Blood circulates through the body via the vascular tree consists of arteries, veins, and capillary beds. An artery carries blood away from the heart, and distribute throughout the body by its succeeding smaller branches. Eventually, the smallest branch of the artery is called arterioles, which further divide into tiny vessels to form the capillary bed. Nutrients and wastes exchange between the blood and body tissues occurs at the capillary bed. Venules are exit vessels in the capillary bed of various organs and unite to form veins, which return the blood to the heart. The arteriolar wall consists of three layers of cellular and extracellular components. Intima contains endothelial cells sitting on a basement membrane; tunica media consist of internal elastic lamina and layers of smooth muscle; and an outer adventitia made mostly of collagen, nerve endings, and fibroblasts. Arterioles contribute to maintaining mean arterial pressure and tissue perfusion as they are the essential site of total peripheral resistance. By increasing or decreasing the diameter, they also play a principal role in regulating blood flow in an organ or tissue-specific manner.
Arterioles are considered as the primary resistance vessels as they distribute blood flow into capillary beds. Arterioles provide approximately 80% of the total resistance to blood flow through the body. Considering they are vital regulators of hemodynamics, contributing to the upstream pressure to the regional distribution of blood. They have significantly variable diameter depending on vascular bed and state of constriction or dilation. Therefore, size is not their main identifying feature, but the fact layers of smooth muscle in their wall—the wall of arterioles composed of three structurally distinct layers: intima, media, and adventitia.
The adventitial layer consists of fibroblasts, extracellular matrix, thick bundles of collagen fibers organized along the longitudinal axis of the blood vessel. Evidence suggests that some of the adventitial fibroblasts may consider as a stem mesenchymal progenitor cells. Nonmyelinated free nerve endings are distributed in the adventitial layer approximately 5 µm way from the outermost part of vascular smooth muscle. Recent studies have shown, elastic fibers arranged longitudinally in the outer layer allow arterioles to elongate or recoil in expandable tissues such as skeletal muscle. Arterioles within these expandable tissues usually possess additional external elastic lamina, which is absent in non-expandable tissues like the brain.
Historically, the function of the adventitial layer has been considered only in structural support and scaffold for the anchor nerve endings. Recently, however, the role of adventitial fibroblasts has been dramatically expanded. Adventitial fibroblasts have a potential role in ROS production to modulate the activity of smooth muscle cells resides in tunica media, which, in turn, initiate vascular remodeling. Besides, adventitial fibroblasts also produce several growth factors and vasoactive compounds, which include transforming growth factor-beta, fibroblast growth factor, and endothelin-1. All of these compounds have an essential role in medial cell proliferation and the controlling vascular tone. Adventitial fibroblasts also play a predominant role in vascular repair. In response to injury, fibroblasts can transform into myofibroblasts that allow them to increase their contractile capabilities and to the synthesis of extracellular matrix(ECM) protein, such as collagen.
The medial layer of arterioles predominantly consists of smooth muscle cells and an internal elastic lamina. The internal elastic lamina primarily consists of degradation-resistant elastin molecules. The presence of internal elastic lamina is restricted to the feeding arterioles of skeletal muscle, mesentery, and cerebrum. The enriched elastin content of internal elastic lamina provides a potential recoil property to deal with pulsatile blood pressure when necessary. This function is apparent in conduit arteries and less evident in arterioles due to less pronounced pulsatile pressure. Besides, the internal elastic lamina in arterioles is not smooth/fully stretched and evident by the wavy appearance with evenly distributed ridges. Thus, in physiological conditions, internal elastic lamina has little contribution to the viscoelastic property of the vessel wall. Electron microscopically, the internal elastic lamina appears as a fenestrated solid sheet. Studies have shown that fenestrations influence the transport of substance from the blood across the media and extravascular tissues. Therefore, remodeling of the fenestrae may be tuned by vascular requirements of permeability. Besides, fenestrations allow direct contact between EC and medial smooth muscle cells. However, not all fenestrae possess these myoendothelial junctions.
