The pancreas is an accessory organ of digestion known to have dual functions in the endocrine and exocrine systems. It is necessary for the hydrolysis of macromolecules including proteins, carbohydrates, and fats (in combination with bile from the common bile duct). The pancreas has a main pancreatic duct running through the length of it, an accessory duct, and many various cell types. The ducts can become blocked, or they can be genetically deformed. During constant inflammation, scarring and fibrosis of the ducts lead to permanent damage to many structures, impairing its secretory functions.
Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease of the pancreas that affects both functions of the pancreas. For example, when the exocrine function is affected, patients will present with pancreatic insufficiency, steatorrhea, and weight loss. Pancreatic insufficiency results when greater than 90% of the organ is damaged. The incidence depends on the severity of disease and can be as high as 85% in severe chronic pancreatitis. On the other hand, impairment of the endocrine function of the pancreas will eventually result in pancreatogenic diabetes (Type 3c diabetes).
Chronic pancreatitis is unlike acute pancreatitis. The latter presents with acute onset abdominal pain radiating to the back. Patients with chronic pancreatitis may be asymptomatic for long periods of time. At other times, they may also have unrelenting abdominal pain with breakthrough pain requiring hospitalization. This disease process varies from acute pancreatitis in another way, in other words, histologically. The types of inflammatory cells present are different. Acute pancreatitis has a predominance of neutrophils, while chronic pancreatitis has more mononuclear infiltrates.
Causes of chronic pancreatitis include alcohol abuse, ductal obstruction (malignancy, stones, trauma), genetics (cystic fibrosis, hereditary pancreatitis), chemotherapy, and autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or autoimmune pancreatitis. New studies are finding that deficiencies in certain vitamins and antioxidants may be linked to the disease.
When compared to other illnesses, the incidence of chronic pancreatitis is hard to identify. In cases where the disease is secondary to alcohol, it can go largely undiagnosed since chronic pancreatitis is progressive. The diagnosis can take a long time to be discovered. The latest epidemiological report in 2014 estimated an incidence that has been consistent over the years. However, the prevalence might be underestimated. Further studies are needed.
The pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis seems to involve genetic factors and environmental factors. Studies have identified pancreatitis susceptibility genes associated with loss of function mutations. There are two main theories on the pathogenesis of chronic pancreatic disease. One theory is that of impaired bicarbonate secretion which cannot respond to the increased secretion of pancreatic proteins. These abundant proteins subsequently combine to form plugs within the lobules and ducts. This leads to calcification and stone formation. The other theory involves intraparenchymal activation of digestive enzymes within the pancreatic gland (possibly due to genetics or external influences such as alcohol). One recent study proposes that alcohol diminishes the cell's ability to respond to calcium signaling. This alters the feedback mechanism and promotes a cycle leading to cell death.
Chronic pancreatitis can present with prolonged abdominal pain with intermittent pain-free periods, weight loss, and relief of abdominal pain when leaning forward. However, in some cases, patients can be asymptomatic. Nausea, vomiting, and steatorrhea or greasy, foul-smelling, difficult-to-flush stools can also occur. Glucose intolerance or pancreatic diabetes is another finding later in the disease process. These are classic presentations in patients with a past medical history of alcohol abuse, tobacco use, malignancy (with ductal obstruction), hyperlipidemia, systemic disease, autoimmune disease, cystic fibrosis, among others).
Basic lab studies for chronic pancreatitis can include a CBC, BMP, LFTs, lipase, amylase, lipid panel and a fecal-elastase-1 value. Lipase and amylase levels can be elevated, but they are usually normal secondary to significant pancreatic scarring and fibrosis. Of note, amylase and lipase values should not be considered diagnostic nor prognostic.
In cases where chronic autoimmune pancreatitis is suspected, inflammatory markers including ESR, CRP as well as ANA, RF, antibodies, and immunoglobulins can be obtained. To workup steatorrhea, a 72-hour quantitative fecal fat is gold standard (whereby values greater than 7 gm per day is confirmatory). As an alternative, a fecal elastase-1 level can be obtained from a single random stool sample to help evaluate pancreatic insufficiency. This is the most sensitive and specific alternative to the qualitative fecal fat test available.
The MRCP is the premier diagnostic imaging study because it can reveal calcifications (hallmark sign), pancreatic enlargement, ductal obstruction or dilation. MRCP has higher sensitivity and specificity for chronic pancreatitis than does the transabdominal ultrasound or plain films (though both can reveal calcifications). Management could also include CT scan of the abdomen as an alternative.
