Nurse-Emergency Certification CE

Stay on top of your practice by subscribing to the StatPearls Unlimited CE program. Gain access to 1,067 PubMed indexed activities in Nurse-Emergency Certification. Your subscription also gives you unlimited access to all 6,056 PubMed indexed CE activities in our library.

About StatPearls CE

All of our activities are approved by ANCC (LVN, RN, and CNS) and all activity is reported to CE Broker and all states as required. StatPearls continuing education activities are linked to practice questions which are based on the Board of Certification for Emergency Nursing® content outlines. 1,203 authors and 24 editors have contributed to the development of the Nurse-Emergency Certification content, which is continuously refined and updated to improve your learning experience.

Nurse-Emergency Certification Activities

Title Description Hours Questions
3,4-Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine This activity reviews the class 1 drug 3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine, also known as MDMA, Ecstacy or Molly. The drug is known to promote a sens ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Abciximab Abciximab is widely used in interventional cardiology for the treatment of unstable angina and as an adjunct therapy following percutaneous coronary i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm An abdominal aortic aneurysm is a life-threatening condition that requires monitoring or treatment depending upon the size of the aneurysm and/or symp ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture represents a catastrophic emergency and if not recognized and appropriately treated, carries significant morbidity a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Abdominal Gunshot Wounds An abdominal gunshot wound is a multisystemic, traumatic injury that commonly causes high morbidity and mortality. Practitioners should recognize that ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Abdominal Thrust Maneuver The abdominal thrust maneuver, also known as the Heimlich maneuver, is used to treat upper airway obstructions caused by foreign bodies. This maneuver ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Abnormal Respirations There are multiple types of normal and abnormal respiration. They include apnea, eupnea, orthopnea, dyspnea, hyperpnea, hyperventilation, hypoventilat ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Abortion Complications Roughly one million abortions are performed each year in the United States alone. The total abortion-related complication rate is estimated to be abou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Abrasion Abrasion is the superficial denudation of the epithelium due to scraping, impact or pressure. While the management of abrasions is relatively simple, ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Abuse and Neglect Abuse and neglect refer to the actions or inactions of an individual's caregiver or parent inflicting physical, sexual, or emotional harm on the indiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acetabular Fractures Acetabular fractures primarily occur in young people who are involved in high-velocity trauma. Since the advent of mandatory seatbelt use, there has ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acetaminophen Toxicity Acetaminophen toxicity is the second most common cause of liver transplantation worldwide and the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Toxicity Nerve agents are some of the most deadly and easily employed chemical warfare agents. Given the global threat of terrorism, it is prudent to have a ba ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Achilles Tendon Rupture Achilles tendon rupture is the most common tendon rupture in the lower extremity. The injury most commonly occurs in adults in their third to fifth d ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acromioclavicular Joint Injury Acromioclavicular joint injuries account for more than forty percent of all shoulder injuries. Mild injuries are not associated with any significant ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Activated Charcoal An oral suspension of activated charcoal should be considered in poisonings when gastrointestinal decontamination of an ingested toxin is indicated. A ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Abdomen An acute abdomen is a condition that demands urgent attention and treatment. The acute abdomen may be caused by an infection, inflammation, vascular o ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Acute and Chronic Thermal Burn Evaluation and Management Thermal burns are a significant cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality. They can lead to debilitating, lifelong injuries and have serious psycholo ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Anemia Acute anemia occurs when there is an abrupt drop in red blood cells, usually due to acute hemorrhage or hemolysis. This activity reviews the presentat ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Acute Ankle Sprain Acute ankle sprains are commonly seen in both primary care practices and emergency departments and can result in significant short-term morbidity, rec ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade occurs when excessive fluid accumulates in the pericardium, in turn compressing the heart and restricting the filling of the cardia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Cholecystitis Acute cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder that occurs due to occlusion of the cystic duct or impaired emptying of the gallbladder. Often ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Acute Closed Angle Glaucoma Acute angle-closure glaucoma is an ocular emergency that results from a rapid increase in intraocular pressure due to outflow obstruction of aqueous h ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Compartment Syndrome Acute compartment syndrome is a condition in which there is increased pressure within a closed osteofascial compartment, resulting in impaired local c ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Acute Coronary Syndrome Acute coronary syndrome refers to a group of diseases in which blood flow to the heart is decreases. Some examples include ST-elevation myocardial inf ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Acute Cystitis Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infection in women, and result in roughly eight million emergency department or clinic visits a ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Eclampsia Eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder that manifests as new-onset generalized tonic colonic seizures. Typically eclampsia occurs after gestational ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Acute Headache Headache is a nearly universal complaint. Most headaches are benign, and the majority of patients can be safely treated and discharged with minimal wo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Acute Hepatitis Acute hepatitis is a term used to describe a wide variety of conditions characterized by acute inflammation of the hepatic parenchyma or injury to hep ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Acute Kidney Injury Acute kidney injury, previously known as acute renal failure, denotes a sudden and often reversible reduction in the kidney function, as measured by ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Acute Myocardial Infarction Acute myocardial infarctions are one of the leading causes of death in the developed world, with prevalence approaching three million people worldwide ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Acute On Chronic Liver Failure Acute on chronic liver failure is a clinical syndrome of sudden hepatic decompensation observed in patients with pre-existing chronic liver disease. A ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of gastrointestinal-related hospitalization in the United States, and its frequency continues to rise in the ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Acute Pneumothorax Evaluation and Treatment A pneumothorax is an accumulation of gas in the pleural space (the space between the visceral and parietal pleura of the chest cavity), which can imp ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Postpartum Hemorrhage Obstetric hemorrhage is the most common and dangerous complication of childbirth. Traditionally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) has been defined as great ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Pulmonary Embolism Acute pulmonary embolism is a common clinical condition with a variable clinical presentation, making its diagnosis challenging. This activity outline ... Read the Article 2.25 29 Activity Info
Acute Pyelonephritis Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tra ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute Renal Colic Acute renal colic is severe pain resulting from the presence of a stone in the urinary system. The stone can be present anywhere along the path betwee ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition characterized by poor oxygenation and non-compliant or "stiff" lungs. The d ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Acute Scrotum Pain Acute scrotum pain is an umbrella term that includes a wide variety of unique disease processes. Patients may describe the rapid onset of symptoms wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Sinusitis Rhinosinusitis is among the most common conditions encountered in the primary care clinic. It can result from viral, bacterial, or fungal infections, ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction An acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction occurs due to occlusion of one or more coronary arteries, causing transmural myocardial ischemia which in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Acute Stroke Acute strokes, also known as cerebrovascular accidents, are broadly classified as either ischemic or hemorrhagic. Acute strokes result in loss of bloo ... Read the Article 2 28 Activity Info
Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are true emergencies that demand prompt treatment. Subarachnoid hemorrhages result from a medical aneurysmal rupture or traum ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Addison Disease Addison disease is a relatively rare condition, which can have devastating consequences if not promptly recognized and appropriately treated. Often th ... Read the Article 1.75 24 Activity Info
Addisonian Crisis An Addisonian crisis, or adrenal crisis, is a potentially life-threatening condition that results from an acute insufficiency of adrenal hormones (glu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Adenosine Adenosine has uses as both a diagnostic or therapeutic agent. As a diagnostic agent, adenosine can be utilized in myocardial perfusion stress imaging ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Adhesiolysis Intra-abdominal adhesions are commonly formed after surgery, but can also be congenital. They are the most common cause of bowel obstruction. The majo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Adrenal Crisis Adrenal crisis is an acute life-threatening condition precipitated by an internal or external process in the setting of known or unknown adrenal insuf ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Adult Dehydration Dehydration is a common condition that affects patients of all ages. Dehydration may complicate other medical problems and may cause significant illne ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characterized by uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentration. It is a life- ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Adverse Events Adverse events (AE) occur frequently in our medical system and at least one in ten patients are affected. An AE is a harmful and negative outcome that ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Aerospace Decompression Illness Decompression sickness in aviation is most commonly seen following flights in nonpressurized aircraft, in flights with cabin pressure fluctuations, or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
African Trypanosomiasis African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness is transmitted via the bite of the tsetse fly and is predominantly seen in subsaharan Africa. ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Agitation Agitation is a nonspecific constellation of relatively unrelated behaviors that can be seen in various clinical situations, usually presenting with a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Airway Assessment A thorough, but brief, airway assessment is essential for the proper management of patients requiring advanced airway management. Indications for the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Airway Foreign Bodies Foreign body aspiration is the fourth leading cause of death in preschool and younger age children and accounts for a significant number of emergency ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Airway Management Interprofessional team members must be familiar with the important anatomical, physiological, and pathological features related to the airway and have ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Airway Monitoring Airway monitoring involves assessing both a patient’s ventilatory function and their ability to perform adequate gas exchange. Determining a patient’s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Airway Obstruction Airway obstruction secondary to a foreign body is often easily treated, as the foreign body can be removed, and the patency of the airway restored. Ho ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Albuterol Albuterol is used for the treatment and prevention of bronchospasm (acute or severe) in patients with reversible obstructive airway disease. It also h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Alcohol Related Psychosis Psychosis associated with alcohol can occur with acute intoxication, alcohol withdrawal, and chronic alcoholism. Alcohol-related psychosis is also kno ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Alcohol Sanitizer Compliance with hand hygiene recommendations is critical to reducing colonization and infection, specifically among healthcare workers (HCW). This wil ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Alcohol Use Disorder Alcohol use disorder is very common in the United States. The cause of alcohol use disorder is not well understood, however, several factors are thou ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Alcohol Withdrawal Alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually appear when an individual discontinues or reduces alcohol intake after a period of prolonged consumption. In most ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Alcoholic Hepatitis Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe syndrome related to alcoholic liver disease. It is characterized by rapid onset of jaundice, malaise, tender hepatomeg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alcoholic Ketoacidosis Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a condition seen commonly in patients with alcohol use disorder or after a bout of heavy drinking. It is a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alcoholic Liver Disease The first stage of alcoholic liver disease is hepatic steatosis, which involves the accumulation of small fat droplets under liver cells approaching t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Alkali Toxicity Alkali toxicity, though rare, can lead to serious medical problems. Adult caustic ingestions are usually intentional, involving more substantial amou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Allergic And Environmental Induced Asthma Asthma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Numerous studies have shown that early institution of inhaled corticosteroids ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Allergy Allergy is described as an exaggerated response from the body’s immune system to otherwise inert substances present in the environment. The usual symp ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Alpha 1 Receptor Agonists Alpha-1 agonists are a class of medications used in the management of many disorders, including vasodilatory shock, hypotension, hypoperfusion, septic ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Blockers Alpha-blockers are medications used in the management and treatment of essential hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and pheochromocytom ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alpha Receptor Agonist Toxicity Alpha-adrenergic agonist toxicity is due to a broad group of pharmaceutical agents known as alpha agonists, which can be further broken down into cent ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Alprazolam Alprazolam, known by various trade names, is the most commonly prescribed psychotropic medication in the United States. Alprazolam is frequently presc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Alteplase Alteplase is a thrombolytic agent that is manufactured by recombinant DNA technology. It is FDA approved for use in acute ischemic stroke, pulmonary e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Altitude Induced Pulmonary Hypertension This activity describes the development of pulmonary hypertension due to high altitude. We describe a phenomenon known as HAPH (high altitude pulmonar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Amatoxin Mushroom Toxicity Amatoxin containing mushrooms are a rare but significant cause of acute fulminant liver failure. However, not all Amanita species have this toxin, and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Amebic Colitis Amebic colitis results from invasive infection of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica). Losch first reported disease due to E. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Aminocaproic Acid Aminocaproic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, is a medication used to manage and treat acute bleeding disorders. This activity outlines the indication ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ammonia Toxicity Ammonia toxicity occurs when susceptible individuals suffer exposure to external sources of ammonia via ingestion, inhalation, direct contact with ski ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Amphetamine Related Psychiatric Disorders Amphetamines belong to a class of compounds called phenethylamines which induce catecholaminergic effects in the CNS and peripheral circulation. Recre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Amphetamine Toxicity Amphetamine abuse is widespread, and overdose is associated with significant and negative impacts on the cardiovascular and neurological systems. Pati ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Ampicillin/Sulbactam Ampicillin/sulbactam combination shows synergy to cover strains of bacteria resistant to ampicillin, thus providing broader coverage. This combo adds ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaerobic Infections Anaerobic bacteria are part of the normal flora of human skin and mucosal membranes. The site of anaerobic infection is commonly the site of normal co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is an acute, life-threatening hypersensitivity disorder, defined as a generalized, rapidly-evolving, multi-systemic allergic reaction. Ana ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Anasarca Anasarca is a serious condition in which there is a generalized accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space. This accumulation of fluid occurs whe ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Anemia Of Chronic Renal Disease Anemia of chronic renal disease, also known as anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a form of normocytic, normochromic, hypoproliferative anemia ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Angina Angina is the most common symptom of ischemic heart disease, which is the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Approximately 9 million pa ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Angiodysplasia Angiodysplasia is an abnormal, tortuous, dilated small blood vessel in the mucosal and submucosal layers of the GI tract. It is the most common vascul ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Angioedema Angioedema is non-pitting edema that involves subcutaneous and/or submucosal layers of tissue that affects the face, lips, neck, and extremities, oral ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Animal Bites Animal bites account for approximately one percent of all emergency visits in the U.S. yearly and can range from superficial injuries to disfiguring a ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ankle Fractures Acute ankle fractures can affect many different structures. Classification systems can help delineate the mechanism of injury and the structures damag ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Ankle Splinting Splinting is primarily used to immobilize a joint to allow for pain control, injury stabilization, and ultimately tissue healing. In the acute setting ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Anoxia Hypoxia is a state in which oxygen is not available in sufficient amounts at tissue level to maintain adequate homeostasis; this can result from inade ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anoxic Encephalopathy Anoxic encephalopathy, or hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, is a process that begins with the cessation of cerebral blood flow to brain tissue, which mos ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke Anterior cerebral artery stokes occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involve the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Anterior Cord Syndrome Anterior cord syndrome is an incomplete cord syndrome that predominantly affects the anterior 2/3 of the spinal cord, characteristically resulting in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Anterior Epistaxis Nasal Pack Among the nasal emergencies, epistaxis is one of the most common chief complaints in patients presenting to the emergency department. Typically, anter ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Anterior Glenohumeral Joint Dislocation Anterior glenohumeral joint dislocations are the most commonly encountered joint dislocations. They can be the result of low or high energy trauma. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anterior Myocardial Infarction Anterior myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common heart disease associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Advancement in diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anthrax Anthrax is an infectious disease caused by an encapsulated, spore-forming, gram-variable bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This commonly presents wi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Anticholinergic Toxicity Anticholinergic toxicity is commonly seen in the emergency department but is rarely fatal. According to the 2015 annual American Association of Poison ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Anticoagulation This activity reviews the general principles in anticoagulation therapy, with highlights on the different types, indications, and perioperative impact ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Antihistamine Toxicity In 1943, as the planet was engulfed in WWII and the United States was officially announcing the end of The Great Depression, the most common modern an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Aortic Dissection While uncommon, acute aortic dissection is an infrequent but catastrophic disorder. Patients present with tearing chest pain that radiates to the back ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Aortic Rupture Aortic rupture can occur from multiple causes, which include blunt aortic injury resulting from rapid deceleration, penetrating trauma, and spontaneou ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Aortic Stenosis Aortic stenosis is a common valvular disorder, especially in the elderly population, causing left ventricular outflow obstruction. Etiologies include ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Aortic Trauma Aortic injury is one of the most time-sensitive, life-threatening conditions. It is second only to head injury as a global leading cause of death. Mos ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Aortocaval Compression Syndrome Aortocaval compression syndrome is also known as a supine hypotensive syndrome. It typically occurs in pregnant females, usually after 20 weeks of ges ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Appendicitis Appendicitis is the inflammation of the vermiform appendix. It typically presents acutely, within 24 hours of onset, but can also present as a more ch ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Appendicitis in Pregnancy Appendicitis during pregnancy is a condition in which the appendix becomes inflamed and infected. Its treatment consists of emergent surgery for the r ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Appendix Testes Torsion Torsion of testicular appendages is considered one of, if not the most common cause of acute scrotal pain in the prepubertal children and should be in ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Appropriate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Ordering Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a diagnostic imaging technique useful for the detailed characterization of the soft tissues without ionizing radia ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Arrhythmias Arrhythmia entails a broad spectrum of disorders of heart rate and rhythm abnormalities. Arrhythmia is broadly categorized into bradyarrhythmias and t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Arsenic Toxicity Arsenic poisoning is a global health issue affecting millions of people worldwide through environmental and occupational exposure, as well as intentio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Artery Cannulation Arterial cannulation is a procedure frequently performed in acute and critical care settings. It serves as an invasive means to more accurately measur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ascites Ascites is the pathologic accumulation of fluid within the peritoneal cavity. It is the most common complication of cirrhosis and occurs in about 50% ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Aspiration Pneumonia The infectious pulmonary process that occurs after abnormal entry of fluids into the lower respiratory tract is termed aspiration pneumonia. The aspir ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Aspiration Risk Aspiration is common, even in healthy patients. Aspiration can have significant morbidity and mortality in certain circumstances. It is categorized ba ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Asthma Asthma is a chronic disease of the air passages characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways. Symptoms of asthma include shortness of br ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Asthma In Pregnancy Bronchial asthma (BA) is considered the most common chronic disease in pregnancy, complicating 4% to 8% of pregnancies. Bronchial asthma exacerbation ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Asystole Asystole, colloquially referred to as flatline, represents the cessation of electrical and mechanical activity of the heart. Asystole typically occurs ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Atenolol Atenolol is a second-generation beta-1-selective adrenergic antagonist indicated in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and acute myocardi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Atopy Atopy is a predisposition to an immune response against diverse antigens and allergens leading to CD4+ Th2 differentiation and overproduction of immun ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation is the most common type of cardiac arrhythmia. It is the leading cardiac cause of stroke. Risk factors for atrial fibrillation inc ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Atrial Flutter Atrial flutter, a supraventricular arrhythmia, is one of the most common rhythm disturbances of the heart. It is characterized by a fast atrial rate w ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Atrioventricular Block Atrioventricular (AV) conduction is evaluated by assessing the relationship between the P waves and QRS complexes. Normally, there is a P wave that pr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Atropine Atropine or atropine