Vascular smooth muscle is the most abundant component of the media that is primarily delegated to control vascular diameter by the contraction-relaxation process. They are arranged circumferentially to the longitudinal axis of the vessel. Smooth muscle in feeding arterioles arranged in one to two layers, and this appears to wrap around the vascular circumference. Intercellular connections between medial smooth muscles are not continuous; instead, in the form of appositions, inter-digitations, intermediate, and nexus junctions. These intercellular connections involve several junctional molecules such as integrins, cadherins, and connexins.
Under physiological conditions, smooth muscles of arteriole remain partially contracted that exert tone. Vascular smooth muscle can sense physical forces that primarily transmit to cells of the vascular wall through the adhesive contacts with extracellular matrix(ECM) and one another. Additionally, it has previously shown that the blockade of integrins or cadherins can inhibit myogenic vasoconstriction. Thus, intercellular connections and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are essential for myogenic phenomena and mechanotransduction.
Traditionally intima is considered as a physical barrier between blood components and extravascular tissues. In resistance arteries or arterioles, intima predominantly consists of endothelial cells(EC) and its basement membrane. Endothelial cells are longitudinally arranged with the direction of flow and have an overall thickness of 0.2 to 0.5 µm, except at the area of the cell nucleus. In feeding arterioles, ECs are approximately 100 µm in length and ~10 µm in width with a 10:1 ratio that reduces as downstream arterioles with a smaller diameter.
Functionally, endothelial cells control vessel tone by synthesis and release of vasoactive factors that exert their potential effects on neighboring smooth muscle cells. The functional properties of endothelial cells interlink with their structure. EC has an excellent capacity to sense and transduce mechanical forces and produce vasoactive compounds that can fine-tune the tone of adjacent smooth muscle cells for the appropriate regulation of arteriolar diameter.
An additional functional characteristic of endothelial cells is their association with vascular permeability. Morphological changes of EC from toxin and inflammation allow the variations in microvascular permeability. Furthermore, there have also been suggestions that regional functional heterogeneity is due to structural variations in endothelial cells from the retinal, mesenteric, renal, and pulmonary circulations. Beside of this phenotypic variation, some endothelial cells may possess multipotent characteristics evident by their transdifferentiation into smooth muscle cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) have stem-like properties that aid in vascular repair and neovascularization by endothelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation to produce smooth muscle phenotype. Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta, a cytokine produced by a variety of cells, is considered as the responsible stimulus for this endothelial to mesenchymal transdifferentiation.
The basement membrane underneath ECs in arterioles is primarily composed of collagen type IV, laminin, heparan sulfate, and proteoglycans. Additional constituents are collagens type I, III, and V, and fibronectin. Primarily the basement functions as anchoring support to the endothelium. Previously the basement membrane has been considered as an intrinsic part of the intima and produced by endothelial cells. However, recent results indicate close interaction with the media and intima for its proper formation and maintenance. For example, during vasculogenesis, the interaction between pericytes and endothelial cells is required to form and stabilize vascular tubes and endothelial basement membranes.
The arterioles play a principal role in flow regulation and intravascular pressure. Arterioles are the site of the highest resistance across the vascular tree and thus acts as the most significant contributor to total peripheral resistance, eventually mean arterial pressure. By maintaining total peripheral resistance or mean arterial pressure arteriole contribute to upstream perfusion pressure for all organs. Most commonly, arterioles branch into capillaries bed and then collect into small venules and control the volume of blood distribution in a given capillary bed. They are the gatekeepers to the capillary network that supply cells and tissues with oxygen, nutrients, and remove waste products. They have a unique feature as compared with other blood vessels is that their active response to physical stimuli. They constrict and maintain a smaller diameter in response to high intravascular pressure(the myogenic response) and undergone a dilated state when flow increases (flow-included dilation). Besides, the arterioles respond to any changes in the chemical environment, dilation with local hypoxia, or in response to various mediators during a high metabolic activity of the parenchyma. It has been evident that meaningful communication resides among the venules and adjacent arterioles, providing a feedback system to control arteriolar tone according to local metabolic needs.
