Vertebrae, along with intervertebral discs, compose the vertebral column, or spine. It extends from the skull to the coccyx and includes the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions. The spine has several major roles in the body that include the protection of the spinal cord and branching spinal nerves, support for thorax and abdomen, and enables flexibility and mobility of the body. The intervertebral discs are responsible for this mobility without sacrificing the supportive strength of the vertebral column. The lumbar region contains five vertebrae, denoted L1-L5. The intervertebral discs, along with the laminae, pedicles, and articular processes of adjacent vertebrae, create a space through which spinal nerves exit. The lumbar vertebrae, as a group, produce a lordotic curve.
Typical vertebrae consist of a vertebral body, a vertebral arch, as well as seven processes. The body bears the majority of the force placed on the vertebrae. Vertebral bodies increase in size as the column descends. The vertebral body consists of a trabecular bone, which contains the red marrow, surrounded by a thin external layer of compact bone. The arch, along with the posterior aspect of the body, forms the vertebral (spinal) canal, which contains the spinal cord. The arch consists of bilateral pedicles, pieces of bone that connect the arch to the body, and bilateral lamina, bone segments form most of the arch, connecting the transverse and spinous processes. A typical vertebra also contains four articular processes, two superior and two inferior, which contact the inferior and superior articular processes of adjacent vertebrae, respectively. The point at which superior and articular facets meet is known as a facet, or zygapophyseal, joint. These maintain vertebral alignment, control the range of motion, and are weight-bearing in certain positions. The spinous process projects posteriorly and inferiorly from the vertebral arch and overlaps the inferior vertebrae to various degrees, depending on the region of the spine. Lastly, the two transverse processes project laterally from the vertebral arch in a symmetric fashion.
Typical lumbar vertebrae have several features distinct from those typical of cervical or thoracic vertebrae. The most notable distinction is the presence of a large vertebral body. The spinous process is short and thick, relative to the size of the vertebra, and projects perpendicularly from the body. The articular facets are markedly vertical, with the superior facets directed posteromedially and medially. The facets also have the unique feature of a curved articular surface. This is one feature that differentiates lumbar vertebrae from thoracic. There is also the addition of the mammillary process on the posterior aspect of the superior articular process. The lumbar intervertebral disc height is between that of cervical and thoracic intervertebral discs.
There is only one lumbar vertebra that may be considered atypical. L5 has the largest body and transverse processes of all vertebrae. The anterior aspect of the body has a greater height compared to the posterior. This creates the lumbosacral angle between the lumbar region of the vertebrae and the sacrum.
As with all physiology, the anatomy of a structure is related directly to its function. The lumbar vertebrae have the largest bodies of the entire spine and an increase in size as the spine descends. This marked increase in size is a reflection of the responsibility of the lumbar spine of supporting the entire upper body. Due to the size of the intervertebral discs relative to the size of the vertebral body and the size and horizontal direction of the spinous processes, the lumbar spine has the greatest degree of extension of the vertebral column. The near-vertical orientation of the superior articular facets allows for flexion, extension, and lateral flexion, but prevents rotation. The mammillary processes provide a point of attachment for intertransversarii muscles and multifidus. The curvature of articular facets is thought to assist in the stabilization and weight-bearing capacity of the lumbar vertebrae.
All vertebrae begin ossification in the embryonic period of development around 8 weeks of gestation. They ossify from three primary ossification centers: one in the endochondral centrum (which will develop into the vertebral body) and one in each neural process (which will develop into the pedicles). This begins at the thoracolumbar junction and proceeds in the cranial and caudal directions. The neural processes fuse with the centrum in between three and six years of age. During puberty, five secondary ossification centers develop at the tip of the spinous process and both transverse processes, and on the superior and inferior surfaces of the vertebral body. The ossification centers on the vertebral body are responsible for the superior-inferior growth of the vertebrae. Ossification is complete around the age of 25.
The lumbar vertebrae are supplied mainly by the subcostal and lumbar arteries. These main arteries branch out into the periosteal and equatorial arteries, which in turn branch into anterior and posterior canal branches. Anterior vertebral canal branches send nutrient arteries into the vertebral body to supply the red marrow.
Spinal veins form venous plexuses inside and outside the vertebral canal. These plexuses are valve-less and allow for the movement of blood superiorly or inferiorly depending on pressure gradients. The blood eventually drains into the segmental veins of the trunk.
Meningeal branches of spinal nerves innervate all vertebrae.
Lumbar vertebrae provide points of attachment for numerous muscles: erector spinae, interspinales, intertransversarii, latissimus dorsi, rotatores, and serratus posterior inferior.
There are a number of surgical procedures performed on the lumbar spine, especially for degenerative, infective, and traumatic spinal conditions. A few of them are:
The valve-less vertebral venous plexuses allow for the metastasis of cancer from the pelvis, such as that of the prostatic, to the vertebral column.
The lumbar region has a lesser incidence of neurological injury due to fractures as compared to those in the thoracic region. This is due to the large size of the vertebral canal, the inferior end of the spinal cord at the level of L2, as well as the relative resilience cauda equina nerve roots. This is why spinal taps are performed inferior to L2; the roots forming the cauda equina, suspended in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), move out of the way of the spinal needle.
Spinal nerves increase in size as the spinal cord descends, however, the intervertebral foramen decrease in size. This combination, in addition to pathology such as intervertebral disc degeneration that brings two adjacent vertebrae closer together, commonly leads to spinal stenosis, a condition in which the vertebral foramen compresses the spinal nerves. This may be treated with a laminectomy, a process in which the spinous process, laminae, and pedicles are removed to create more room for the spinal cord and spinal nerves.
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