sulfate carries FDA indications for anti-sialagogue/anti-vagal effect, organophosphate/muscarinic poisoning, and bradycardia. Atr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Autonomic Dysreflexia Autonomic dysreflexia is a condition that emerges after a spinal cord injury, usually when the injury has occurred above the T6 level. The higher the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Autotransfusion Autotransfusion has not always been a safe procedure. The first known documented procedure of autotransfusion was performed in 1818 by Dr. James Blund ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Avian Influenza Avian influenza is a deadly disease caused by infection from an influenza virus native to birds. While often not fatal in birds, it can carry a high m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Avulsed Tooth Dentoalveolar trauma are injuries caused by an external impact on the teeth, palate, mandible, maxilla, and gums. These injuries can result in anythin ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Babinski Reflex The Babinski reflex was described by the neurologist Joseph Babinski in 1899. Since that time, it has been incorporated into the standard neurological ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bacitracin Topical Bacitracin is a topical antibiotic ointment widely used by both medical professionals and the general public to treat minor skin injuries including cu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis, also informally known as "pink eye," makes up the majority of ophthalmologic disorders seen at primary care clinics. Patients present ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis is a diarrheal disease characterized by an increase in bowel movement frequency with or without fever, vomiting, and abdominal pain. T ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Bacterial Meningitis Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the meninges that results in inflammation. It is a serious and life-threatening condition that requires prompt ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Bacterial Pharyngitis Pharyngitis, more commonly described as sore throat, represents inflammation or irritation of the posterior oropharynx. While the majority of cases ar ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Bacterial Pneumonia The word "pneumonia" originates from the ancient Greek word "pneumon," which means "lung," so the word "pneumonia" becomes "lung disease." Medically i ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Bacterial Sepsis Bacterial sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its tissues and organs. Sepsis is caused ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Bacterial Vaginosis Bacterial vaginosis is a condition caused by an overgrowth of normal vaginal flora. Most commonly, this presents clinically with increased vaginal dis ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Bag Mask Ventilation Bag valve mask ventilation is a difficult skill to master. This activity explains how to improve this skill. This activity describes the technique of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barbiturate Toxicity Barbiturates are a class of sedative-hypnotic drugs. They are commonly used as antiepileptics (phenobarbital) and for the induction of general anesthe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Barotrauma And Mechanical Ventilation Pulmonary barotrauma is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients on mechanical ventilation. It is important to recognize and quickly ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Bartholin Gland Cyst A Bartholin gland cyst is usually a unilateral, asymptomatic blockage of the Bartholin gland that may be incidentally discovered during a pelvic exam ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Basilar Skull Fractures Basilar skull fractures, usually caused by substantial blunt force trauma, involve at least one of the bones that compose the base of the skull. Basil ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Battle Sign Battle Sign is bruising over the mastoid process that is typically the result of head trauma. Battle sign typically requires significant head trauma a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Bell Palsy Bell palsy is the most common peripheral paralysis of the seventh cranial nerve with an onset that is rapid and unilateral. This is an idiopathic cond ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Benzathine Penicillin Benzathine penicillin is formulated from two penicillin G molecules reacting with diphenylethylene diamine. It is active against gram-positive bacteri ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Benzodiazepine Toxicity Since the 1960s, with the development of chlordiazepoxide and shortly thereafter diazepam, benzodiazepines quickly became popular medications secondar ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Benzodiazepines Benzodiazepines are especially important in the cessation of seizure activity, as 1% to 2% of emergency department visits annually in the United State ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Berry Aneurysm Berry (saccular) aneurysms are the most common type of intracranial aneurysm, representing 90% of cerebral aneurysms. Generally speaking, there is a b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Beta 2 Agonists Beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonists are a class of medications used in the frontline management and treatment of bronchial asthma and COPD. This activ ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Beta Blockers Beta-blockers, as a class of drugs, are primarily used to treat cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Beta-blockers are indicated and have FDA ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Beta-Blocker Toxicity Beta-blockers antagonize beta-adrenergic receptors and are used mainly in the treatment of hypertension, heart failure, tachydysrhythmias, and angina ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bethanechol Bethanechol is FDA approved for the treatment of postoperative urinary retention, postpartum urinary retention, and overflow incontinence caused by ne ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Biceps Tendon Rupture The biceps tendon consists of 2 heads originating from the coracoid process (short head) and supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula (long head). The ten ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Biliary Colic Biliary colic is defined as pain in the abdomen, due to obstruction usually by stones in the cystic duct or common bile duct of the biliary tree. It t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Biliary Obstruction Biliary obstruction refers to the impairment of bile flow from the liver to the small intestine due to blockage of the biliary duct system. Bile obstr ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Biologic, Chemical, and Radiation Terrorism Review Terrorism is the intentional use of indiscriminate violence to create fear and terror as a means to achieve an ideological, financial, religious, or p ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Black Widow Spider Toxicity The black widow spider species, also known by its biological nomenclature as the Latrodectus species is one of more than 40,000 different species of s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bladder Catheterization Bladder catheterization is a commonly performed procedure in all hospitals. It can be performed by external, urethral, and suprapubic techniques. It i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Bladder Rupture Bladder rupture is most commonly due to abdominal and/or pelvic trauma but may be spontaneous or iatrogenic in association with surgical or endoscopic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bladder Stones Bladder stones are solid calculi that are primarily found in the urinary bladder. While often calcified, they may also be composed of non-calcific mat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bladder Trauma Bladder injury is broadly divided into extraperitoneal and intraperitoneal injuries. Extraperitoneal bladder injuries generally occur with pelvic frac ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Blast Injuries Explosions are unique in their ability to inflict acute injuries on many people at the same time, resulting in high levels of mortality and morbidity. ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Bleach Toxicity Bleach refers to a large class of compounds used to whiten or color-lighten materials. They are frequently used for cleaning and disinfection; bleache ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Blister Agents Sulfur mustard (dichlorethylsulphide) and nitrogen mustard are blistering agents, or vesicants, that have been used in chemical warfare since before t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Blood Product Safety Transfusion of blood products is one of the most commonly performed clinical procedures in healthcare today. Blood product safety has been an improvin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Blood Transfusion Blood transfusions are a relatively common medical procedure and while typically safe, there are multiple complications that practitioners need to be ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Blunt Abdominal Trauma Abdominal trauma caused by blunt force is a common presentation in the emergency room seen in adults and children. The chief cause of blunt abdominal ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Blunt Force Trauma Trauma is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients under 35-years of age and the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. The majority ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Blunt Head Trauma Traumatic Brain Injury is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, with an annual occurrence of more than 1.5 million. Fal ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Body Fluid Exposures Health care workers have serious concerns about exposures to bodily fluids. Accidental exposures to bodily fluids present a wide variety of issues to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Boerhaave Syndrome Boerhaave syndrome is also known as spontaneous esophageal rupture or effort rupture of the esophagus. Although vomiting is thought to be the most com ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Bone Marrow Edema Syndrome Bone marrow edema syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion that is characterized by pain and increased interstitial fluid within bone marrow without an ob ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bone Metastasis The skeleton is the third most common site of metastatic disease after lung and liver. Eighty percent of bone metastases originate from prostate, brea ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Botulism Antitoxin Botulinum antitoxin, also known as botulism antitoxin, is comprised of antibodies or antibody antigen-binding fragments that block the neurotoxin prod ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bowel Ischemia Bowel ischemia can classify as small intestine ischemia, which is commonly known as mesenteric ischemia and large intestine ischemia, which generally ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Bowel Obstruction A bowel obstruction can either be a mechanical or functional obstruction of the small or large intestines. Obstruction frequently causes abdominal pai ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Bowel Perforation Bowel perforation results from insult or injury to the mucosa of the bowel wall caused due to a violation of the closed system. Bowel perforation can ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Brain Death Brain death is both a legal and clinical term. The term has been present in medical literature and texts for many years as part of the National Confer ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Brain Death Criteria Brain death accounts for about 2% of deaths in the United States and caused most likely by traumatic brain injury. Criteria of Brain death determinati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Brain Herniation Brain herniation, also called brain code, requires early diagnosis and prompt management in order to prevent irreversible pathological cascades that e ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Brain Trauma Brain trauma or traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from a blow, bump, jolt, or penetrating injury to the head that disrupts the normal function of t ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Brief Resolved Unexplained Event In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended replacing the term apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) with brief resolved unexplained even ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection in young individuals. The viral infection involves the lower respiratory tract and can present with signs of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Brown Recluse Spider Toxicity In the United States, Loxosceles reclusa or brown recluse spiders are found mostly in the south, west, and midwest areas. They are usually in dark are ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Burn Evaluation And Management Burns are injuries of the skin involving the two layers: the thin, outer epidermis and the thicker, deeper dermis. 86% of burns are caused by thermal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Burn Fluid Management In the United States, approximately 500,000 people seek care for burn injuries each year. For civilians, these injuries are typically sustained in hou ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Burn Resuscitation And Management Severe burns cause not only significant injury at the local burn site but also a systemic response throughout the body. Inflammatory and vasoactive m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Bursitis Bursitis is a swelling or inflammation of a bursa, which is a synovium-lined, sac-like structure found throughout the body near bony prominences and b ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Buspirone Buspirone is an anxiolytic. Originally the drug was being developed as an antipsychotic but found not to be effective for psychosis, but it had anxio ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
C1 Esterase Inhibitor Deficiency C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency, also known as hereditary angioedema, results in the unchecked production of the vasodilator bradykinin. This increas ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
C1 Fractures The craniocervical junction is comprised of C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis). The occipito-atlantal and atlantoaxial articulations provide 50% of the flexion ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Caffeine Caffeine is a naturally occurring, central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class and is the most widely taken psychoactive stimul ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Caffeine Toxicity Caffeine is a stimulant that has been utilized globally for centuries secondary to its ability to improve mental alertness. As many as 85% of American ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Calcium Gluconate Calcium gluconate is a medication used in the management of hypocalcemia, cardiac arrest and cardiotoxicity due to hyperkalemia or hypermagnesemia. It ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cannabidiol (CBD) CBD is a medication used in the management and treatment of the seizure disorders Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and Dravet syndrome. This activity describes ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cannabinoid Toxicity Cannabinoids are a collective group of compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors. They include plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Capnography And Pulse Oximetry Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive measure of oxygen saturation. Capnography is a method of monitoring the concentration or partial pressure of carbon di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbamate Toxicity Carbamates are a class of insecticides structurally and mechanistically similar to organophosphate (OP) insecticides. Carbamates are N-methyl Carbamat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Carbamazepine is used in the management and treatment for epilepsy, trigeminal neuralgia, and acute manic and mixed episodes in bipolar I disorder. In ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Carbamazepine Toxicity Carbamazepine is a commonly prescribed agent for focal epilepsy and other nonepileptic conditions such as neuropathic pain, schizophrenia, and bipolar ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Embolism Laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing popularity in clinical practice. As part of laparoscopic surgeries, gas insufflation is usually adopted to ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Carbon Dioxide Narcosis Carbon dioxide (CO2) narcosis is a condition that develops when excessive CO2 is present in the bloodstream, leading to a depressed level of conscious ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Carbon Monoxide Toxicity Carbon monoxide toxicity occurs after breathing in excessive levels of carbon monoxide. This is a tasteless, odorless, and colorless gas and victims a ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Carboxyhemoglobin Toxicity Carbon monoxide is a tasteless, odorless, colorless, and non-irritating gas formed with the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons (fossil fuels). It i ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Carbuncle A carbuncle is an infection of the hair follicle(s) that extends into the surrounding skin and deep underlying subcutaneous tissue. They typically pre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Arrest As defined by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology, "(sudden) cardiac arrest is the sudden cessation of cardiac activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cardiac Chromaffin Cell Pheochromocytoma Cardiac pheochromocytoma is a rare type of primary cardiac tumor. It is a catecholamine-secreting tumor that can cause serious morbidity and mortality ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cardiac Manifestations Of Coronavirus (COVID-19) Coronaviruses are a large family of single positive-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses that can infect many animal species and humans. Human coronaviruse ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiac Syncope Syncope, a sudden, transient loss of consciousness and postural tone, is a phenomenon estimated to affect 30% to 40% of the population, and those numb ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardiac Tamponade Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that takes place when abnormal amounts of fluid accumulate in the pericardial sac compressing the heart and l ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cardiac Trauma Cardiac trauma can be categorized as either blunt or penetrating according to the mechanism of injury. Outcomes range from spontaneously-resolving arr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cardioembolic Stroke An estimated 26 million people suffer a stroke each year, making it a significant source of mortality and long-term disability. Up to two-thirds of st ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema refers to the accumulation of excessive fluid in the alveolar walls and alveolar spaces of the lungs. It can be a life-threatening con ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cardiogenic Shock Cardiogenic shock is a primary cardiac disorder characterized by a low cardiac output state of circulatory failure that results in end-organ hypoperfu ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Adults Cardiopulmonary arrest is the cessation of adequate heart function and respiration and results in death without reversal. Often this condition is foun ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Arrest In Children Unlike in adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in rare in children and less likely to be a primary cardiac event. Early onset of effective, high-quality CPR ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) comprises a group of interventions performed to provide oxygenation and circulation to the body during cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Cardiorenal Syndrome The cardiorenal syndrome includes multiple subtypes based on underlying pathology and chronicity. Each subtype involves unique pathophysiology, and th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Care Of A Central Line Central venous catheters (CVC) are frequently used in critical care units, hemodialysis units, and oncology units for the administration of intravenou ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Care Of A Chest Tube There are variable practice patterns used to manage chest tubes. Care and management of the chest tube are subject to the direction of the responsible ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Carotid Artery Dissection Carotid artery dissection is a condition whereby the layers of the carotid artery are spontaneously separated. This potentially compromises blood flow ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cataplexy Cataplexy, a physical feature of narcolepsy, is characterized by transient episodes of voluntary muscle weakness precipitated by intense emotion. Subj ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Catheter Directed Thrombolysis Of Pulmonary Embolism Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most common cause of cardiovascular death in the United States of America. It is one of the most common causes of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cauda Equina And Conus Medullaris Syndromes Cauda equina and conus medullaris syndromes have overlap in anatomy and clinical presentation. The cauda equina is a group of nerves and nerve roots s ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Caustic Ingestions Caustic ingestion is the term given to describe the ingestion of an extremely toxic substance such as lye. Caustic ingestions are serious medical emer ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Cellulitis Cellulitis is a common bacterial skin infection, with over 14 million cases occurring in the United States annually. This activity educates the learne ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Centipede Envenomation Centipede bites are uncommon but can be clinically significant in regards to patient discomfort, morbidity, and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and treat ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infections A central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) is defined as a laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection not related to an infection at ano ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Line Placement A central line is a large-bore central venous catheter that is typically placed using a sterile technique unless a patient is unstable, in which case ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Central Pontine Myelinolysis Central pontine myelinolysis is a rare neurologic condition most frequently caused by the rapid correction of hyponatremia. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Central Venous Access of The Subclavian Vein In the United States, more than 5 million central venous catheters are inserted every year in both hospitalized and surgical patients. Once an indicat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Central Venous Catheter Central venous catheter insertion is a common and often, necessary procedure for the care of critically ill patients. Central venous access may be att ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Central Vertigo Central vertigo is a clinical condition in which an individual experiences the sensation of motion despite remaining still. It results from a dysfunct ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cerebellar Hematoma Cerebellar hemorrhage or hematoma is a type of intracranial hemorrhage in which the bleeding is located in the posterior fossa or cerebellum. This con ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cerebral Edema The most basic definition of cerebral edema is swelling of the brain. It is a relatively common phenomenon with numerous etiologies. Cerebral edema c ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cerebrospinal Fluid Leak Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear protein- and glucose-rich liquid in the subarachnoid space of the central nervous system. It is found in the vent ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cerebrovascular Disease A stroke, or cerebrovascular accident, is an emergency medical condition characterized by an acute compromise of the cerebral perfusion or vasculature ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Cervical Disc Injuries The spinal cord is a nervous tissue bundle from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region, and the vertebral column protects it. The ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cervical Dislocation Cervical dislocations have classically been associated with traumatic spinal cord injuries. These injuries can cause spinal cord compression and drama ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cervical Injury Cervical spine injuries, although uncommon, can result in significant and long-term disability. The cervical spine encompasses seven vertebrae and ser ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cervical Sprain The term "whiplash" injury was first coined by Harold Crowe in 1928 to define acceleration-deceleration injuries occurring to the cervical spine or ne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cesarean Section This activity reviews the cesarean section, and it highlights ways in which an interprofessional care team can impact the health of women and their ne ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Chance Fractures A Chance fracture is an unstable spine fracture that typically occurs at the thoracolumbar junction. It is a horizontal fracture extending from poster ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Change In Mental Status Altered mental status is a common presentation. It is important to recognize the early signs of altered mental status, identify the underlying cause, ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Charcot Bouchard Aneurysm The rupture of Charcot Bouchard aneurysms causes intracerebral bleeds in the deep structures of the brain, especially in patients predisposed to this ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chemical Burns Healthcare professionals should be knowledgeable about chemical burns from exposure to acids (pH less than 7), alkalis (pH greater than 7), and irrita ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chemical Decontamination Contending with a mass casualty incident involving a chemical exposure seems daunting; fortunately, these are rare events. It is quite possible that ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Chest Pain Chest pain is a common complaint and encompasses a broad differential diagnosis that includes several life-threatening causes. A workup must focus on ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chest Tube A chest tube, also known as a thoracostomy tube, is a flexible tube that can be inserted through the chest wall and into the pleural space. This activ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cheyne Stokes Respirations Cheyne-Stokes respiration is a type of breathing disorder characterized by cyclical episodes of apnea and hyperventilation. Although described in the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Child Abuse and Neglect The World Health Organization (WHO) defines child maltreatment as “all forms of physical and emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and explo ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Child Intussusception Intussusception is a condition in which part of the intestine folds into the section next to it. Intussusception usually involves the small bowel and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Child Sexual Abuse And Neglect Sexual abuse of children is the involvement of children or adolescents in sexual activities that he or she does not fully comprehend and can include e ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chlamydia Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for the greatest number of sexually transmitted infections and the majority of infection-related of blindness wor ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chlorine Gas Toxicity Gaseous chlorine is poisonous and classified as a pulmonary irritant. It has intermediate water solubility with the capability of causing acute damage ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chlorpromazine Chlorpromazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and acute psychosis. It is in the category of ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Choking Choking or foreign body airway obstruction occurs when an object partially or completely obstructs the passage of air exchange between the upper airwa ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cholinergic Crisis A cholinergic crisis develops as a result of overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors at the neuromuscular junctions. This is usually sec ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholinergic Medications Cholinergic medications are a category of pharmaceutical agents that act upon the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter within ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Cholinergic Toxicity Cholinergic toxicity is caused by substances that stimulate, enhance or mimic the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, the primary neurotransmitter of the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Cholinesterase Inhibitors Cholinesterase inhibitors function to decrease the breakdown of acetylcholine. They SEe use in the treatment of Alzheimer and dementia symptoms. This ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Chronic Iron Deficiency Chronic iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world and a significant common cause of anemia worldwide. It is mainly caused by ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Chronic obstructive lung disease is a lung disease characterized by lung airflow limitation and can be from exposure to harmful substances. It is a co ... Read the Article 2.25 35 Activity Info