The development of the cardiovascular system begins in the mesoderm as early as the third week of life, and fetal circulation begins through the vasculature system around the eighth week. Hematopoietic stem cells evolved to the vascular system to patrol the immune surveillance, to supply oxygen, nutrients, and to dispose of waste. Although it's most apparent near the early forming heart, vascular development begins in both intra- and extraembryonic mesoderm. During the development, hematopoietic stem cells give rise to angioblasts, which eventually aggregate and line up to form tubes or sinuses. This process is called vasculogenesis. The term for the establishment of new vessels from already developed vasculature is angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is an essential mechanism of arteriole development as it is the terminal branch of the arterial site of the vascular tree.
There are three mechanisms of angiogenesis, sprouting, intussusception, and splitting. Sprouting of new vessels occurs by a series of events where the first event is the signaling for new vessel growth. This process is strictly dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor VEGFR2. It is a potent and endothelial-selective growth factor. In the next step, endothelial activation by nitric oxide (NO) converts the existing blood vessels dilated and hyperpermeable. The activated endothelial cell then begins to synthesize enzymes that degrade the basement membrane (e.g., matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Endothelial cells migrate and proliferate through the digested matrix, and eventually lumen formed in the nascent blood vessels. Recruitment of supporting cells, pericytes, and smooth muscle cells stabilize the newly built vessel. At some point in the later events, blood begins to flow. Sprouting is a prolonged process and primarily depends on cell proliferation and bridging the vascular gaps.
In contrast, intussusception and splitting do not depend on cell proliferation. Intussusception begins with endothelial invagination outside the vascular wall or lumen, where the intraluminal protrusion of endothelial cells is the pre-representations of splitting. Endothelial cell differentiation to the sites of active vascular growth may also occur in the adult, by homing of marrow-derived circulating precursors cells in a VEGF/VEGFR2-dependent manner.
All the large blood vessels depend on other tiny vessels called vasa vasorum for their blood perfusion as other organs of the body. They may arise directly from the central lumen of the artery, from its branches of the given artery or the nearby vessels. After origin, they undergo further branching and supply the outer portion of tunica media and adventitial layer. In contrast, arteriole takes advantage of its smaller diameter. A short distance between the wall and inner luminal blood provides an opportunity to direct diffusion of oxygen and nutrition to happen. Thus, arterioles have not to depend on the vasa vasorum.
Innervations of arterioles mostly derive from the sympathetic autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic nerves form plexuses along the surfaces of the large arteries and run through the smaller arterioles as single very tiny filaments and more exclusive branches distributed exclusively to the muscular tissue after penetrating the outer coat. The principal role of this sympathetic innervation is controlling total peripheral resistance, therefore, maintaining the upstream mean arterial pressure essential for organ perfusion. Sympathetic fibers also extensively distributed in the precapillary sphincter and participate in the control of localized flow by either contraction or relaxation.
Like other blood vessels, arterioles contain only smooth muscle cells in their middle coat along with other connective tissues, including elastic tissue. Smooth muscle cells are the most abundant component of the tunica media of an arteriole. They are spindle-shaped and transversally arranged to the long axis of the vessel having a luminal side facing toward the internal elastic lamina and abluminal side facing toward the adventitia. The primary function of these smooth muscle cells is to control arteriolar lumen diameter by their contraction or relaxation processes. Although they have the unique ability to detect and respond to mechanical forces under physiological conditions, arteriolar smooth muscle cells display a partial contraction to exert tone.
Tubuloglomerular Feedback Mechanism in kidney
Afferent and efferent arterioles transport blood respectively in and out of the glomerulus. Hypovolemia induced reduction in glomerular filtration leads to decreased flow of NaCl to specialized epithelial cells (macula densa). Which, in turn, sends signals to the adjacent afferent arteriole to vasodilate and increase glomerular filtration. Besides, the decreased delivery of NaCl also stimulates the renin secretion from specialized cells located in the wall of the afferent arteriole.
