates. This drug can be used for anti-seizure management, treatment for status epilepticus ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Phenylketonuria Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inborn error of metabolism (IEM) most often caused by missense mutations in the gene encoding phenylalanine hydroxylase (P ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Placenta Abnormalities The placenta attaches to the uterine wall and allows metabolic exchange between the fetus and the mother. The placenta has both embryonic and maternal ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Placenta Accreta Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) disorders are considered to be iatrogenic conditions. They are more common in women with previous cesarean deliveries. ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Placenta Previa Placenta previa is the complete or partial covering of the internal os of the cervix with the placenta. It is a major risk factor for postpartum hemor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Placental Abruption Placental abruption is the early separation of the placenta from the lining of the uterus before the completion of the second stage of labor. It is on ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Placental Insufficiency Placental insufficiency is a condition whereby there is a failure of placental vascular remodeling, leading to a failure of placentation resulting in ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Polycythemia Polycythemia, also called erythrocytosis, refers to an increase in red blood cell mass, noted on laboratory evaluation as increased hemoglobin and hem ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Polyhydramnios Polyhydramnios is an increase in amniotic fluid in pregnancy associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The severity of ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postdural Puncture Headache Postdural puncture headache is a potential complication of a lumbar puncture, with symptoms caused by traction on pain-sensitive structures from low c ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Posterior Urethral Valve This article contains a synopsis of the anatomy, embryology, and classification of posterior urethral valves with a brief discussion of the theories a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Postoperative Wound Infection Postoperative wound infection is a common problem. The process of wound infection is complex and involves an interplay between several biological path ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Postpartum Blues Postpartum “blues” is defined as low mood and mild depressive symptoms that are transient and self-limited and are extremely common in the perinatal p ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Postpartum Care Of The New Mother The postpartum period begins soon after the delivery of the baby and usually lasts six to eight weeks and ends when the mother’s body has nearly retur ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postpartum Depression Around one in seven women can develop postpartum depression (PPD). While women experiencing baby blues tend to recover quickly, PPD tends to last long ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Postpartum Infection Postpartum infections account for a significant, and often preventable, portion of the global healthcare burden. Puerperal sepsis is one of the top fi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postpartum Psychosis Postpartum psychosis is an acute illness of multifactorial origin and is considered a psychiatric emergency. In this activity, the common presentation ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Postpartum Thyroiditis Postpartum thyroiditis is rather a common problem during the postpartum period. Postpartum thyroiditis has found in approximately 5% of mothers in the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Preconception Counseling Preconception counseling is defined as health education and promotion. The goal of preconception care is health education and promotion, risk assessme ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pregnancy Globally, there are more than 200 million pregnancies each year. Of these pregnancies, more than 40% are unintended. Unintended does not imply unwante ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Pregnancy And Viral Hepatitis The common cause of jaundice in pregnancy is acute viral hepatitis. Hepatitis could be caused by diseases distinctively associated with pregnancy and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pregnancy Dating The most important step in the initial evaluation of any pregnant patient is establishing an accurate delivery date (due date). Accurate knowledge of ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Pregnancy Intrahepatic Cholestasis Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is the most common liver disorder in pregnancy and is associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetr ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pregnancy Medications The treatment of common medical conditions during pregnancy frequently becomes complicated due to the potential effects that medications can have on f ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pregnancy Trauma Trauma in pregnancy can ranges from mild, for example trauma associated with a single fall from standing height or hitting the abdomen on an object su ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pregnancy Ultrasound Evaluation The use of ultrasound in the setting of pregnancy is vast and has become the standard of care during pregnancy. This article describes different appl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Premature Rupture Of Membranes Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is the rupture of gestational membranes prior to the onset of labor. When membrane rupture occurs before 37 wee ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Prenatal Non-stress Test Prenatal non-stress test, popularly known as NST, is a method used to test fetal wellbeing before the onset of labor. A prenatal non-stress test funct ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Prenatal