Clonazepam Clonazepam is a benzodiazepine drug used for the acute management of panic disorder, epilepsy, and non-convulsive status epilepticus. It also has many ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Clopidogrel Clopidogrel is FDA approved for the medical management of unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), ST-segment ele ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Closed Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an injury to the brain from an external mechanical force. TBI can generally be classified as either closed or penetrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Clostridium Difficile Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive bacterium that is the cause most implicated in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The emergence of a newer hyper ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Cocaine Cocaine hydrochloride topical solution contains 4% cocaine. It is not FDA-approved but allowed for only the following indications: topical anesthesia ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Cocaine Toxicity Cocaine abuse is a major worldwide health problem. Patients with acute cocaine toxicity may require urgent treatment for tachycardia, dysrhythmia, hyp ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Colles' Fracture This activity outlines the evaluation, treatment, and management of Colles fractures. Colles fractures are forearm injuries that require medical manag ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Colon Cancer Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common diagnosis and second deadliest malignancy for both sexes combined. The incidence of new cases and mor ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Coma Altered mental status is a catch-all term that includes a spectrum of patient behaviors ranging from confusion to deep unresponsiveness. Coma is at on ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Commotio Cordis Commotio cordis is ventricular fibrillation precipitated by blunt trauma to the heart. Although it is infrequent, it is an important cause of sudden ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Community-Acquired Pneumonia Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization, mortality, and incurs significant health care costs. As disease presentation varie ... Read the Article 1.5 19 Activity Info
Competency and Capacity This article reviews the concepts of capacity and competency with regard to clinical practice. More specifically, it discusses the foundational ethica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome in which the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the requirements of the body. It results from a ... Read the Article 2.25 36 Activity Info
Congestive Heart Failure And Pulmonary Edema Heart failure is a growing public health problem and is now the most common cause of hospitalizations in the U.S. among patients 65 years and older. T ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Conjunctivitis Conjunctivitis refers to the inflammation or infection of the conjunctiva. It is the most common presentation of eye redness in both primary care and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Contact Dermatitis Contact dermatitis is an inflammatory eczematous skin disease. It is caused by chemicals or metal ions that exert toxic effects without inducing a T-c ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Contact Urticaria Contact urticaria is a transient wheal and flare response on exposure to specific agents, especially in the work environment. Contact urticaria falls ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a type of positive airway pressure that is used to deliver a set pressure to the airways that is maintai ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cooling Techniques For Hyperthermia Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In sepsis, the immunologic reaction to the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Cornea Foreign Body Removal A corneal foreign body can be the cause of agonizing eye pain and loss of vision. This activity reviews the safe removal of a corneal foreign body and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Corneal Foreign Body Corneal foreign bodies account for the second most common form of ocular trauma, with corneal abrasions being number one. In general, major morbidity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Corneal Injury Approximately 3 percent of all visits to the emergency department are due to eye trauma, with the vast majority of these presentations involving corne ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a major surgical operation where atheromatous blockages in a patient’s coronary arteries are bypassed with h ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Corticosteroids Corticosteroids are drugs used in the management and treatment of almost all areas in medicine. This activity outlines the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Costochondritis Costochondritis is a benign cause of chest wall pain that results from inflammation of the costal cartilage, the cartilage that connect the ribs to th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cough Cough is one of the most common medical complaints accounting for as many as 30 million clinical visits per year. Up to 40% of these complaints result ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Cribiform Plate Fractures A fracture of the cribriform plate is a potentially serious injury that can be easily overlooked. When present, it is indicative of severe head or fac ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Cromolyn Sodium Cromolyn sodium is a medication used in the management of bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis, and certain allergic eye conditions such as vernal conj ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Crotalidae Envenomation Crotalid envenomations cause a spectrum of disease, with both localized and systemic toxicity, which can result in both prolonged morbidity and rarely ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Croup Croup is a common respiratory illness of the trachea, larynx, and bronchi that can lead to inspiratory stridor and barking cough. It is a self-limited ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Crutches Crutches are medical devices designed to aid in ambulation, by transferring body weight from the legs to the torso and arms. They are mainly used to a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Crystalloid Fluids Crystalloid fluids are a subset of intravenous solutions that are frequently used in the clinical setting. Crystalloid fluids are the first choice for ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Cultural Religious Competence In Clinical Practice The diversity of religion within our world's population brings challenges for health care providers and systems to deliver culturally competent medica ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide is a rapidly acting substance that is traditionally known as a poison. Hydrogen cyanide was first isolated from Prussian blue dye in 1786 and ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Cyanocobalamin Cyanocobalamin is a medication used in the management and treatment of vitamin B12 deficiencies. This activity reviews the indications, action, and co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyclobenzaprine Cyclobenzaprine is FDA-approved as an adjunct to rest for the treatment of muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Cyc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Cyclothymic Disorder Cyclothymia is an affective disorder characterized by emotional reactivity and affective dysregulation. Often this disorder presents a challenge for t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Deadly Single Dose Agents Although the basics of evaluating and treating most unknown ingestants are well known, many overdoses require very specific treatment if the patient i ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Death and Dying Death is a part of natural life; however, society is notorious for being uncomfortable with death and dying as a topic on the whole. Many caregivers e ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Decerebrate And Decorticate Posturing Decorticate and decerebrate posturing are abnormal posturing responses typically to noxious stimuli. They involve stereotypical movements of the trunk ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Decompression Sickness Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs when dissolved gasses (usually nitrogen or helium, used in mixed gas diving) exit solution and form bubbles inside ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Decubitus Ulcer Decubitus ulcers are skin or soft tissue injuries that form due to prolonged pressure exerted over specific areas of the body. They should receive pro ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Deep Venous Thrombosis Of The Lower Extremity A deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) is a blood clot that forms within the deep veins usually of the leg but can occur in the veins of the arms and the mesent ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Deferoxamine Deferoxamine is a medication used in Iron and aluminum toxicity. It is in the chelator class of drugs. This activity reviews the indications, mechanis ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Defibrillation Cardiac defibrillation is the act of administering a transthoracic electrical current to a person experiencing one of the two lethal ventricular dysrh ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Delirium Delirium, also known as the acute confusional state, is a clinical syndrome that usually develops in the elderly. It is characterized by an alteration ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Delirium Tremens Alcohol abuse is a common condition that has been associated with severe impairments in social functioning and medical problems. As high as 20% of the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dementia Dementia describes an overall decline in memory and other thinking skills severe enough to reduce a person's ability to perform everyday activities. I ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Dengue Fever Dengue is a mosquito-transmitted virus and the leading cause of arthropod-borne viral disease in the world. It is also known as breakbone fever due to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Dental Infections Dental infections originate in the tooth or its supporting structures and can spread to the surrounding tissue. Dental infections were, historically, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Depression Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic Stat ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of inadequate control of blood levels of glucose. It has many subclassifications, including type 1, type 2, maturi ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease that leads to the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Insulin is an essen ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. It may be due to impaired insulin secretion, resista ... Read the Article 2 30 Activity Info
Diabetic Ulcer Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic endocrine disorder due to an overall deficiency of insulin (Type 1) or defective insulin function (Type 2) which caus ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diaphragm Injury The diaphragm is composed of the central tendon, costal, sternal, and lumbar components, the lateral parts of which are a continuation of the oblique ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Diaphragmatic Hernia A diaphragmatic hernia (DH) is a protrusion of abdominal contents into the thoracic cavity as a result of a defect within the diaphragm. It is most co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Diaphyseal Femur Fracture Diaphyseal femur fractures are commonly encountered in association with other high-energy injuries. These injuries can lead to life-threatening sequel ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Difficult Foley Catheterization Urinary catheterization is a common clinical intervention to ensure adequate urinary drainage when patients cannot void effectively. When a urinary ca ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Digit Amputation Digital amputation is often associated with traumatic injuries but is also seen within the elective surgery setting, such as in the case of cancer res ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digit Replantation The focus of replantation of any part of the upper extremity is maximizing functional outcome rather than simple survival of the amputated part. Funct ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Digital Nerve Block Digital nerve block is a simple procedure that can be performed to provide immediate anesthesia for a multitude of injuries and procedures, such as fr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Digoxin Digoxin is a medication used in the management and treatment of heart failure and certain arrhythmias and abortion. It is in the cardiac glycoside cla ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Digoxin Toxicity Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside derived from the foxglove plant (digitalis species). It has inotropic effects and is utilized in the management of syst ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Diltiazem Diltiazem is an oral and parenteral non-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is used in many clinical scenarios as an antihypertensive, anti-ar ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Dimercaprol Dimercaprol is a medication used in the treatment of toxic exposure to arsenic, mercury, gold, and lead. It is in the chelating class of drugs. This a ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Diphenhydramine, which is available as an over-the-counter medication, is a first-generation antihistamine that is used in a variety of conditions to ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Diphenhydramine Toxicity Diphenhydramine is most often used for the treatment of nausea, vomiting, allergic rhinitis, mild to severe allergic reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis), an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Diphenoxylate and Atropine Diphenoxylate/atropine combination is a medication used in the management and treatment of diarrhea. It is in the antimotility class of drugs. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Direct Laryngoscopy Direct laryngoscopy allows visualization of the larynx. It is used during general anesthesia, for surgical procedures of the larynx, and during resusc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Disk Battery Ingestion Disk batteries (or button batteries) are found in many consumer electronics. The last few decades have seen an increase in demand for compact electron ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation Disseminated intravascular coagulation can be defined is a widespread hypercoagulable state that can lead to both microvascular and macrovascular clot ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Distal Femur Fractures Distal femur fractures include fractures of the supracondylar and intercondylar region of the distal femur and are relatively common injuries. To avo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Distributive Shock As is true of the four broad classifications of shock, distributive shock, also known as vasodilatory shock, causes inadequate tissue perfusion. In di ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Disulfiram Disulfiram is one of three drugs approved by the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It is a second-line option ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Domestic Violence Family and domestic violence is a common problem in the United States, affecting an estimated 10 million people every year; as many as one in four wom ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Dopamine Agonists Dopamine agonists are used in patients with Parkinson disease. Dopamine agonists such as ropinirole, are the first-line treatment for restless legs sy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Doxylamine Doxylamine is a medication used in the management and treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP), allergic rhinitis, and insomnia. It is in t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Drowning Drowning is defined as a process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in a liquid medium. To delineate the incident's outc ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Drug Induced Esophagitis Drugs can be damaging to the esophageal wall by having a direct toxic effect on the esophageal mucosa. They may produce a caustic effect by creating a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Drug Interactions In Palliative Care Drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a significant cause of adverse drug events (ADE) in palliative care. This activity will highlight the mechanism of ac ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Drug Testing Broadly defined, drug testing is the process of using a biological sample to detect the presence or absence of a drug or its metabolites. This process ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Duodenal Perforation Duodenal perforations can either be free or contained. Free perforation arises when bowel contents leak freely into the abdominal cavity and causing d ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Duodenal Ulcer Duodenal ulcers occur when there is a disruption to the surface of the mucosa of the duodenum. These ulcers are part of peptic ulcer disease, which in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Dyspnea Dyspnea, commonly referred to as shortness of breath, is the subjective sensation of uncomfortable breathing comprised of various sensations of varyin ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Dystonic Reactions An acute dystonic reaction is characterized by involuntary contractions of muscles of the extremities, face, neck, abdomen, pelvis, or larynx in eithe ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Dysuria Dysuria is a symptom of pain and/or burning, stinging, or itching of the urethra or urethral meatus with urination. It is one of the most common sympt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ear Foreign Body Removal The management of foreign bodies located in the external auditory canal can be nuanced, and for some medical professionals, may be intimidating if not ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
ECG T Wave Normally, the T wave on an electrocardiogram (ECG) is representative of ventricular repolarization. Changes in T wave morphology can be indicative of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ectopic Pregnancy An ectopic pregnancy occurs when fetal tissue implants outside of the uterus or attaches to an abnormal or scarred portion of the uterus. Ectopic preg ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
EKG Rhythm Successful ECG interpretation requires the utilization of the same stepwise method with each attempt. Like all aspects of electrocardiographic interpr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Elbow Trauma Elbow trauma is a common occurrence in children and athletes and can cause a broad array of injury patterns ranging from mild soft tissue injuries and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Electrical Burns Electrical injuries are when high-energy current travels through the body due to contact with an electrical source. Injuries occur due to either the f ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Electrical Injuries Electrical injuries are a complex form of trauma that is often associated with high morbidity and mortality. The severity of the injuries depends upon ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Electrocardiogram Electrocardiogram (abbreviated as EKG or ECG) represents a recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Willem Einthoven first invented it in 1 ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Embolic Stroke Embolic stroke is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity all over the world. To avoid the high morbidity and mortality associated wi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Emergency Room Thoracotomy An emergency room thoracotomy is performed in selected cases of direct thoracic injury concurrently with ACLS/ATLS resuscitation. Survival rates are l ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Empyema Empyema is defined as a collection of pus in the pleural cavity, gram-positive, or culture from the pleural fluid. Empyema is usually associated with ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
EMS Airway Management In Adverse Conditions Managing the airway of the critically ill or injured patient is a core skill in emergency medical care. In addition to difficulties arising from physi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
EMS Chest Injury Chest injuries account for nearly one-fourth of all trauma-related mortality, second only to head and neck injuries. They often require rapid interven ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
EMS Facilitated Intubation Without Paralytics Facilitated intubation, also known as medication-facilitated intubation or sedation-facilitated intubation, refers to intubation performed using a sed ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Field Identification Of CHF Congestive heart failure (CHF) can arise from multiple causes, all resulting in decreased perfusion of body tissues. CHF may result from a drug overdo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Methods To Cool A Patient In The Field Hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature greater than 40 degrees C. Several conditions can cause hyperthermia. In sepsis, the immunologic reactio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Pneumothorax Identification Without Ancillary Testing Pneumothorax is a principal diagnosis for emergency medical services (EMS) providers to identify, which is a potentially life-threatening condition. I ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
EMS Prehospital CPAP Devices Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) that helps improve the work of breathing and oxygenat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Prehospital Deliveries There are approximately 3.9 million deliveries in the United States every year. Fortunately, most of these deliveries are appropriately anticipated an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
EMS Pre-Hospital Evaluation and Treatment of Asthma in Children Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease and a frequent reason for pediatric emergency medical treatment. This activity reviews emergency m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
EMS Resuscitation During Contamination While Wearing PPE In a world of evolving disease, accidental industrial or commercial contamination, as well as foreign and domestic terrorism, emergency providers must ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Endotracheal Tube In its simplest form, the endotracheal tube is a tube constructed of polyvinyl chloride that is placed between the vocal cords through the trachea. It ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Endotracheal Tube Intubation Techniques Endotracheal intubation is an essential resuscitative procedure in the emergency setting. Direct and video laryngoscopy are the two most common approa ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural This activity reviews epidural analgesia and anesthesia and highlights used medications, indications, contraindications, uses, and techniques. It ment ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Epidural Abscess An epidural abscess is an infection within the epidural space anywhere in the brain or spinal cord. Epidural abscesses occur as a result of infections ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Epidural Hematoma An epidural hematoma (EDH) is an extra-axial collection of blood within the potential space between the outer layer of the dura mater and the inner ta ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Epiglottitis Epiglottitis is an inflammatory condition of the epiglottis and/or nearby structures including the arytenoids, aryepiglottic folds, and vallecula. Epi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Epinephrine Epinephrine is one of the most commonly used agents in a variety of settings as it functions as medication and hormone. It is currently FDA-approved f ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Epistaxis Epistaxis (nosebleed) is one of the most common ear, nose, and throat (ENT) emergencies that present to the emergency room or primary care. There are ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Eptifibatide Eptifibatide is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa class platelet inhibitor drug used to reduce ischemic cardiac events in specific patient populations. This act ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Erythema Infectiosum Erythema infectiosum, also known as fifth disease, is a common viral exanthem caused by parvovirus B19. It is commonly seen in children between five a ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Erythromycin Erythromycin has traditionally; it has been used for various respiratory infections (i.e., community-acquired pneumonia, Legionnaires disease), prophy ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Escitalopram Escitalopram is a medication used in the management and treatment of major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. It is in the selectiv ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Esophageal Varices Esophageal varices are dilated submucosal distal esophageal veins connecting the portal and systemic circulations. They form due to portal hypertensio ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Esophagial Foreign Body Most patients who present for evaluation of a foreign body in the esophagus do so after accidental ingestion of a known object, and the patient has mi ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Esophagitis Esophagitis refers to inflammation or injury to the esophageal mucosa. One of the most common causes is gastroesophageal reflux, which can lead to ero ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Essential Hypertension The current definition of hypertension (HTN) is systolic blood pressure (SBP) values of 130mmHg or more and/or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) more tha ... Read the Article 1.75 19 Activity Info
