First described in the anesthesia literature in the late 1980s, medical simulation has become an essential part of training in medical education at the undergraduate and graduate level, as well as in nursing and pharmacy education. Traditionally, simulation occurs in dedicated simulation centers. This center-based simulation offers the benefit of being separate from patients and focusing on learning for the individual and the team. Dedicated time is scheduled to participate in this educational activity, and debriefing of the simulation can take part without competing demands of the clinical work environment.
In situ simulation differs from a center-based simulation in that it occurs in the actual clinical environment, often using providers and staff who are currently on shift. Because it occurs in the real working environment, it provides opportunities for learning on the unit and organizational level as well. In situ simulation has been used to improve teamwork and communication, as well as helping to identify systems issues and latent patient safety threats. In situ simulations, such as mock codes, may ultimately improve patient outcomes.
Experiential learning is the pillar of adult learning theory, which posits that learners gain knowledge from participating in and reflecting upon real-life experiences. A medical simulation provides a concrete experience as a starting point, but analysis and reflection is a required step in the learning cycle. Debriefing, which is an analysis of an event that allows learners to reflect on their experience and make meaning of it, is a frequently used tool in medical simulation, as self-directed reflection may be unsystematic or absent. Instead, a facilitated debriefing is often needed to guide participants through this reflective process.
Many models of debriefing have been described in the literature. Some focus on understanding the participants’ frames of reference. Others address participant emotions before entering into an analysis phase. One theme common among all methods is that facilitated reflection takes time. While time may be more plentiful in scheduled, center-based simulation debriefing, it is often more limited in the in situ setting.
There is currently no “gold standard” for conducting a post-simulation debriefing in either center-based settings or in situ settings. A review of trends for in situ simulations suggests the majority of in situ simulation debriefings use post-simulation facilitated debriefings (55%) or facilitated debriefings combined with a review of video taken during the simulation itself (31%).
Some authors recommend learner self-assessment or directive feedback as the primary method for in situ simulation debriefing; this allows facilitators to address more topics with limited time. Due to the constraints of a real working environment, the times allotted to in situ debriefings may be less than in center-based environments. Nevertheless, the minimum amount of time needed for a debriefing is equal to the scenario length itself.
A common learner self-assessment model of debriefing is the Plus/Delta model. In this method, the debriefer encourages participants to actively perform their self-assessments, identifying things that went well (the "plus") or things that could have been better (the "delta"). Using open-ended questions, the facilitator may then probe participants to identify potential alternatives or solutions to issues raised in the simulation. This plus/delta method may be effective when the primary focus of the debriefing is addressing communication or systems issues that arose during the simulation.
Another form of learner self-assessment is the SHARP method. Initially created to debrief events in the operating room, in this model, participants describe what went well (or not) and why. The acronym "SHARP" stands for:
1. Set learning objectives: Determine what learners want to obtain from participating in the case and what the educator's goals are
2. Ask, "How did it go?": Ask students to self-identify areas of strength and weakness.
3. Address concerns: Discuss with students where improvements are possible.
4. Review specific teaching points: This can include basic science and pathophysiology to students' communication and teamwork.
4. Plan ahead: Have students identify what they will take away from the case and incorporate it into their practice.
Because the SHARP method includes both opportunities for teaching as well as incorporation into clinical practice, it may be a useful tool for in situ simulation debriefs.
Directive feedback is a form of feedback that does not depend on the assessment learners make of their own performance. Instead, it is unidirectional, with the facilitator sharing his or her assessment. This may be useful when the primary focus of the debriefing is to address a knowledge gap or performance gap, such as in procedural skills training. It may also be used to clarify key learning objectives or with more novice learners. Directive feedback does not rely on introspection or self-reflection and is not appropriate when the primary simulation objectives are teamwork-based.
Despite time constraints, facilitators are not limited to these learner self-assessment or directive feedback models. Conversational models of debriefing have been successful with in situ simulations. Facilitators have successfully used the “debriefing with good judgment” model during in situ debriefings while maintaining a short simulation-to-debriefing time ratio. In this model, facilitators conduct a phased conversation with learners, where facilitators analyze and discuss events and then intentionally move to a summary phase where participants discuss the application of what the student learned.
The advocacy-inquiry model (AIM) is another conversational debriefing model that seeks to understand a participant’s underlying thought process. This form of debriefing, though not specific to the in situ setting, is preferred by learners who are farther along in their training and thus may be more applicable to the varied experience levels in the in situ team. It also encourages participants to challenge their own decision making and underlying beliefs. In this method, the debriefer begins with a statement that represents the advocacy portion: “I noticed that you did [specific action]. I am concerned that this may cause [specific outcome].” By linking the specific action to its resulting outcome, feedback may be more specific, and learners may better associate the consequences of particular actions. The debriefer then seeks to understand the participant’s frame with the inquiry portion, for example, asking, “Can you help me understand where you were coming from?”
Multiple other conversational models exist, as do blended models. The “Promoting Excellence And Reflective Learning in Simulation” (PEARLS) method is an example of a blended model, which combines learner self-assessment with focused facilitated discussion and directive feedback.
All debriefing methods are appropriate to use for learners across various levels of training and specialties.
The popularity of simulation is continuously increasing as a model of experiential learning that is preferred by adult learners. Debriefing is an intrinsic component of the simulation exercise to ensure meaningful teaching points. The approaches to debriefing are variable and can be adapted depending on the environment and the needs of the learners.
Written tools, such as the PEARLS debriefing tool, attempt to provide structure to the debriefing process in the form of a script and a guide. The TEAM Debrief Tool has been shown to increase the amount of learner self-assessment and decrease the amount of directive feedback during debriefings. Novice facilitators may benefit more from formal tools or scripts for their debriefings.
In situ simulation has been shown to improve teamwork and communication. Essential to successful simulation is quality debriefing. An ineffective debriefing may fail to help learners close a knowledge or performance gap. When debriefing is done poorly or gets perceived as critical instead of constructive, it can lower self-esteem. It may also create anger or resistance, which can undermine the teamwork aspect of healthcare.
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