ERCP has been the traditional test of choice in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis. It is used when there is no steatorrhea or when plain films do not reveal calcifications. However, currently, many hospitals are trending towards using MRCPs instead and are relying on ERCP only when therapeutic intervention is needed. Endoscopic ultrasound is another imaging modality that can be used to diagnose the disease.
The goal of treatment is to decrease abdominal pain and improve malabsorption. Pain is secondary to inflammation, neuropathic mechanisms, and blocked ducts. Eating small, frequent low-fat meals is generally recommended along with replacement of fat-soluble vitamins and pancreatic enzymes. In cases where pain relief is not achieved with enzyme replacement treatment and dietary modification, non-opioid regimens should be utilized (TCA, NSAIDs, pregabalin) initially before starting a trial of opioid. Studies regarding the benefit of antioxidants are unconfirmed. New studies show some benefit of using medium chain triglycerides. Surgery should be considered in patients who fail medical therapy and continue to have pain. 
Chronic pancreatitis has many complications including:
Of note, patients with chronic pancreatitis are at increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer.
Patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis secondary to chronic alcohol use should be encouraged to avoid alcohol (and to stop smoking, if applicable). Follow up should take place within 1 to 2 months.
Chronic pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease caused by multiple factors including genetic predisposition and external factors. It is different from acute pancreatitis in many ways. In acute pancreatitis, abdominal pain is usually sudden onset, while chronic pancreatitis can be painless or can be an unrelenting, dull pain with breakthrough episodes of acute pain. The pathophysiology is also different between the two diseases, but more importantly, workup for chronic pancreatitis does not have to include amylase and lipase levels. The MRCP is the test of choice in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis, and the goal of treatment is to control pain and manage malabsorption from pancreatic insufficiency. Severe pancreatic insufficiency should be managed with enzyme replacement, fat-soluble vitamin replacement and frequent, small meals. Decompression surgery can be considered in those with intractable pain who have failed medical therapy.
Chronic pancreatitis costs the healthcare system billions of dollars each year. These patients develop a wide range of complications including chronic pain and multiple admissions to the hospital are not unusual. The patients are generally managed by a team of healthcare professions that include a surgeon, gastroenterologist, radiologist, pain specialist, dietitian, pharmacist, and a nurse. To reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disorder, the emphasis today is on behavior modification. Both the pharmacist and nurses play a critical role in educating the patient about the adverse effects of alcohol and tobacco smoking. By abstaining from alcohol, these patients can also obtain pain relief in the early stage of the disease. Patients who continue to drink alcohol, have a death rate 3 times higher than those who do not drink alcohol. For those who have malabsorption, the pharmacist should recommend the use of pancreatic enzymes. At the same time, the patients should be referred to an alcohol and chemical dependency program. The pharmacist should recommend aids to stop tobacco and educate the patients on the benefits of a healthy diet. Continual reassessment and monitoring of these patients is necessary to ensure that they abstain from alcohol. (Level V)
The outcome for patients with chronic pancreatitis depends on many factors such as smoking, age at diagnosis, continued use of alcohol, the presence of liver disease and other comorbidities. Data indicate that at 10 years, 70% of patients are alive and at 20 years, about 40% to 50% are alive. Furthermore, these patients also have a risk of developing pancreatic cancer in the future. With time, patients with chronic pancreatitis are also at risk of developing pseudocysts, pancreatic ascites, pleural effusions, portal hypertension, splenic vein thrombosis, and pseudoaneurysm. A significant number of these patients continue to have moderate to severe pain and malabsorption. Finally, about one-third of patients will end up with diabetes. For those who require surgery for a pseudoaneurysm, there are additional risks of death. (Level V)