Ethanol Ethanol is an alcohol by chemical composition, used in the management and treatment of methanol/ethylene glycol toxicity. Ethanol has also been used e ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ethanol Toxicity Ethanol toxicity results from the ingestion of large amounts of ethanol, usually in the form of alcohol. It affects multiple organ systems in both the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ethylene Glycol Toxicity Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Ethylene glycol exposure can be extremely danger ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Etomidate Etomidate is an ultrashort-acting, non-barbiturate hypnotic intravenous anesthetic agent. It is administered only by intravenous route. Etomidate has ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Excited Delirium Delirium is understood as a complex neuropsychiatric syndrome that is characterized by disturbances in consciousness, orientation, memory, thought, pe ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
External Pacemaker External pacing is one of the fastest methods for treating multiple types of conduction abnormalities. It can be applied in the hospital setting or by ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Facial Burns Burn injuries are a significant health issue and are a leading cause of accidental death or injury in the U.S. Burns to the face can affect many speci ... Read the Article 1.75 14 Activity Info
Facial Nerve Palsy Facial nerve palsies are a common and essential presentation specifically to ear, nose, and throat (ENT) surgeons but also in general medical practice ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Factitious Hypoglycemia Factitious hypoglycemia is the intentional attempt to induce low blood glucose levels and remains one of the diagnostic challenges that face endocrino ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fat Embolism Fat embolism (FE) and fat embolism syndrome (FES) are a clinical phenomenon that are characterized by systemic dissemination of fat emboli within the ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Features, Evaluation, and Treatment of Coronavirus (COVID-19) According to the World Health Organization (WHO), viral diseases continue to emerge and represent a serious issue to public health. In the last twenty ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Febrile Seizure Febrile seizures are seizures that are caused by a sudden spike in body temperature with fevers greater than 38C or 100.4F, with no other underlying s ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Female Urinary Retention Urinary retention, or the inability to voluntarily void urine, is one of the most prevalent presenting urologic complaints in the emergency department ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femoral Head Avascular Necrosis Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is a type of osteonecrosis due to disruption of blood supply to the proximal femur. There are approximately 100 ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Femoral Neck Fractures Hip fractures are common injuries. Femoral neck fractures are a specific type of intracapsular hip fracture. The femoral neck connects the femoral sha ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Femoral Vein Central Venous Access Venous access can be obtained through the cannulation of peripheral veins, such as the antecubital vein or saphenous vein, or central veins, such as t ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Femur Immobilization The need to immobilize the femur is primarily due to fractures and dislocations. Each of these injuries dictates a specific immobilization and stabili ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fenoldopam Fenoldopam is used primarily for the lowering of blood pressure during episodes of severe hypertension. Fenoldopam has a unique mechanism of action co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fentanyl Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid, which, similar to morphine, produces analgesia but to a greater extent. This robust pharmacologic agent is typi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Fibrinogen Fibrinogen is a 340kDa hexameric plasma glycoprotein synthesized by the liver and is the major structural component of a clot. The type of fibrinogen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fibula Fractures Isolated fibula fractures are quite rare, much less common than fibula fractures with associated ligamentous involvement and/or tibia fractures. Fortu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Finger Dislocation Finger joint dislocation is a common hand injury. Finger dislocation can occur at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP), distal interphalangeal (DIP), or ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
First Degree Burn First-degree burns are superficial burns involving the epidermal layer of skin. The skin is the largest organ of the human body, with its weight compr ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Flail Chest Flail chest is a traumatic condition of the thorax. It may occur when 3 or more ribs are broken in at least 2 places. It is considered a clinical di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Flea Bites Flea bites are common in North America, especially in outdoor or unkempt conditions. Improving the interprofessional team's skills to educate patients ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Fluid Management Hospitalized patients often have conditions that impair their ability to regulate their hydration status. Improper fluid management leads to significa ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Fluid Resuscitation The primary role of fluid resuscitation is to maintain organ perfusion (hemodynamics) and substrate (oxygen, electrolytes, among others) delivery thro ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Flumazenil Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist. The primary FDA-approved clinical uses for flumazenil include reversal agent for benzodiazepine overdose an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Fluorescein Fluorescein is a diagnostic contrast agent particularly used in various ophthalmic procedures, such as checking for any corneal or vessel abnormalitie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Fluoxetine Fluoxetine is FDA-approved for major depressive disorder (age eight and older), obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, bulimia, binge eating d ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma Traumatic injury is the leading cause of death among individuals younger than 45 years old. Eighty percent of traumatic injury is blunt with the major ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Food Allergies Food allergy is defined as an immune reaction to proteins in the food and can be immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated or non-IgE-mediated. IgE-mediated food ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Forearm Splinting The main goal of forearm splinting is to prevent pronation and supination of the forearm. There are a variety of indications for forearm splinting, in ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Foreign Body Airway Obstruction According to the National Safety Council’s statistics, foreign-body airway obstruction (FBAO) is the fourth leading cause of unintentional death, resu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Foreign Body Aspiration Foreign body aspiration remains a significant cause of death in children for anatomic as well as developmental reasons. Choking is typically defined a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Frostbite Frostbite, also known as freezing cold injury is tissue damage that occurs due to cold exposure, occurring at temperatures below zero degrees celsius. ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Gabapentin Gabapentin is an anticonvulsive medication that originally saw use as a muscle relaxer and anti-spasmodic medication, but later it was discovered it h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Gallbladder Empyema Empyema of the gallbladder is the most severe complications of acute cholecystitis. It is usually the result of the progression of acute cholecystitis ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gamma-Hydroxybutyrate Toxicity Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is pharmaceutically manufactured as sodium oxybate for the treatment of narcolepsy. This formulation is considered a Sched ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gas Gangrene Gas gangrene is a highly lethal infection of soft tissue, caused by Clostridium species, with Clostridium perfringens being the most common. This is s ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Gastric Perforation Perforation of the stomach is a full-thickness injury of the wall of the organ. Since peritoneum completely covers the stomach, perforation of the wal ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Gastritis The current classification of gastritis is based on time course (acute versus chronic), histological features, anatomic distribution, and underlying p ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when there is a retrograde flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus. It ca ... Read the Article 2 29 Activity Info
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure This activity reviews generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A generalized tonic-clonic seizure, formerly known as grand mal seizure, is defined as a seiz ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Geriatric Head Injury Elderly patients with head trauma represent a large proportion of patients seeking medical attention. There are special considerations and challenges ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Gestational Diabetes The definition of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. GDM can c ... Read the Article 1.75 22 Activity Info
Gestational Sac Evaluation The gestational sac is the first structure seen in pregnancy by ultrasound as early as 4.5 to 5 weeks of gestational age, but it is only 97.6% specifi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Giardia Lamblia Enteritis Giardia lamblia enteritis is small-intestine gastroenteritis caused by the pathogenic protozoan Giardia lamblia, (Giardia duodenalis or Giardia intest ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Ginkgo Biloba Ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly used herbal supplements used in the world. This activity reviews the potential indications, action, and cont ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glargine Insulin Insulin glargine is used in the management and treatment of hyperglycemia in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is a long-acting in ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Glasgow Coma Scale The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to objectively describe the extent of impaired consciousness in all types of acute medical and trauma patients. T ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Glimepiride Glimepiride is a medication used in the management and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is in the sulfonylurea class of drugs. This activity ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Glipizide Glipizide is a second-generation sulfonylurea that is FDA-approved for the treatment of adults with diabetes mellitus type 2. It is administered as an ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Globe Rupture Globe rupture is a vision-threatening emergency. It is essential that clinicians have a high index of suspicion for globe rupture when treating patien ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Glucagon Glucagon is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypoglycemia, as an antidote to beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdose, an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Goiter Patients with goiter commonly present to outpatient facilities with a variety of complaints. Goiter encompasses many different causes and morbidities, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Gram Positive Bacteria Gram-positive organisms have highly variable growth and resistance patterns. The SCOPE project (Surveillance and Control of Pathogens of Epidemiologic ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Graves Disease Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. It is a disorder with systemic manifestations that primarily affect heart, skeletal muscl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Greenstick Fracture A greenstick fracture is a partial thickness fracture where only cortex and periosteum are interrupted on one side of the bone, while they remain unin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Grief Reaction Grief is a natural and universal response to the loss of a loved one. The grief experience is not a state but a process. Most individuals recover adeq ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Grief Support Health professionals frequently deal with the loss of a patient in the emergency department and in intensive care units. These deaths are often due to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Guillain Barre Syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rare but serious post-infectious immune-mediated neuropathy. It results from the autoimmune destruction of nerves i ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Gynecologic Examination The gynecological exam traditionally includes an examination of the external and internal genitalia. Under some conditions, it may be necessary to per ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Halitosis Halitosis is a term coined from the merger of the Latin halitus (breath) and Greek osis (pathological process) to describe a condition that meant an u ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Halo Brace The halo vest immobilizer (halo brace) device is the most rigid form of external immobilization of the upper cervical spine to date. Indications for i ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Halothane Toxicity Halothane is a medication previously used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. After its large impact on medicine and anesthesia speci ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hand Amputation This activity reviews the presentation and evaluation of patients with hand amputations. Additionally, it highlights the treatment options and associa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hand Hygiene Handwashing practices in the patient care setting began in the early 19th century. The practice evolved over the years with evidential proof of its va ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hand Splint There are many different indications for hand splinting. These include phalanx fractures, conditions requiring immobilization of the metacarpophalange ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hangman's Fractures A hangman’s fracture is a bilateral fracture traversing the pars interarticularis of cervical vertebrae 2 (C2) with an associated traumatic subluxatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Head Trauma Traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to head trauma is a common presentation in emergency departments and usually accounts for more than one million visit ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Heart Failure And Ejection Fraction Heart failure (HF) is a common and potentially fatal disease if left untreated. This article aims to describe the different types of heart failure. It ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Heat Illness The disorders of hyperthermia, also known as heat-related injury or illness, exist on a continuum, which is marked by dysregulation of the body’s ther ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Heat Stroke Heat stroke is a severe heat-related illness that involves an elevation in body temperature which typically, but not always, is greater than 40C. The ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction Hemolytic transfusion reactions are one possible complication from transfusions. Hemolysis is the rupture of red blood cells, and can occur intravascu ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hemophilia Hemophilia A and B are the most common severe hereditary hemorrhagic disorders. Hemophilia A and B result from factor VIII and factor IX protein defic ... Read the Article 1.5 10 Activity Info
Hemorrhage Hemorrhage can manifest in many different ways depending on the mechanism and anatomic location. It is a common and serious medical emergency that req ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Hemorrhage Control Blood is mandatory to maintain adequate circulation within the cardiovascular system and perfuse the tissues of the body. Hemorrhage is the loss of bl ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Disease Of Newborn Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn is a life-threatening condition that is caused due to insufficient vitamin K levels in the newborns as a result of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Shock Shock refers to the inadequate perfusion of tissues due to the imbalance between oxygen demand of tissues and the body’s ability to supply it. Classic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Hemorrhagic Stroke Hemorrhagic stroke is due to bleeding into the brain by the rupture of a blood vessel. Hemorrhagic stroke may be further subdivided into intracerebral ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Hemorrhoidectomy Hemorrhoidal disease is a common disorder requiring surgical intervention in approximately 10% of cases. The overall prevalence is unknown because asy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hemothorax Hemothorax is a collection of blood in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura (pleural space). The clinical findings in such patients incl ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Heparin Unfractionated heparin is an anticoagulant indicated for both the prevention and treatment of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hepatic Cirrhosis Cirrhosis is characterized by fibrosis and nodule formation of the liver secondary to chronic injury, leading to alteration of the normal lobular orga ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible syndrome observed in patients with advanced liver dysfunction. This syndrome is characterized by a wide sp ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hepatitis The term hepatitis means inflammation of the liver — hepatitis most commonly results from viruses. But drugs, alcohol, toxins, and certain diseases, i ... Read the Article 1.75 17 Activity Info
Hereditary Angioedema Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by either a lack of C1-inhibitor protein or by dysfunctional C1-inhibitor protein. ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Heroin Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is derived from the opium poppy plant. Professionals initially touted morphine as a substitute with less misus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Heroin Toxicity Heroin, also known as diacetylmorphine, is a very efficient prodrug and more potent than Morphine. Many deaths are caused by heroin overdoses througho ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Herpes simplex encephalitis is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus type 1(HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 causes encephalitis in children beyond the neonat ... Read the Article 1.75 18 Activity Info
High Altitude Cerebral Edema High altitude cerebral edema (HACE) is a severe and potentially fatal condition associated with high altitude illness that is often thought of as a la ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is a severe form of high-altitude illness that, if left untreated, can lead to mortality in 50 percent of affecte ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
High Flow Nasal Cannula Supplemental oxygen therapy is one of the more commonly prescribed interventions used by clinicians when caring for hypoxic patients acutely. This sup ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hip Fracture Overview Hip fractures are fractures of the proximal femur and are commonly seen in the elderly population following a fall. This type of injury has a high rat ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Histamine Toxicity Scombroid poisoning results from eating fish that have been improperly stored. The primary toxic agent implicated in scombroid toxicity is histidine, ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
HIV Antiretroviral Therapy A typical initial HIV regimen includes 3 HIV medications from a minimum of 2 drug classes. Although this treatment is not curative, it can provide lon ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
HIV Disease Current Practice The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is an enveloped retrovirus that contains 2 copies of a single-stranded RNA genome. It causes the acquired immun ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
HIV Encephalitis HIV encephalitis is a complication of HIV infection, which presents with neurocognitive dysfunction of varying severity. Almost half of HIV-infected p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hospital Acquired Infections Hospital-acquired infections (healthcare-associated infections) are nosocomially acquired infections that are not present or incubating at the time of ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Human Bites Human bites account for a relatively low percentage (3%) of the total bites encountered in the ED, but they have the potential for severe morbidity du ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Human Insulin The management of type 1 diabetes mellitus entails replacing the actions of the beta cells of the pancreatic islet to detect the needs of insulin and ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Human Trafficking Human trafficking is a pressing public health concern which transcends all races, social classes, demographics, and gender. No population is exempt fr ... Read the Article 2 23 Activity Info
Humeral Shaft Fractures Midshaft humeral fractures usually occur due to a direct blow to the upper arm, which commonly results from falls, motor vehicle accidents, or motorcy ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Humerus Fractures Overview Humerus fractures account for 4 to 6 percent of all fractures in young patients and 1 to 3 percent of all fractures in elderly patients. In young men, ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyaluronidase Hyaluronidase is an enzyme useful in facilitating the management of injectable medications. This activity reviews the indications, action, adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydrocarbon Inhalation Hydrocarbons are organic compounds that consist of hydrogen and carbon. They are ubiquitous in society and are present in many common household and oc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hydrofluoric Acid Burns Hydrofluoric (HF) acid is an extremely powerful inorganic acid and a vigorous dehydrating agent that is used in many industrial branches. Domestic con ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hydromorphone Hydromorphone is a medication used in the management and treatment of moderate to severe acute pain as well as severe chronic pain. It is in the opioi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hydronephrosis And Hydroureter Hydronephrosis and hydroureter result from obstruction of urine flow in the urinary system at the renal pelvis and ureter level, respectively. This is ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hydroxyurea Toxicity Hydroxyurea is an antineoplastic agent used alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs or radiation in the treatment of resistant leuke ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hymenoptera Stings The Hymenoptera order includes over 150,000 different species of flying and non-flying insects. Some species within this order have modified oviposito ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hyperbaric Evaluation and Treatment Of Cyanide Toxicity Cyanide toxicity occurs commonly in patients with smoke inhalation who have been removed from burning structures. Cyanide forms as a result of incomp ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypercalcemia Calcium is the most abundant cation found in the human body and plays an integral role in neural transmission, enzyme activity, myocardial function, c ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Hypercapnea Hypercapnia is the increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) above 45 mmHg. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic product of the many cellular pr ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hypercarbia Hypercarbia is defined by an increase in carbon dioxide in the bloodstream. Carbon dioxide is a metabolic end-product of normal metabolism, with incre ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Hyperesthesia Hyperesthesia occurs as a symptom of neuropathic pain and can be present in any disease process that affects the somatosensory nervous system. Treatme ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hyperglycemia The term "hyperglycemia" derived from the Greek hyper (high) + glykys (sweet/sugar) + haima (blood). Hyperglycemia is blood glucose greater than 125 m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia is defined as a serum or plasma potassium level above the upper limits of normal, usually greater than 5.0 mEq/L to 5.5 mEq/L. While mild ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Hypertension In Pregnancy Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, including chronic hypertension with or without superimposed pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, gestational hypertension, pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypertensive Emergency A hypertensive emergency is an acute, marked elevation in blood pressure that is associated with signs of target-organ damage. These can include pulmo ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Hypertensive Encephalopathy Hypertensive encephalopathy is a less commonly encountered type of hypertensive emergency, highlighted by mental status changes and severely elevated ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hypertensive Urgency Hypertensive urgency is a marked elevation in blood pressure without evidence of target organ damage, such as pulmonary edema, cardiac ischemia, neuro ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Hyperthyroidism The thyroid gland is a bilobed structure located in the anterior aspect of the trachea between the cricoid cartilage and the suprasternal notch. Each ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Hypertonic Fluids Clinicians use hypertonic fluids to increase intravascular fluid volume. Hypertonic saline can be utilized in the treatment of hyponatremia. Hypertoni ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Hyphema Hyphema is the accumulation of red blood cells (RBCs) in the anterior chamber of the eye. By definition, blood must be grossly visible, either on dire ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Hypocalcemia Disorders of calcium metabolism are frequently encountered. Though hypocalcemia is encountered as frequently as hypercalcemia, it can be potentially l ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypocarbia Hypocarbia, also known as hypocapnia, is a decrease in alveolar and blood carbon dioxide (CO2) levels below the normal reference range of 35 mm Hg. CO ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia is often defined by a plasma glucose concentration below 70 mg/dL; however, signs and symptoms may not occur until plasma glucose concent ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypokalemia One of the most common electrolyte disturbances seen in clinical practice is hypokalemia. Hypokalemia is more prevalent than hyperkalemia, and most ca ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypomagnesemia Magnesium is an important electrolyte. It is a key part of many reactions that occur in the human body, affecting cellular function, nerve conduction, ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Hyponatremia Hyponatremia is defined as a serum sodium concentration of less than 135 mEq/L but can vary to a small extent in different laboratories. Hyponatremia ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Hypothermia Accidental hypothermia occurs when the body dissipates more heat than it absorbs or creates, leaving the body unable to generate sufficient heat to ma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism results from low levels of thyroid hormone with varied etiology and manifestations. The drug of choice for the treatment of hypothyroid ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Hypovolemia Hypovolemia refers to a state of low extracellular fluid volume, generally secondary to combined sodium and water loss. All living organisms must main ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Hypovolemic Shock Patients with hypovolemic shock have severe hypovolemia with decreased peripheral perfusion. If left untreated, these patients can develop ischemic in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Iatrogenic Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is gas in the pleural space. This condition can present in one of three ways: spontaneous (primary), secondary, and traumatic. This activ ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Ibutilide Ibutilide is indicated for the conversion of acute atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation to normal sinus rhythm (NSR). Off-label uses of ibutilide in ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy A seizure can be defined as abnormal, hypersynchronous discharge of cortical neurons, and epilepsy defined as a propensity to have seizures. Idiopathi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Idiopathic Pulmonary Artery Hypertension Pulmonary hypertension, also known as idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH), it is a progressive disease that affects the precapillary pulmo ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ileostomy An ileostomy is a procedure in which the lumen of the ileum, part of the small bowel, is brought through the abdominal wall via a surgically-created o ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ileus Ileus refers to the intolerance of oral intake due to inhibition of the gastrointestinal propulsion without signs of mechanical obstruction. The diagn ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Imipramine Imipramine is a medication used in the treatment of depression and anxiety. It is a tertiary amine tricyclic antidepressant. