|Delayed Hypersensitivity Reactions|
Credits: 1.00 Post-Assessment Questions: 6
Release Date: 5 Oct 2020
Expiration Date: 7 Mar 2022
Last Reviewed: 7 Mar 2021
Estimated Time To Finish: 60 Minutes
Need Help? If you have a system or content concerns, please contact email@example.com, or call (727) 289-9796.
Coombs and Gel classified type IV hypersensitivity reaction (HR) as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction (DHR), which takes more than 12 hours to develop. Typically the maximal reaction time occurs between 48 to 72 hours. Antibodies do not mediate DHR; it is mediated by T cells that cause an inflammatory reaction to either exogenous or autoantigens. This HR to exogenous antigens involves T cells and also antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as macrophages and dendritic cells, all produce cytokines that stimulate a local inflammatory response in a sensitized individual. The DHR to autoantigens can be seen in type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is an autoimmune disease that results from autoimmune cell-mediated destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells. DHR cannot be transferred from an animal to another by means of antibodies or serum. However, it can be transferred by T cells, particularly CD4 Th1 cells, but it is progressively lost in individuals with HIV/AIDS. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as Langerhans cells engulf process and present antigens to antigen-specific T cells that become sensitized. Cytokines produced by keratinocytes, APC, and T cells recruit antigen-nonspecific T cells and macrophages to participate in a local inflammatory reaction. The activity describes the interprofessional evaluation and management of patients with delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
This activity has been designed to meet the educational needs of nurses.
At the conclusion of this activity, the learner will be better able to:
Each author, editor, faculty and planning committee member have completed a disclosure form indicating that neither they nor their spouse/partner has a financial interest/arrangement or affiliation that could be perceived as a real or apparent conflict of interest related to the content of this activity.
COMMERCIAL SUPPORT: This activity has received NO commercial support.
Hover over the contributor names to see details and disclosures of any financial relationships or relationships they or their spouse/life partner have with commercial interests related to the content of this continuing education activity.
Authors: Angel Justiz Vaillant, Hassam Zulfiqar
Editors: Kamleshun Ramphul
Editors-In-Chief: Stacia Hays
Chief Medical Reviewer: Matthew Varacallo
Nurse Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Lisa Haddad
Nurse Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Bernadette Makar
Nurse Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Dorothy Caputo
Pharmacy Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Mark Pellegrini
Physician Planner/Reviewer/Editor: Scott Dulebohn
This activity is jointly provided by AKH Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare and StatPearls. AKH, Inc., Advancing Knowledge in Healthcare is accredited as a provider of nursing continuing professional development by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission on Accreditation. This activity is awarded 1.00 Contact Hours.
Cancellation Policy: Cancellations must be received in writing and a money-back guarantee is provided if not completely satisfied.
Medium or Media Used:
Instructions for Credit
StatPearls and AKH adhere to ANCC Standards regarding commercial support of continuing nursing education. It is the policy of StatPearls and AKH that the faculty and planning committee disclose real or apparent conflicts of interest relating to the topics of this educational activity, that relevant conflict(s) of interest are resolved and also that authors and editors will disclose any unlabeled/unapproved use of drug(s) or device(s) during their presentation. Detailed disclosure will be made prior to starting the activity.
The information provided at this CNE activity is for continuing education purposes only and is not meant to substitute for the independent medical/clinical judgment of a healthcare provider relative to diagnostic and treatment options of a specific patient’s medical condition.
The contributors and editors of StatPearls have attested that all associated media (images and video) have been legally cleared for use with this activity. All copyrights are reserved.
Stay up to date on the latest medical knowledge with 6056 CE activities. In these online self-assessment activities, read our reference articles and test your knowledge with more than 6550.75 hours of CE.