Screening Historically, pregnancy was a very tenuous part of a woman's life because of the high mortality rate associated with gestation. In the early 1900s, ma ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Preterm Labor Preterm labor is labor occurring between after 20 and before 37 weeks gestation. Preterm labors are subcategorized as early or late preterm. Early pre ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Prevention Of Opportunistic Infections In HIV HIV/ AIDS patients with a low CD4 count have decreased humoral and cellular immunity, predisposing them to opportunistic infections. These diseases ar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Prostaglandin E2 (Dinoprostone) Prostaglandin E2 is an FDA-approved medication used both for the evacuation of uterine contents and for the induction of labor. It is in the prostagla ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Protamine Protamine is a medication used to reverse and neutralize the anticoagulant effects of heparin. Protamine is the specific antagonist that neutralizes ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Psychosis Psychosis is a loose description of an amalgamation of psychological symptoms resulting in a loss of contact with reality. It is thought that although ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pyloric Stenosis Pyloric stenosis, also known as infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS), is an uncommon condition in infants characterized by abnormal thickeni ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Recurrent Pregnancy Loss The definition of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) in the United States is two or more consecutive failed clinical pregnancies documented by ultrasound ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Rh Incompatibility Rhesus (Rh) incompatibility refers to the discordant pairing of maternal and fetal Rh type. It is associated with the development of maternal Rh sensi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rho(D) Immune Globulin Rho(D) immune globulin (RhIG) is a medication used in the management and treatment of Rh-negative pregnancies and immune thrombocytopenic purpura. It ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rubella Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in children and non-immune young adults. In pregnant women, rubella infection can produce a cons ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Rubella Vaccine The rubella vaccine is a vaccine that aims to prevent rubella. Rubella, also known as German measles, is an acute, self-limiting, contagious viral inf ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sacroiliac Joint Pain The sacroiliac (SI) joint lies between the sacrum and the ilium bones of the pelvis. There are two joints, one on each side of the sacrum. The joint s ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Secondary Amenorrhea Secondary amenorrhea occurs when a patient who has passed menarche goes six months or longer without menses. While some sources only require three mon ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Septic Thrombophlebitis Suppurative (septic) thrombophlebitis describes thrombosis in a vein that occurs in the setting of inflammation and infection. This condition is chara ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Shoulder Dystocia Shoulder dystocia is a complication of vaginal delivery in which the baby's shoulder gets caught above the mother's pubic bone. It is characterized by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Smoking Tobacco smoking is a practice of burning tobacco with the smoke inhaled to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream. Around 23 percent of the world ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spasticity Spasticity, which is sometimes referred to as tightness or stiffness, is a motor disorder marked by a velocity-dependent increase in muscle tone or to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Stages of Labor Labor is a process that subdivides into three stages. The first stage starts when labor begins and ends with full cervical dilation and effacement. Th ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Strabismus Strabismus is a common childhood disorder that causes deviation or squinting of eyes. If untreated it can affect the vision permanently and can have a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Stress Incontinence Stress urinary incontinence is the sudden, involuntary loss of urine secondary to increased intraabdominal pressure that is affecting the patient’s qu ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Substance Use In Pregnancy Substance use disorder (SUD) in pregnancy is a growing concern in the United States. Patients with substance use disorders in the peripartum period fa ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the abrupt and unexplained death of an infant less than 1-year old. Despite a thorough investigation (a careful ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Surfactant Pulmonary surfactant is a lipoprotein complex that lines the alveoli and decreases the surface tension to prevent lung atelectasis. Surfactant deficie ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Tetralogy of Fallot Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital anomaly resulting in pulmonary stenosis, an interventricular defect, biventricular aortal origin, and right ventri ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Thrombocytopenia in Pregnancy Thrombocytopenia, defined as a platelet count of under 150 x 10^9/L, is the second most common hematological abnormality in pregnancy. This CME activi ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Tocolysis Tocolysis is an obstetrical procedure to prolong gestation in patients, some of which are experiencing preterm labor. This is achieved through various ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