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Implantable Loop Recorder Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is an invaluable tool to assist in diagnosing certain cardiac conditions. There are a variety of ambulat ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Inborn Errors Of Metabolism Inborn errors of metabolism are a heterogeneous group of disorders that may be inherited or may occur as the result of spontaneous mutations. These di ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Incomplete Abortions An incomplete abortion is the partial loss of the products of conception within the first 20 weeks. Incomplete abortion usually presents with moderate ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Increased Intracranial Pressure The pressure in the cranial vault is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and is normally less than 20 mm Hg. The cranium is a rigid structure ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Infant Apnea Apnea in infants is the term used to describe episodes of cessation of breathing and may be due to many physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Bri ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Infection Control Infection control refers to the policy and procedures implemented to control and minimize the dissemination of infections in hospitals and other healt ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Infectious Colitis The management of infectious colitis is complex, and new approaches have been introduced. The basic and clinical aspects of infectious colitis must be ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Inferior Vena Caval Thrombosis Inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis is a disease associated with high morbidity. Although the condition is considered rare, case reports have shown th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Influenza Influenza is a communicable viral disease that affects the upper respiratory tract, including upper and lower respiratory passages. A wide spectrum of ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Inguinal Hernia Inguinal hernia repair is an extremely common operation performed by surgeons. More than 800,000 repairs performed annually. These groin hernias can b ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Inhalation Injury Inhalation injury is a broad term that includes pulmonary exposure to a wide range of chemicals in various forms including smoke, gases, vapors, or fu ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Inhaled Corticosteroids Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the FDA-indicated treatment of choice in preventing asthma exacerbation in patients with persistent asthma. Persiste ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Inner Ear Decompression Sickness Inner ear decompression sickness (IEDCS) is an incompletely understood condition observed in compressed-gas divers likely resulting from precipitation ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intercostal Nerve Block An intercostal nerve block is simple to perform and useful for pain management, either as a primary intervention or as an adjunct. In particular, inte ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Internal Hemorrhoid Hemorrhoids are naturally occurring vascular tissues within the submucosa in the anal canal and comprise loose connective tissue, smooth muscle, and b ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Internal Jugular Vein Central Venous Access If an ultrasound machine is not immediately available and central venous access via the right jugular vein is required, a simple three-finger techniqu ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Intestinal Trauma Intestinal injury is common in both blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma. Due to the potentially life-threatening nature of these injuries, provider ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Intracranial Hemorrhage Intracranial hemorrhage encompasses four broad types of hemorrhage: epidural hemorrhage, subdural hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intraparenc ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Intracranial Hypertension Intracranial hypertension is a spectrum of neurological disorders where cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure within the skull is elevated. Normal CSF pr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring This activity outlines the current recommendations for ICP monitoring and reviews the role of current invasive and noninvasive methods of monitoring. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Intramuscular Injection This activity outlines and highlights the role of the interprofessional team in improving care for patients who undergo the intramuscular injection. T ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intraosseous Vascular Access Obtaining vascular access is often difficult and delays patient care in the prehospital and hospital setting. Intraosseous (IO) access is a fast and r ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Intubation Endotracheal Tube Medications Mastering the skill of endotracheal intubation to secure airway plays a critical role in many settings such as pre-hospital environments, emergency ro ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Intussusception In Adults The diagnosis of intussusception in adults is rare and challenging. The management, on the other hand, is rather straight forward. To achieve good ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Iontophoresis Analgesic Medications Analgesic iontophoresis is the administration of analgesic medications via iontophoresis used in the management and treatment of pain. The technique m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Irritable Bowel Syndrome Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most commonly diagnosed gastrointestinal diseases. IBS, in the absence of any other causative disease, is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ischemic Stroke Cerebrovascular accidents, commonly known as strokes, are prevalent across patient populations and can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortali ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Isopropanol Toxicity Isopropanol, or isopropyl alcohol, is a clear, colorless liquid that emits an odor that resembles acetone. It is a commercially available product main ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Isoproterenol Isoproterenol is a beta-1, and beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist indicated primarily for bradydysrhythmias. The administration and subsequent post-ad ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Isosorbide Isosorbide is a medication used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris in patients with coronary heart disease. It is in the nitrate class ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Joint Immobilization Splinting and immobilization are crucial skills for prehospital medical providers, as traumatic musculoskeletal injuries are commonly encountered by e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Junctional Rhythm The sinoatrial node is the natural cardiac pacemaker located in the upper right atrium. The atrioventricular node is a separate cardiac pacemaker loca ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ketamine Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride) has been approved for general anesthesia either alone or in combination with other medications. It is a superb drug ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with pathologically high serum and urine concentrations of ketone bodies. Clinically relevant forms of ke ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Kidney Trauma Renal trauma can result in injury to the parenchyma or the renal vasculature which can cause bleeding or injury to the collecting system with possible ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Klebsiella Pneumonia In 1882, Carl Friedlander first described Klebsiella pneumoniae as an encapsulated bacillus after isolating the bacterium from the lungs of those who ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Knee Arthrocentesis Arthrocentesis is a procedure performed to aspirate synovial fluid from a joint cavity. It has both diagnostic and therapeutic utilization. While arth ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Knee Meniscal Tears The lateral and medial menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures that collectively cover approximately 70% of the articular surface of ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Laceration Lacerations are a common patient chief complaint, and the understanding of key history and physical exam information can speed patient care. This acti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Lactulose Lactulose is used in preventing and treating clinical portal-systemic encephalopathy. Its chief mechanism of action is by decreasing the intestinal pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lacunar Stroke Lacunar stroke is a common stroke with significant morbidity and mortality. Advancement in knowledge about modifying risk factors and early diagnosis ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Laryngeal Cancer Laryngeal cancers represent one-third of head and neck cancers and may be a significant source of morbidity and mortality. They are most often diagnos ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Laryngeal Injury Laryngotracheal injuries have a high mortality rate although they are infrequently seen. These injuries may be penetrating or blunt and can occur in t ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Laryngeal Mask Airway Laryngeal mask airways (LMA) are supraglottic airway devices. They may be used as a temporary method to maintain an open airway during the administrat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lead Toxicity Lead became a common occupational toxin with the birth of the Industrial Revolution, by the end of the 19-century childhood lead poisoning secondary t ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Leech Bite Leeches are hermaphroditic parasites of phylum Annelida and class Hirudinea. There are over 600 species of leeches. A minority of these are sanguinivo ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Left Heart Cardiac Catheterization Cardiac catheterization is performed for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Despite significant advancement in non-invasive cardiac imaging, it ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) can occur at the valvular, subvalvular, or supravalvular level. In general, there is an obstruction ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Left Ventricular Rupture Left ventricular (LV) rupture is a catastrophic but a common occurrence with acute myocardial infarction patients. The incidence of LV free-wall ruptu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Leukocytosis Leukocytosis has a variety of etiologies with which clinicians of all backgrounds should be familiar. This activity outlines the evaluation of leukocy ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Lidocaine Lidocaine is a local anesthetic agent that is commonly used for local and topic anesthesia, but which also has antiarrhythmic and analgesic uses and c ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Lightning Injuries Lightning is a frequent occurrence worldwide with an estimated 50 occurrences per second and 20% of those resulting in ground strikes. It is impossib ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Linezolid Linezolid is a synthetic oxazolidinone antimicrobial drug. It is indicated for gram-positive infections and approved for the treatment of bacterial pn ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lionfish, Scorpionfish, And Stonefish Toxicity More than 50 percent of all venomous vertebrates are fish, and which pose a threat to divers around the world. The family Scorpaenidae includes the mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lipoprotein Lipase Deficiency Lipoprotein lipase deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. It is characterized by severe hypertriglyceridemia a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lithium Toxicity The drug of choice for recurrent bipolar illness management remains to be lithium. Lithium, a monovalent cation similar to sodium with an unknown mech ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Liver Trauma The liver is the most regularly injured organ in blunt abdominal trauma. Given its large size in the abdominal cavity, it can also be frequently injur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Long Arm Splinting Long arm splints are used in a variety of settings for immobilization of both bony and soft tissue injuries to the upper extremities. This type of spl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Low Molecular Weight Heparin (LMWH) Low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs), for example, dalteparin, enoxaparin, among others, are anticoagulants. These drugs are used in the prophylaxis ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a term used to describe any bleeding that occurs within the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to the anus. Any bleed ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ludwig Angina Ludwig's angina is life-threatening cellulitis of the soft tissue involving the floor of the mouth and neck. It involves two compartments on the floor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Lumbar Disc Herniation Low back pain is a prevalent symptom, as approximately 80 % of the population sustains an episode once in their lifetime. Within the many differential ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Lumbar Puncture The lumbar puncture is a diagnostic procedure in the diagnosis of meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and certain neurological disorders. It is also ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lung Perfusion Scan A ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scan is a diagnostic test using radioisotopes to evaluate lung perfusion and ventilation. Its most common clinical use is ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Lyme Disease Lyme disease is an infectious disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread by ticks. Lyme disease is divided into three stages: early local ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Magnesium Sulfate Magnesium sulfate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple clinical conditions and holds several on and off label uses. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Magnesium Toxicity Magnesium toxicity is commonly caused by the overuse of magnesium-containing medication or under-excretion of magnesium by the kidneys. Early recognit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Malabsorption Syndromes This activity is a brief overview of malabsorption symptoms as they pertain to fat, carbohydrate, protein, vitamin, mineral, and trace elements digest ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Male Urinary Retention Urinary retention is the inability to void urine voluntarily. It is a common problem around the world and can occur acutely or chronically. Acute rete ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Malignancy-Related Hypercalcemia Hypercalcemia is a common metabolic abnormality seen in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Depending on the serum calcium levels, hypercalcemia i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Malignant Otitis Externa Malignant otitis media is a serious infection of the ear canal and temporal bone. It can lead to severe complications if not treated urgently. This ac ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Mallet Finger Injuries Mallet finger is the term usually applied to extensor avulsion fractures. However, this entity may also be caused by distal extensor tendon ruptures. ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mallory Weiss Syndrome Mallory-Weiss syndrome is one of the common causes of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and is characterized by the presence of longitudinal super ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mandible Dislocation This activity reviews the evaluation and management of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation and the role of the healthcare team in the evaluation ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Mandible Fracture Mandible is one of the most commonly fractured facial bone and is frequently seen in the emergency department. This activity reviews the anatomy of th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mannitol Mannitol can be used for the reduction of intracranial pressure and brain mass, to reduce intraocular pressure if this is not achievable by other mean ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
MAO Inhibitors Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO Inhibitors) are medications used in the management and treatment of depression, among other neurological and psychia ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Marasmus Marasmus is a manifestation of severe dietary malnutrition which occurs as a result of a calorie deficiency. Marasmus is associated with a better prog ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
March Fracture March fractures (metatarsal stress fractures) were first described in 1855, when the term was coined for the foot pain and swelling experienced by Pru ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Massive Transfusion Massive transfusion is traditionally defined as transfusion of 10 units of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) within a 24 hour period. The goal of massive ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Measles Measles, also known as rubeola, is a preventable, highly contagious, acute febrile viral illness. It remains an important cause of global mortality an ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Mechanical Ventilation Although mechanical ventilation can be a complex and seemingly elusive topic, expectations are that healthcare professionals who deal with critically ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Meckel Diverticulum Meckel diverticulum is a common congenital abnormality of the small intestine that is caused by incomplete obliteration of the vitelline (omphalomesen ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Mediastinal Nonseminoma Germ cell tumors are cancers that arise from the reproductive cells of the testis or ovaries. Germ cell tumors can arise along the track of the migrat ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mediastinal Trauma The mediastinum is contained within the thoracic cavity and has a high concentration of major vascular and visceral structures. Traumatic injury to an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Medical Error A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of medical care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient. Among the problems that commo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Medication Dispensing Errors And Prevention Close to 6,800 prescription medications and countless over-the-counter drugs are available in the United States. To further complicate a practitioner' ... Read the Article 2.25 33 Activity Info
Meningitis In spite of breakthroughs in diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination, in 2015 there were 8.7 million reported cases of meningitis worldwide with 379,000 ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Meningococcal Meningitis Meningitis is an infection/inflammation of the membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord known as the meninges. Meningococcal meningitis is the ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Mercury Toxicity Mercury has been used for centuries in multiple capacities including medicinal and widespread industrial use. Because of this, it is a common chemical ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mesenteric Vasculitis Mesenteric vasculitis can present in a variety of vasculitic disorders and some systemic, systemic diseases. The diagnosis of this condition can be ve ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis Mesenteric venous thrombosis is caused by impairment of venous return of the bowel due to local blood coagulation. Primary mesenteric venous thrombosi ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Methamphetamine Methamphetamine is one of the powerful stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS). It is sometimes a second-line treatment for attention deficit h ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Methamphetamine Toxicity Methamphetamine is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug that is a derivative of amphetamine. Methamphetamine can produce euphoria and stimulant eff ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Methanol Toxicity Methanol (CH3OH) is a toxic alcohol that is found in various household and industrial agents. Methanol exposure can be extremely dangerous, with signi ... Read the Article 1.75 23 Activity Info
Metronidazole Metronidazole is one of the mainstay drugs for the treatment of anaerobic bacterial infections, protozoal infections, and microaerophilic bacterial in ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Migraine Headache Migraine is a genetically influenced complex disorder characterized by episodes of moderate-to-severe headache, most often unilateral and generally as ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Migraine Medications This activity will review treatments for acute migraines and migraine prophylaxis. It will highlight various classes of medications and their mechanis ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Mirizzi Syndrome Mirizzi syndrome is a rare condition caused by the obstruction of the common bile duct or common hepatic duct by external compression from multiple im ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mitral Valve Prolapse Mitral valve prolapse (MVP), also known as floppy mitral valve syndrome, systolic click-murmur syndrome, and billowing mitral leaflets, is valvular he ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Molluscum Contagiosum Molluscum contagiosum, also called water warts, is a benign condition of the skin. The skin lesions of molluscum contagiosum are called mollusca. The ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor Toxicity Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressants. The use of MAOIs has declined in the past few decades due to the introduction of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Monoarticular Arthritis Monoarticular arthritis is an inflammation of one joint that may later involve other joints of the body. The differential diagnosis and treatment of s ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Mononucleosis Mononucleosis classically presents with fever, lymphadenopathy, and tonsillar pharyngitis. The term infectious mononucleosis was first used in the 192 ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Morphine FDA-approved usage of morphine sulfate includes moderate to severe pain that may be acute or chronic. Most commonly used in pain management, morphine ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Motion Sickness Motion sickness is a common and complex syndrome that occurs in response to either real or perceived motion. Its presentation can be diverse and may i ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Multifocal Atrial Tachycardia Multifocal atrial tachycardia (MAT) is a supraventricular tachycardia resulting in a rapid, irregular atrial rhythm that is caused by multiple ectopic ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Multivessel Disease Multivessel disease is defined as significant stenosis (>70%) in two or more major coronary arteries (of =2.5mm diameter). This article helps in under ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Munchausen Syndrome Factitious disorder imposed on self, formerly known as Munchausen syndrome, is a psychiatric disorder in which a person assumes the role of a sick pat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Mural Thrombi Mural thrombi are thrombi that attach to the wall of a blood vessel and cardiac chamber. Mural thrombus occurrence in a normal or minimally atheroscle ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Muscarinic Agonists Muscarinic agonists are parasympathomimetic drugs and are indicated for ileus, urinary retention, glaucoma, Alzheimer disease, and other symptoms. Thi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Muscular Hematoma Muscular Hematomas are a common source of extravasated blood from within a muscle group, most commonly occurring in the abdominal waist. Muscular hema ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Mushroom Toxicity The term mushroom refers to the fungal fruiting body. Anatomically, the prototypical mushroom comprises the stem and a cap with gills on the underside ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI), colloquially known as "heart attack," is caused by decreased or complete cessation of blood flow to a portion of the myoca ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Myoglobinuria Myoglobinuria is the presence of an excess amount of myoglobin in the urine. It is mostly caused by muscle breakdown, releasing a high amount of myogl ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Myopericarditis The terms pericarditis refers to inflammation of the pericardium and myocarditis. Both can occur together in clinical practice, and hence the term myo ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Myxedema Myxedema coma is a rare fatal condition as a result of long-standing hypothyroidism with loss of the adaptive mechanism to maintain homeostasis. Hypot ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Naloxone Over the past two decades, the rate of overdose from opiates has increased significantly. Opiate misuse is associated with enormous morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Nasal Foreign Body Nasal foreign bodies are commonly seen in the