|||Belyaev O,Uhl W, [Chronic Pancreatitis - An Updated Surgical Perspective]. Zentralblatt fur Chirurgie. 2018 Sep 4 [PubMed PMID: 30180259]|
|||Wynne K,Devereaux B,Dornhorst A, Diabetes of the Exocrine pancreas. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 2018 Aug 27 [PubMed PMID: 30151918]|
|||Forsmark CE, Diagnosis and Management of Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency. Current treatment options in gastroenterology. 2018 Jul 19 [PubMed PMID: 30027527]|
|||Singhvi A,Yadav D, Myths and realities about alcohol and smoking in chronic pancreatitis. Current opinion in gastroenterology. 2018 Sep [PubMed PMID: 29965868]|
|||Pham A,Forsmark C, Chronic pancreatitis: review and update of etiology, risk factors, and management. F1000Research. 2018 [PubMed PMID: 29946424]|
|||Shuja A,Rahman AU,Skef W,Smotherman C,Guan J,Malespin M,de Melo SW Jr, A longitudinal analysis of the epidemiology and economic impact of inpatient admissions for chronic pancreatitis in the United States. Annals of gastroenterology. 2018 Jul-Aug [PubMed PMID: 29991896]|
|||Beyer G,D'Haese JG,Ormanns S,Mayerle J, [Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Cancer - Tumor Risk and Screening]. Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946). 2018 Jun [PubMed PMID: 29898491]|
|||Balázs A,Balla Z,Kui B,Maléth J,Rakonczay Z Jr,Duerr J,Zhou-Suckow Z,Schatterny J,Sendler M,Mayerle J,Kühn JP,Tiszlavicz L,Mall MA,Hegyi P, Ductal Mucus Obstruction and Reduced Fluid Secretion Are Early Defects in Chronic Pancreatitis. Frontiers in physiology. 2018 [PubMed PMID: 29896115]|
|||Issa Y,van Santvoort HC,van Dieren S,Besselink MG,Boermeester MA,Ahmed Ali U, Diagnosing Chronic Pancreatitis: Comparison and Evaluation of Different Diagnostic Tools. Pancreas. 2017 Oct [PubMed PMID: 28902786]|
|||Frøkjær JB,Akisik F,Farooq A,Akpinar B,Dasyam A,Drewes AM,Haldorsen IS,Morana G,Neoptolemos JP,Olesen SS,Petrone MC,Sheel A,Shimosoegawa T,Whitcomb DC, Guidelines for the Diagnostic Cross Sectional Imaging and Severity Scoring of Chronic Pancreatitis. Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.]. 2018 Aug 28 [PubMed PMID: 30177434]|
|||Min M,Patel B,Han S,Bocelli L,Kheder J,Vaze A,Wassef W, Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency and Malnutrition in Chronic Pancreatitis: Identification, Treatment, and Consequences. Pancreas. 2018 Sep [PubMed PMID: 30074926]|
|||Bordaçahar B,Couvelard A,Vullierme MP,Bucchini L,Sauvanet A,Dokmak S,Ruszniewski P,Lévy P,Rebours V, Predicting the efficacy of surgery for pain relief in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Surgery. 2018 Jul 17 [PubMed PMID: 30029988]|
|||Uc A,Zimmerman MB,Wilschanski M,Werlin SL,Troendle D,Shah U,Schwarzenberg SJ,Rhee S,Pohl JF,Perito ER,Palermo JJ,Ooi CY,Liu Q,Lin TK,Morinville VD,McFerron BA,Husain SZ,Himes R,Heyman MB,Gonska T,Giefer MJ,Gariepy CE,Freedman SD,Fishman DS,Bellin MD,Barth B,Abu-El-Haija M,Lowe ME, Impact of Obesity on Pediatric Acute Recurrent and Chronic Pancreatitis. Pancreas. 2018 Sep [PubMed PMID: 30059474]|
|||Olesen SS,Krauss T,Demir IE,Wilder-Smith OH,Ceyhan GO,Pasricha PJ,Drewes AM, Towards a neurobiological understanding of pain in chronic pancreatitis: mechanisms and implications for treatment. Pain reports. 2017 Nov [PubMed PMID: 29392239]|
|||Shabanzadeh DM,Novovic S, Alcohol, smoking and benign hepato-biliary disease. Best practice [PubMed PMID: 29195671]|
|||Hintaran AD,Chenault MN,Verhaegh BPM,Reijven PLM,Masclee AAM,Keulemans YCA, Improving nutritional status assessment in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.]. 2017 Aug 30 [PubMed PMID: 30064905]|
|||McNabb-Baltar J,Suleiman SL,Banks PA,Conwell DL, Outcomes of Chronic Pancreatitis in the Emergency Department. Digestive diseases and sciences. 2018 Jul 23 [PubMed PMID: 30039239]|
|||Skube ME,Beilman GJ, Surgical treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis. Current opinion in gastroenterology. 2018 Sep [PubMed PMID: 29901517]|