TORCH Complex The term TORCH complex or TORCHes infection includes toxoplasmosis, others (syphilis, hepatitis B), rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex. These ar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tracheoesophageal Fistula Tracheoesophageal fistulas (TEFs) represent one of the most common congenital anomalies seen in major pediatric surgical centers. Infants with tracheo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN) is a benign, self-limited condition that can present in infants of any gestational age shortly after birth. I ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Transposition Of The Great Arteries Transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is a congenital pediatric cardiac defect arising from an embryological discordance between the aorta and pul ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Tricuspid Atresia Tricuspid atresia is a cyanotic congenital heart defect characterized by the complete agenesis of the tricuspid valve. This activity reviews the evalu ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Trisomy 13 Trisomy 13 is a chromosomal aneuploidy characterized by meiotic nondisjunction. The phenotypic holoprosencephaly and midline fusion aberrancies are re ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Twin Births Twin births account for approximately 3 percent of live births in the United States. Barring pregnancies that result from assisted reproductive techno ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Umbilical Artery Catheterization Catheterization of an umbilical artery is one of the commonly performed procedures in extremely premature neonates. This activity reviews the indicati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Umbilical Cord Prolapse Umbilical cord prolapse is a condition where the umbilical cord exists the cervical os before the fetal presenting part. Compression of the cord resul ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Umbilical Hernia An umbilical hernia is a ventral hernia located at or near the umbilicus. In general, umbilical hernias tend to have a narrow neck, which increases ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Umbilical Vein Catheterization Umbilical vein catheterization utilizes the exposed umbilical stump in a neonate as a site for emergency central venous access up to 14 days old. Umbi ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Universal Precautions Universal precautions were introduced by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1985, mostly in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection In Pregnancy Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered in pregnant women. Pyelonephritis is the most common serious medical condition seen in preg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Uterine Atony Uterine atony is a principal cause of postpartum hemorrhage, an obstetric emergency. Globally, it is one of the top 5 causes of maternal mortality. Ut ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Uterine Inversion Uterine inversion is one of the most serious complications of childbirth. It refers to the collapse of the fundus into the uterine cavity. Although it ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Uterine Leiomyomata Uterine leiomyomata or fibroids are an extremely common benign neoplasm in women of reproductive age. Although they are benign, they can have a signif ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Uterine Rupture A uterine rupture is a complete division of all three layers of the uterus. Most uterine ruptures occur when the uterus is gravid in the setting of a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaccine (Vaccination) Immunization is a successful use of immunotherapy to treat many infectious diseases by stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies or ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vacuum Extraction Operative vaginal delivery is used to expedite vaginal delivery for either maternal or fetal indication. Options for operative delivery include both v ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vaginal Atrophy Vaginal atrophy is thinning of the vaginal epithelium and decreased cervical secretions most closely related to changes in estrogen levels. It is a co ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery Vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) describes a vaginal delivery in a women who has given birth via cesarean section in a former pregnancy. Pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaginal Delivery Vaginal delivery is safest for the fetus and for the mother when the newborn is full-term at the gestational age of 37 to 42 weeks. Vaginal delivery i ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Variable Decelerations Electronic fetal monitoring is widely utilized intrapartum to assess fetal status, to prevent adverse neonatal outcomes such as fetal asphyxia or cere ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Varicella Zoster Chickenpox or varicella is a contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus is responsible for chickenpox (usually primary i ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Vasodilators Vasodilators are useful in the management of hypertension, angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and more. This activity reviews the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ventricular Septal Defect Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac anomaly in children and the second most common congenital abnormality in adul ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Vitamin A Toxicity Vitamin A toxicity can due to either topical or oral vitamin A administration. Oral vitamin A toxicity can be acute, due to the ingestion of a large a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vitamin K Vitamin K is a medication used in the management and treatment of bleeding due to the coagulation disorder caused by warfarin and vitamin K deficiency ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vitamin K Deficiency Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds involved in coagulation, bone development, and cardiovascular health. Vitamin K deficiency can co ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Zika Virus Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family and the genus Flavivirus. In the majority of people, infection by the Zika virus is mild and s ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info

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