emergency department mostly in the pediatric population but also in those with psychiatric illness or de ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nasal Fracture Reduction Nasal bony fractures are the most common type of facial bone fractures, representing 40 to 50 percent of cases. Nasal fractures are commonly associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nasal Septal Hematoma The nose is the most commonly injured facial structure. Most nasal injuries do not require immediate intervention, but trauma is resulting in septal h ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nasogastric Tube Nasogastric tubes are part of the standard of care in treating intestinal obstruction and can also be used to provide nutritional support. They are mo ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Nasopharyngeal Airway A nasopharyngeal airway device (NPA) is a hollow plastic or soft rubber tubes that a healthcare provider can utilize to assist with patient oxygenatio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nasotracheal Intubation Nasotracheal intubation (NTI) involves passing an endotracheal tube through the naris into the nasopharynx and the trachea; most commonly after induct ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Nebivolol Nebivolol is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. This activity describes the ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Neck Trauma The management of neck trauma can be challenging and sometimes overwhelming, as this anatomical region contains many vital structures. These structure ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Necrotizing Fasciitis Necrotizing fasciitis is a subset of aggressive skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) that cause necrosis of the muscle fascia and subcutaneous tiss ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Neisseria Meningitidis Meningococcal infections are an important disease caused by the bacterium, Neisseria meningitidis. It affects people of all ages and can even infect h ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nephrotic Syndrome Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a clinical syndrome defined by massive proteinuria (greater than 40 mg/m2 per hour) responsible for hypoalbuminemia (less t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Nephrotoxic Medications Numerous drugs used in the management and treatment of multiple diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, and other pathologies, are nephrotoxic. Th ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nerve Agents Nerve agents represent a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality in toxicology and emergency medicine. Patients affected by nerve agents pr ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Neurogenic Shock Neurogenic shock is a devastating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that can manifest as hypotension, bradyarrhythmia, and temperature dysregula ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Agent Toxicity The use of these neuroleptic agents has become more widespread. Knowledge of the toxicity and adverse effects associated with their use is becoming pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening syndrome associated with the use of dopamine-receptor antagonist medications or with rapid ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents The widespread use of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA) was a significant milestone in the development of anesthesia. Before the introduction of N ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Neutropenia Neutrophils play an essential role in immune defenses because they ingest, kill, and digest invading microorganisms, including fungi and bacteria. Fai ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Night Terrors Night terrors are a common sleep disorder in young children and describe a condition in which a child wakes up from sleep in a terrified state. For th ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Nightstick Fracture Nightstick fractures are a relatively rare injury presenting in patients of all ages that can result in discomfort, weakness, and loss of function. T ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Nimodipine Nimodipine is a second-generation 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It was initially invented for the management of systemic hypertension. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nitrogen Dioxide Toxicity Nitrogen dioxide and other oxides of nitrogen are found in a variety of occupational settings. This activity reviews the evaluation, treatment, and m ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Nitroglycerin Nitroglycerin is a vasodilatory drug used primarily to provide relief from anginal chest pain. It is currently FDA approved for the acute relief of a ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Non ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) can be divided into subgroups of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-ST-segment elevation myocardial ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Toxicity As a class, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, commonly abbreviated as NSAIDs, are chemically varied, yet share similar therapeutic and adverse eff ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Norepinephrine Untreated hypotension can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Norepinephrine is a first-line agent for hypotension that does not respon ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Normal Saline Fluid therapy is a critical component of the clinical management of patients. It consists of colloid therapy as well as crystalloid therapy. The most ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Normochromic Normocytic Anemia Normocytic normochromic anemia is the type of anemia in which the circulating RBCs are the same size (normocytic) and have a normal red color (normoc ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Nursemaid Elbow Nursemaid's elbow, or "radial head subluxation" is a common injury in young children in which the radial head slips under the annular ligament resulti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Nursing Home Acquired Pneumonia Pneumonia is an infection of the lower respiratory tract, involving the pulmonary parenchyma. Viruses, fungi, and bacteria can cause pneumonia. Pneum ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) involves intrusive thoughts with or without compensatory actions to alleviate the stress brought on by these thoug ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Ocular Burns Ocular burns are true medical emergencies that can lead to devastating vision impairment. In a patient presenting with a possible ocular burn, immedia ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Oliguria Oliguria is a frequently encountered clinical condition that can arise due to either prerenal, renal, or post-renal abnormalities. It has various etio ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Open Angle Glaucoma Open-angle glaucoma is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible multifactorial optic neuropathy that is characterized by an open angle of the anterior ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Open Fracture Management An open fracture is an injury where the fractured bone and/or fracture hematoma are exposed to the external environment via a traumatic violation of t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Open Heart Massage Before the implementation of closed chest compressions in the early 1960s, open cardiac massage was a common procedure performed during cardiac arrest ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Opioid Opioids are medications used in the management and treatment of pain, cough, or diarrhea. This activity outlines the indications, actions, and contrai ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Opioid Addiction Opioid use disorder and opioid addiction remain at epidemic levels in the US and worldwide. Three million US citizens and 16 million individuals world ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Opioid Analgesics Opioids are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of pain. This activity outlines the indications, action, and contraindications ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Opioid Equivalency Opioids are often prescribed for cancer-related pain and moderate-to-severe chronic pain, especially pain that is inadequately controlled with non-opi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Opioid Overdose One very common reason why patients seek medical care is for pain. Today, there are many ways to relieve pain, and one of them is with the use of opia ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Opioid Toxicity Opioids and opiates together comprise a class of medications widely used primarily to control severe pain. If first-line agents are not effective in c ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Oral Candidiasis This activity illustrates the evaluation and treatment of oral candidiasis. It highlights the role of the interprofessional team in evaluating and tre ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Organophosphate Toxicity Most patients exposed to organophosphates come into contact with insecticides. The first organophosphate insecticide was created in the mid-1800s but ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Organophosphates Organophosphates (OP) are chemical substances that are produced by the process of esterification between phosphoric acid and alcohol. Organophosphates ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Oropharyngeal Airway Acute respiratory failure is caused by a wide range of etiologies. Progression to cardiopulmonary arrest and ultimately death is likely in the absenc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Orthostatic Hypotension Orthostatic hypotension is defined as a sudden drop in blood pressure upon standing from a sitting or supine position. Clinically, this is diagnosed b ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Orthostatic Syncope Orthostatic syncope is transient loss of consciousness due to reduced blood flow to the cerebrum that can be associated with symptoms like dizziness, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Osteomyelitis Osteomyelitis is a serious infection of the bone that can be either acute or chronic. It is an inflammatory process involving the bone and its structu ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Otitis Externa Otitis externa (OE) is an inflammation, infectious or non-infectious, of the external auditory canal. In some cases, inflammation can extend to the ou ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Oxazepam Oxazepam is a short-acting benzodiazepine used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, management of anxiety disorders, and tension. This activity w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Oxycodone Oxycodone is a potent opioid which can be useful when used judiciously for pain. However, it can cause physical dependence and addiction. The immediat ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Oxygen Administration Oxygen administration may be initiated for a variety of reasons. Increased metabolic demand, maintenance of oxygenation while providing anesthesia, su ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Oxygen Saturation Oxygen saturation is an essential element of patient care. Oxygen is tightly regulated within the body because hypoxemia can lead to many acute advers ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Pacemaker Indications Pacemakers are electronic devices that stimulate the heart with electrical impulses to maintain or restore a functional heartbeat. Pacemakers were ini ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pacemaker Malfunction Pacemakers are implanted in patients with rhythmic cardiac problems. These pacemakers can often malfunction and produce a set of symptoms that require ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pacemaker Syndrome Pacemakers have become an established modality for long-term management of life-threatening arrhythmias and can significantly improve patients' qualit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pain Assessment There are multiple tools used to help assess a patient's pain. These tools can be used to assess multiple types of pain, ranging from nociceptive pain ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Pain Management Medications Analgesics are medications used in the management and treatment of pain. They include several classes of medications (acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Palliative Care The World Health Organization characterizes the field of palliative care as a form of specialized medical care which aims to optimize the quality of l ... Read the Article 1.25 14 Activity Info
Pancreatic Pseudocyst A pancreatic pseudocyst is an encapsulated collection of homogenous fluid with little or no necrotic tissue located near the pancreas. It often presen ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Pancreatic Trauma Pancreatic trauma is a rare but potentially catastrophic injury that can be very difficult to diagnose. Conventional imaging modalities miss subtle fi ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pancreatitis Acute pancreatitis is an acute response to injury of the pancreas. Chronic pancreatitis can result in permanent damage to the structure and endocrine ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Panic Disorder Panic disorder is fairly common in the general population. Among all anxiety disorders, it has the highest number of medical visits and serves as a ve ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Pantoprazole Pantoprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) widely used in hospitals and outpatient settings. Pantoprazole has approval from the Food and Drug Admin ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Paracentesis Paracentesis is a procedure performed to obtain a small sample of or drain ascitic fluid for both diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. This activity de ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Parahiatal Hernia Parahiatal hernia is a rare type of diaphragmatic hernia. Its rarity could either be due to one or a combination of the following three factors; confu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parasympathomimetic Medications Parasympathomimetics are a class of medications that activate the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking or modifying the effects of acetylcholin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Parental Consent Physicians and medical researchers have a moral and legal obligation to obtain informed consent. Informed consent must include the patient being compe ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Parkinsonism Parkinsonism is a motor syndrome that manifests as rigidity, tremors, and bradykinesia. Parkinsonism is caused by Parkinson disease in about eighty pe ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Parkland Formula Early and aggressive fluid resuscitation plays a fundamental role in the management of severe burn patients. The Parkland formula is the most widely u ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Atrial fibrillation (AF) causes an irregularly irregular heart rhythm. AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia characterized by disorganized, rapid ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Atrial Tachycardia Atrial tachycardia is a form of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) usually seen in patients with structural heart abnormalities but also seen in patie ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) describes a narrow complex tachycardia involving episodic supraventricular tachycardia with sudden onse ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Patellar Tendon Rupture A patellar tendon rupture involves a complete tear of the tendon that runs from the patella's inferior pole to the tibial tubercle. It is typically se ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Patellofemoral Syndrome Patellofemoral syndrome (PFS) is one of the most common causes of anterior knee pain. It is commonly known as runner's knee, patellofemoral pain syndr ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Patient Controlled Analgesia Patient-controlled analgesia is used to treat acute, chronic, postoperative, and labor pain. A variety of medications can be used for patient-controll ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Patient Restraint and Seclusion Patient restraint and seclusion is a controversial yet necessary aspect of medicine. Restraint encompasses both physical and chemical procedures. This ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Patient Rights And Ethics Patient rights are a subset of human rights. Whereas the concept of human rights refers to minimum standards for the ways persons can expect to be tre ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
PDE5 Inhibitor The discovery of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors (PDE5 inhibitors) for causing the erection of the penis was accidental, noticed as a side effect while ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peak Flow Rate Measurement Peak expiratory flow measurement (peak flow) is a simple measure of the maximal flow rate that can be achieved during forceful expiration following fu ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pectoralis Major Tear Injuries of the pectoralis major muscle are rare. Although the injury typically occurs while lifting weights, specifically while performing a bench pr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), or shaken baby syndrome, most often involves shaking, blunt impact, or a combination of both in infants and young ... Read the Article 2 25 Activity Info
Pediatric Appendicitis Appendicitis is an acute inflammatory process involving the appendix. It is the number one surgical emergency and one of the most common causes of abd ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pediatric Asthma Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterized by recurrent episodes of airflow obstruction resulting from edema, bronchospasm ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Pediatric Bronchiolitis Bronchiolitis is inflammation of the bronchioles usually caused by an acute viral illness. It is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Dehydration The World Health Organization defines dehydration as a condition that results from excessive loss of body water. The most common causes of dehydration ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pediatric Facial Trauma Pediatric facial trauma includes blunt and penetrating trauma to the structures of the face in patients ages less than 18 years. This article primaril ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Foreign Body Ingestion Children commonly swallow foreign bodies. Coins are the most commonly swallowed foreign body that comes to medical attention in the USA; in other coun ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Pediatric Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis in the pediatric population is a very common condition that accounts for around 10 percent of pediatric deaths and is the second cause ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Pediatric Pneumonia Globally, pneumonia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children younger than the age of 5 years. Although the majority of deaths attribu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pediatric Preoperative Management The preoperative management of anesthesia in children differs from that in adults. These differences include employing cognitive and age-appropriate l ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Pediatric Spine Trauma A spinal cord injury is a potentially crippling injury which often results in severe and permanent disability. Quite often when encountering multi-sys ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pelvic Abscess A pelvic abscess is potentially a life-threatening condition. It can lead to sepsis and rupture and poor prognosis, especially in women of reproductiv ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pelvic Fracture A pelvic fracture involves damage to the hip bones, sacrum, or coccyx - the bony structures forming the pelvic ring. Due to the inherent structural an ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is defined as an inflammation of the upper genital tract due to an infection in women. The disease affects the uteru ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Pelvic Trauma Pelvic injuries are the result of high energy trauma; they frequently have associated injuries. The injuries can be life-threatening and lead to life- ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Penetrating Abdominal Trauma Penetrating abdominal trauma is most commonly caused by stabbing or gunshot wound. The most commonly injured regions are the small bowel, large bowel, ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Penetrating Chest Trauma Chest trauma has quickly risen to be the second most common traumatic injury in non-intentional trauma. Trauma to the chest is also associated with th ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Penetrating Groin Trauma Penetrating groin trauma is an infrequent yet complex injury that requires quick identification, evaluation, and treatment in the emergency department ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Penetrating Head Trauma Penetrating brain injury (PBI) is a significant cause of mortality in young individuals. PBI encompasses all traumatic brain injuries other than blunt ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Penicillin Penicillin is a medication used in the management and treatment of a wide range of infections. It is in the beta-lactam antibiotic class of drugs. Thi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Penile Zipper and Ring Injuries Ring and zipper injuries that cause damage to the penis are uncommon. However, when they do occur, affected individuals often try to manage the condit ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Penis Fracture Penis fracture is an uncommon but severe injury. Often the direct result of penile trauma during intercourse penis fractures has a deleterious effect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pentamidine Pentamidine is a medication used in the management and treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. It is in the anti-infe ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Peptic Ulcer Disease Peptic ulcer disease is characterized by discontinuation in the inner lining of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract because of gastric acid secretion or p ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Percutaneous Central Catheter The ability to obtain venous access in the inpatient and outpatient setting is one of the most fundamental, yet, crucial components for a large number ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the leading causes of death. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical, invasive procedure wi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) also called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a minimally invasive procedure to open b ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Perianal Abscess Perianal abscesses are the most common type of anorectal abscesses. These abscesses can cause significant discomfort for patients. They are located at ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perianal Streptococcal Dermatitis Perianal streptococcal dermatitis is a cellulitis of the perineum. The most common causative organism is group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Therefor ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pericarditis Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardial sac and is the most common pathologic process involving the pericardium. Temporally, it may be further ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Perimortem Cesarean The perimortem cesarean section, as described in its name, is the surgical delivery of the fetus, performed during or near the time of death of the mo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Perimortem Cesarean Delivery Delivery by Cesarean section dates to 800 BCE. Unfortunately, at the time, the procedure was only done on a deceased or dying pregnant patient. It was ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Perinephric Abscess A perinephric abscess is usually a complication of urologic infection which results from fat necrosis. Before the era of antibiotics, perinephric absc ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Peripheral Line Placement Peripheral intravenous (IV) lines, catheters or cannulas are indwelling single-lumen plastic conduits that allow fluids, medications and other therapi ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Perirectal Abscess The anorectal abscess can vary on the spectrum of complexity based on the location and involvement of surrounding tissue. A thorough knowledge of the ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Peritonsillar Abscess Peritonsillar abscesses are localized collections of pus in peritonsillar space between the tonsillar capsule and superior constrictor muscle. Since t ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Permissive Hypotension Permissive hypotension is the act of maintaining a blood pressure lower than physiologic levels in a patient that has suffered from a hemorrhagic bloo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pertussis Pertussis, literally meaning “a violent cough,” and also known as whooping cough, or “the cough of 100 days,” was first described in the Paris epidemi ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Pharmacological Cardioversion Cardioversion is the process of converting an abnormal and potentially dangerous heart rhythm into a normal sinus rhythm. The normal heart rate comes ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Pharyngitis Pharyngitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of the oropharynx. In most cases, it is caused by an infection, either bacterial or viral. Oth ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Phencyclidine Toxicity Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that is a commonly used recreational drug. PCP is a crystalline powder that can be ingested orally, i ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Phenobarbital Phenobarbital is included in a class of drugs called barbiturates. This drug can be used for anti-seizure management, treatment for status epilepticus ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Phenol Toxicity Phenol is a historical disinfectant with continued use in industry, laboratories, and some health care settings. Phenol is a protoplasmic poison that ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phenylephrine The FDA-approved indication for intravenous (IV) phenylephrine hydrochloride is for increasing blood pressure in adults with clinically significant hy ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Phenytoin Phenytoin is a medication used in the management and treatment of epilepsy, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, complex partial seizures, and status ep ... Read the Article 1.75 21 Activity Info