Hypoxic vasoconstriction in the pulmonary circulation
Pulmonary circulation is low pressure and high compliance circuit where arterioles respond differently to hypoxia. Systemic arterioles dilate in response to hypoxia, whereas arterioles in the lungs constrict in hypoxia. This hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is essential in directing blood away from under-ventilated parts of the lungs towards better-ventilated parts of the lungs.
Blood flow in coronary circulation is not continuous as other parts of the body. Vascular resistance in the transmural portion of the coronary circulation is significantly higher during ventricular contraction resulting in decreased flow during systole. And regulation of coronary microvascular resistance varies across different segments of the vasculature. Arterioles with less than 100 microns in diameter respond differently than larger arterioles at the level of autoregulation, myogenic control, and control by metabolic factors.
Cerebral blood flow is mostly regulated by arterial PCO2. As long as arterial PO2 is normal or above normal, cerebral blood flow is proportional to arterial PCO2. High PCO2 induces cerebral arteriolar vasodilation, thus increased cerebral blood flow. This unique characteristic of cerebral arterioles allows therapeutic hyperventilation for lowering the ICP when indicated. Furthermore, the final step of blood flow regulation by the arterioles is by matching the focal demand of nearby tissue, which is mediated by microvascular pericytes.
Arterioles most commonly branch into capillaries and subsequently collected into small venules. In contrast, terminal arterioles of skin are directly connected to the venule bypassing the capillary bed. This bypassing or A-V shunt is particularly useful in body temperature regulation. Cutaneous A-V shunts receive sympathetic innervation. Sympathetic stimulation induces constriction of arterioles resulting in a decrease in blood volume in the skin, thereby preventing heat loss. On the contrary, high skin temperature directly causes vasodilation, which increases heat loss.
The function and structure of arterioles can be affected by several disease conditions such as inflammation, atherosclerosis, and hypertensive vascular disease. Clinical manifestations depend on the involved organs that predominantly result from ischemia due to arterial insufficiency.
Vasculitis refers to inflammation of the vessel wall, which may affect large vessels (elastic arteries), medium-sized (muscular arteries), or small(arterioles, venules, capillaries), combinations of these vessel types. Disease manifestations include nonspecific systemic symptoms of inflammation (e.g., fever, fatigue, weight loss, and myalgias) or of organ-specific symptoms from ischemia due to luminal narrowing or thrombosis of the inflamed vessel. Vasculitis affecting arterioles solely or in combination with other vessels include granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, microscopic polyangiitis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and cryoglobulinemic vasculitis.
It is a pathologic process involving the arteriole that causes occlusion. Hyaline arteriolosclerosis and hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis are the two varieties of arteriolosclerosis. In hyaline arteriolosclerosis, increased protein deposition within the vascular wall occludes the arteriole lumen. Uncontrolled diabetes and hypertension are the two most common associations of it. Poorly controlled diabetes causes non-enzymatic glycosylation of the basement membrane that allows plasma proteins to leak into the vessel wall. Whereas, in hypertensive patients, high luminal pressure pushes plasma proteins into the vessel wall. Hyperplastic arteriolosclerosis is characterized by basement membrane duplication and smooth muscle cell hyperplasia as a reaction to a very rapid rise in blood pressure. This condition is common in the afferent and efferent arterioles of renal vasculature in patients with malignant hypertension.
The arteriolar disease of cerebral circulation
The small cerebral penetrating disease commonly affected micro-atherosclerosis, Lipohyalinosis, and microaneurysm(aka Charcot–Bouchard aneurysm). Atherothrombotic occlusion of the small, penetrating arterioles results in lacunar stroke, a subtype of ischemic stroke. Whereas, rupture of microaneurysm is the culprit of parenchymal hemorrhage or hemorrhagic stroke.
It is a small blood vessel disease of diabetic patients affecting arterioles, venules, and capillaries. Diabetic microangiopathy is the main pathogenic contributor to diabetic complications of the eye (diabetic retinopathy), kidney (arteriolar nephrosclerosis), and lower extremities (gangrene). The structural hallmark is the thickening of the basement membrane, which leads to lumen occlusion, thus tissue hypoxia and damage.
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