Phlegmasia Alba And Cerulea Dolens Phlegmasia alba dolens (PAD) and phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) are uncommon conditions that result from acute, massive venous thromboembolism. These ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Physostigmine Physostigmine is a medication most commonly used in the management and treatment of antimuscarinic toxicity as well as glaucoma. This article will hig ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Phytonadione (Vitamin K1) Phytonadione (vitamin K1) is a medication used in the treatment and management of vitamin k deficiency, which is a significant risk factor for intracr ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Placenta Previa Placenta previa is the complete or partial covering of the internal os of the cervix with the placenta. It is a major risk factor for postpartum hemor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Placental Abruption Placental abruption is the early separation of the placenta from the lining of the uterus before the completion of the second stage of labor. It is on ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Plague Plague is caused by Yersinia pestis, perhaps one of the most important bacterial pathogens in human history. It occurs in epidemics and pandemics with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Plasmapheresis Plasmapheresis is a therapeutic intervention that involves extracorporeal removal, return, or exchange of blood plasma or components. The underlying m ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pleural Effusion Pleural effusion is the accumulation of fluid in between the parietal and visceral pleura, called the pleural cavity. It can occur by itself or can be ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pleural Friction Rub A pleural friction rub is an adventitious breath sound heard on auscultation of the lungs. The sound results from the movement of inflamed and roughen ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pleurisy Pleurisy is a symptom characterized by localized chest pain caused by a disease-causing inflammation of the pleura. Pleurisy can be caused by a primar ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia Pneumocystis Carinii Pneumonia (PCP), now referred to as Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia is a fungal infection that most commonly affects the immunoc ... Read the Article 2.25 35 Activity Info
Pneumomediastinum Pneumomediastinum is defined as air present in the mediastinum and less frequently referred to as mediastinal emphysema. The mediastinum is the space ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pneumothorax A pneumothorax is a collection of air outside the lung but within the pleural cavity. It occurs when air accumulates between the parietal and visceral ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Polycystic Liver Disease Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a progressive disease, but only a small subset of patients develop severe symptoms. Supportive management is recomme ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Polytraumatized Patient Polytrauma is when a patient has sustained multiple injuries, some of which may cause significant disability and may be life-threatening. Worldwide th ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a value that can be set up in patients receiving invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. This acti ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Posterior Hip Dislocation In the United States, hip dislocations are responsible for significant morbidity and potentially mortality with deleterious consequences to the surrou ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Posterior Myocardial Infarction Myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of chest pain that causes significant morbidity and mortality. Posterior wall myocardial infarction occur ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a neurologic disorder in which a person presents with visual disturbance, seizure, headaches, a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Posterior Shoulder Dislocations The shoulder girdle is a complex articulation connecting the upper extremity to the axial skeleton. The glenohumeral joint of the shoulder is the most ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Postictal Seizure State The postictal state is a period that begins when a seizure subsides and ends when the patient returns to baseline. It typically lasts between 5 and 30 ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Postoperative Ileus Postoperative ileus is a prolonged absence of bowel function after surgical procedures, usually abdominal surgery. It is a common postoperative compli ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN) results from a bacterial infection that causes rapid deterioration of the kidney function due to an inflam ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that results from being exposed to real or threatened injury, death, and sexu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Potassium Potassium is an essential mineral constituent of the human body and is the chief cation found within the intracellular fluid of all cells. The chief i ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Potassium Chloride Potassium chloride is a medication used in the management and treatment of hypokalemia. It is in the electrolyte supplement class of medications. This ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pralidoxime Pralidoxime is a medication used in the management and treatment of organophosphate poisoning. It is in the oxime class of drugs. This activity outlin ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prasugrel Prasugrel is a medication used in the management and treatment of acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous intervention. Prasugrel is a thienop ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Precordial Thump Precordial thump is a potentially life-saving procedure for patients with witnessed, monitored, unstable ventricular tachycardia when a defibrillator ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Prednisone Prednisone is a synthetic, anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid that derives from cortisone. It is biologically inert and converted to prednisolone in the ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Pregnancy Trauma Trauma in pregnancy can ranges from mild, for example trauma associated with a single fall from standing height or hitting the abdomen on an object su ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pregnancy Ultrasound Evaluation The use of ultrasound in the setting of pregnancy is vast and has become the standard of care during pregnancy. This article describes different appl ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Premature Ventricular Contraction During a premature ventricular contraction (PVC), the heartbeat is initiated by the Purkinje fibers rather than the SA node. Given that a PVC occurs b ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Preoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is administering antibiotics before performing surgery to help decrease the risk of postoperative infections. The ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Prescription of Controlled Substances: Benefits and Risks One of the single most difficult challenges for any prescriber is to distinguish between the legitimate prescription of controlled substances versus t ... Read the Article 1.25 5 Activity Info
Presyncope Presyncope or near-syncope is often ill-defined and may have different meanings to different providers but denotes near fainting or a prodrome of sync ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Preterm Labor Preterm labor is labor occurring between after 20 and before 37 weeks gestation. Preterm labors are subcategorized as early or late preterm. Early pre ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Prevention of Inappropriate Self-Extraction of Foley Catheters Prevention of painful, traumatic Foley catheter removals and early identification of catheter mal-positioning can minimize pain, urinary tract infecti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Priapism Priapism is a disorder in which the penis maintains a prolonged erection in the absence of appropriate stimulation. Three broad categories exist for t ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Procainamide Procainamide is a medication used in the management and treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular arrhythmias, atrial flutter/fibrillatio ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Procedural Sedation Procedural sedation permits the safe performance of procedures that a patient cannot tolerate in the fully conscious state. Through this activity, th ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Prochlorperazine Prochlorperazine is a first-generation antipsychotic. FDA indications include schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and other conditions presenting with sym ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Promethazine Promethazine is a medication used in the management and treatment of allergic conditions, nausea and vomiting, motion sickness, and sedation. It also ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Propofol Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic that is used for procedural sedation, during monitored anesthesia care, or as an induction agent for general ane ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Proteus Mirabilis Infections Proteus mirabilis is a gram-negative facultative anaerobe with swarming motility and an ability to self-elongate and secrete a polysaccharide which al ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Pulmonary Contusion Pulmonary contusions are lung injuries commonly sustained during cases of blunt chest trauma. These traumatic lung injuries result in impaired gas exc ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulmonary Edema Pulmonary edema is defined as an abnormal accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung parenchyma. Two main types are cardiogenic and noncardiogen ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Pulmonic Regurgitation Pulmonic regurgitation (PR) is most commonly seen secondary to various etiologies causing pulmonary hypertension. It also appears in post valvotomy pa ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Pulseless Electrical Activity Pulseless electrical activity (PEA), also known as electromechanical dissociation, is a clinical condition characterized by unresponsiveness and impal ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia Pulseless ventricular tachycardia is a serious condition with high mortality and morbidity that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. This activity ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Pulsus Paradoxus Pulsus paradoxus refers to a systolic pressure drop greater than 10mmHg during inspiration. Pulsus paradoxus results from alterations in the mechanica ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Rabies Rabies causes a viral encephalitis which kills up to 70000 people/year worldwide. Infected animal saliva transmits the viral encephalitis to humans. R ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Radial Nerve Entrapment Radial nerve entrapment is an uncommon diagnosis that is prone to under-recognition. Compression or entrapment can occur at any location within the co ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Radial Nerve Injury The radial nerve stems from the posterior cord of the brachial plexus and supplies the upper limb. It also supplies the triceps brachii muscle of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Raloxifene Raloxifene is a medication used in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and the risk reduction of invasive breast cancer in post-menopausal w ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rat-bite Fever Rat-bite fever, also known as streptobacillosis, spirillary fever, bogger, and epidemic arthritic erythema, is a zoonotic illness that manifests with ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Reactive Arthritis Reactive arthritis (ReA) is inflammatory arthritis that manifests several days to weeks after a gastrointestinal or genitourinary infection. It is als ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Refractory Shock Refractory shock is a potentially fatal manifestation of cardiovascular failure with inadequate response to vasopressors characterized by poor tissue ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Regular Insulin Regular insulin is a medication used in the management of Diabetes Mellitus and hyperglycemia of a variety of etiologies. It is in the short-acting in ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Renal Calculi Renal calculi are a common cause of blood in the urine (hematuria) and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. They occur in one in 11 people at some ti ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Renal Failure The term renal failure denotes inability of the kidneys to perform excretory function leading to retention of nitrogenous waste products from the bloo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Renovascular Hypertension Renovascular hypertension is one of the most common causes of secondary hypertension. It is mostly due to the narrowing of blood vessels in the kidney ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Respiratory Acidosis Respiratory acidosis typically occurs due to failure of ventilation and accumulation of carbon dioxide. The primary disturbance is an elevated arteria ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Respiratory Failure Respiratory failure happens when the respiratory system fails to maintain gas exchange and is classified into type 1 and type 2 according to blood gas ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Retinal Detachment Retinal detachments constitute a serious ocular condition and can lead to permanent vision loss. When the retina, the neurosensory layer, detaches fro ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Retropharyngeal Abscess Retropharyngeal abscesses are uncommon but potentially life-threatening diagnosis. They can occur at any age, although are most commonly found in chil ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Reye Syndrome Reye syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal pediatric illness defined as acute noninflammatory encephalopathy with fatty liver failure. Australian p ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Rhabdomyolysis Rhabdomyolysis is a state of muscle injury that can lead to several forms of systemic insult, with the most important being acute kidney injury, elect ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rheumatic Heart Disease Rheumatic heart disease is a systemic immune condition that occurs as a complication of rheumatic fever. This occurs after a beta-hemolytic streptococ ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Rib Fracture When enough force is placed on the rib, the rib will fracture. Most isolated rib fractures can be managed expectantly. However, certain patterns of ri ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Rickettsia Rickettsiae Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an acute febrile tick-borne illness caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. In North America, it is both the most seve ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Right Heart Failure Heart failure is a condition in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood efficiently to the rest of the body. Right heart failure is most commo ... Read the Article 1.5 12 Activity Info
Ringer's Lactate Ringer's lactate solution, or lactated Ringer's solution, is a type of isotonic, crystalloid fluid further classified as a balanced or buffered soluti ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Rotator Cuff Injury Rotator cuff pathology is a commonly encountered condition, and the natural history suggests tears increase with increasing age. This activity will di ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Rotavirus Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in the world. Studies estimate that approximately 200,000 people die annually from infection. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Rubella Rubella is a mild viral disease that typically occurs in children and non-immune young adults. In pregnant women, rubella infection can produce a cons ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Rubeola (Measles) This activity reviews the epidemiology and pathophysiology of measles to further understand its epidemiological situation. This will hopefully lead to ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Salicylates Toxicity Salicylate toxicity is a medical emergency. Intentional ingestion or accidental overdose can cause severe metabolic derangements, making treatment dif ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Salicylic Acid (Aspirin) Salicylates have been available since the early 1900s. This activity outlines the indications, mechanism of action, methods of administration, importa ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Salmonella Typhi Salmonella enterica typhi is a gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for typhoid fever and has been a burden on developing nations for generatio ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Saphenous Vein Cutdown The establishment of venous access is essential to the treatment and resuscitation of both the medically and traumatically ill patient. Adequate venou ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Scabies Scabies is a contagious skin condition caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei which burrows into the skin and causes severe itching. Scabies is transmit ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Scalp Laceration A laceration is a pattern of injury in which blunt forces result in a tear in the skin and underlying tissues. Lacerations in the scalp are different ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Scaphoid Wrist Fracture Scaphoid fractures are the most common of the carpal fractures and tend to occur in younger, active individuals. They account for 2-7% of all fracture ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Scapula Fracture Scapular fractures are uncommon, accounting for less than 1 percent of all fractures. This may be because they typically result from high-energy traum ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and disturbances in thought, perception, and behavior. Traditionally ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Scorpion Toxicity Scorpions are a common arthropod found on every continent except Antarctica. Scorpions may use their long, flexible tails to sting potential predators ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Sea Snake Toxicity Sea snakes, thought to the most abundant venomous reptiles on the planet, are found in the warm, tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans but ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Seat Belt Injuries Although seatbelts have prevented numerous deaths by reducing head injuries, they can cause damage via the transmission of force upon impact associate ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Second Impact Syndrome Second impact syndrome (SIS), also known as repetitive head injury syndrome, describes a condition in which individual experiences a second head injur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Seidel Test The Seidel test assesses for the presence of aqueous humor leakage from the anterior chamber. This leakage is from a defect in the cornea or sclera fr ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Seizure A seizure represents the uncontrolled, abnormal electrical activity of the brain that may cause changes in the level of consciousness, behavior, memor ... Read the Article 1.5 17 Activity Info
Seizure Medications The mainstay treatment strategy for seizures is medication management. However, much like the prescription of any other pharmaceutical agent, a clinic ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Septic Arthritis Septic arthritis is inflammation of the joints secondary to an infectious etiology such as bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, viral, or other pathogens ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Septic Emboli Septic embolism is an obstruction of a blood vessel, typically by an infected thrombus that has traveled through the bloodstream from a distant infect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Septic Shock Sepsis syndromes span a clinical continuum with variable prognosis. Septic shock, the most severe complication of sepsis, carries a high mortality. Se ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Serotonin Syndrome Serotonin syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition precipitated by the use of serotonergic drugs. It may be a consequence of therapeutic m ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome A new and rapidly progressive respiratory syndrome termed severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified by the World Health Organization (WH ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sexual Assault Clothing Collection and Documentation Medical management should be the first and top priority in caring for sexual assault victims. After the patient is clinically stable, proper assault p ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Sexual Assault Evidence Collection Sexual assault evidence collection is the process of collecting specimens and documenting injuries of sexual assault victims to be used in the court o ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Sexual Assault Infectious Disease Prophylaxis Patients presenting for medical treatment after a sexual assault may be concerned about the possibility of acquiring an infectious disease. For many t ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Shigella Shigellosis is a form of bacterial diarrhea caused by the Shigella species. It is common in developing countries and is transmitted via the ingestion ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Shock Shock is a life-threatening manifestation of circulatory failure. Circulatory shock leads to cellular and tissue hypoxia resulting in cellular death ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Shock Resuscitation At its most basic definition, the term “shock” means that there is a lack of adequate tissue oxygenation throughout the body. Typically, this lack of ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Shoulder Dislocations Overview Shoulder dislocations represent 50 percent of all major joint dislocations, with anterior dislocation being most common. The shoulder is an unstable j ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder of erythrocytes caused by an abnormality in hemoglobin. Hemoglobin in most healthy individuals is present ... Read the Article 1.5 13 Activity Info
Sildenafil Sildenafil is a medication used in the management and treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is in the phosphodiest ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Silver Sulfadiazine Silver sulfadiazine is a medication used in the prevention, management, and treatment of burn wound infections. It is a heavy metal topical agent with ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sinus Bradycardia Sinus bradycardia is a cardiac rhythm with appropriate cardiac muscular depolarization initiating from the sinus node and a rate of fewer than 60 beat ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sinus Squeeze Sinus squeeze, also known as barosinusitis or aerosinusitis, is irritation of the mucosal lining in the sinuses as a result of the failure to equalize ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sinus Tachycardia Sinus tachycardia is a regular cardiac rhythm in which the heart beats faster than normal. While it is common to have tachycardia as a physiological r ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Snake Toxicity Venomous snakes inflict considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, although specific data on the total number of venomous snakebites globally are ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium bicarbonate is a medication used in the management and treatment of multiple disease pathologies. It is a general chemical compound by classifi ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sodium Nitroprusside Sodium nitroprusside is a medication used in the management of acute hypertension. It is a potent vasodilator and is administered as an IV infusion wi ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Spina Bifida Spina Bifida is a generalized term for the neurologic condition resulting from the failure of neural tube closure of varying degrees during fetal deve ... Read the Article 1.25 7 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Compression Spinal cord compression can result from a myriad of both atraumatic and traumatic causes. The spinal column is vulnerable to a variety of compressive ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Spinal Cord Injuries Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious medical condition, which often results in severe morbidity and permanent disability. It occurs when the axons of ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Spinal Shock Spinal shock is a result of severe spinal cord injury. It usually requires high-impact, direct trauma that leads to spinal cord injury and spinal shoc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Splenic Injury Injuries to the spleen are one of the most common injuries in abdominal trauma. The spleen is the most vascular organ in the body. Since bleeding in s ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Splenic Rupture The spleen is an encapsulated hematopoietic organ that lies within the posterior aspect of the left upper quadrant in the peritoneal cavity. It has pr ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Splenic Trauma Traumatic injuries of the spleen can be either blunt or penetrating. The management of splenic trauma has become largely non-operative, as non-operati ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Spontaneous Pneumothorax Spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal condition of the lung characterized by the collection of gas in the pleural space between the lungs and the ch ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Squamous Cell Lung Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung, also known as squamous cell lung cancer, is a type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Squamous cell lun ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Stable Angina Angina affects 10 million people in the United States. Providers must be able to differentiate between stable angina and other causes of chest pain to ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome, also known as Ritter disease is a disease characterized by denudation of the skin caused by exotoxin producing s ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Status Asthmaticus One of the most common causes of emergency room visits in the United States is status asthmaticus, an acute, emergent episode of bronchial asthma that ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Status Epilepticus Status epilepticus is a neurological emergency requiring immediate evaluation and management to prevent significant morbidity or mortality. Previously ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Stercoral Colitis Stercoral colitis is a rare inflammatory colitis that occurs when impacted fecal material leads to distention of the colon and eventually fecaloma for ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sterile Technique The purpose of creating a sterile field is to reduce the number of microbes present to as few as possible. The sterile field is used in many situation ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Stevens Johnson Syndrome Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are acute, rare and potentially fatal skin reactions involving loss of skin and in some cases ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Stingray Sting Stingray envenomations are common injuries. Practitioners should recognize that these injuries vary in level of severity and clinical concern should v ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Streptococcus Pneumoniae Streptococcus pneumoniae is a gram-positive, lancet-shaped bacterium and a cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Pneumococcal infections are present ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Streptokinase Streptokinase can be useful in the management and treatment of acute ST-segment myocardial infarction, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, arter ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Stress-Induced Gastritis Gastric acid production is necessary for the body to digest food and break down nutritional components into absorbable amino acids, carbohydrates, and ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Stridor Stridor is an abnormal, high-pitched respiratory sound that can be assessed during breathing. It is typically produced by the irregular flow of air in ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhages are life-threatening and result from the accumulation of blood between the arachnoid and pia mater. The incidence of subarach ... Read the Article 2 26 Activity Info
Subcutaneous Emphysema Subcutaneous emphysema is the de novo generation or infiltration of air underneath the dermal layers of skin. The development of subcutaneous air may ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Subdural Hematoma A subdural hematoma, as its name implies, forms because of an abnormal collection of blood under the dura mater. This is one of the intracranial injur ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Substance Induced Mood Disorders Substance-induced disorders include, among other disorders, substance/medication-induced mental disorders. Substance/medication-induced mental disorde ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Subungual Hematoma Drainage Subungual hematomas are injuries of the nail bed in which bleeding develops under the nail. Patients usually complain of pain and discoloration of the ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Succinylcholine Chloride Succinylcholine chloride is a short-acting depolarizing neuromuscular blockade that is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sudden Cardiac Death Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is death due to a cardiovascular cause that occurs within one hour of the onset of symptoms. A sudden cardiac arrest occurs ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the abrupt and unexplained death of an infant less than 1-year old. Despite a thorough investigation (a careful ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Suicidal Ideation This activity describes the research evidence and current practice recommendations associated with the evaluation and treatment of the heterogeneous g ... Read the Article 1.75 8 Activity Info
Suicide Risk Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States, but it can often be prevented with appropriate intervention. This activity re ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Sumatriptan Sumatriptan is FDA approved as an abortive treatment for migraine attacks with or without aura in adults. Acute treatment of cluster headache episodes ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Sunburn A sunburn is caused by excessive exposure to the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) rays or by exposure to artificial sources of UV rays such as tanning beds. The ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Superficial Thrombophlebitis Superficial thrombophlebitis, increasingly known as superficial venous thrombosis, is no longer considered a benign entity. It is often associated wit ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Supraglottic Airway Obstruction Supraglottic obstruction is a medical or surgical emergency. It can result in increased work of breathing and respiratory distress and can progress to ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Supraventricular Tachycardia Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS &lt ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Surgical Airway Suctioning Airway suctioning refers to the collective measures that are used for clearing the airway of a patient. It involves suctioning, clearing secretions, a ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Sympathomimetic Toxicity Stimulants have been abused for hundreds, if not thousands, of years because they can increase a person's ability to maintain focus and work for longe ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Sympathomimetics Sympathomimetics are a classification of medication used in the management and treatment of cardiovascular pathology, hypersensitivity, COPD, and glau ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Syncope Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness and postural tone followed by spontaneous recovery. While there are numerous classifications schemes used ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Syncope And Related Paroxysmal Spells Paroxysmal spells are non-epileptic events that may mimic epileptic seizures but are not associated with rhythmic discharges of cortical neurons typic ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone ADH release (SIADH) is a condition defined by the unsuppressed release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fr ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement and is associated with significant morbidity and mort ... Read the Article 1.5 11 Activity Info
Systolic Hypertension Isolated systolic hypertension is the predominant form of hypertension in the elderly population. Traditionally it has been defined as a systolic bloo ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tachypnea Tachypnea is defined as a breathing rate that is higher than the normal breathing rate. This condition is seen in both the physiologic state as well a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tardive Dyskinesia Tardive dyskinesia is a syndrome that includes a group of iatrogenic movement disorders caused by the blockade of dopamine receptors. The movement dis ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Targeted Hypothermia Temperature Management Targeted temperature management aims to reduce mortality and improve neurological outcomes in unresponsive patients who achieve ROSC after cardiac arr ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Temporal Arteritis Temporal arteritis (TA), also called giant cell arteritis (GCA) or cranial arteritis, is a systemic inflammatory vasculitis of medium and large-sized ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Tennis Elbow Lateral epicondylitis, also commonly referred to as tennis elbow, describes an overuse injury that occurs secondary to an eccentric overload of the co ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tension Pneumothorax Pneumothorax is when air collects in between the parietal and viscera pleurae resulting in lung collapse. It can happen secondary to trauma (traumatic ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Testicular Torsion Scrotal complaints are relatively common both in primary care and in the emergency department and comprise at least 0.5 percent of all emergency depar ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Tetanus Tetanus is an infection characterized by muscle spasms and lockjaw, also called trismus. Toxins produced by Clostridium tetani are responsible for the ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Tetanus Prophylaxis This activity reviews and outlines the role of tetanus prophylaxis. It will outline the basics of immunization and prophylaxis and will discuss types ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tetanus Toxoid The tetanus toxoid is a vaccine used in the management and treatment of tetanus. It is in the vaccine class of medications. This activity reviews the ... Read the Article 1.25 13 Activity Info
Tetracycline Tetracyclines (tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, tigecycline) are a class of medication used in the management and treatment of a variety of bac ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Theophylline Theophylline is a medication used in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as a second-line drug. It is a bronchodilator. ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Thermal Burns Thermal burns are skin injuries caused by excessive heat, typically from contact with hot surfaces, hot liquids, steam, or flame. Most burns are minor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Third Generation Cephalosporins Third-generation cephalosporins are medications used in the management and treatment of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. They are in the bet ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block An atrioventricular block is a loss of the regular function of the cardiac electroconductive pathways linking the sinoatrial node (SA node) and the ve ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Thoracentesis Thoracentesis is a procedure that is performed to remove fluid from the thoracic cavity. This can be done for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Thoracic Aorta Aneurysm Thoracic aortic aneurysms require a prompt diagnosis as most patients are asymptomatic until dissection or rupture of the aorta occurs, leading to wor ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Thoracic Trauma Thoracic trauma accounts for up to 35 percent of trauma-related deaths in the United States and encompasses a broad range of injuries that can cause s ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Thoracolumbar Spine Fracture The T10-L2 thoracolumbar region is the most common area of injury to the spine from trauma due to the specific biomechanics of this segment of the spi ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Thrombectomy Thrombectomy involves removing a clot from a blood vessel, most commonly from the brain, heart, or lungs. Stroke and myocardial infarction remain two ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Thrombocytopenia Thrombocytopenia is a platelet count below the lower limit of normal, i.e., 150000/microliter (for adults). This activity reviews the etiology, evalua ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Thromboembolic Event Venous thromboembolic (VTE) disease is the most feared complication of hospitalizations and is associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortalit ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Thrombolytic Therapy Thrombolytics or fibrinolytics are a group of medications used in the management and treatment of dissolving intravascular clots. They are in the plas ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Thumb Spica Splinting Hand and wrist injuries afflict a large proportion of the population and impact patients of all ages and activity levels. Splinting can be effective a ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Thunderclap Headache The term ’thunderclap headache’ (TCH) was founded by Day and Raskin in the year 1986. They discovered it in a patient suffering from an unruptured cer ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Thyroid Storm Thyroid storm, also known as thyrotoxic crisis, is an acute, life-threatening complication of hyperthyroidism that presents with multi-system involvem ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tibial Anterior Compartment Syndrome Compartment syndrome occurs when the tissue pressure within a given compartment exceeds the perfusion pressure of the arterial supply, resulting in is ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Tick Paralysis Tick paralysis is an uncommon, noninfectious, neurologic syndrome characterized by acute ataxia that progresses to ascending paralysis. It is caused b ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tick Removal Finding a tick on oneself or a family member can be anxiety provoking. Ticks are known to carry many diseases, and the list is growing. Additionally, ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Timolol Timolol is a medication used in the treatment and management of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It is in the beta-blocker class of drugs. ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tissue Plasminogen Activator Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is classified as a serine protease (enzymes that cleave peptide bonds in proteins). It is thus one of the essential ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tongue Laceration The tongue is a muscular organ that plays a central role in a person’s ability to communicate and to experience food via taste, chewing and swallowing ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy According to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, a tonsillectomy is a “surgical procedure performed with or without adenoide ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Tonsillitis Tonsillitis, or inflammation of the tonsils, is a common disease and makes up approximately 1.3% of outpatient visits. It is predominantly the result ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Topical, Local, and Regional Anesthesia and Anesthetics Nerve impulse transmission occurs when voltage-gated sodium channels on the neuronal membrane open, allowing a massive influx of sodium. This causes m ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Torsade de Pointes Torsades de Pointes is a type of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia characterized on electrocardiogram by oscillatory changes in amplitude of the QRS ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Torticollis Torticollis is a common diagnosis, and estimates are that 90 percent of individuals will exhibit at least one episode of torticollis throughout their ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Toxic Exposure Hazardous Materials Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) are chemical or radioactive substances that can harm an individual and the environment upon exposure, resulting in differ ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Toxic Megacolon Toxic megacolon is a rare, but potentially deadly complication of colonic inflammation. It is defined as a nonobstructive dilation of the colon, which ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
TPA Therapy Alteplase (tPA) is a powerful thrombolytic agent used in the lysis of acute thromboembolism. FDA-approved indications for alteplase include pulmonary ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tracheal Injury Tracheal injury is an uncommon occurrence seen primarily after healthcare procedures, blunt and penetrating trauma, and caustic inhalations. Damage to ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Tracheal Intubation Medications Endotracheal intubation is indicated in many clinical settings, such as impending respiratory failure and when protecting the patient airway. The foll ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tracheal Rapid Sequence Intubation Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is a technique that is used when rapid control of the airway is needed as a precaution for patients that may have a 'f ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tracheal Trauma Tracheal trauma may be penetrating or blunt and acute or subacute. A blow or stab wound to the neck or crush injuries to the upper chest may cause acu ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Tracheobronchial Tear Tracheobronchial tears are uncommon injuries or lacerations or puncture occurring anywhere in the tracheobronchial tree resulting from penetrating or ... Read the Article 1.25 6 Activity Info
Tracheostomy A tracheostomy (or tracheotomy, while there are technical differences, these terms are colloquially used interchangeably. For the purposes of this art ... Read the Article 1.5 14 Activity Info
Tracheostomy Tube Change Tracheostomy is a procedure where an artificial airway is established surgically or percutaneously in the cervical trachea. This activity describes th ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Tranexamic Acid The only FDA-approved usage for tranexamic acid (TXA) is for heavy menstrual bleeding and short-term prevention in patients with hemophilia.; this inc ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Transfusion Reactions Transfusion reactions are adverse events associated with the transfusion of whole blood or one of its components. They range in severity from minor to ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Transient Global Amnesia Transient global amnesia (TGA) is acute onset anterograde amnesia that is temporary and usually occurs in middle-aged and older individuals. It is oft ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Transient Ischemic Attack A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a medical emergency. It is defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction due to focal brain, spinal co ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Transient Synovitis Transient synovitis (TS) is an acute, non-specific, inflammatory process affecting the joint synovium. Transient synovitis of the hip is a common caus ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Trauma Assessment Trauma is the leading cause of death worldwide. In the United States, trauma is the leading cause of death in young adults and accounts for ten percen ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Trauma Care Principles Trauma care principles outline fundamental concepts that providers should be aware of when treating various injuries in a trauma setting. The content ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Trauma Neurological Exam The neurological examination in the setting of trauma is a systematic evaluation of important clinical signs that provide evidence to help determine f ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Trauma Primary Survey The primary survey is designed to rapidly assess and treat life-threatening injuries. The main causes of death in trauma patients are airway obstructi ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Trauma Secondary Survey The secondary survey is a rapid but thorough head to toe examination assessment to identify potential injuries. It should be performed after the prima ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Travelers Diarrhea Traveler's diarrhea is a common ailment in individuals traveling to resource-limited destinations overseas. It is estimated to affect nearly 40 to 60 ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Trazodone Trazodone is a medication used in the management and treatment of major-depressive-disorder. It is in the serotonin-antagonist-and-reuptake-inhibitor ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Trichomoniasis Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan responsible for trichomoniasis, one of the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infections in the United ... Read the Article 1.5 18 Activity Info
Tricuspid Regurgitation Tricuspid regurgitation, also called tricuspid insufficiency, is a relatively common condition that can result from structural abnormalities of any pa ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis Tricuspid valve infective endocarditis is uncommon compared to left-sided infective endocarditis. Right-sided infected infective endocarditis accounts ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) were introduced in the late 1950s for the treatment of depression. With the advent of selective serotonin reuptake in ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Tympanic Membrane Perforations Tympanic membrane perforation is when there is a tear in the tympanic membrane leading to a connection between the external auditory canal and the mid ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injury Ulnar collateral ligament injury of the thumb, also known as skier's thumb or gamekeeper's thumb, is an injury of the ulnar collateral ligament of the ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ultrasound Guided Intravenous Access At least 150 to 200 million peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters are placed each year in the United States, and up to 80 percent of patients receive ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Ultrasound Intravascular Access Ultrasound (US) guidance for intravenous (IV) access has been well documented for more than 20 years and is now routine in many settings for non-emerg ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Umbilical Artery Catheterization Catheterization of an umbilical artery is one of the commonly performed procedures in extremely premature neonates. This activity reviews the indicati ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Umbilical Cord Prolapse Umbilical cord prolapse is a condition where the umbilical cord exists the cervical os before the fetal presenting part. Compression of the cord resul ... Read the Article 1.25 9 Activity Info
Uncal Herniation Uncal herniation occurs when rising intracranial pressure causes portions of the brain to move from one intracranial compartment to another. It is a l ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Unconscious Patient Unconsciousness is generally caused by a temporary or permanent impairment of either the reticular activating system in the brainstem, both cerebral h ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Universal Precautions Universal precautions were introduced by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1985, mostly in response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) e ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Unstable Angina Unstable angina is chest discomfort or pain caused by an insufficient flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. It is part of the acute coronary syndrome ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Upper Airway Obstruction Upper airway obstruction is defined as occlusion or narrowing of the airways leading to compromise in ventilation. Obstruction can vary from acute to ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a common problem that is estimated to occur in 80 to 150 out of 100,000 people each year. Estimated mortalit ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Urethral Injury Urethral Injuries are a relatively rare process that is often associated with severe trauma, childbirth, and improper catheterization. This activity o ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection Forty percent of women in the United States will develop a urinary tract infection (UTI) at some point in her lifetime, making this one of the most co ... Read the Article 1.25 12 Activity Info
Urinary Tract Infection In Pregnancy Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequently encountered in pregnant women. Pyelonephritis is the most common serious medical condition seen in preg ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Urolithiasis Urolithiasis is a common condition, and it accounts for a large number of hospital visits. It is frequently preventable by modification of risk factor ... Read the Article 1 2 Activity Info
Uveitis Uveitis is a disease process that involves inflammation of the eye. There are multiple different causes of uveitis. These include infections, inflamma ... Read the Article 1.5 16 Activity Info
Vagal Maneuver Vagal maneuvers are techniques used to increase vagal parasympathetic tone in an attempt to diagnose and treat various arrhythmias. They are often uti ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vaginal Bleeding Vaginal bleeding is a common complaint with a broad differential diagnosis. This activity reviews the evaluation and management of vaginal bleeding an ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vaginal Foreign Body Evaluation and Treatment Vaginal foreign bodies present in female patients of all ages and a wide range of healthcare settings, including the emergency department, primary car ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Valsalva Maneuver The Valsalva maneuver is forced expiration against a closed glottis. It mimics many normal and in some cases routine activities, such as straining dur ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vancomycin Vancomycin is a medication used in the treatment of serious Gram-positive bacterial infections. It is in the cell wall synthesis inhibitor class of an ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine Varicella-zoster virus (chickenpox) is an acute febrile rash illness that was very common in children in the United States before the universal vaccin ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Varicella Zoster Chickenpox or varicella is a contagious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). The virus is responsible for chickenpox (usually primary i ... Read the Article 1.75 20 Activity Info
Vascular Extremity Trauma Vascular trauma can come in three forms: blunt, penetrating, or combination. These injuries can occur in a civilian or military setting. Fortunately, ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Vasodilators Vasodilators are useful in the management of hypertension, angina, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and more. This activity reviews the indicatio ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vasovagal Episode A vasovagal episode or vasovagal syncope is the most common form of reflex syncope. Reflex syncope describes any form of syncopal episode caused by a ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vein Obstruction Venous obstruction is partial or complete occlusion of the lumen of a vein. It can lead to decreased venous flow and increased blood pooling. Venous s ... Read the Article 1 3 Activity Info
Venous Gas Embolism A venous gas embolism is an abnormal collection of gas which forms a bubble in the systemic venous circulation, which can at as an embolus and affect ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Ventricular Fibrillation Arrhythmias originating from the ventricular myocardium or His-Purkinje system are grouped under ventricular arrhythmia (VA). This includes a subset o ... Read the Article 1.25 10 Activity Info
Ventricular Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia is characterized as a wide complex tachyarrhythmia. It is classified by duration as non-sustained or sustained. Non-sustained ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt A ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a cerebral shunt used to treat hydrocephalus. The shunt removes excess cerebrospinal fluid. In pediatric patients ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Verapamil The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications for verapamil include angina (chronic stable, vasospastic or Prinzmetal variant), unstable ... Read the Article 2 27 Activity Info
Vertebral Compression Fractures Vertebral compression fractures of the spinal column occur secondary to an axial/compressive load with resultant biomechanical failure of the bone, re ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Vibrio Cholerae Cholera is a well-known disease caused by intestinal infection with the toxin-producing bacteria Vibrio cholerae. This potentially fatal diarrheal dis ... Read the Article 1 6 Activity Info
Vibrio Parahaemolyticus Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection can cause variable types of illness including gastroenteritis, wound infections, and, in more severe cases, sepsis. ... Read the Article 1 8 Activity Info
Vinyl Chloride Toxicity Vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is an IARC group 1 carcinogen known to cause hepatic angiosarcoma (HAS) in highly exposed industrial workers. VCM is a co ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Violent Patients Violence in healthcare is a worldwide and critical issue. In 2017, the Bureau of Labor and Statistics reported that healthcare workers are five times ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Viral Diarrhea Viruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis both in the United States and globally, accounting for the majority of acute cases of community ... Read the Article 1 4 Activity Info
Viral Encephalitis Viral encephalitis is inflammation of the brain parenchyma caused by a virus. It is the most common type of encephalitis and often coexists with viral ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) represent a group of severe systemic febrile illnesses caused by four families of viruses - Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Viral Hepatitis Viral hepatitis is a form of hepatitis that can be acute or chronic. It has various presentations and different outcomes, depending on the specific ca ... Read the Article 1 7 Activity Info
Viral Meningitis Viral meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges caused by a virus. It is most common in young children but is seen across all age groups. This ac ... Read the Article 1.5 15 Activity Info
Vitamin B1 Thiamine Deficiency Thiamine, or vitamin B1, was the first vitamin identified to be identified. It functions as a catalyst in the generation of energy through decarboxyla ... Read the Article 1.25 8 Activity Info
Vitamin B6 Toxicity This activity describes the toxicity associated with vitamin B6 at higher doses. It explains in detail the pathophysiology and toxicokinetics of vitam ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Vitamin K Deficiency Vitamin K refers to a group of fat-soluble compounds involved in coagulation, bone development, and cardiovascular health. Vitamin K deficiency can co ... Read the Article 1.25 11 Activity Info
Waddell Triad Waddell’s triad represents a pediatric emergency. The triad comprises of three distinct features seen in pediatric pedestrian patients subject to blun ... Read the Article 1 5 Activity Info
Warfarin Warfarin is a medication used in the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and thromboembolic events. It is in the anticoagulant class of dru ... Read the Article 1.75 25 Activity Info
Warfarin Toxicity Warfarin is a vitamin K antagonist used as an anticoagulant used for treatment and prevention of a variety of coagu